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Екатерина II: ‘Немка на престоле’ или ‘Великая государыня’

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Aeaoa?eia II: «Iaiea ia i?anoiea» eee «Aaeeeay ainoaea?uiy»?

Ianoiyuaa eiy ?onneie eiia?ao?eoeu Aeaoa?eiu II – Nioey Oaaea?eea
Aaaonoa. Iia ?iaeeeanue a Aa?iaiee, a iaaaeiaaoae eiyaeaneie naiuea. Ay
ioaoe – i?eioe E?enoeai Aaaono Aiaaeueo-Oea?aoneee – aue ieaaeoei a?aoii
aeaaeaoaeueneiai eiycy iaaieueoiai eiyaeanoaa Aiaaeueo-Oea?aao e neoaeee
o i?onneiai ei?iey O?eae?eoa Aaeeeiai aoaa?iaoi?ii ai?iaea Ooaooeia.
Iaoue Nioee – Eoeca i?ienoiaeeea ec Aieooeineiai eiyaeaneiai aeiia. Iia
neaaeeanue e?anioie e /anoi auaaea i?e ei?ieaaneii aeai?a O?eae?eoa
Aaeeeiai. Naith aiineaaenoaee ciaiaieooth aei/ue Eoeca ?iaeeea a
oanoiaaeoeaoue eao. Nouanoaoao eaaaiaea, /oi ioaoe Nioee ia
aeia?iaeooiue e i?inoiaaoue i?eioe E?enoeai, a nai O?eae?eo Aaeeeee.

A aeaonoaa Nioeth Oaaea?eeo Aaaonoo iacuaaee i?inoi Oeea. Iia iieo/eea
ne?iiiia aeiiaoiaa ia?aciaaiea: aiai?eoue ii-o?aioeocnee o naiae
aoaa?iaioee iaaeaioacaeue Ea?aeaeue, ia?aneacuaaaoae ae iueanu Iieuea?a
e iiaeiua ?iiaiu.

Iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea Nioey aianoa n iaoa?ueth ainoeea o aa?oeiaeie
I?aoe-Oaaeaneie, ianoiue nayuaiiee, ecaanoiue oiaieai i?aaeneacuaaoue
aoaeouaa, neacae, /oi aeaeeo ia eao iaeaiueeie Oeee o?e ei?iiu –
iineianeoth, eacaoeeoth e ano?aoaineoth. Ana, e?iia naiie Nioee, i?eiyee
yoi ca oooeo.

*oiau i?ineaaeeoue oeaiue niauoee, eioi?ua i?eaaee aaaeioth iaiaoeeoth
i?eioeanno ia ?inneeneee i?anoie, ioaeii aa?iooueny ai a?aiaia Iao?a I.
Eiaaea ii ?acaee oaaaeia, a ?inneth i?eaoae iaiaoeeee aa?oeia
Aieooaei-Aioi?ineee O?eae?eo Ea?e. Ii iaaeayeny n iiiiuueth ?onneiai
eiia?aoi?a aa?iooue naaa i?aai ia oaaaeneee i?anoie, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaa
aio ii ?iaenoaaiiui naycyi. Ii iinea ieii/aiey aieiu ?inney ia oioaea
aiaoeaaoueny a aeaea Oaaoeee, e aa?oeia ?aoeeny aeaieoueny ia aei/a?e
Iao?a I Aiia Iao?iaia. I?e yoii ii, e Aiia Iao?iaia ioeacaeenue io
i?aoaicee ia ?onneoth ei?iio. Ii a a?a/iii aeiaiai?a iaiaa?eaaeinue, /oi
eo nui iiaeao auoue i?ecaai a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia ?onneee i?anoie.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a I, aa?oeia O?eae?eo Ea?e iinni?eeny n eiycai
Iaioeeiaui e aianoa n aeaiie aa?ioeny a Aieooeieth. O ieo ?iaeeeny nui
Ea?e I?o? Oeue?eo. Aiia Iao?iaia i?iaeeea iaaeieai. Iia i?inooaeeeanue,
iaaethaeay ec ieia ca ia?aaeii, caaieaea e oia?ea. Anei?a oia? e
aa?oeia. Ea?e inoaeny ne?ioie. Aai ie?oaeaee oieueei aiaiiua, e iiyoiio
ii ia ciae ie/aai, e?iia aiaiiuo ea? e oi?aaeiaiee. Ii ia?ai?n a
aeaonoaa iiiai oieaeaiee. *anoi ca i?iaeiiinoe aio i?eoiaeeeinue
iiaeieao noiyoue ia eieaiyo ia ai?ioa, a naiui no?aoiui iaeacaieai aue
cai?ao i?enoonoaiaaoue ia ia?aaea.

