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Экономика России во второй половине XIX

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Yeiiiieea ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX – ia/aea XX a.

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe:

a) Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia 1861 a. e ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

a) I?iiuoeaiiinoue, oi?aiaey, oeiainu.

2. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ?innee a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a

1. Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia 1861 a. e ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa

Noaiiaeaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee a ?innee ia/aeinue iinea ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. E?uineay aieia (1853—1856), ia aaaeaiea eioi?ie auei
ec?anoiaeiaaii 528 iei. ?oa., iieacaea, /oi iniiaiui oi?iicii
yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey yaeyaony e?aiinoiia
i?aai.

19 oaa?aey 1861 a. Aeaenaiae?ii II auei iiaeienaii «Iieiaeaiea i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe». Iii aeeth/aei 17
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia. Ii Iaieoanoo e?anoueyia iieo/aee ee/ioth
naiaiaeo e inaiaiaeaeaeenue n caieae. Iaaeaeo ieie e iiiaueeaie
onoaiaaeeaaeenue iicaiaeueiua ioiioaiey. Auaoea e?aiinoiua iiaee
anooiaoue a a?ae aac niaeaney iiiaueea, caeeth/aoue naeaeee, ioe?uaaoue
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiua caaaaeaiey, ia?aoiaeeoue a ae?oaea nineiaey.
E?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai ?ani?aaeaeyoue i?aaeinoaaeaiioth a
iaaeae caieth, ii?aaeaeyoue i/a?aaeiinoue ioauaaiey ?ae?ooneie
iiaeiiinoe, aeaaaoue ?ac?aoaiea ia auoiae ec iaueiu e i?eai a iaa.
Iaeiaei iiiauee nio?aiye ia?ie n e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia e canoaaeye
e?anoueyi aueoiaoue iaaeaeueioth caieth.

Eeeaeaeaoeey oaiaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ?anoyioeanue ia
ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee. Aei 1863 a. e?anoueyia aeieaeiu auee eniieiyoue
i?aaeiea iiaeiiinoe, eeoue ianeieueei oiaiueoaeanue aa?ueia, e
ioiaiyeenue iaoo?aeueiua iiai?u. A oa/aiea aeaayoe eao e?anoueyia ia
iiaee ioeacaoueny io caiaeueiiai iaaeaea. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ii?i
e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia o/eouaaeenue iniaaiiinoe ianoiuo i?e?iaeiuo e
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee. Any oa??eoi?ey Aa?iiaeneie ?innee auea ?acaeaeaia
ia o?e oa??eoi?eaeueii- yeiiiie/aneea iieinu: ia/a?iicaiioth,
/a?iicaiioth e noaiioth. A ia?auo aeaoo onoaiaaeeaaeenue «aunoay» ii?ia
e «iecoay» ii?ia, ninoaaeyaoay o?aoue «aunoae» ii?iu, a a noaiiie —
iaeia, oae iacuaaaiay oeaciay. Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaae io?aceo caiee io
iaaeaea, anee ii i?aauoae «aunooth» eee «oeacioth» ii?io, e i?e?aceo,
anee ii ia aeinoeaae «iecoae». A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiie ?aoi?iu
e?anoueyia iioa?yee nauoa 20—25% caiaeue, a a /a?iicaiiuo aoaa?ieyo
iioa?e aeinoeaee 30—40%. Iau/ii io?acaeenue iaeaieaa oeaiiua e
iaiaoiaeeiua oaiaeuey, aac eioi?uo ii?iaeueiia aaaeaiea oicyenoaa auei
iaaiciiaeii: eoaa, auianu, aiaeiiie. Iiyoiio e?anoueyia auee auioaeaeaiu
a?aiaeiaaoue yoe caiee ca aeiiieieoaeueioth ieaoo.

Caaa?oathuei yoaiii i?iaaaeaiey aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu yaeyeny aueoi
e?anoueyiaie caiaeueiuo iaaeaeia. Aei yoiai e?anoueyia n/eoaeenue
a?aiaiiiiaycaiiuie e i?iaeieaeaee auiieiyoue oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe.
Oieueei a 1881 a. a?aiaiiiiaycaiiua e?anoueyia, a eo inoaeinue e yoiio
a?aiaie ia aieaa 15%, auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia iaycaoaeueiue aueoi. A 1907 a.
aueoiiua ieaoaaee auee ioiaiaiu. A eoiaa aueoiiuo iia?aoeee e?anoueyia
oieaoeee nauoa 1540 iei. ?oa., /oi a 1,5 ?aca i?aauoaei ia?aiia/aeueii
onoaiiaeaiioth noiio.

Ianiio?y ia iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, ?aoi?ia onei?eea i?ioeann ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia a naeueneii oicyenoaa. I?ia?ann au?aaeaeny a ?inoa iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae, oaeoaeaiee niaoeeaeecaoeee, aiaae?aiee iaoei e oeo/oaiee
aa?ioaoie/aneeo i?eaiia. Ana yoi aianoa n i?eiaiaieai aieueiiiaaiiiai
o?oaea i?eaaei e auno?iio i?aa?auaieth naeueneiai oicyenoaa ec
canoieiiai e e?eceniiai a oiaa?iia e ?acaeaathuaany. ?aoi?iu
aeoeaece?iaaee i?ioeann iaeiieaiey eaieoaea, nioeeaeueioth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth e?anoueyinoaa.

Ni?in ia naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth noeioee?iaae ?acaeoea eae
anaai naeueneiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii, oae e ioaeaeueiuo aai io?aneae. A
oiaea i?aa?auaiey caieaaeaeey a oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai aicieeaee
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aeiiu, niinianoaiaaaoea ?acaeoeth iaiaia iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie ?aaeiiaie no?aiu. Naaa?iua e Oeaio?aeueiua aoaa?iee noaee
?aeiiaie oi?aiaiai eueiiaiaenoaa e iyniiiei/iiai oicyenoaa, /a?iicaiiua
aoaa?iee, Iiaieaeuea e Caaieaeuea i?aa?aoeeenue a ?aeiiu oiaa?iiai
ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei iaoeiu e iiaay aa?ioaoieea i?eiaiyeenue
?aaeei, iiyoiio o?iaeaeiinoue oeaaa ?inea iaaeeaiii. A eiioea XIX a.
e?anoueyia niae?aee ii 6 oe n aaeoa?a, a a iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoaao — ii 7
oe.

Iniiaiui iinoaaueeii oiaa?iiai oeaaa auee iiiaueee, inoaaeaoea naaa
iinea ?aoi?iu eo/ooth /anoue caiee. Ei i?eoeinue ia?ano?aeaaoue
oicyenoai ia iiaue eaae, /oi o?aaiaaei a?aiaie. Iiiai/eneaiiua
oaiaeaeueiua ia?aaeeoee, caaeneiinoue e?anoueyi io iiiaueeia, ionoonoaea
iiuoa caiaaeeyee ia?aoiae iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa ia eaieoaeenoe/aneea
ia/aea. Auno?aa anaai eaieoaeeci ?acaeaaeny oai, aaea iaiueoa auei
e?aiinoie/aneeo ia?aaeeoeia.

Ii iaoiaeai i?aia?aciaaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?aeiiu
n i?aiaeaaeaieai «i?onneiai» e «aia?eeaineiai» iooae ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia. «I?onneee» iooue oa?aeoa?eciaaeny nio?aiaieai
cia/eoaeueiiai /enea ia?aaeeoeia oaiaeaeecia, a oii /enea aunieie
noaiaiueth yenieoaoaoeee e?anoueyinoaa, aaaaeaieai aunieeo aueoiiuo
ieaoaaeae, nio?aiaieai iaueiu. Oaeie oei oicyenoaiaaiey i?aiaeaaeae a
*a?iicaiiii ?aeiia, ia N?aaeiai Iiaieaeuea. «Aia?eeaineee» iooue
ioee/aeny eioaineaiui ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, aiaae?aieai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei, ?ani?ino?aiaieai ia?aaeiauo aeinoeaeaiee
aa?ieoeueoo?u, i?eiaiaieai iaaiiiai o?oaea. Ii aue oa?aeoa?ai aeey
Naaa?a, Neae?e, Caaieaeuey, Oe?aeiu, Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.

A eiioea XIX a. iniaoth ino?ioo i?eia?ae aa?a?iue aii?in. Ec-ca
anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey i?e nio?aiaiee a i?aaeiai ?acia?a
iaaeaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey aic?inei e?anoueyineia iaeicaiaeuea.
*eneaiiinoue e?anoueyi n 1861 ii 1900 a. aic?inea n 24 iei. aei 44 iei.
aeoo ioaeneiai iiea, a ?acia?u iaaeaeia nie?aoeeenue n 5 aei 2,7
aeanyoeiu, a oi a?aiy eae aeey ii?iaeueiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa
o?aaiaaeinue 15 aeanyoei caiee. A yoeo oneiaeyo iiiaue/uea
caieaaeaaeaiea i?aa?aoeeinue a aeaaiue oi?iicyuee oaeoi? ?acaeoey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

A na?aaeeia 1906 a. i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa ieieno?ia iacia/eee I.A.
Noieuieia. Anei?a ei auee ecaeaiu oeacu i ia?aaea/a E?anoueyineiio aaieo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue aeey eo i?iaeaaee e?anoueyiai, ioiaia iiaeooiie
iiaeaoe e e?oaiaie ii?oee, auee niyou ia?aie/aiey ia naiaiaeo
ia?aaeaeaeaiey e?anoueyi e eca?aiey eie ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa, ?ac?aoaiu
naiaeiua ?acaeaeu eiouanoaa e o.ae.

Nooue Noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu ninoiyea a eeeaeaeaoeee
e?anoueyineie iaueiu e nicaeaiee neiy e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia, aaaeoueo
oiaa?iia oicyenoai. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee neiy e?anoueyi-i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?ann/eouaaei ia oi, /oi ?aniaae iaueiu i?eaaaeao e
iinoaiaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee caiee a ?oeao caaeeoi/iuo e?anoueyi. Yoie aea
oeaee neoaeeea iieeoeea ia?anaeaiey e?anoueyi. Iniiaiui oneiaeai
ia?aoiaea e oa?ia?neiio oicyenoao Noieuiei n/eoae eeeaeaeaoeeth
/a?aniieineoeu (nenoaiu «oio?iaiai caieaiieueciaaiey»). Iaee/ea «oio?ia»
— aeeeiiuo oceeo iiein caiee — auioaeaeaei e?anoueyi i?eiaiyoue
o?aoiieuea aac o?aainayiey. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu naaiiai?ioia
aucuaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aoiaea e oeaeinoiui o/anoeai — oooi?ai.

