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Дольмены Краснодарского края

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Aeaia?oaiaio ia?aciaaiey e iaoee E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay

E?aniiaea?neee oaoieeoi eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe

?AOA?AO

Ii enoi?ee Eoaaie

Oaia: Aeieueiaiu E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay

Nooaeaio Ii?iciaa Aeaia Ieoaeeiaia

3 eo?n, cai/iia ioaeaeaiea

niaoeeaeueiinoue 2809/1

oeo? 06 – 12

2007

Aaaaeaiea

Ia oa??eoi?ee E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay ?annayiu ouny/e iaiyoieeia, eioi?ua
ii enoi?e/aneiio e eoeueoo?iiio cia/aieth noiyo a iaeiii ?yaeo ni
ciaiaieoui Noioioaiaeaeai e yaeythony ?iaanieeaie Aaeiaoneeo ie?aieae.
Yoi – aeieueiaiu. Aio oaea ianeieueei eao iie i?eaeaeatho e naaa
aieiaiea nioai ethaeae. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo – iineaaeiaaoaee iaeiiai ec
nia?aiaiiuo ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneeo oa/aiee, eca?aaoaai aeieueiaiu
iauaeoii iieeiiaiey. *oiau oaeaeaoue aii/eth ae?aaiea iino?ieee e
i?eeiniooueny e oaeia ae?aaiinoe iaeiiieee i?aiaeieaaatho ouny/e
eeeiiao?ia, aeiae?aynue ec naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo oaieeia ?innee e aeeaeiaai
ca?oaaaeuey. I?ienoiaeaeaiea yoeo iaiyoieeia ana aua inoaaony
caaaaei/iui. Ii aeaaiaea?y a?oaieiae/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi iineaaeieo
eao, iu ana aieueoa ociaai i oao, eoi inoaaee iinea naay yoe
eiieo?e?othuea n i?e?iaeie e a?aiaiai onuiaeueieoeu. Oi/ii oae aea, eae
ii e?oieoeai a?oaieiae ecaeaeatho ec caiee ae?aaiea a?oaoaeou, ia?aae
iaie oaa ca oaaii ?ane?uaaaony iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue ae?aaieo
no?ieoaeae, eo oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe e iao/iua ciaiey, eo aa?iaaiey e
iau/ae.

1. Iaiyoieee i?ioeiai

Aeieueiaiu — iaaaeeoe/aneea a?iaieoeu, oieeaeueiua iaiyoieee i?ioeiai,
inoaaeaiiua iai ia?iaeaie Eaaeaca. Eo no?ieoaeuenoai ia/aeinue ia
?oaaaea IV-III ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. Aeieueiaiu, eae no?aaee, noiyo
iaaeaeo i?ioeui, ianoiyuei e aoaeouei, ainoeuay ian naiae
a?aiaeeiciinoueth, a eioi?ie io?aceeanue enoi?ey ouny/aeaoee.

Aeaaioneea eaiaiiua a?iaieoeu iieo/eee iacaaiea io a?aoiineoiai
(eaeueoneiai) tol — noie, men — eaiaiue, eaiaiiue noie.