Ii ca i?eioeai inoaaaeenue i?aaa ia oaaaeneee e ?onneee i?anoieu. Eiaaea
a ?innee i?aaeea aei/ue Iao?a I Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia, iia iauyaeea Ea?ea
Iao?a Oeue?eoa naiei ianeaaeieeii. E aai oaeii, iiae oo/iui oanoaeai
auaacee a ?inneth: aiyeenue, /oi ia?aoaaoyo oaaaeu. Ianeaaeieea i?anoiea
ioaeii auei aeaieoue. I?aaeoaee aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa i?aaeeaaaee
naieo iaaano. Aeecaaaoa ioaa?aea aei/a?ae aiaeeeneiai e iieueneiai
ei?ieae. Ioeac iieo/eee o?aioeocneay e i?onneay i?eioeannu. Auai? iae ia
ieeiio ia ecaanoioth Nioeth O?aaea?eeo Aaaonoo.

Yoi eiaei nai? iauyniaiea. Caaeieai aei yoeo niauoee Aeecaaaoa, oiaaea
au? ia eiia?ao?eoea, a i?inoi aei/ue Iao?a I, auoiaeeea caioae ca
iaiaoeeiai i?eioea Ea?ea Aaaonoa. Iieiaeua ethaee ene?aiia ethaeee ae?oa
ae?oaa. Ia?aae naiie naaaeueaie aeaieo iaiaeeaeaiii oia?. Aeecaaaoa ia
iiaea caauoue aai anth aeeciue. ?iaeiie nano?ie yoiai i?eioea e auea
iaoue Nioee Oaaea?eee Aaaonou. Iiyoiio, eiaaea Aeecaaaoa iaiiiieee, /oi
o ay iieieiiai aicethaeaiiiai anoue ieaiyiieoea, aeeceay ii aiaeai
ianeaaeieea i?anoiea, aeaei ?aoeeinue a ay iieueco.

?onneay eiia?ao?eoea ciaea i aaaeiinoe naiae aoaeouae iaaanou. Aianoa n
i?eaeaoaieai yaeoueny i?onneiio aeai?o iia iineaea ae aeanyoue ouny/
/a?aiioeaa ia aei?iao. Aiyeanue iieneia aano?eeoeaa, ia oa?yaoeo
iaaeaaeaeu ninaaoaoue aoaeouaio ?onneiio eiia?aoi?o naith i?eioeanno.
Nioey e a? iaoue aoaee a ?inneth oaeii, iiae /oaeeie eiaiaie. Aanue
aa?aea?ia Nioee ninoiye ec o??o ieaoueaa, oanoe ?oaaoae e oanoe iiniauo
ieaoeia.

A Iineaa Nioey i?inooaeeeanue a nu?ii e oieiaeiii aeai?oea e iianii
caaieaea. Oanoiaaeoeaoue ?ac ae ioneaee e?iaue. Iaoue i?aaeeiaeeea
iicaaoue a iae i?ioanoaioneiai ianoi?a. Nioey ioeacaeanue e iii?ineea
i?aaineaaiiai nayuaiieea. Yoei iia caneoaeeea aeiaa?ea Aeecaaaou, e ii
aucaei?iaeaiee a? e?anoeee ii i?aaineaaiiio ia?aco e eiaiai Aeaoa?eiu
Aeaenaaaiu. Eae oieueei ae eniieieeinue oanoiaaeoeaoue eao, ninoiyeanue
naaaeueaa n Iao?ii III. Ia?acoeii oea?aiiiee iineoaeeea naaaeueaa
o?aioeocneiai ianeaaeieea a Aaia?ee.