Aaaeiui ia?ii?eyoeai Noieuiei n/eoae niyoea ia?aie/aiey ia iieueciaaiea
e?anoueyiaie iiiaue/ueae caieae. Iieoiea caiee e iineaaeothuay
ia?ai?iaeaaea aa ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo, iin?aaeie/aneea iia?aoeee ii
oaaee/aieth e?anoueyineiai caieaaeaaeaiey inouanoaeyeenue E?anoueyineei
aaieii. E?aaeeo ia iieoieo caiee aue ia oieueei oaaee/ai, ii e
oaeaoaaeai. Ieaoa ca iaai nieaeaeanue, anee e?anoueyiei i?eia?aoae
caieth a aaeeiiee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue. Aaieianeee i?ioeaio aue aieueoei,
a ?acieoea a ieaoaaeao iie?uaaeanue noaneaeeyie ec athaeaeaoa. A
1906—1917 aa. iia ninoaaeea 145,5 iei. ?oa. Aaie i?iaeaaae e?anoueyiai
caieth, eioi?ay i?eia?aoaeanue ei o aeai?yi, auaeaaae nnoaeu.
Aeayoaeueiinoue aaiea niaeaenoaiaaea noaiiaeaieth e oe?aieaieth iiauo
oi?i caieaaeaaeaiey.

Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiay i?aaeoaeuenoaii Noieuieia, eiaea
ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe. Iia iiiiaaea yeiiiie/aneiio e nioeeaeueiiio
?acaeoeth iiauo ?aaeiiia. Oae, ianaeaiea Neae?e au?inei ia 153%. Iiaua
iinaeee iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaeenue a e?oiiua ianaeaiiua ioieou n i?aaiaie
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Ca 1906—1913 aa. iinaaiua ieiuaaee a Neae?e
?anoe?eeenue ia 80%. Oiaieueneay e Oiineay aoaa?iee noaee aaaeoueie
iinoaaueeaie ianea e nu?a ia ?inneeneee e aa?iiaeneee ?uiee. A
?acoeueoaoa ia?anaeaiey inaiaiaeeeinue ieiei 1 iei. aeanyoei caiee, /oi
niinianoaiaaei niya/aieth ino?iou e?anoueyineiai aii?ina a Oeaio?aeueiie
?innee.

Cia/eoaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo i?aaeoaeuenoai ieacuaaei ?acaeoeth
naeueneiai eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie
i?aaeinoaaeye n?aaenoaa e?aaeeoiui oiaa?euanoaai. Yoi aue ia?aue yoai
eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey n i?aiaeaaeaieai aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oi?i
?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee a noa?a iaeeiai e?aaeeoa. Ia aoi?ii yoaia
naeueneea e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa, iaeiiea nianoaaiiua eaieoaeu, iiaee
nouanoaiaaoue naiinoiyoaeueii. Oaea e 1912 a. neiaeeeanue nenoaia
iaeeiai e?anoueyineiai e?aaeeoa — nnoaeinaa?aaaoaeueiuo e e?aaeeoiuo
oiaa?euanoa. Anee a 1905 a. eo eiee/anoai ninoaaeyei 1680, oi a 1913a. –
13 015, a a 1916 a. – 16 261. *eneaiiinoue /eaiia oiaa?euanoa ca
1905—1916 aa. au?inea n 72.9 oun. aei 10,5 iei. /aeiaae, a aeeaaeu — n
37,5 iei. aei 682,3 iei. ?oa. A 1911 a. aue ooaa?aeaeai onoaa
Iineianeiai ia?iaeiiai aaiea, eioi?ue noae oeiainiaui oeaio?ii
e?anoueyineie e?aaeeoiie eiiia?aoeee.

Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia iiaeeyea ia i?aia?aciaaiey a noa?a ia?aciaaiey. Ii
iiaieth Noieuieia, a no?aia aeieaeia auea auoue nicaeaia no?oeoo?a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey, ninoiyuay ec o?ao nooiaiae:
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie ia/aeueiie oeieu, naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo o/eeeu,
aunoeo aa?iiiie/aneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. ?acoeueoaoaie yoie iieeoeee
noaei oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe caineiai e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai
aa?iiiie/aneiai ia?niiaea. Anee a 1895 a. ian/eouaaeinue 134 caineeo e
14 i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aa?iiiiia, oi a 1906 a. eo auei 593 e 141
niioaaonoaaiii. A 1915a. ?aaioaei oaea 3266 caineeo e 1365 eacaiiuo
aa?iiiiia.

?aoi?ia onei?eea i?ioeann ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee: au?inea
oiaa?iinoue naeueneiai oicyenoaa, oaaee/eeny ni?in ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth oaoieeo, oaeia?aiey, i?aaeiaou oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei iiaeuaio i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiaeoei eoiaii ?aoi?iu yaeeinue oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai
nai?a ca?ia. Anee a ia/aea aaea ii ninoaaeye 3,5 ie?ae. ioaeia, oi a
1913 a. — 5 ie?ae. ioaeia, ec eioi?uo 4,4 ie?ae. ioaeia auei nia?aii a
iniiaiii a caaeeoi/iuo e?anoueyineeo oicyenoaao, a 600 iei. ioaeia — ia
iiiaue/ueeo caieyo. Aeioiaeu io ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa au?inee ia 86%, io
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa — ia 108%. A 1911 — 1913 aa. no?aia iieo/eea ca?iiauo
ia 28% aieueoa, /ai NOA, Eaiaaea e A?aaioeia, aianoa acyoua.

a). I?iiuoeaiiinoue, oi?aiaey, oeiainu

?aoi?iu 60—70-o aa. XIX a. aeaee iiuiue oie/ie ?acaeoeth i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiui iieacaoaeai yoiai i?ioeanna noaei oaaee/aiea
oaeaeueiiai aana ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey e eciaiaiea aai
nineiaii-eeanniaie no?oeoo?u. N 1863 ii 1897 a. ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea
au?inei a 2,5 ?aca — n 6 iei. aei 17 iei. /aeiaae, a oi a?aiy eae ana
ianaeaiea no?aiu — eeoue a 1,5 ?aca. Oaeaeueiue aan ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey e eiioeo aaea ninoaaee 13,5%. Ii ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeea,
ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea ninoiyei ec e?oiiie ao?aeoacee, iiiaueeia e aunoeo
/eiiaieeia — 11%, ?aianeaiieeia e eaai/ieeia — 24%, «?aai/aai ethaea» —
52%.

E 1880-i aa. ai anao io?aneyo yeiiiieee caaa?oeeny i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?aai?io. A iniiaiuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ia o?ainii?oa iaoeiiia
i?iecaiaenoai auoanieei ?o/ioth oaoieeo. Aiaeyiia eieani e ioneoeueiay
neea /aeiaaea auee caiaiaiu ia?iaui aeaeaaoaeai. A ?innee i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?aai?io i?ioae aeaa noaaeee. A 1830—1840-o aa. ii a iniiaiii
caaa?oeeny a oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a a 1870- 1880-o aa. – ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa e a oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ii?aoi?iaiioth yiioo ia?iiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee ea?aei
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai. E 1861 a. a no?aia ian/eouaaeinue
iaiaa 2 oun. ei aeaeaciuo aei?ia. Iineaaeiaaaoaa ca oai ao?iia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai iicaieeei e ia/aeo 1880-o aiaeia
eiaoue aieaa 22 oun. ei iooae. Nicaeaiea ?acaeoie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie
naoe nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eei aioo?aiiee ?uiie, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae
?ino a?ociiai?ioa — n 439 iei. ioaeia a 1868 a. aei 11 072 iei. ioaeia a
1904 a., o.a. iauai ia?aaicie au?in a 25 ?ac. No?ieoaeuenoai aeaeaciuo
aei?ia yaeyeinue ia oieueei iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, ii e aai
noeioeyoi?ii. Iii niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth aeiauaathuae,
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae e iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. ?acaeoea aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa onei?eei iiaeuai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, oae eae oeo/oaei aiciiaeiinoe nauoa e ia?auaiey
oiaa?ia. Ana yoi nicaeaaaei oneiaey aeey ieii/aoaeueiiai neeaaeuaaiey
ana?inneeneiai ?uiea e aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eoiaia ianooaaiiai aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa
noaei yia?ae/iia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. Ca 1860—1891 aa. a ?innee aeiau/a
oaey aic?inea a 21 ?ac, i?iecaiaenoai /oaoia — a o?e ?aca, aeaeaca e
noaee — a 4,7 ?aca, a iaooe -a 476 ?ac. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey e
oaeaaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue i?aa?aoeeenue a iniiaiua io?anee
oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1890-o aa. auee iino?iaiu
iiaua iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua caaiaeu. E eiioeo XIX a. a ?innee, iai?eia?,
?aaioaei naiue ia?iaicino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeia n aaeaaiaeiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 1200 ia?iaicia. Yoi auee aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiua
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey n?aaiaiey: O?aioeey auioneaea aaeaaiaeii 500, a
Aa?iaiey — 144 ia?iaicia. I?iecaiaenoai aaaiiia i?eaeeceeinue e iauaio
auionea aa?iaineeo caaiaeia, eioi?ua ecaioiaeyee ieiei 30 oun. oiaa?iuo
e 6 oun. iannaaee?neeo aaaiiia.

Aunieea oaiiu ?inoa io?aneae oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia iiaee ia
io?aceoueny ia io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa e oa??eoi?eaeueiii
?aciauaiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiyaeeenue iiaua aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeea,
eae iaooyiay, iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuay, iaoeiino?iaiea. Auno?ia inaiaiea
iiauo oa??eoi?ee cao?iioei ?aciauaiea oiieeaiie e iaoaeeo?ae/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. E noa?ui eiaeono?eaeueiui ?aeiiai — Oeaio?aeueiiio,
Iaoa?ao?aneiio, O?aeueneiio — i?eaaaeeenue iiaua: thaeiue
oaieueii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneee — Aeiiaann e E?eaie ?ia, Aaeeineee
iaooaaeiauaathuee. Aicieeee e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u — Aaeo,
Oa?ueeia, THciaea, Ai?eiaea. Aaaeouay ?ieue a aeiau/a oaey e
i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia ia?aoea io O?aea e i?aaei?eyoeyi THaa ?innee.