Aeieueiaiiay eoeueoo?a nua?aea caiaoioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee
aaoaci-aaeuaneiai yoiina ia aai ?aiiai yoaia. Iaaaeeoe/aneea iaacieae
aioee a neiaa?iue ninoaa ycueia ia?iaeia caiaaeiie ieiia/iinoe Eaaeaca e
a eo i?aaeaiee. Iaa?aeu iacuaaee aeieueiaiu “iaecaaea”, “naaecaaea”
(aianoeeeua einoae), a oaeaea “iaeeoeoaea” (aeiia aaeeeaiia), aaoacu —
“aaeai?a” (ae?aaiea iiaeeueiua aeiia). Aaeuae ia?aiia/aeueii
iieueciaaeenue neiaii “eao-iaae”, eioi?ia eiaao oio aea niune, /oi e
aaoacneia “aaeai?a”, a a aieaa iicaeiea a?aiaia oa?ieiii “eniuoi”
(“enioi”, “niuoi”), eioi?ue ia?aaiaeeony eae aeii ea?eeea (“nie” ea?eee,
“oiy” aeii). Niaeanii aaeuaneei i?aaeaieyi, aeieueiaiu — aeeeeua,
iino?iaiiua aaeeeaiaie (“ia?o”, “aiuaeue”) aeey ninaaeiaai n ieie
ieaiaie ea?eeeia (“nie”, “oeai”, “oeaiia”) ec aaeeeiaeooey e aeaeinoe e
aaccaueoiui nouanoaai (ai?i/ai, eiaaony aa?eaio eaaaiaeu,
ooaa?aeaeathuee, /oi eiaa?iua ea?eeee auioaeeee oeo?inoueth
i?inoiaeooiuo aeaaioia auiieieoue yoo ?aaioo). Aieaa iicaeiea aaeuaneea
neacee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi e?oaeia ioaa?noea aoiaea aeieueiaia aiiiu, eae
eeoea aeaeeaeou, i?aiaeieaaaee, aui?uaeaay ec eniuoia e cai?uaeaay
aioo?ue aai aa?oii ia caeoeao. ?onneiycu/iia ianaeaiea, iiyaeaoaany ia
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca a XIX aaea, iacuaaei aeieueiaiu “aiaaou?neeie
oaoeaie”, “aeeaeiaaie” eee aeaaea “/a?oiauie oaoaie”.

Aeieueiaiiay eoeueoo?a ?ani?ino?aiaia ia Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca, io
Oaiaineiai iieoino?iaa aei Aaoacee. I?ioyioeanue 480 ei a aeeeio e 30-75
ei a oe?eio. E eiioeo 1976 aiaea auei iaia?oaeaii 2308 aeieueiaiia. Ia
*a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea Eaaeaca — 268, ec ieo a ?aeiia Aaeaiaeaeeea
ieiei 100, i?e/ai aieaa 40 — a ?aeiia nae Ioaaeu e Ieoaeeianeiai
ia?aaaea.

Aiaeece?oy ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee XIX-OOaa., iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a
?aeiia Iiai?inneenea — Aaeaiaeaeeea oie/oiaeaii aieaa iieiaeiu
iaaaeeoe/aneeo a?iaieoe, yaeythueony aeinoiyieai ia oieueei ?inneeneie,
ii e ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. I?ioeann eo oo?aou i?iaeieaeaaony. Nioie
aeieueiaiia oie/oiaeaiu i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia, ea?uea?ia, aeeeuey,
ai a?aiy eani?ac?aaioie, ieaie?iaaiee naiieinia, naaeia, ?ac?ooaiu
eeaaeieneaoaeyie…

Aeieueiaiu i?eianee Caiaaeiiio Eaaeaco ie?iaoth a?oaieiae/aneoth
ecaanoiinoue, aeeth/aiu ai ana yioeeeeiiaaeee.

2. Enneaaeiaaiea e eeanneoeeaoeey aeieueiaiia

Iaeanoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeieueiaiia a ie?a oyaioatho e Ie?iaiio ieaaio.
Ia?aiia/aeueii aa?iiaeneie iaoea naeaeaeenue ecaanoiuie aeieueiaiu
Eiaeee, Iaeanoeiu e ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai — O?aioeee (A?aoaiue),
Eoaeee, A?aoeee, Aeaiee e Neaiaeeiaaneeo no?ai. Aeieueiaiu n/eoatho
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth eiaeiaa?iiaeneie ?anu. Nouanoaoao aeiioaca, niaeanii
eioi?ie no?ieoaee aeieueiaiia i?eiaaeeaaeaee e aaeeiiio ia?iaeo
ii?aieaaaoaeae. Ii ae?oaie aeiioaca, aeieueiaiiay eoeueoo?a i?enoua
?acee/iui ia?iaeai, eiaaoei iaaeaeo niaie eiioaeou. Ecaanoiue niaaoneee
enneaaeiaaoaeue aeieueiaiia E. E. Eaa?ia n/eoaao, /oi, ioi?aaeyynue io
aoi?ie aeiioacu, iiaeii enneaaeiaaoue aii?in i ii?neeo iooaoanoaeyo
ae?aaieo eaaeacneeo ai?oeaa, eioi?ua oioy e caeinoaiaaee, ii
oniaa?oainoaiaaee oaoieeo no?ieoaeuenoaa aeieueiaiia. Aieaa oiai, oae
eae i ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiyoi ioiineoue a?aiy iino?ieee aeieueiaiia
ai?iiai Caeoaaiuey e 2300—2000 aiaeai aei iaoae y?u, oi anoue n/eoaoue
eo ?iaanieeaie aaeiaoneeo ie?aieae, Eaa?ia n/eoaao ianiiiaiiui oaeo
nouanoaiaaiey a yoo yiioo eiioaeoia iaaeaeo no?ieoaeyie aeieueiaiia e
no?ieoaeyie ie?aieae. A iieueco yoiai, ii aai iiaieth, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
iaeeiaeiaay a iaieo neo/ayo eneeth/eoaeueiay caaioa i caa?iaiie aeecie.