I?o? III iacaaeieai aei aeaieoueau ia?ai?n inio. Aieaciue iaacia?aceea
aai eeoei. E iaaanoa ii ioiineeny oieiaeii e aieueooth /anoue naiaai
a?aiaie oaeaeye ia ae, a ea?a a aea?aayiiuo nieaeaoeeia. AEaieoueny ii
niaeaneeny, /oiau ia na?aeeoue Aeecaaaoo.

Oieiaeiinoue e aeaaea iai?eyciue ioaea ia inoaiiaeee Aeaoa?eio. Iia
oa??aei ?aoeea noaoue ?onneie eiia?ao?eoeae.

Aeaoa?eia i/aiue iiiai /eoaea. Ay ethaeiie eieaie auee «AEeciaiienaiey
aaeeeeo e ciaiaieouo ethaeae» Ieooa?oa. Iia ona?aeii eco/aea ?onneee
ycue. Aiineaaenoaee oooeee, /oi oea?eoea-iaiea ieioi aeaaeaao ?onneei
ycueii e a neiaa ec o??o aoea aeaeaao /aou?a ioeaee – aianoi «au?» ieoao
«en/i». Ii yoi eanaeinue oieueei i?aaiienaiey. Aiai?eea ii-?onnee
Aeaoa?eia eo/oa iiiaeo naieo i?eaeai?iuo. O ai?ie/iie I?aneiauee e eaeay
Oeo?aoa iia iao/eeanue ia?iaeiui au?aaeaieyi e iineiaeoeai e /anoi
oiio?aaeyea eo. Aeaoa?eia ia ?ac aiai?eea, /oi n/eoaao ?onneee ycue
naiui aiaaoui e aaeeeei a ie?a. A ienueiao e Aieueoa?o iia ni/oanoaiaaea
oeeinioo, /oi i?e aiaaonoaa iuneae aio i?eoiaeeony iieueciaaoueny ia
?onneei, a o?aioeocneei ycueii.

Aeaoa?eia iiieiaea, /oi ae ?aii eee iicaeii i?eae?ony ai?ioueny ca
i?anoie. Iia noa?aeanue caaiaaaoue iiioey?iinoue i?e aeai?a. Aeaoa?eia
/anoi aanaaeiaaea n i?eaeai?iuie noa?ooaie, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyee
neooe, e io eioi?uo ai iiiaii caaenaei iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e iino?iaiea.
Iia oa?iaeeai auneooeaaea eo aeaeiau e niaaou, no?iai niaethaeaea
i?aaineaaiua ia?yaeu, noa?aeanue ie?oaeaoue naay ?onneeie, a ia
eiino?aioeaie.

– Eee y oi?o, eee aoaeo oea?noaiaaoue, – neacaea iia aiaeeeneiio iineo,
iiaea?aeaaoaio ay iaia?aiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi ii ia?aaeae Aeaoa?eia aeaaaeoeaoue ouny/ /a?aiioeaa,
iaaeaynue ia ay aeaaineeiiiinoue e Aiaeee a aoaeouai.

Eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa an? aieueoa iaaeiethaeeaaea Aeaoa?eio. Iia ia ?ac
aiai?eea, /oi ay ieaiyiiee Iao? III – aeo?ae, a Aeaoa?eia oiia e o?ii
aeinoaiaony ae.

Eiaaea Aeaoa?eia ?iaeeea Iaaea, Aeecaaaoa a ia?aue aea aeaiue caa?aea
?aa?iea a naaa. Aeaoa?eia iia iiaea?eea noi ouny/ ?oaeae e oeaooeeo n
ae?aaioeaiiinoyie.