Iaeiaei ia ana ?aeiiu no?aiu ?acaeaaeenue ?aaiiia?ii. Ia naaa?i-caiaaea
(a Iaoa?ao?aa, I?eaaeoeea), a Oeaio?aeueiii i?iiuoeaiiii ?aeiia, ia thaa
Oe?aeiu e a Caeaaeacuea oniaoe auee caiaoiu. Ia O?aea oaiiu ?acaeoey
ieacaeenue aieaa ieceeie, a oa??eoi?ee Neae?e e N?aaeiae Acee
inoaaaeenue ii/oe iainaiaiiuie a i?iiuoeaiiii ioiioaiee. Iaeioi?ua
?aeiiu nio?aiyee aa?a?iue oa?aeoa?. Iie iinoaaeyee ai?iaeai oeaa e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia nu?uea e yaeyeenue iio?aaeoaeyie i?iiuoeaiiuo
ecaeaeee. Ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?aciauaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii oa??eoi?ee —
iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a ?innee.

Yeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey a naeueneii oicyenoaa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia iiaee
ia neacaoueny ia aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae oi?aiaea. Ii?aoi?iaiiua aiaeu
ioia/aiu auno?ui ?inoii aioo?aiiaai oiaa?iiai?ioa n 2,4 ie?ae. ?oa. a
1873 a. aei 11-12 ie?ae. ?oa. a 1900 a. Iaiyeenue i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu
oi?aiaee. Naciiiua y?ia?ee nio?aiyeenue a iniiaiii a iaiaa ?acaeouo
?aeiiao. A e?oiiuo ai?iaeao nicaeaaaeenue oi?aiaua eiiiaiee n ?acaeoie
naoueth iaaaceiia e neeaaeia. Noi?ie?iaaeenue oiaa?iua ae?aee, eiaaoea,
eae i?aaeei, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?: oeaaiua, eaniua,
iaiooaeoo?iua e o.i.

Ia?aoiae e oiaa?iiio naeueneiio oicyenoao i?eaae e ?inoo oeaaiiai ?uiea.
N 1861 ii 1891 a. ii oaaee/eeny aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca. Ec iauaai
eiee/anoaa i?iaeaaaaiiai oeaaa ieiei 60% iio?aaeyeinue aioo?e no?aiu, a
40% auaiceeinue ca a?aieoeo. Auno?uie oaiiaie ?acaeaaeny ?uiie
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Noi?ie?iaaeny onoie/eaue ni?in ia iaoeiu, i?oaeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai o?oaea, iaooai?iaeoeou, oeaie, iaoaue.
Iio?aaeoaeyie oiaa?ia noaiiaeeinue ia oieueei ai?iaeneia, ii e naeueneia
ianaeaiea. Aic?anoaee iauaiu aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i aoyaeaaiee ?innee a ie?iaie ?uiie. Iauai
aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee ca 1861 — 1900 aa. oaaee/eeny a o?e ?aca – n
430 aei 1300 iei. ?oa., i?e/ai noieiinoue auaiceiuo oiaa?ia ia 20%
i?aauoaea noieiinoue aaiceiuo. A no?oeoo?a yenii?oa eiioea aaea 47%
caieiae oeaa. Ca yoe aiaeu ii oaaee/eeny a 5,5 ?aca. Yenii?o ca?ia aue
iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeey
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iniiaiuie noaoueyie eiii?oa inoaaaeenue iaoeiu,
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iniiaiay
/anoue aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa — 75—80% — i?eoiaeeeanue ia Aiaeeth e
Aa?iaieth, inoaeueiua 20-25% – ia aceaoneea no?aiu e NOA.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue i?iieeiiaaieai
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, /aio a iaiaeie noaiaie
niinianoaiaaee ieceea oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou e i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaa (1872)
eiino?aiiui iiaeaeaiiui ia iiene e aeiau/o iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.
Eiino?aiiue eaieoae eiaanoe?iaaeny a iaooaaeiau/o e iaooaia?a?aaioeo,
o?ainii?o, a oaeaea ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth i?aaei?eyoee e nicaeaiea
eiiieaenia a /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee. A eiaanoeoeeiiiii i?ioeanna
i?aiaeaaeaee aeiaeaiey /aou?ao no?ai — O?aioeee, Aiaeee, Aa?iaiee,
Aaeueaee. A ia/aea XX a. aeiey O?aioeee ninoaaeyea 31% a iauai iauaia
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, Aiaeee — 24%, Aa?iaiee — 20%, Aaeueaee — 13%.

A iaoeiino?iaiee eiino?aiiue eaieoae ?ani?aaeaeyeny neaaeothuei ia?acii:
o?aioeocneee, iaiaoeeee, aaeueaeeneee, aiaeeeneee; a /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee
— o?aioeocneee, aaeueaeeneee, iaiaoeeee, aiaeeeneee. A oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeaaainoaothuaa iieiaeaiea caieiae iaiaoeeee eaieoae. A
noa?a aaieianeeo oneoa ia?aia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeaei o?aioeocneiio
eaieoaeo. Iniiaiuie ?aaeiiaie nin?aaeioi/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea auee
Naaa?iue Eaaeac, Caeaaeacuea, THa ?innee, Neae?ue e Aeaeueiee Ainoie.
Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea iaoiaeeeinue a Iineaa e
Iaoa?ao?aa — aeaaiuo oeiainiauo oeaio?ao ?innee.

A ia/aea 1890-o aa. no?aia anooieea a iiaue yoai i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey.
Ca aeanyoeeaoea (1890-1900) auione i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee au?in a.aeaa
?aca, a oii /enea auione i?iaeoeoeee oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a 2,5 ?aca.
Aeiau/a eaiaiiiai oaey oaaee/eeanue a o?e ?aca, iaooe — a 2,5 ?aca. Ii
aeiau/a iaooe ?inney auoea ia ia?aia ianoi a ie?a. Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue oaaee/eea auione i?iaeoeoeee a o?e ?aca, a oii /enea ia
iiauo i?aaei?eyoeyo THaa i?iecaiaenoai iaoaeea aic?inei a naiue ?ac.
Anee a ie?iaii i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeea ?inney a 1880 a. caieiaea oieueei
naaeueiia ianoi, oi a 1900 a. iia ia?aianoeeanue ia /aoaa?oia ianoi. Ii
iauaio iauaio i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ia/aeo XX a. ?inney caieiaea
/aoaa?oia-iyoia ianoi a ie?a. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iiuoeaiiiai iiaeuaia iia
auoiaeeo a /enei no?ai ni n?aaeiei o?iaiai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia.

?inney eeaee?iaaea ii oaiiai ?inoa e eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoiio
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a niinianoaiaaei oe?ieia ?acaeoea aeoeeiia?iuo oi?i.
A 1889 a. a ?innee eiaeinue 504 aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaa n aeoeeiia?iui
eaieoaeii a 911,8 iei. ?oa. Iauay noiia anao aeoeeiia?iuo eaieoaeia a
1899 a. ian/eouaaea 2,2 ie?ae. ?oa. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1890-o aa.
/eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaeanue ia 9,8%, a oi a?aiy eae
/enei caaiaeia e oaa?ee nie?auaeinue ia 2,2%. Ai aeaaa i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
eae i?aaeei, noiye e?oiiue aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae.

Iinea aeeiaie/iiai ?acaeoey eiioea XIX a. i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eae, ai?i/ai,
e yeiiiieea a oeaeii, anooieea a ia?eiae niaaea. Iauaa i?iiuoeaiiia
?acaeoea i?iaeieaeaeinue, ii i?ioiaeeei i/aiue ia?aaiiia?ii. Iai?eia?,
auieaaea /oaoia nieceeanue ia 3%, caoi i?iecaiaenoai noaee oaaee/eeinue
ia 24%, iaooaaeiau/a oiaea ia 25%, ii aeiau/a oaey au?inea a 1,5 ?aca.
Ca yoe aiaeu eiee/anoai caiyouo ?aai/eo oaaee/eeinue ia 21%, a iauee
auione i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee — ia 37%, /oi iiaeii ioeaieoue eae iauaa
iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. N 1890 ii 1913a.
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe au?inea a /aou?a ?aca.

A 1909—1913 aa. ia/aeny iiaue yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai. Iniaaiii auno?uie
oaiiaie aic?inei i?iecaiaenoai i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii yoiio
iieacaoaeth ?inney iia?aaeaea Aiaeeth, O?aioeeth, Aa?iaieth, NOA, Ca
yoio ia?eiae n?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?e?ino i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaee
9%. Iinooieaiey io i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoeeiiaeueiii aeioiaea
ii/oe n?aaiyeenue n iinooieaieyie io aa?a?iiai naeoi?a. I?iaeoeoeey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iie?uaaea 80% aioo?aiiaai ni?ina.

Iniaaiii auno?i ?acaeaaeenue oaeea ?aaeiiu no?aiu, eae Oeaio?aeueiue,
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue, O?ae, Aeiiaann, E?eaie ?ia, I?eaaeoeea, Iieueoa, a
eioi?uo auei nin?aaeioi/aii aei 85% anao ?aai/eo e i?iecaiaeeeinue aei
75% aaeiaie i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. ?acaeoea yeiiiieee niinianoaiaaei
oneeaieth iiiiiieenoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ia?aua iiiiiieee iiyaeeenue oaea
a eiioea 70-o aa. XIX a. Ia?aiia/aeueiie oi?iie iiiiiieenoe/aneiai
iauaaeeiaiey yaeyeny ea?oaeue. A 1875 a. ianeieueei no?aoiauo eiiiaiee
iiaeienaee Eiiaaioeeth iauaai oa?eoa e noaee aeeeoiaaoue naie oneiaey
oai no?aoiaui iauanoaai, eioi?ua ia aioee a niaeaoaiea. A 1881 a.
iiyaeeinue ea?oaeueiia niaeaoaiea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e ?onneiai aeey
aiaoiae oi?aiaee aaieia.

Aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaeaieaa oeie/iui auei nicaeaiea iiiiiieee oeia
neiaeeeaoa. Iie aicieeee a io?aneyo, naycaiiuo n aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui
no?ieoaeuenoaii. Yoi auee iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao
?aeuenia (1882), iioii caaiaeia ii i?iecaiaenoao e?aiaaea aeey
?aeueniauo eiino?oeoeee (1884), no?ieoaeuenoao iinoia (1887).