Aia?aua aeieueiaiu ia Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca auee iaia?oaeaiu ?onneei
aeaaeaieeii I. N. Iaeeanii a 1793 aiaeo. I?iacaeay aaeieue Naaa?iie einu
ia Oaiaineii iieoino?iaa (aeec noaieoeu Oiioaeianeie), ii ano?aoee
?acaaeeiu oaoa?neiai naea *ie?ae-Eie, “…a ianeieueei aeaeueoa,—
aeiaaaeyao ii a naiai io/aoa,— ia ?iaiie aicauoaiiinoe iiiai iiaee… n
aieueoeie ieineeie ecaanoeiauie e ian/aieeiai-oeoa?iuie ieeoaie,
iinoaaeaiiuie ia ?aa?i a i?iaeieaiaaoua /aou?aooaieueiua yueee.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea eo ia oaoa?neia, a, iiaeaeoe, /a?eanneia”.

A 1818 aiaeo o?aioeocneee a?oaieia Oaao aea Ia?eiuee ioe?ue a?oiio
aeieueiaiia a ouaeuea ?aee Ioaaeu. A ia/aea 30-o aiaeia XIX aaea aai
niioa/anoaaiiee Aethaoa aea Iiiia?a e aiaee/aiei Aeae. Aaee iaia?oaeeee
aua ianeieueei aeieueiaiia iaaeaeo Aaeaiaeaeeeii e Aeaeoaaie, a oaeaea
aieueoea aeieueiaiiua a?oiiu a aa?oiaueyo ?aee Aaei; ieiei aeanyoe eao
nionoy yoe enneaaeiaaoaee ia?auie iioaeeeiaaee ca?eniaee oaeinoaaiiuo
iaacieaaa. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX noieaoey yeniaaeeoeee e aeieueiaiai
i?aaei?eieiaeenue O. N. Aaiia?ii (1865—1870), E. Ae. Oaeeoeuiui (1878),
eioi?ue aioae a enoi?eth iaoee eae e?oiiaeoee ciaoie aeieueiaiia e
ia?aiioe?uaaoaeue iiiaeo aeieueiaiiuo a?oii I?eeoaaiuey, A. E. Neciaui
(1888). Ieiia? eoaaineiai e?aaaaaeaiey, o/eoaeue aeaoa?eiiaea?neie
aeiiacee A. I. Nuniaa iauacaeee ii ii?o/aieth Iineianeiai
a?oaieiae/aneiai iauanoaa a 1892 aiaeo iaeanoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eoaaineeo aeieueiaiia, inouanoaea iaeio ec ia?auo iiiuoie ii?aaeaeaiey
eo iauaai /enea. I aeieueiaiao ienaee ecaanoiua enneaaeiaaoaee I. N.
Oaa?ia (1891) e E. ss Aiinoieia (1897). A niaaoneia a?aiy eie
caieiaeenue iiiaea o/aiua, n?aaee eioi?uo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeiu
auoue ioia/aiu A. E. Ia?eiaei, iinayoeaoee aeieueiaiai 25 iao/iuo
ioaeeeaoeee e 1960—1975 aiaeao, naith aeieoi?neoth aeenna?oaoeeth,
iiiia?aoeth, a oaeaea iiioey?ioth eieaeeo; E. E. Eaa?ia, iioaeeeiaaaoee
a 1960 aiaeo iaeaieaa iieiue eaoaeia aeieueiaiia Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai
Eaaeaca, e ecaanoiue e?aniiaea?neee a?oaieia i?ioanni? I. A. Aioeiia —
aai yeniaaeeoeey 1957 aiaea e aeieueiaiai ?onneiai I?e/a?iiii?uey
aeiauea iiiaeanoai iiauo naaaeaiee i eaiaiiuo “neai?a/iyo”.