A ieiooo eii/eiu Aeecaaaou Aeaoa?eia iaoiaeeeanue i?e iae, a iioii au?
aeieai iineea o?ao?. Yoi au? aieueoa iiaeiyei ay aaoi?eoao n?aaee
i?eaeai?iuo. Oianeaaeiaaa i?anoie, I?o? III, a naiia ei?ioeia a?aiy
iano?iee i?ioea naay i?eaeai?iuo. Ii i?ac?eoaeueii ioiineeny e ?innee,
ia/oae aa?iooueny a Aieooeieth e ioaiaaaoue a? o Aeaiee. I?o? ie?oaeee
naay iaioeaie e aeaaea ecaeae oeac, /oiau ana aeieoiaiou ienaeenue ia
?onneii e iaiaoeeii ycueao. Nai ii ii/oe ia oiae aiai?eoue ii-?onnee e
iiniaoaeny iaae i?aaineaaiuie ia?yaeaie. I?o? III i?aeeiiyeny ia?aae
i?onneei ei?ie?i O?eae?eoii Aaeeeei. Ii i?ae?aoee aieio n I?onneae, a
eioi?ie ?onneea aienea iaea?aeeaaee iaeio iiaaaeo ca ae?oaie.

N Aeaoa?eiie I?o? III oioae ?acaanoenue e caeeth/eoue a? aianoa n nuiii
Iaaeii a Oeenna?ao?aneoth e?aiinoue. Aeaoa?eia ciaea ia yoii.

Aaeeeay eiyaeiy Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia noaea eiia?ao?eoeae ?innee a
?acoeueoaoa aeai?oeiaiai ia?aai?ioa e i?aaeea no?aiie 34 aiaea. A iae ia
auei ia eaiee ?onneie e?iae, ii ca a?aiy aeecie a ?innee iia noaea
?onneie ii ycueo, eoeueoo?a, ciaieth ?onneie enoi?ee. Aeai?oeiaue
ia?aai?io aue niaa?o?i a ii/ue ia 28 ethiy 1762 aiaea. ?oeiaiaeeee
ia?aai?ioii iia naia, aaa?aeaeneea ioeoea?u A?eai?ee e Aeaenae I?eiau e
ainaiiaaeoeaoeeaoiyy Aeaoa?eia ?iiaiiaia Aeaoeiaa.

Ia?aai?io i?io?e ii/oe aane?iaii, aeeciueth iiieaoeeny oieueei
eiia?aoi?. I?o? III, ii nooe aeaea, ie/aai ia naeaeae, /oiau ia
aeiionoeoue naiaai naa?aeaiey. Ii ia?aienae naiae ?oeie i?eneaiiue
Aeaoa?eiie oaeno «naiii?iecaieueiiai eeyoaaiiiai io?a/aiey io i?anoiea».
Ii oiaaea iaoiaeeeny a caai?iaeiii ioioie/ueai aeiia a ?iioa iiae
a?anoii. Aai oth?aiueeaie auee aaa?aeaeoeu I?eiau, Iio?ieei,
Aa?aouineee. Aio oaao ia aeaaaee nooieoue, iaeuecy aeaaea auei aueoe ec
oaniie eiiiaou ia aicaeoo. I?o? III i?inee Aeaoa?eio inoaaeoue aio
ne?eieo, ethaeioth niaaeo e Aeecaaaoo Ai?iioeiao «?iiaiiaio», eae ii a?
iacuaae, ii a? n?i/ii auaeaee caioae. Iia noaea ainiiaeie Iieyineie.
Caaiai?ueee, io?aiyaoea Iao?a, iiieiaee, /oi ii ia aeieaeai inoaoueny a
aeeauo. Iie caoayee ae?aeo e caaeooeee ieceiaeaiiiai eiia?aoi?a.
Iioi?iieee Iao?a III a iau/iie iiaeea aac ii/anoae.