A ia/aea XX a. naiua iiuiua i?aaei?eyoey auee nicaeaiu a io?aneyo
oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe: aeiauaathuae, iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, iaoeiino?iaiee.
E?oiiaeoei neiaeeeaoii a ?innee aue «I?iaeaiaoa», aicieeoee a 1902 a.
aeey i?iaeaaee ecaeaeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeia. A oii aea aiaeo
iiyaeeny neiaeeeao «O?oaii?iaeaaea», a a 1903-1907 aa. – «I?iaeoaieue»,
«E?iaey», «Iaaeue», «I?iae?oae». A iaooyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia/aee
ia?aciauaaoueny o?anou. Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo o?anoia yaeyeinue
«Oiaa?euanoai a?aoueaa Iiaaeue», eioi?ia nin?aaeioi/eei a naieo ?oeao
aeiau/o, o?aiaiea, o?ainii?oe?iaeo, ia?a?aaioeo e i?iaeaaeo iaooe e
iaooai?iaeoeoia.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneea iauaaeeiaiey iiyaeyeenue oaeaea a eaaeie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naoa?iii, iieioiyiii, aeaeooiaii, ieoi/iii, oaeeiaii
i?iecaiaenoaao. Iaeiaei oaiiu i?ioeanna iiiiiieecaoeee eaaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ionoaaaee io aiaeiae/iiai iieacaoaey a oyaeaeie. E 1914
a. a no?aia ian/eouaaeinue aieaa 200 iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee
?aciiai oeia.

E 1861 a. ninoiyiea ?inneeneeo oeiainia noaei iea/aaiui. Iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii iiiieiaiey eaciu auea yienney aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa. Neaaenoaeai
yoiai yaeeinue aic?anoaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa. Aeey ?anoe?aiey
nenoaiu eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa a aaieianeie oi?ia iaiaoiaeeiu auee
ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey: ?acaeoea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee, iaeiieaiea
eaieoaeia, onoaiiaeaiea eiiia?/aneeo naycae ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea e
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie aioo?e no?aiu.

A 1860 a. aue iniiaai Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie eae aeaaiia yienneiiiia e
e?aaeeoiia o/?aaeaeaiea, ioaa/aaoaa ca oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo no?aiu.
Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea ninoaaeee 50 iei. ?oa.
iniiaiiai e 5 iei. ?oa. caianiiai eaieoaea. Naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie ia iaeaaeae, ii iiae/eiyeny iaiin?aaenoaaiii
Ieienoa?noao oeiainia. Iauaa aea oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeye Niaao aaiea e
oi?aaeythuee, eioi?ue iacia/aeny Naiaoii.

N 1860 ii 1896 a. Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie oeiaine?iaae eacio, o.a.
aunooiae a ?iee e?aaeeoi?a ainoaea?noaa. Eeoue a 1896 a. aai cao?aou
n?aaiyeenue n noiiaie eaciu, iieiaeaiiuie a Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie.
Iieiay eeeaeaeaoeey aeieaa ainoaea?noaa aaieo i?iecioea oieueei a 1901
a.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia 1860-o aa. oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?aciaaieai ia?auo /anoiuo
aaieia. A 1864-1873 aa. auei o/?aaeaeaii ieiei 40 aeoeeiia?iuo aaieia.
Ca n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeia a?aiy neiaeeeanue ?acaaoaeaiiay aaieianeay
nenoaia. E ia/aeo XX a. no?aia auea iie?uoa naoueth i?iiuoeaiiuo,
oi?aiauo aaieia, eiioa/iuo, auaeaaaaoeo e?aaeeou e nnoaeu iiae caeia
caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, iiiai/eneaiiuo iauanoa acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa e
e?aaeeoiuo eiiia?aoeaia, ni/aoaaoeo a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe /a?ou
naa?aaaoaeueiie eannu e eannu acaeiiiiiiue, ai?iaeneeo aaieia,
i?eaeaeaaoeo aeaiiceou e inouanoaeyaoeo iiaeoiaa?iia e?aaeeoiaaiea.

Iniiaiay ?ieue a aaieianeie noa?a i?eiaaeeaaeaea Iaoa?ao?ao, Iineaa e
Aa?oaaa. Aeaayoue e?oiiaeoeo noiee/iuo aaieia eiioeaio?e?iaaee 93%
aeoeaia e ianneaia Iaoa?ao?aa, aeaa iineianeeo e iaeei eiiia?/aneee aaie
Aa?oaau – 88% i?iaeioeeaeueiuo aeoeaia e ianneaia. Iie inouanoaeyee
aanue niaeo? aaieianeeo iia?aoeee, eae ianneaiuo (i?eaea/aiea
aeaiiceoia, i?eai oaeoueo aeeaaeia e aeeaaeia aei aino?aaiaaiey,
ia?ao/ao e ia?acaeia aaenaeae, aeoeaioiua iia?aoeee), oae e aeoeaiuo
(o/ao e caeia aaenaeae, iiaeoiaa?iia e?aaeeoiaaiea, oiiaeiaua
iia?aoeee).

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia nouanoaaiii ?acee/aeanue. E?oiiua
iaoa?ao?aneea aaiee, oaeea, eae ?onnei-Aceaoneee, Iaoa?ao?aneee
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiiia?/aneee, Acianei-Aeiineie eiiia?/aneee, ?onneee
aeey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, ?onneee oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue, iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae «aeaeiaua». Oae, ?onnei-Aceaoneee aaie i?aeoe/anee
niaea?aeae Iooeeianeee caaiae, ?onniaaeo oeiaine?iaae aiaiioth,
iaooyioth, oaaa/ioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue; Iaoa?ao?aneee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
eiiia?/aneee iiaeaea?aeeaae o?ainii?oiia iaoeiino?iaiea, noaeino?iaiea,
oeaaoioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue; Acianei-Aeiineie — iaoaeeo?ae/aneea,
oaieueiua, naoa?iua e oae- noeeueiua i?aaei?eyoey; ?onneee aeey aiaoiae
oi?aiaee aaie e ?onneee oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue aaie e?aaeeoiaaee
ianooaaiua oi?aiaua iia?aoeee. Aeey yoeo aaieia auea oa?aeoa?ia
niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii.

Aoi?ay oeiainiaay a?oiia — yoi iaoa?ao?aneea aaiee, o.a. Neae?neee
oi?aiaue, O/aoiue e nnoaeiue. *anoiue eiiia?/aneee aaiee, Iineianeee
Niaaeeiaiiue aaie e Eiiia?/aneee aaie a Aa?oaaa, niaoeeaeece?iaaaoeany
ia ?aaeiiaeueiuo aaieianeeo iia?aoeeyo.

Iaeiiaoe, o?aouey oeiainiaay a?oiia auea i?aaenoaaeaia Aieaenei-Eaineei
e Iineianeei eoia/aneei aaieaie. Yoe o/?aaeaeaiey i?eaeeaeaeenue ii
oa?aeoa?o aeayoaeueiinoe e eeanne/aneei aeaiiceoiui aaieai XIX a.
Aunieay aeiey iia?aoeee ni aeeaaeaie, i?aiaeaaeaiea aaenaeueiuo e
iiaeoiaa?iuo e?aaeeoia, ionoonoaea nayce n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii e
e?aaeeoiaaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii, oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naycue n
eoia/anoaii aeaaaee iniiaaiea iacaaoue eo «o?aaeeoeeiiiuie».

3. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea

Iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yeiiiie/aneie noa?a oi?ie?iaaeanue e
?aaeeciauaaeanue ia iniiaa yeiiiie/aneeo i?ia?aii, ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia. A ?oeao yoiai aaaeiinoaa aei ia?aciaaiey a 1905
a. Ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue oi?aaeaiea
ia oieueei aeaiaaeiui ia?auaieai, e?aaeeoaie, ii e i?iiuoeaiiinoueth,
oi?aiaeae, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui no?ieoaeuenoaii. Ieienoa?noai oeiainia
?ac?aaaouaaei aeieain?i/iua i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu e
ioaa/aei ca eo auiieiaiea.

Iinea ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ieieno?ii oeiainia aue iacia/ai I.O.
?aeoa?i (1862-1878). Ei auea iiaeaioiaeaia aeieain?i/iay i?ia?aiia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee. Iia iniiauaaeanue ia i?eioeeia niaoaiiie
yeiiiieee e i?aaeoniao?eaaea ni/aoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo
eioa?ania iiae iao?iiaaeai Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia e Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aaiea. Aaaeiia cia/aiea ieieno? oeiainia i?eaeaaae i?aiaeieaieth
aeaiaaeiiai e?ecena e ainnoaiiaeaieth oeaiiinoe ?oaey. N yoie oeaeueth
Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ia?aie/eei aiaoiea caeinoaiaaiey, eeieoe?iaaei
auaic eaieoaeia ca a?aieoeo, oiaiueoeei i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,
i?iaiaeeei iia?aoeee ii caeoiea cieioa e na?aa?a. Iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeyeinue oe?ieiio i?eaea/aieth eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, iineieueeo
aeaoeoeeo naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa naea?aeeaae i?iiuoeaiiia
?acaeoea. Ia yoi auea iai?aaeaia oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea, iaania/eaaaoay
caueoo ?acaeaaaoaeny ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e niinianoaiaaaoay
i?eoieo eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. I?aaeea i eiioeanneyo, ?ac?aaioaiiua
ieienoa?noaii, iicaieeee i?eaea/ue eiino?aiiue eaieoae e ?aaeecaoeee
?inneeneeo i?iaeoia.

Ai a?aiy e?ecena ia/aea 1880-o aa. Ieienoa?noai oeiainia aicaeaaee
aeaeiue o/aiue-yeiiiieno, eeaa?aeueiue ioaeeoeeno I.O. Aoiaa (1881 —
1886). Noaa ieieno?ii oeiainia, ii nin?aaeioi/ee oneeey ia nicaeaiee
iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaeiinueie aeey ii?iaeecaoeee aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.
Iaeiaei aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa aio i?aiaeieaoue ia
oaeaeinue. Eae e ?aiueoa, iie?uoea inouanoaeyeinue ca n/ao aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo caeiia. Ia 1 yiaa?y 1887 a. ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea aeinoea
6.5 ie?ae. ?oa. A eiioea 1886 a. Aoiaa inoaaee iino ieieno?a oeiainia. E
yoiio a?aiaie a iauae oi?ia neiaeeeanue eiioeaioeey aoaeouae aeaiaaeiie
?aoi?iu, nouiinoue eioi?ie caeeth/aeanue a aeaaaeueaaoeee ?oaey e
ia?aoiaea ia cieiooth aaethoo.