Ia?aue iaeaieaa iieiue eaoaeia aeieueiaiia aue ninoaaeai e 1960 aiaeo
E.E.Eaa?iaui (1139 aeieueiaiia). Ei aea auea i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
aeieueiaiia Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca nouanoaothuay n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie e
naaiaeiy. Ana iiiaiia?acea aeieueiaiia E.E.Eaa?ia ?acaeaeee ia /aou?a
iniiaiuo oeia.

1. “Iau/iue” (ieeoi/iue aeieueiai), o.a. naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oei
aeieueiaiia. Yoi “/aou?aooaieueiue yuee, eaaeaeay noi?iia eioi?iai, a
oaeaea e?uoe e /anoi aeii i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ioaeaeueioth iiiieeoioth
ieeoo”.

2. Ninoaaiua aeieueiaiu – n iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie noaiaie, neiaeaiiuie
ec aieaa iaeeeo ieeo.

3. Ei?uoiia?aciua aeieueiaiu.

4. Aeieueiaiu – iiiieeou.

A.E. Ia?eiaeiui e 1978 aiaeo ninoaaeai eaoaeia aeieueiaiia Caiaaeiiai
Eaaeaca ian/eouaathuee ieiei 2308 iaiyoieeia. Ei aea ninoaaeaia e
ecaeaia iiiia?aoey “Aeieueiaiu Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca”, eioi?ay e ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea “aeaeeae” aeey enneaaeiaaoaeae
iaaaeeoia Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca. Eeanneoeeaoeey aeieueiaiia ii A.E.
Ia?eiaeio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anoe?aiiue aa?eaio i?aaenoaaeaiiie auoa
eeanneoeeaoeee E.E. Eaa?iaa.

I. Ieeoi/iua aeieueiaiu:

1. Nii?oaeaiey /aou?aooaieueiiai ieaia:

– iino?ieee aac ioaa?noee;

– aeieueiaiu n ii?oaeaie;

– aeieueiaiu n oe?ieeie ii?oaeueiuie aunooiaie;

– aeieueiaiu ?acei o?aiaoeeaaeaeiiai ieaia.

2. Nii?oaeaiey iiiaioaieueiiai ieaia.

II. Ninoaaiua aeieueiaiu:

1. aeieueiaiu, iiae?aaeathuea oi?iai ieeoi/iuo iino?iae e ia?aoiaeiua e
iiiaia?aiiui nii?oaeaieyi;

2. aeieueiaiu iiiaia?aiiiai e e?oaeiai ieaia;

3. aeieueiaiu neiaeiie eiino?oeoeee;

III. Ei?uoiia?aciua aeieueiaiu:

1. aeieueiaiu aac eaca;

2. aeieueiaiu o?aiaoeeaaeaeiiai ieaia;

3. aeieueiaiu, auna/aiiua a neaeao, n eaia?aie ?acee/iuo oi?i,
oe?aoaiiua ii?oaeueiuie aunooiaie eee ieoaie;

4. eiaeiiii?oaeueiua aeieueiaiu;

5. aeieueiaiu, aeeceea iiiieeoai.

IV. Aeieueiaiu – iiiieeou.

A iiiia?aoee A.E. Ia?eiaeia i?aaenoaaeaia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay noaia
?acaeoey aeieueiaiiuo oeiia e eciaiaiey a ia?yaea iia?aaaiey.

A. Ae?aaiaeoei oeiii aeieueiaiiuo iino?iae yaeythony ieeoi/iua
nii?oaeaiey, o eioi?uo ioaa?noey – eacu, a ioaeaeueiua noaiu neiaeaiu
ianooi aoeuaeiie eeaaeeie. Iiyaeaiea iiaeiaiuo aeieueiaiia iiaeii
i?eaeeceoaeueii ioiineoue e 2400 a. aei i.y. (ii ?aaeaeoeee ia 1997 a. –
e 2700 a. aei i.y.).