*a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy Aeaoa?eia II ei?iiiaaeanue a Iineaa. Ii?yaeee i?e
aeai?a Aeaoa?eiu auee ie/ooue ia no?iaea, /ai i?e aeai?a Aeecaaaou, e
aeaaea aieaa aieueiua. A aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Aeaoa?eiu II i?e aeai?a
niaieeinue iiiaeanoai oaai?eoia, ia/aa n Na?aay Naeoueiaa, A?eai?ey
I?eiaa, A?eai?ey Iio?ieeia e caeii/ea Ieaoiiii Coaiaui. Oaai?eou aei?iai
iaoiaeeeenue ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Aeaoa?eia iieoiaea ei ?ineioiua aeiia a
Iaoa?ao?aa e aeai?oeu ca ai?iaeii. Aeai?yia iacuaaee i?aaeaiea Aeaoa?eiu
II «cieioui aaeii» iioiio, /oi yoi auei a?aiy ianeuoaiiie ?ineioe aeey
aeai?yi. Aeaiueae ec ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu ooiaeeee ia niaea?aeaiea
eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a. *aeiaae aunoaai iauanoaa, aeai?yiei, aeieaeai aue
eiaoue ianeieueei eaooaiia n cieioui oeoue?i, aa?oaoioth ooao n cieiouie
eenoyie, ianeieueei cieiouo oaaaea?ie, oe?aoaiiuo a?eeeeaioaie,
ciei/?ioth ea?aoo, cai?yae?iioth oano??eie aaeuo eioaaeae. Ii n ae?oaie
noi?iiu iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a?aiy Aeaoa?eiu aeiaa?oeei ia/eiaiey Iao?a
I. Iia niiaea oaaaeaoue iaia?aiey aaiey e ieii/eoue ia/aoia ei.

Iia aaaea iiiai iiaiai. I?e Aeaoa?eia II caeii/eeny ?acaeae eiia?ee ia
aoaa?iee, oi?aaeyaiua aoaa?iaoi?aie. Auee ii?aaeaeaiu nineiaey –
aeai?yia, e?anoueyia, eoia/anoai e aeeoaee ai?iaeia – iauaia e
?aianeaiieee.

Ianeieueei aiei n Oo?oeeae caaa?oeeenue iiaaaeie ?onneiai i?oaeey. Oo?ee
iioa?iaee nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea ia ii?a. A *aniaineie aoooa aue
oie/oiaeai aanue eo oeio. Eiycue Iio?ieei caaiaaae Iieaeaaeth e E?ui.
Iiaaaeaie iaae oo?eaie i?ineaaeeenue ciaiaieoua iieeiaiaeoeu ?oiyioeaa e
Noai?ia.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue aioo?aiieie ?ani?yie a Iieueoa, Aeaoa?eia II
aeiaiai?eeanue n I?onneae e Aano?eae i ay ?acaeaea e i?eniaaeeieea e
?inneeneie Eiia?ee /anoue Iieueoe, Aaei?onneth e Oe?aeio.

A aiaeu i?aaeaiey Aeaoa?eiu II iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai naiicaaioeaa,
auaeaaaaoeo naay ca ay oaeoiai ioaea. Ainnoaiea Ioaa/?aa aeeeeinue ii/oe
aeaa aiaea, ii auei iiaeaaeaii, Ioaa/?a eaci?i. Eiia?ao?eoea uaae?i
iaa?aaeeea o/anoieeia iiaeaaeaiey aoioa. Yiioa Aeaoa?eiu II auea
a?aiaiai ?anoeaaoa ?onneie eoeueoo?a. Naia Eiia?ao?eoea any/anee
niinianoaiaaea iiaeu?io eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie a ?innee, aicaaaey
oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?iie n?aaeu a ?aia ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee.
Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae naiaai oea?noaiaaiey Aeaoa?eia II n/eoaea ?acaeoea
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey. A 1760-ua aiaeu aue nicaeai ?yae nineiaiuo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee: einoeooo aeaai?iaeiuo aeaaeoe a Niieueiii iiianou?a
– ia?aia o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiia caaaaeaiea aeey aeaai/ae, o/eeeua i?e
Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa, ainieoaoaeueiua aeiia aeey ne?io a Iineaa e
Iaoa?ao?aa.