A 1887 a. ieieno?ii oeiainia aue iacia/ai ecaanoiue o/aiue, iiuoiue
ae?aeaaee e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ianeieueeeo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa E.A.
Auoiaa?aaeneee (1887—1892). I?ia?aiia iiaiai ieieno?a oeiainia
i?aaeoniao?eaaea ?anoe?aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
yeiiiieeo, ?ino einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Aieueoia cia/aiea a iaania/aiee
aeoeaiiai ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina Auoiaa?aaeneee i?eaeaaae eiino?aiiiio
eaieoaeo. A 1889—1891 aa. Ieienoa?noai oeiainia inouanoaeei iyoue caeiia
ia noiio 425,1 iei. cieiouo ?oaeae. Yoe ia?u iicaieeee aeoeaece?iaaoue
ieaoaaeiue aaeain e onei?eoue iaeiieaiea cieioiai caiana n 273,7 iei.
?oa. a 1888 a. aei 581,5 iei. ?oa. a 1893 a. E 1891 a. Ieienoa?noai
oeiainia ni/ei aiciiaeiui ia/aoue i?iaaaeaiea aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu.
Iaeiaei iao?iaeae 1891 — 1892 aa. ion?i/ee aa inouanoaeaiea.

A 1892 a. iino ieieno?a oeiainia caiye NTH. Aeooa (1892-1903). Ii
i?iaeieaeee i?aoai?aiea a aeeciue i?ia?aii oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey naieo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Aai yeiiiie/aneay i?ia?aiia auea iai?aaeaia ia
aeinoeaeaiea ?inneae iieiie yeiiiie/aneie iacaaeneiinoe. Aeoeaiay ?ieue
a yoii i?ioeanna ioaiaeeeanue ainoaea?noao. Ii iiaieth Aeooa, iiiu?aiea
ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa yaeyeinue aaaeiaeoae
caaea/ae ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia e anae e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu no?aiu. A
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee Aeooa aeaeae iniiao yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae i?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaea
oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ?anoe?aiea i?iiuoeaiiiai
e?aaeeoa, noeioee?iaaiea /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oeo/oaiea
oi?aiaiai e ieaoaaeiiai aaeainia, ?acaeoea naoe iauaai e
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey e o.ae. O/eouaay, /oi aioo?aiieo
enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey eiaeono?eaeecaoeee auei iaaeinoaoi/ii,
i?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaea oe?ieia i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea e
iaania/aiea aa?aioee eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai.

Oceiaui ioieoii yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu noaei i?iaaaeaiea aeaiaaeiie
?aoi?iu. Aeiaeoueny iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, ii iiaieth Aeooa,
iiaeii auei eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee aeaiaaeiay nenoaia aoaeao
iaeaaeaoue iaaeaaeiinoueth e noaaeeueiinoueth. Aa onoie/eainoue aeieaeai
aue iaania/eoue iiiiiaoaeeeci — aaaaeaiea a ia?auaiea cieioa. Aeey
oaaee/aiey cieioiai caiana auee iieo/aiu eiino?aiiua e?aaeeou, aaaaeaiu
aunieea einaaiiua iaeiae ia oiaa?u iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina, oaaee/ai
yenii?o oeaaa, iiaeiyou iicaiaeueiue iaeia e aa?aiaue nai?, aeioiaeu io
eioi?iai ninoaaeee ieiei 1,5 ie?ae. ?oa. A 1895 a. auea aaaaeaia aeiiay
iiiiiieey. Aaeaaiaeiua iinooieaiey a eacio au?inee ia 340 iei. ?oa. A
1897 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii «I /aeaiea e auionea a ia?auaiea cieiouo
iiiao». ?inney ia?aoea e nenoaia cieioiai noaiaea?oa, eioi?ay
nouanoaiaaea aei Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu.

A aaaonoa 1903 a. Aeooa aue iacia/ai i?aaenaaeaoaeai Eiieoaoa ieieno?ia,
a ieieno?ii oeiainia — A.I. Eieiaoeaa (1904—1914). Iinea oaeenoaa
Noieuieia (1911) Eieiaoeaa niaiauae aeieaeiinoue ieieno?a oeiainia n
iinoii i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ieieno?ia.

Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea yoiai ia?eiaea aeeth/aea: o?aaeeoeeiiiia
iie?iaeoaeuenoai i?iiuoeaiiinoe; ia?u ii ?acaeoeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa
aeey ?anoe?aiey aioo?aiiaai ?uiea; ia?aie/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a
yeiiiieee e iiiu?aiea /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa; aeinoeaeaiea
aacaeaoeoeeoiiai athaeaeaoa e iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe oeiainiaie
nenoaiu; i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia; ?acaeoea aiaoiaoi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeneioi oneeee Eieiaoeaa i?eeaaae aeey nio?aiaiey onoie/eainoe oeiainia
a oneiaeyo iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe. ?onnei-yiiineay aieia
(1904—1905) e ?aaiethoeey (1905—1907) iaaaoeaii io?aceeenue ia ninoiyiee
anae yeiiiieee, ii nicaeaiiue ?aiaa yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae e
aeayoaeueiinoue ieieno?a oeiainia Eieiaoeaaa iicaieeee ia aeiionoeoue
aeaaaeueaaoeee e noaaeeece?iaaoue nenoaio aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.
I?eaea?aeeaaynue aeanoeie yienneiiiie iieeoeee, i?aaeoaeuenoai
iaania/eaaei onoie/eaue eo?n ?onneeo oeaiiuo aoiaa, /oi aucuaaei
aeiaa?ea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia. Oaeay iieeoeea niinianoaiaaea iiuiiio
i?eoieo eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo eae a oi?ia caeiia
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey cieioiai ia?auaiey, oae e a aeoeeiia?iie oi?ia.

Eoiae. Ca 1861 —1913 aa. ?inney aeinoaoi/ii auno?i i?ioea yoai
eiaeono?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey, caiya aeinoieiia ianoi a iyoa?ea
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi oieueei 35 eao yeiiiieea ?innee ?acaeaaeanue a oneiaeyo,
iaania/eaathueo ii?iaeueiue aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann. Inoaeueiia
aea a?aiy i?eoeinue ia aieiu, e?ecen e ?aaiethoeeiiiua iio?ynaiey.

?acaeoea eaieoaeecia a ?innee eiaei naie iniaaiiinoe. Iia iicaea ae?oaeo
no?ai anooieea ia iooue eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iaeiaei aeey iaa
oa?aeoa?iu aieaa aunieea oaiiu e o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiaeiaaaeiui yaeyeinue eniieueciaaiea ?inneae oaoiieiaee
e iiuoa auniei?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai e eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.
Iniaaiiinoue ?innee ninoiyea a oii, /oi a iae a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai a
ae?oaeo no?aiao, i?iaiaeeeinue ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. A ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae oee i?ioeannu ia oieueei
«?acaeoey eaieoaeecia nieco», ii e «ianaaeaeaiey eaieoaeecia naa?oo».
Iia eiaea aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaaoueny «aoe?ue», o.a. ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia
neaai inaiaiiua ie?aeiu. Aeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai naea?aeeaaei i?ioeann
«?acaeoey eaieoaeecia aaeoaue» ia oaea inaiaiiie oa??eoi?ee, ii a
ia?niaeoeaa nicaeaaaei aieaa oe?ieoth aaco aeey aai aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa.
Oaiiu e noaiaiue ?acaeoey e ?inoa a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo yeiiiieee auee
iaiaeeiaeiauie. Auoa iie auee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ieaea — a naeueneii
oicyenoaa, aaea i?iaeieaeaee nio?aiyoueny aeieaieoaeenoe/aneea e aeaaea
iao?ea?oaeueiua oi?iu. Aea e a i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a iiaeii aiai?eoue i
noaiiaeaiee eaieoaeecia eeoue i?eiaieoaeueii e e?oiiiio e n?aaeiaio
i?iecaiaenoao. Nio?aiyeenue ?acee/iua aeaeu aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe — iaeeia oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai, aeiiaoiea i?iiuneu,
?aianea. Oaeei ia?acii, yeiiiieea ?innee inoaaaeanue iiiaioeeaaeiie,
o.a. ia?yaeo n nia?aiaiiuie oi?iaie eaieoaeecia a iae nouanoaiaaei eae
iaeeioiaa?iia, oae e iao?ea?oaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai.

4. Yeiiiieea ?innee iaeaioia e a oneiaeyo Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu

N ia/aea XX a. ioi?ieythony iiaua yeiiiie/aneea oaiaeaioeee,
au?aceaoeany a iiiiiieecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. A ?innee ia?aae
Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiie ian/eouaaeinue aei 150—200 iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
iauaaeeiaiee, 52% anao aaieianeeo eaieoaeia nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue a naie
e?oiiaeoeo aaieao no?aiu, 54% anaai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?ieaoa?eaoa auei
caiyoi ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo n eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo aieaa 500 /aeiaae,
a oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee auei anaai 5% io iauaai eiee/anoaa nouanoaiaaaoeo a
no?aia. Oi?ie?iaaaoayny iiiiiieenoe/aneay ao?aeoacey no?aieeanue
eniieueciaaoue neeo ainoaea?noaa aeey iaeaieaa iieiie ?aaeecaoeee naieo
yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania. A yoio ia?eiae ia/aeinue aeoeaiia naeeaeaiea
ainoaea?noaa e iiiiiieee, /oi i?eaaei iaeaioia ie?iaie aieiu e
iiyaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiiiieecia, eee
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia. Anooieaiea a Ia?aoth
ie?iaoth aieio i?aaeii?aaeaeeei iai?aaeaiiinoue aai aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey e ei?aiiua eciaiaiey a oicyenoaaiiii iaoaiecia a oeaeii.

Anee e 1914 a. ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?eia?aei ii?aaeaeaiiinoue
a io?aneyo, aaea aeeyiea ainoaea?noaa auei o?aaeeoeeiiii aaeeei
(naoa?iia i?iecaiaenoai, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai, o?ainii?oiia
iaoeiino?iaiea, aiaiiia noaeino?iaiea), oi a oneiaeyo iaoo?aeecaoeee
oicyenoaa (nie?auaiey noa?u oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee) iaecaaaeiui
noaei oaeoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e ?anoe?aiea o/anoey a
iai iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noaaiiia
oicyenoaiaaiea i?e naeeaeaiee aai n e?oiiui aecianii i?aa?aoeeinue a
i?ia?anne?othuoth oaiaeaioeeth aeaeueiaeoaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
?inneeneiai iauanoaa.

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia aeey ?innee eiaea aeaeaei eaeouea yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey. Aieia iio?aaiaaea eiioeaio?aoeee
anao nee no?aiu aeey iiaaaeu. Aiaiiua ?anoiaeu auee /?acau/aeii aaeeee.
Eaaeaeue aeaiue aieiu a 1914a. iaoiaeeeny a n?aaeiai a 10 iei. ?oa., a
1915 a. — i?eia?ii a 24 iei., a 1916 a. — i?eaeeceoaeueii a 40 iei., a a
1917 a. -a 50—65 iei. ?oa.