Aneaae ca ieie aicieeatho aeieueiaiu iiainaiaiaeiaineiai oeia –
nii?oaeaiey ii?oaeueiiai oeia (n i?enoaaiuie ieeoaie o oanaaea). Aeey
ieo oa?aeoa?iu: eaia?a oaeeeiaiiie oi?iu, i?yiioaieueiua e e?oaeua
ioaa?noey, ionoonoaey iyoi/iuo eaiiae. Aeieueiaiu /anoi canuiaiu eaiaiii
– caieyiie ianuiueth. A?aiy eo no?ieoaeuenoaa ii?aaeaeyaony i?eia?ii
2300 a. aei i.y. (ii ?aaeaeoeee ia 1997 a. – 2600 a. aei i.y.).

Iaeiia?aiaiii e ianeieueei iicaeiaa aicieeatho aeieueiaiu n eaia?ie
i?aeoe/anee eaaae?aoiiai ieaia, neiaeaiiua ec ieeo i?yiioaieueiuo
i/a?oaiee. Ioaa?noey o ieo a iniiaiii e?oaeua. E 2100 a. aei i.y. (ii
?aaeaeoeee ia 1997 a. – e 2500 a. aei i.y.), ia acaeyae o/aiuo,
aicieeatho iaiyoieee aieaa /aoeiai o?aiaoeeaaeaeiiai ieaia n iiuiuie
ii?oaeueiuie aunooiaie, oiaaea aea aue aicaaaeai eo?aai Inuiaei I.

Ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n iaeaieaa ?aiieie ieeoi/iuie aeieueiaiaie
aicieeatho ei?uoiia?aciua nii?oaeaiey aac ioaa?noee, ia?ae?uoua e?oiiie
ieeoie. Ianeieueei iicaea iiyaeythony e ia?aua ninoaaiua aeieueiaiu. Yoe
iino?ieee naieie i?iii?oeeyie e aiaoiei ioi?ieaieai ii?oaeueiie /anoe
iiae?aaeatho oi?iai e aeaei?o ieeoi/iuo aeieueiaiia.

Iienaiiua iaiyoieee i?aaeiacia/aeenue a iniiaiii aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
caoi?iiaiee, ?aaea – 2 –3 iieieieeia, iieiaeaiiuo nei?/aii, i?e neeueiie
i?enuiea io?ie.

Iaeeiiei n?aaee ?aiieo iaiyoieeia noieo iiiaia?aiiue aeieueiai (?.
Oa?n), eioi?ue, iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, ii/oe neio?iiai
iiainaiaiaeiaineei a?iaieoeai.

A. Yiioa ?anoeaaoa aeieueiaiiie eoeueoo?u i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoth
iieiaeio II ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. (ii ?aaeaeoeee 1997 a. – ia eiiaoe III
– ia?aoth iieiaeio II oun. aei i.y.). A yoi a?aiy oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho ieeoi/iua iino?ieee o?aiaoeeaaeaeiiai ieaia e
i?ioeeae n /aoeeie i?iii?oeeyie. O?aiaoeeaaeaeiinoue i?eaeaea
aeieueiaiai aieueooth onoie/eainoue, iaeaa/eea nai?eo noai e iaaiaeeo
ia?ae?uoee. Ioaa?noey i?eia?aoatho ?acee/iua oi?iu (io e?oaeuo aei
a?eiia?aciuo). Iiae ieeoaie aeieueiaiia iiyaeythony ouaoaeueii
naeaeaiiua iyoi/iua eaiie. Iiiaea iino?ieee i?eneiiaiu e neeiiai,
ianuiue iaae ieie ionoonoaoao (eiiaaea neaaea aiouaiu a neeiiu e
aicauoaiiinoe).

Iiieii ieeoi/iuo aeieueiaiia, ioiineoaeueii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/atho ninoaaiua e ei?uoiia?aciua nii?oaeaiey. Eo oi?ia e aiaoiea
ioi?ieaiea iaoiaeyony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io ieeoi/iuo iino?iae.
Ei?uoiia?aciua aeieueiaiu aunaeatho a ia?iiiuo neaeao, i?eaeaaay ei aeae
aeieueiaia oieueei n oanaaea, e a iaeiieao neae, ia?aaaouaay eo ni anao
noi?ii. Aa?iyoii, e eiioeo yoiai ia?eiaea aicieeatho aeieueiaiu aeeceea
e iiiieeoai.