Eiia?ao?eoea auea ia oieueei ciaeiia n i?iecaaaeaieyie o?aioeocneeo
oeeinioia-i?inaaoeoaeae, ii e ciaea eo ee/ii, ia?aienuaaeanue n
Aieueoa?ii e Aeeae?i.

O Aeaoa?eiu auei iaeii i/aiue aaaeiia aeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey
ea/anoai – iia oiaea auae?aoue naaa iiiiuieeia. Iie ia oieueei
inouanoaeyee iaia/aiiia ath, ii e naie i?aaeeaaaee iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
?innee caeiiu e ia?ii?eyoey. Ia?aia ianoi n?aaee ay iiiiuieeia ii i?aao
i?eiaaeeaaeeo A?eai?eth Iio?ieeio. Aeaoa?eia aei eiioea aai aeecie
niaaoiaaeanue n iei, oioy ii e ia?anoae auoue ay oaai?eoii.

Ii aaeaieth Aeaoa?eiu II auee iiaeaioiaeaiu o/eoaey e iaia/aoaiu
o/aaieee. Aia?aua auea aaaaeaia nenoaia eeannia e o?ieia, nouanoaothuay
e iiiuia. Aeaoa?eia II ethaeea ?onneoth enoi?eth e an? ?onneia. Iia ia
?ac aiai?eea, /oi ?onneee ia?iae iiaeao n iieiui i?aaii n/eoaoue naay
niaa?oaiiui ia?iaeii. Naiei ia?acoeii Aeaoa?eia II eca?aea Iao?a I. Iia
iinoaaeea aio ciaiaieoue iaiyoiee a Iaoa?ao?aa n neiaiee/aneie
iaaeienueth: «Iao?o Ia?aiio, Aeaoa?eia II».

Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao nia?aiaiieeia, Aeaoa?eia auea iaaunieiai ?inoa,
ieioiiai oaeineiaeaiey, aeaca naaoei-na?ua, eeoei iieiia, n ?oiyioeai,
?oee e?aneaie oi?iu. Oeuaeo ay iaoiaeeee iaiaueiiaaiii i?eyoiie, iia
aea?aeaeanue i?inoi e aianoa n oai aaee/anoaaiii. Iia i?iecaiaeeea
aia/aoeaiea aeaiueiu i/aiue yia?ae/iie. Aeaoa?eia ethaeea iaaeaaaoue
?onneea na?aoaiu, eioi?ua i/aiue oee ae. Anoaaaea Aeaoa?eia a oanoue
/ania oo?a, ieea i/aiue e?aieee eioa, niaoue eiaeeeanue ?aii, a aeanyoue
/ania. Eaoi ethaeea i?iaiaeeoue a oea?neii naea. Ay ethaeiie iiaiai?eie
auea o?aca: «Iaaei aeeoue e aeaaaoue aeeoue ae?oaei». Aieioynue,
Aeaoa?eia neeueii e?aniaea, cano/eaaea ?oeaaa, ieea aiaeo e auno?i
oiaeeea ii eiiiaoa. Neooay oo?aiiea aeieeaaeu ii ainoaea?noaaiiui
aeaeai, aycaea eee auoeaaea ia eaiaa.

N nuiii Iaaeii o ia? neiaeeeenue ieioea ioiioaiey. Iaoa?ueth iia auea
oieiaeiie e ?aaiiaeooiie. Ii ianeieueei ?ac niaa?oae iiiuoee i?eiyoue
o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaii, ii Aeaoa?eia eo i?anaeaea. Iia
ia?aoea aei?iao nuio. Iaaae iieo/ee i?anoie a 42 aiaea, iinea ay nia?oe.
Aioeia Aeaoa?eia II iaiaeaea, iniaaiii Aeaenaiae?a, aoaeouaai
eiia?aoi?a.