E 1917 a. ia ioaeaeu o?iioa ?aaioaei (i?iecaiaeeei aii?oaeaiea) 2018
oun. /aeiaae ec 2443 oun. ?aai/eo i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eee 86%. Aieueoeinoai
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaei?eyoee noaei i?iecaiaeeoue aiaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e
ianeoaeeaaoue ioaeaeu a?iee. Oaea e eiioeo 1914a. ia aiaiioth neoaeao
auei i?ecaaii 6,5 iei. /aeiaae, a /a?ac aeaa aiaea /enei iiaeeeciaaiiuo
aeinoeaei 16 iei. /aeiaae. A oiaea aiaa iiaeaei e oia?ei io ?ai ieiei
1E5 iei. nieaeao, ieiei 2 iei. auei ?aiaii e ii/oe 1 iei. ieacaeny a
ieaio.

Anooieaiea ?innee a aiaiiua aeaenoaey icia/aei niaio yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ei?eoaoia, /oi iaoei au?aaeaiea a eciaiaiee niioiioaiey oaiiia
?acaeoey io?aneae e naeoi?ia oicyenoaa. Iauee ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaania/eaaeny ca n/ao io?aneae, ?aaioaaoeo ia
iai?iio (1913 a. = 100%): 1914a. – 106, 1915 a. – 191, 1916 a. – 267,8 e
1917 a. – 168,8%. A i?i/eo io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoai nie?auaeinue (1913 a.
= 100%): 1915a. – 94; 1916 a.- 84, 1917 a. – 53,8%.

Aeaaiuie i?iaeaiaie, ii?aaeaeeaoeie oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee,
noaee o?ainii?o, oiieeai, i?iaeiaieuenoaea, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu, oeiainu.

Ii aeaeaciui aei?iaai ia?aaiceeanue aieueoay /anoue a?ocia. N ia/aeii
aieiu aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai, ia i?ae?auaaoaany ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX a., aua aieaa ?anoe?eeinue. A 1916 a. auei naeaii a
yenieoaoaoeeth 4193 ei aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iooae, a anaai ca aiaeu aieiu
— ieiei 10 oun. ei.

Aieueoea ?aaiou i?iaiaeeeenue ii caaa?oaieth no?ieoaeuenoaa Neae?neie
iaaeno?aee ia aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu. Auei nii?oaeaii ianeieueei
aeaeaciuo aei?ia ia O?aea, a N?aaeiae Acee; aioee a no?ie eeiee
Iaoa?ao?a — Io?iaine, Aieiaaea — A?oaiaaeuene.

Oai ia iaiaa, o?ainii?o i?aaenoaaeye niaie oceia ianoi a yeiiiieea
no?aiu. Ineiaeiyei ?aaioo aeaeaciuo aei?ia ianeieueei ianoiyoaeuenoa.

Ai-ia?auo, caiaaeiay /anoue no?aiu n aa aieaa aonoie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie
naoueth auea ieeoie?iaaia, eciaieeenue iai?aaeaiiinoue e iauaiu
a?ociiioieia. Aei?iae, caa?oaeaiiua aiaiiuie ia?aaiceaie, ia
ni?aaeyeenue n iiaeaicii ec Neae?e e ae?oaeo ie?aeiiuo ?aeiiia
i?iaeiaieuenoaey e nu?uey.

Ai-aoi?uo, a oneiaeyo aieiu ?acei iaino?eeanue i?iaeaia oaoie/aneiai
iaania/aiey iiaeaeaeiui ninoaaii. Ec auaoeo a 1914 a. 20 057 ?inneeneeo
eieiiioeaia a 1915 a., ianiio?y ia aaiae 800 iiauo, a ?aai/ai ninoiyiee
iaoiaeeeinue oieueei 16 500. AEaeaciie aei?iaa ia oaaoaei, ii iaiueoae
ia?a, 2 oun. ia?iaicia e 80 oun. aaaiiia. ?inney ii/oe iieiinoueth
caaenaea io aiaeeeneeo iinoaaie ia?iaiciuo aeaeaaoaeae, eioi?ua
i?ae?aoeeenue n ia/aeii aieiu. ?aiiio aea ineiaeiyeny iaoaaoeie
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia, iiaeeeciaaiiuo a aeaenoaothuoth a?ieth.
Iieiaeaiea onoaoaeyeinue iaaeinoaoeii oiieeaa, acyoi/ie/anoaii ia
o?ainii?oa e aanoicyenoaaiiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeee aeaeaciuo aei?ia.

?aaioa o?ainii?oa ieacaeanue ia?ac?uaii naycaia n oiieeaiie i?iaeaiie.

N aeaeaa?y 1916 a. ia/aeinue oiaiueoaiea aeiau/e oaey a Aeiiaanna: ca
o?e ianyoea iii ninoaaeei 17%. Ii aeaeaciua aei?iaa ia niiaee
iaania/eoue ia?aaiceo e aeiauaaaiiai oaey. Oae, iauaa auiieiaiea
ia?yaeia ia auaic aeiiaoeeiai oiieeaa ninoaaeei ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1916
a. oieueei 66,4% i?ioea 74,7% a ia?aie iieiaeia oiai aea aiaea. A
oaa?aea 1917a. auaic aeiauoiai oaey ninoaaeye 53,7% (89,3 iei. ioaeia
i?e ii?ia 166,3 iei. ioaeia). Eiiiaine?iaaoue iaoaaoeo oaey a
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie iiaee «caiaieoaee» — oi?o (iniaaiii a
Oeaio?aeueiii ?aeiia) e ae?iaa. Ii e caeanue anoaaaea i?iaeaia eo
o?ainii?oe?iaee aei aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iaaeno?aeae eeai aei ?ae, ii ia
oaaoaei eioaaeae.

A eiioea 1916 a. ec-ca iaaeinoaoea oaey e iaooe ia/aee cae?uaaoueny
caaiaeu. Iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioaee ia ia iieioth iiuiinoue. A
Iao?ia?aaea ec 73 i?aaei?eyoee, i?inoaeaaaoeo a aeaeaa?a 1916 a., 39
cae?ueenue ec-ca ionoonoaey oiieeaa e 11 — a nayce n i?ae?auaieai
iiaea/e yeaeo?iyia?aee, aucaaiiui iaoaaoeie oiieeaa ia yeaeo?inoaioeeyo.

Iai?yaeaiiia iieiaeaiea nicaeaeinue n i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui niaaaeaieai
a?iee e i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia.

N oeaaii a no?aia neiaeeeanue ia?aaeienaeueiay neooaoeey: i?ienoiaeeei
iaoeeiiiia ia?anoaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai e?ecena i?e oaeoe/aneii
ecauoea ?ano?nia.

?aceia nie?auaiea yenii?oa oeaaa n ia/aeii aiaiiuo aeaenoaee e
oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeaiey (ieeoiaoeey ?yaea ?aeiiia e nie?auaiea
ianaeaiey) noi?ie?iaaee ?aca?a i?eia?ii a 1 ie?ae. ioaeia, /oi a iaiaeie
noaiaie iaiaaeaaeeaaei i?aaeoaeuenoai. Ecauoie oeaaa aue e a Neae?e,
aaea ca aiaeu aieiu iinaaiua ieiuaaee aic?inee, e a /a?iicaiiuo
aoaa?ieyo Aa?iiaeneie ?innee — aieaa 0,5 ie?ae. ioaeia. Iaeiia?aiaiii a
ia/a?iicaiiuo aoaa?ieyo iaaeinoaaaei ieiei 270 iei. ioaeia.

Oai ia iaiaa, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia niaaaeaiea oooaeoaeinue. E i?e/eia
ninoiyea ia noieueei a o?ainii?oa, neieueei a iaaeaaii?eyoiie ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?a aeey iinoaaueeia oiaa?iiai oeaaa, /oi auioaeaeaei
i?aaeoaeuenoai eaeoe ii iooe aaeieieno?e?iaaiey caaioiaie. A eiioea 1915
a. i?aaenaaeaoaeth Iniaiai niaauaiey ii i?iaeiaieuenoaeth auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai onoaiaaeeaaoue a ianooaaao eiia?ee eee aa
ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia i?aaeaeueiua oeaiu ia i?iaeaaeo i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo
i?iaeoeoia e oo?aaea. A aeaeaa?a 1916a. oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai aaaei
iaycaoaeueiua iinoaaee oeaaa a eacio ii oaa?aeie oeaia. Yoi ouaieyei
eioa?anu iinoaaueeia e i?eaiaeeei e n?uao caaioiaie.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeaea, /oi ia?aae aieiie ?inney aaiceea ec-ca
a?aieoeu ia oieueei naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu, ii e i?inoua aaue
iaiiaeiaea inae, na?iia, ein. A 1915 a. aa nianoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
yoeo oiaa?ia oiaei aei 15,1%, aa 1917 a. — aei 2,1%. Cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeeinue e i?iecaiaenoai iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia. Anooieaiea a
aieio Oo?oeee ia noi?iia no?ai O?ienoaaiiiai nithca i?eaaei e
na?ueaciaeoei iineaaenoaeyi — cae?uoeth Ainoi?a e Aea?aeaiaee e ii/oe
iieiie ecieyoeee ?inneeneie eiia?ee io ie?iaiai ?uiea. Ioiuia eiii?o oae
oieueei /a?ac A?oaiaaeuene e Aeaaeeainoie. ?inney ieacaeanue a oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneie aeieaaeu.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ooaeanue aiciiaeiinoue naaeaine?iaaiiiai oiaa?iiaiaia.
E?anoueyinoai ia/aei ne?uaaoue, a eiiaaea aeaaea oie/oiaeaoue oeaa. A
?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaeenue caianu oeaaa, eiaaoeany a ?anii?yaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. A ia?aii eaa?oaea 1917 a. iie nie?aoeeenue aei
e?eoe/aneiai ieieioia e ia 1 ia?oa ninoaaeee 20 iei. ioaeia i?e
aaeaiany/iie ii?ia iio?aaeaiey nauoa 90 iei. ioaeia.

Ia o?iioao e Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee caiania i?iaeiaieuenoaey auei ia
o?e—iyoue aeiae. Aianoi 500 aaaiiia i?iaeiaieuenoaey, eioi?ua iieo/ae
Iao?ia?aae aaeanooi/ii a ieoya?a 1916 a., a yiaa?a 1917 a. nooi/iia
iinooieaiea oiaiueoeeinue aei 269 aaaiiia, a a oaa?aea noaei iaiueoa
200. Oaeia aea ?aceia nie?auaiea iaaethaeaeinue e a Iineaa.