Ia?yae iia?aaaiee eciaiyaony. Oaea a iaeioi?uo iaeaieaa iicaeieo
ii?oaeueiuo aeieueiaiao auee iaia?oaeaiu “neaey/ea” einoyee. Oaia?ue
oaeie niinia caoi?iiaiee – onaaeeaaoue oia?oeo ii oaeai e a oeaio?a
aeieueiaiiuo eaia? – noaiiaeony iaeaieaa /anoui. Eiee/anoai io?u ia
einoyeao naiaeeony e ieieiaeueiiio.

A. Iicaeiee ia?eiae eoeueoo?u aeieueiaiia i?eoiaeeony ia na?aaeeio e
ia/aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu II ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. (ii ?aaeaeoeee 1997 a. –
ia na?aaeeio II oun. aei i.y.). Ieeoi/iua aeieueiaiu oa?ytho /aoeinoue
i?iii?oeee. Aa?iyoii, a yoi a?aiy iiyaeythony ei?uoiia?aciua aeieueiaiu
n eaia?aie e?oaeuo i/a?oaiee e a aeaea eoaoeia, a oaeaea
eiaeiiii?oaeueiua nii?oaeaiey. N?aaee ninoaaiuo aeieueiaiia aicieeatho
iino?ieee n iaaenathueie aeieaie (n eiaeiui naiaeii), e?oaeiai ieaia e n
oanaaeii, neiaeaiiui ec ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeeoiaaiiuo eaiiae. E eiioeo
yoiai ia?eiaea aicieeatho aeieueiaiu – iiiieeou. Iiiaea ec aeieueiaiia a
yoi a?aiy eniieuecothony (ii ?aaeaeoeee 1997 a. – e 1400 a. aei i.y.)
aeey aoi?e/iuo caoi?iiaiee a ea/anoaa naiaia?aciuo einoao?aieeeu. E
yoiio a?aiaie eo ia?anoatho no?ieoue, i?e/ai no?ieoaeuenoai aeieueiaiia
?aiueoa i?ae?auaaony ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Aaoacee, a caoai a
I?eeoaaiuea.

A ?aniieiaeaiee aeieueiaiia ia ianoiinoe iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu iaeioi?ua
caeiiiia?iinoe. Eae i?aaeei, eo no?ieee oieueei a eano (ecaanoiua
eneeth/aiey ninoaaeytho eeoue aeieueiaiu, iaia?oaeaiiua ia iunao
Oaiaineiai iieoino?iaa Oocea e Oiioaeianeii, a oaeaea aeieueiaiu a
ie?anoiinoyo naea Oeyi). Aunioa ?aniieiaeaiey aieueoeinoaa aeieueiaiia
eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 250—400 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y. ?aceei iaeeii/iui
eneeth/aieai yaeyaony aeieueiai ia o?aaoa Iacaoeo (1029 i iaae o?iaiai
ii?y).

Aeieueiaiu aicaaaeaiu ia ieineeo ieiuaaeeao eaniuo neeiiia, ia
aiaei?acaeaeueiuo o?aaoao, ia ieineeo aa?oeiao iaaunieeo ai? (iai?eia?,
oe?iei ecaanoiua aeieueiaiu ia aa?oeia ai?u Iaenen aeec Aaeaiaeaeeea).
Naieie oanaaeaie (ii?oaeaie) iie ia?auaiu a noi?iio iiieaeaiey neeiia, a
noi?iio ?aee, i?e yoii anaaaea a nieia/ioth noi?iio (ecaanoiu i/aiue
iaiiiaea aeieueiaiu, ia?auaiiua naiei oanaaeii e naaa?o, ii e a yoeo
neo/ayo anoue iniiaaiea aeoiaoue, /oi iie ia?auaiu a noi?iio aieaa
inaauaiiuo iieyi).

Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee, iuoaaoeany ii?aaeaeeoue noi?iio naaoa, e
eioi?ie i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?auaiu oanaaeu aeieueiaiia, i?eoee e auaiaeo,
/oi no?ieoaee yoeo nii?oaeaiee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue, i?aaeaea anaai,
eaeaae iaeeo/oaai “aienuaaiey” iaacieay a eaiaeoaoo. Ii iai
i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi niaethaeaiea auoaia?a/eneaiiuo i?eioeeiia (oanaae a
noi?iio nionea, ?aee, nieioea) aaoiiaoe/anee i?eaiaeeei e e
niaethaeaieth ynoaoe/aneeo e?eoa?eaa.

Aeieueiaiu anaaaea i?eo?i/aiu e aannaeio ?aee. Aaoacneea o/aiua (Oe. I.
Aaeaiey e ae?.) niiinoaaee” noaio ae?aaieo neioii?iaiiiuo ia?o?ooia n
a?aaeii aeieueiaiia e i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi iineoaee aeieueiaiiie
eoeueoo?u oiaee iieueciaaoueny i?inouie ia?aaaeaie.

Ana ieeou e aeiee aeieueiaiia auee eiaeeaeaeoaeueii iiaeiaiaiu e
ne?aieaiu iaaeaeo niaie i?e iiiiue iacia. Ii, iiaeaeoe, naiia
oaeeaeoaeueiia, /oi o iaeioi?uo iino?iae eiaaony naiue /oi ie ia anoue
ianoiyuee eeaiaaue ae?aiaae. Iaoa?eae aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa a?aee a
eaiaiieiiiyo, ?aniieaaathueony, eae i?aaeei, aaea-oi iaiiaeaeaeo.
Iai?eia?, a aeieeia ?aee AEaia eaiaiue a?aee a 600 i io ianoa
no?ieoaeuenoaa. Ii ?annoiyiey aeey no?ieoaeae yiioe a?iicu ia yaeyeenue
oaeie oae neiaeiie i?iaeaiie. Ecaanoii, /oi aeey aicaaaeaiey anaie?ii
ecaanoiiai Noioioaiaeaea eaiaiue aeinoaaeyee ca ianeieueei aeanyoeia
eeeiiao?ia. Iiiaea n/eoatho, /oi iau/iui ethaeyi yoi ia iiae neeo. Ii ia
i?aeoeea auynieeinue, /oi aeiee a i?aaeaeao 20-30 oiii iiaeaeathony
/aeiaa/aneie neea – e ia?aaioea, e ia?aiauaieth. A eiioea XIX a
o?aioeocu i?iyenia?eiaioe?iaaee, iiaeii ee aeie a 32 oiiiu ia?aoaueoue.
Aai ii a?aaiai i?e iiiiue aa?aaie oaueee ieiei 200 /aeiaae. No?ieoaee
iaaaeeoia iiaee ia?aiineoue ieeou a 320 oiii (yoi aan naiiai e?oiiiai
aa?iiaeneiai iaiae?a – aai au?oaeee a neaea, ii ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai oae
e ia ia?aaacee). Naiia neiaeiia – ioeieioue ieeoo eee aeie ioaeiiai
?acia?a. Aeey ?aneiea ieeo eniieueciaaee i/aiue eioa?aniue iaoiae. Ia
caaioiaea aeaeaee iaaeoaieea iaaeueiua iana/ee. Caoai a?aee a?iiciaoth
eaioo a 2 ?aca aeeeiiaa aeoaeiu iana/ae, naeaaee iiiieai e iiiauaee
naeaii a ioaa?noea e inoi?iaeii caaeaaee iaaeaeo noaieaie (iieinaie)
eaiou aea?aayiiue eee iaoaeee/aneee eeei iii/a?aaeii a eaaeaeie ec
iana/ae. Iinoaiaiii eaiaiue aeaaae o?aueio oi/ii ii iaia/aiiie iana/eaie
eeiee. E, oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aeenue aeiee iaiaoiaeeiiai ?acia?a.