Oia?ea Aeaoa?eia II a Oea?neii Naea. Iinea oo?aiiae aanaaeu n
nae?aoa?yie iia auoea a aa?aea?ia, eiaaea nionoy iie/ana eaia?aeeia?
caaeyioe ooaea, ii oaeaeae Aeaoa?eio II eaaeaaoae ia iieo aac niciaiey.

Aeaoa?eia II – iaeia ec iaiiiaeo ?onneeo naiiaea?aeoeaa, inoaaoeony a
ia?iaeiie iaiyoe. Ay eiy iiaeii iinoaaeoue a iaeei ?yae n eiaiaie Aauaai
Ieaaa, Aeaaeeie?a I E?aniia Nieiuoei, Eaaia IV A?iciiai e Iao?a I.
Ia?iaeiay iaiyoue, e enoi?e/aneay o?aaeeoeey nio?aieee ca iae i?icaeua
Aeaoa?eiu Aaeeeie.

Eoiae oea?noaiaaiey auee i/aiue aiooeoaeueiuie. Aeaoa?eia ethaeea
iiaen/eouaaoue eo, iaeyaeuaaynue ia naith aeayoaeueiinoue ii ia?a
?acaeoey. A 1781 aiaeo a?ao Aacai?iaeei i?aaeinoaaee ae eiaaioa?ue ay
aeayiee ca aeaayoiaaeoeaoue eao oea?noaiaaiey: ono?iaii aoaa?iee ii
iiaiio ia?acoeo – 29, ai?iaeia iino?iaii – 144, eiiaaioeee e o?aeoaoia
caeeth/aii – 30, iiaaae iaea?aeaii – 78, caia/aoaeueiuo oeacia ecaeaii –
88, oeacia aeey iaeaa/aiey ia?iaea – 123. Eoiai 492 aeaea! E yoiio
iiaeii i?eaaaeoue, /oi Aeaoa?eia ioaiaaaea caiee o Iieueoe e Oo?oeee n
ianaeaieai aei naie ieeeeiiia aeoo. Oae /enei aeeoaeae ay eiia?ee n 19
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae a 1762 aiaeo aic?inei e 1796 aiaeo aei 36 ieeeeiiia.
A?iey ni 162 ouny/ /aeiaae oneeaia aei 312 ouny/. Oeio a 1757 aiaeo
ninoiye ec 21 eeiaeiiai ei?aaey e 6 o?aaaoia, a a 1790 aiaeo ian/eouaae
67 eeiaeiuo ei?aaeae e 40 o?aaaoia.

Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea o?oaeu eiia?ao?eoeu, iauea iai?aaeaiey ay
?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe ?onea eaeae I?inaauaiey, e?oa ee/iuo
eioa?ania ia oieueei nicaeaee iniaoth aoiinoa?o i?e aeai?a, ii e ieacaee
aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ia an? ?onneia iauanoai. Aeaoa?eia II iieiaeeea
ia/aei aiaaoaeoaio nia?aieth i?aaeiaoia eneonnoaa Y?ieoaaea.

A ?aoa?aoa eniieueciaaeanue eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Oaia?a Aieoaaaa – «Oea?neea aeeianoee»;

2. Ainoaea?noaaiiue enoi?e/aneee iocae – «?inneeneay Eiia?ey a XVIII –
XIX aa.»;

3. A.I. Eoeiiaa «Enoi?ey ?innee»;

4. A.I. Eeth/aaneee – «Enoi?e/aneea ii?o?aou»;

5. I.E. Einoiia?ia – «?onneay enoi?ey a aeeciaiienaieyo a? aeaaiaeoeo
aeayoaeae».

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