A aiaeu aieiu oooaeoeeny o?oaeiaie aaeain no?aiu. Aeaoeoeeo ?aai/eo ?oe
eniuouaaee ana aiththuea no?aiu. O?aioeey, iai?e- ia?, a iaiai ia
e?aaeeou i?aaeeaaaea ?innee iinoaaeyoue ?aai/eo. Ii a ?innee iieiaeaiea
a yoie noa?a auei iaiiiai neiaeiaa. Ec aea?aaie auei ecuyoi nauoa
iieiaeiu ioaeneiai o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey. Iauay /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey, caiyoiai a naeueneii oicyenoaa ?innee (a ia?an/aoa ia
ac?ineuo ioae/ei), a 1914 a. nie?aoeeanue aei 83,5% (1913 a. = 100%), a
1915 a. – aei 78,7 e a 1917 a.-aei 76,2%. No?aia iiianea ia?iiiua
ethaeneea iioa?e, iioa?yea oaeouie e oia?oeie io ?ai aieueoa, /ai
eaeia-eeai ae?oaia ainoaea?noai, i?eieiaaoaa o/anoea a aieia. I?ioeaio
iioa?ue aue aua auoa a ioiioaiee o?oaeiniiniaiuo aic?anoia.

Ia aeeiaieeo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ieacaei iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea
oooaeoaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai niaaaeaiey ai?iaeia. Ia?anoaaoay oa?ica
aieiaea i?eaiaeeea e oneeaieth iooiea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, /oi aucaaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eaea/aiey iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu ec
aea?aaie, a oaeaea aeaiuei e ianniaia «iaoi/ie/anoai» — iiacaeee a
aea?aaith ca i?iaeoeoaie, eioi?ua iaiaieaaeenue ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u,
neaaenoaeai /aai noaei oaaee/aiea /enea i?iaoeia e nouanoaaiiia iaaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Aieia ia iiaea ia io?aceoueny ia oeiainiaie nenoaia. ?anoiaeu iinoiyiii
?inee (1914/15 a. – 27,2 %, a 1915/16 a. – 39, 6, a a 1916/17 a.- 49,3%
niaieoiiiai aeioiaea no?aiu). Iaeiia?aiaiii nie?auaeanue aeioiaeiua
noaouee athaeaeaoa (oaiiaeaiiue aeioiae, aeioiaeu io aeaeaciuo aei?ia,
eaniiai oicyenoaa e o.ae.). Cai?auaiea i?iaeaaee eacaiiiai aeia n
ia/aeii aieiu, a caoai iieiia cai?auaiea aeiioi?aiaee i?eaaee e
eeeaeaeaoeee naiie aieueoie noaouee aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa, ninoaaeyaoae
25%, eee aei Y4 anaai athaeaeaoa no?aiu. Iiauoaiea aeoeecia (ia oaaae,
nie/ee, aoiaao, iaooyiua i?iaeoeou), a oaeaea iaeiaia (i?iiuneiaiai, ia
ia?aaiceo iannaaee?ia, a?ocia e o.ae.) ia iiaei eiiiaine?iaaoue yoe
iioa?e.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo i?aaeoaeuenoai eniieueciaaei o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu
iie?uoey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia — aeaiaaeioth yienneth, caeiu, aaaaeaiea
iiauo e iiauoaiea aeaenoaiaaaoeo iaeiaia e einaaiiia iaeiaeaiea.

N ia/aea aieiu i?ae?aoeeny ?aciai aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa ia cieioi e
ia?aueaaeny auione e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia. Niaeanii onoaao Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aaie iia auionoeoue e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia ia 300 iei. ?oa. Ai a?aiy aieiu
yoi iieiaeaiea auei eciaiaii. Yienneiiiia i?aai Ainaaiea auei oaaee/aii
aei 1,5 ie?ae. ?oa. Iicaea yoa noiia iinoiyiii ?inea e aeinoeaea 6,5
ie?ae. ?oa. a 1916 a. Ca /aou?a aiaea aieiu eiee/anoai e?aaeeoiuo
aeeaoia a ia?auaiee oaaee/eeinue aieaa /ai a oanoue ?ac. I?e yoii
nie?auaeny cieioie caian. Aei aieiu cieioi, iaoiaeeaoaany a eeaaeiauo
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea, ii/oe iieiinoueth iaania/eaaei e?aaeeoiua
aeeaou. A ?innee eiaeinue cieioa ia 1600 iei. ?oa., ca a?aieoeae —
i?eia?ii ia 150 iei. ?oa. i?e 1633 iei. e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia a ia?auaiee.
Ia 1 ieoya?y 1917 a. a ?innee o?aieeinue cieioa ia noiio 1294 iei. ?oa.
i?e 17 275 iei. e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia a ia?auaiee. A 1916—1917 aa. auee
auiouaiu ?aciaiiua ia?ee e eacia/aeneea ciaee.

Nie?auaeenue e iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey. A ia?aua o?e ianyoea 1917 a.
iinooieaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa oiaee ia 32% ii
n?aaiaieth n 1916a., iaeiae n ai?iaeneiai iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa — ia
41 %, eaa?oe?iiai— ia 43, aiaiiiai — ia 29, i?iiuneiaiai — ia 19,
caeeaaeiiai — ia 11, ianeaaenoaaiiuo iioeei — ia 16, no?aoiauo — ia 27,
aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae — ia 65%. Aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea caeinoaiaaiey i?eaaee
e iiiaie?aoiiio ?inoo ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Ia ia/aei 1914 a.
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea ?innee ?aaiyeny i?eaeeceoaeueii 4 ie?ae. ?oa., ia
1 aaaonoa 1916 a. — 30, a ia 1 aaaonoa 1917 a. — oaea 43 ie?ae. ?oa.

I?ia?anne?othuay eioeyoeey (e oaa?aeth 1917a. eo?n ?oaey ia aioo?aiiai
?uiea oiae aei 27 eii. i?e ioeoeeaeueiii eo?na — 55 eii.) e aeaoeoeeo
i?aaeii?aaeaeeee ?ino oeai ia iniiaiua oiaa?u a 4-5 ?ac. Iio?aaeaiea
?aai/eo a 1916 a. i?e ?inoa iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoaaeyei
iaiaa 50% aeiaiaiiiai o?iaiy.

Iienaiiua i?ioeannu a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie oneeeee ioia/aiioth auoa oaiaeaioeeth e ?anoe?aieth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeecie.

I?e aiaeeca i?iaeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a ?innee aaaeii
o/eouaaoue neaaeothuea iaiaeiaaaeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa:

• ainoaea?noai eiaei cia/eoaeueioth aeieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa,
/oi i?aaeii?aaeaeyei iniiau yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, aa iai?aaeaiiinoue
(iiia/eoaeuenoai e iiaea);

• i?aaeoaeuenoai ia iiaei ia o/eouaaoue aic?anoathuaa aeeyiea
iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea;

• i?e yoii iii eiaei aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue aioo?aiiea
i?ioeai?a/ey aeciana aeey nio?aiaiey iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee e oneeaiey ?iee ainoaea?noaa a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie no?aiu;

• i?aaeoaeuenoai iaoiaeeeinue iiae iinoiyiiui aeaaeaieai
iauanoaaiii-no?oeoo?iia?acothuaai iiiaue/ueaai nineiaey, /uee eioa?anu
ca/anooth ia niaiaaeaee n eioa?anaie eaieoaea.

A yoi nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaei aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
niaeaniaaiee eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaaiiinoe. ?inneeneay
ath?ie?aoey auea oaaaeaeaia a aiciiaeiinoe ?aoaiey caaea/ ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?aaeaea anaai iaoiaeaie oe?aieaiey aaeieieno?aoeaii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo
i?aa aeanoe ii ioiioaieth ei anai noauaeoai oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu aac
o/aoa eo eioa?ania. Iiyoiio i?aaeoaeuenoai a oa/aiea ia?aiai aiaea
ie?iaie aieiu, iianaynue ?anoouaai aeeyiey iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea e
aoaeo/e oaa?aiiui a aiciiaeiinoyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ia oei ia
?anoe?aiea nio?oaeie/anoaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeoaeuenoai ieacaeinue a
i?ioeai?a/eaii iieiaeaiee, iineieueeo auioaeaeaii auei niaeaniauaaoue
eioa?anu oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaia e iiiaueeia.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie aiaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee i?aaeoaeuenoai
n/eoaei iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie, a ianaeaiey
(e iniaaiii a?iee) — i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Aeey yoiai a aaaonoa 1915a. auee
ia?aciaaiu /aou?a iniauo niaauaiey — ii iai?iia, ia?aaiceai, oiieeao e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiio aeaeo. Iie eiaee oe?ieea iieiiii/ey e
aicaeaaeyeenue ieieno?aie (aiaiiui, iooae niiauaiey, oi?aiaee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, caieaaeaeey). A ea/anoaa eino?oiaioia ?aaoee?iaaiey
eniieueciaaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiua caeacu, oeene?iaaiiua e i?aaeaeueiua
oeaiu, ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu oi?aiaee aieioue aei aaaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee, ?aeaeceoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?ac?aoeoaeueiay
nenoaia i?e iaae?aeiiiii iaiaia oiaa?aie e ia?aaicea a?ocia ii aeaeaciui
aei?iaai. Niaauaiey auee i?ecaaiu ?ac?aaaouaaoue ieaiu niaaaeaiey a?iee
e ianaeaiey i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, oiieeaii e o.ae., auaeaaaoue aaainu
i?aaei?eyoeyi e niaeaenoaiaaoue a auiieiaiee caeacia. Ii ia?a oooaeoaiey
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieeinue oneeeaaoue ?ieue
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?u/aaia, aeoeaece?iaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
aiaoaoaeuenoai a oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue e i?aaeaea anaai a noa?o
?ani?aaeaeaiey.

17 oaa?aey 1915 a. auoae caeii, iaaeaeyaoee ianoiua aeanoe iiauie
i?aaaie — cai?auaoue auaic naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ca i?aaeaeu
naiae aoaa?iee, onoaiaaeeaaoue i?aaeaeueiua oeaiu ia oeaa e oo?aae,
caeoiaaiua a?ieae, ?aeaece?iaaoue i?iaeoeou ii iiieaeaiiui oeaiai (ia
15%). Yoi aaaeiue iiiaio a noaiiaeaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.
A 1916 a. auee aaaaeaiu oaa?aeua oeaiu ia ana oeaaiua naeaeee, eae
i?aaeei caieaeaiiua, /oi i?eaaei e ?inoo ?uii/iuo oeai, iniaaiii a
naioya?a 1916 a., e nie?uoeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania. Yoe ia?u
nicaeaaaee eneonnoaaiiue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiue aeaoeoeeo a ai?iaeao.

I?iiuoeaiieee ?innee no?aieeenue oneeeoue aeeyiea ia i?ioeannu
?aaoee?iaaiey. Oaea a ia?aua iaaeaee aieiu auee nicaeaiu Ana?inneeneee
caineee nithc e Ana?inneeneee nithc ai?iaeia. A 1915—1916 aa.
nicaeaaaeenue e iiiaeeeenue ?acee/iua eiieoaou e iauanoaa, ?inea eo
?ieue a aeecie no?aiu. Eiieoao E?aniiai E?anoa, ia?aiia/aeueii ne?iiiay
i?aaiecaoeey, iinoaiaiii iiae/eiee naaa anth naieoa?ioth
aaeieieno?aoeeth no?aiu. Caineee e ai?iaeneie nithcu neeeenue a Caiai?,
/oiau iiiuoaoueny oeaio?aeeciaaoue aiaiiua iinoaaee, iniaaiii ni noi?iiu
iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoee. A iaa 1915 a. ii eieoeeaoeaa A. Ao/eiaa
iaeaieaa aeaeiua i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaeiauo e i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaia nicaeaee
Oeaio?aeueiue aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue eiieoao, ia eioi?ue aiceaaaeanue
caaea/a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa aeey iai?iiiuo ioaeae e
?ani?aaeaeaiey caeacia iaaeaeo e?oiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie. Aeaaiaea?y
oneeeyi eiieoaoa a 1916a. niaaaeaiea a?iee ianeieueei oeo/oeeinue ii
n?aaiaieth n 1915 a.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, yaii oa?yy eiio?ieue ca neooaoeeae,
ioiineeanue ei anai yoei eieoeeaoeaai aanueia ianoi?iaeaiii, aeaey a
oi?iao iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae eaieoaea iianiua
oaiaeaioeee iieeoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey /oaeaeuo naiiaea?aeaaiiio ?aaeeio
nee. Ii oaeoaeaiea e?ecena a no?aia auioaeaeaei i?aaeoaeuenoai
naeeaeaoueny n aecianii. Iinea IX nuacaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae oi?aiaee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe (iae 1915) aeanoe niaeaneeenue ia nicaeaiea ?yaea
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?ecaaiiuo eii?aeeie?iaaoue ?aaioo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Aianoi oiai /oiau iiiu?youe yoe iao?eioe/aneea iano?iaiey, Ieeieae II
i?iaiaeee iieeoeeo, caeeth/aaoothny i?aeiouanoaaiii a caiaia iaeieo
iaeiiiaoaioiuo e iaiiioey?iuo ieieno?ia ae?oaeie, ie/ooue ia eo/oeie (ca
aiae niaieeinue iyoue ieieno?ia aioo?aiieo aeae, /aou?a ieieno?a
naeueneiai oicyenoaa e o?e aiaiiuo ieieno?a). A iauanoaa eaia?eeueth ai
aeaaa n ?aniooeiui iaaeiyee a iiaeaioiaea naia?aoiiai ie?a e iioai?noaa
a?aaeaneiio iaoanoaeth ia oa??eoi?eth no?aiu. Noaiiaeeinue i/aaeaeiui,
/oi naiiaea?aeaaea iioa?yei niiniaiinoue oi?aaeyoue no?aiie e aanoe
aieio.

Oai a?aiaiai ?acei oooaeoeeinue iieiaeaiea ni niaaaeaieai
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, oiieeaii i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia, /oi i?eaaei e ?inoo
caaanoiai/iiai aeaeaeaiey. *enei aanoothueo no?aieoaeueii ?inei: iaiaa
35 oun. ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea 1914a., 560 oun. a 1915 a., 1100 oun. a 1916
a. Oneiaey aeecie o?oaeyueony eaoano?ioe/anee oooaeoaeenue. Ec
ia?aianaeaiiuo, ianiio?y ia iiaeeecaoeeth, aea?aaaiue i?eauaaei neeoeii
iiiai aeaoaauo ?aai/eo ?oe, /oi ia?aie/eaaei ?ino iieaou o?oaea.
I?aaeoaeuenoai auei auioaeaeaii eaeoe ia yeno?aiiua aiayeiiiie/aneea
ia?u.

N ia/aea 1916 a. a iaeioi?uo ai?iaeao aaiaeeeenue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
ea?oi/ee, onoaiaaeeaaeenue ii?iu auaea/e ioee e e?oi. 30 ethiy yoiai aea
aiaea aue i?eiyo caeii i /aou?ao «iyniionoiuo aeiyo» a iaaeaeth. A
eiioea iiya?y i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyei i?aaeeiaeaiea ieieno?a caieaaeaeey
A.A. ?eooeoa i aaaaeaiee n yiaa?y 1917a. i?eioaeeoaeueiie oeaaiie
?acaa?noee. I?aaeoniao?eaaeanue iinoaaea 506,5 iei. ioaeia a
onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee aeey a?iee e aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I niaaaeaiee
ai?iaeia aeieaeiu auee iicaaioeoueny ianoiua aeanoe. E oi?aaeaieth
oicyenoaii, oioue e a ia?aie/aiiie oi?ia, auee aia?aua i?eaea/aiu
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiua e?oae. Ii ana yoe ia?u ia eeeaeaee?iaaee
oicyenoaaiiie ?ac?ooe. A iiiiceoeee oea?ecio ieacaeenue ana eeannu e
ia?oee, ca eneeth/aieai e?aeia i?aauo.

Yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea no?aiu iaeaioia Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee aeaaea
i?aaenoaaeoaee oea?ecia oa?aeoa?eciaaee eae ninoiyiea «?ac?ooe» e
«?acaaea». A yoii ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an caienea I.A.
?iaecyiei, iai?aaeaiiay oea?th a oaa?aea 1917 a., iacaaeieai aei
?aaiethoeee, a eioi?ie ii ienae, /oi «iieiaeaiea ?innee nae/an
eaoano?ioe/aneia e aianoa n oai aeoaiei o?aae/aneia». I?eoiae e aeanoe
A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia iia eciaieoue iai?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee. Iauea caaea/e iiaie aeanoe auee noi?ioee?iaaiu A. O.
Ea?aineei: i?iaeieaeeoue caueoo no?aiu; ainnicaeaoue ai anae no?aia
aeaenoaaiiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao; i?iaanoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei?aiiua
iieeoe/aneea e nioeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu; iiaeaioiaeoue iooue e
i?aia?aciaaieth ?innee ec i?aaeaeueii oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa a
oaaea?aeueiia.

Ana ninoaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa noiaeeeenue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e oneeaiey eiio?iey ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth /anoiuo oi?aiaoeaa e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Eaaeaeue
ninoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa cayaeye i ?aoeiinoe inoaiiaeoue iaaeaiea
yeiiiieee, iaeaaeeoue oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a oneiaeyo
i?iaeieaeaaoaeny aieiu. Ana iaauaee «e?aeithth aa?aaeeeainoue a
?anoiaeiaaiee ia?iaeiuo aeaiaa», «onoaiiaeaiea oaa?aeuo oeai ia
i?aaeiaou ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe» e aeinoaaeo eo ianaeaieth «ii aiciiaeii
iiieaeaiiui oeaiai». Ia oieueei nioeeaeenou (yna?u e iaiueoaaeee), ii e
eaaeaou aunooiaee ca ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeiiai ?uiea. Ieieno? caieaaeaeey
A.E. Oeiaa?aa aiai?ee eaoii 1917 a.: «No?iaay yeiiiie/aneay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiiaioa iaecaaaeii aoaeao oieeaoue anyeoth aeanoue —
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth eee ianioeeaeenoe/aneoth aac?acee/ii — ia yoio iooue
iiiiiieecaoeee». Iioiio iaeiei ec ia?auo oaaia A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
noaei aaaaeaiea oeaaiie iiiiiieee. 25 ia?oa 1917 a. auoei iinoaiiaeaiea
i ia?aaea/a oeaaa a ?anii?yaeaiea ainoaea?noaa: «Ana eiee/anoai oeaaa…
ca au/aoii caiana… iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e
oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae aeaaeaeueoea, iinooiaao… a ?anii?yaeaiea
ainoaea?noaa e iiaeao auoue io/oaeaeaaii eeoue i?e iin?aaenoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia». Oeaaiaeaaeaeaoe eiae i?aai inoaaeoue naiaia
aeey iinaaa, ca?ii aeey i?iei?ia neioa e i?iieoaiey ec ?an/aoa 1,25
ioaea ia /eaia naiuee e iaaiiiai ?aaioieea a ianyoe, e?oiu ii 10
cieioieeia (cieioiee = 4,25 a) ia aeooo a aeaiue. ?ac?aoaeinue inoaaeoue
naa?o yoiai 10% iio?aaiiai «ia anyeee neo/ae». Aanue inoaeueiie oeaa
iiaeeaaeae naea/a ianoiui i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui i?aaiai ii oaa?aeui oeaiai
(aeaaeaeaoe aue iaycai aeinoaaeoue oeaa ia nnuiiie ioieo). Aneaae ca
yoei auee onoaiiaeaiu oaa?aeua oeaiu ia oaieue, iaooue, iaoaee, eai,
eiaee, iyni, ianei, iaoi?eo.

Ii aeey ?aoaiey iauayeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ (aa?a?iue aii?in, oeiainiaay
nenoaia, e o.ae.) o A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia auei ie a?aiaie, ie
aiciiaeiinoae.

I?ienoiaeeaoea a no?aia i?ioeannu a 1917 a. oaea ia eiio?iee?iaaeenue
oeaio?aeueiie aeanoueth.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee. *. 1. Io ae?aaiinoe aei Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu:
O/aa. iiniaea / Iiae ?aae. I. E. Eeaei. Naia?a, 1998.

2. Eiiioiiia I. A., Niaoaiei N. E. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee: O/aaiee aeey
aocia. I., 2003.

3. Eiiioiiia I. A., Niaoaiei N. E. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee ?innee: O/aaiee
aeey aocia. I., 2004.

4. Oeiioeia O. I. Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. O/aa. iiniaea
/ Iiae ?aae. I. I. *aio?eia. I., 2004.

5. Oeiioeia O. I. Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey ?innee. O/aa. iiniaea / Iiae
?aae. I. I. *aio?eia. 6-a ecae. I., 2002.

6. Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Eo?n eaeoeee / Iiae ?aae. A.
E. Aieoaiae/a. Ieine, 1997.

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