Caaioiaee i?e iiiiue aueia e aea?aayiiuo aieieoo ia?aaiceee ia ianoi
aoaeouaai no?ieoaeuenoaa. Caeanue eaiaiue iiaeaa?aaeny ieii/aoaeueiie
ia?aaioea. Aeaeaee yoi i?e iiiiue a?iiciauo e eaiaiiuo i?oaeee. Anee
eiaaea-ieaoaeue eoi-oi ec aan iinaoeo aeieueiaiu, i?eniio?eoanue: ia
iiaa?oiinoe ouaoaeueii iaoanaiiuo ieeo au niiaeaoa oaeaeaoue neaaeu
?aaiou ae?aaieo ianoa?ia. Aeeeiiua, oceea ca?oaee inoaaeaiu a?iiciaui
eino?oiaioii, a “inieiu” (e?oaeua) – eaiaiiui (eoaaeaeie eee eaiaiiui
ioaieieeii). Oaoieea ia?aaioee ioaieieeii iacuaaaony “ieeaoaae”.
Aioo?aiiyy e ia?oaeiay iiaa?oiinoue eaia?u aeieueiaia iau/ii ia?aaioaia
eiaiii ieeaoaaeai.

Aiciiaeii, i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa iieueciaaeenue ia?aie aeeeiu, oaeeie, eae
eieioue, eaaeiiue e o.i. No?ieoaeueiui iiaeoeai, nei?aa anaai, neoaeee
aeeaiao? ioaa?noey a oanaaeiie noaia. A oo aeaeaeoth yiioo ethaee oaea
auee ciaeiiu n iaoaiaoeeie, aaaeue aeey nicaeaiey oaeie eiino?oeoeee
iaiaoiaeeiu neiaeiaeoea iaoaiaoe/aneea ?an/aou. Iniaaiii aeey e?oaeuo a
ieaia aeieueiaiia. Iie neiaeaiu ec iaaieueoeo aeieia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
ianeieueei y?onia, noaeathueony io iniiaaiey e ia?acothueo eae au
iiaeiaea eiaeiiai naiaea. Eaaeaeue aeie a oaeie iino?ieea i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie naaiaio e?oaa. Aeeeio yoeo naaiaioia e iaiaoiaeeii auei
au/eneeoue, /oiau a eoiaa, i?e nai?ea, iieo/eeinue eiaiii oi, /oi
caaeoiuaaeinue. E, iaaieueii aicieeaao iuneue, eiaai ee iu i?aai
n/eoaoue ae?aaiea ia?iaeu i?eieoeaiuie, noiyueie ia aieaa ieceie nooiaie
oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, iaaeaee iu n aaie.

3. Aeieueiaiu Aaeaiaeaeeea

A ?aeiia Aaeaiaeaeeea auee enneaaeiaaiu 23 ioieoa n 82 aeieueiaiaie, ec
eioi?uo aei iaoeo aeiae nio?aieeinue ieiei 50.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iaeaieaa aeinooiiua aeey
iinauaiey. A naaeeiaeia o?aaoa iaaeaeo ai? Iaenen e Aeieiai, iin.
Naaoeue, thai-ainoi/iaa Aaeaiaeaeeea, iaoiaeyony aeaa aeieueiaia, —
iaeei ieeoi/iue (“aieueoie aaea?aeaaneee”) e aei/iue n i?iaiaioii ia
noaiao (“iaeue aaea?aeaaneee”).

Ia?aue — neiaeai ec ianneaiuo ieeo na?iai ian/aieea e eiaao
/aou?aooaieueioth oi?io. A ia?aaeiae ieeoa (aunioa 1,95i.) eiaaony
e?oiiia ioaa?noea aeeaiao?ii ieiei 46 ni. Ana ieeou onoaiiaeaiu ia
iyoi/iii eaiia. Aieiaua eiatho iacu aeey noueiaee n ia?aaeiae e caaeieie
ieeoaie. Ieeoa ia?aaeiyy aeeeiiie 3,60 i, oe?eiie aia?aaee 3,22 i e
ncaaee 2,70 i, oieueiie 0,45 i iiaeoeeoiaaia nieco e n aieia, eiaao iacu
aeey ne?aieaiey n ieeoaie. Aieiaua ieeou eiatho eiio?oi?nu-oii?u,
eioi?ua eo iiaeie?atho, i?aiyonoaoy ?acaaeo iino?ieee. Aeieueiai
i?eaioe?iaai ia thai-caiaae. A 1972 aiaeo a?oaieiaii A.E. Ia?eiaeiui
auee i?iecaaaeaiu ?aneiiee e iaia?oaeaiu: o?e yecaiiey?a a?oauo eaiaiiuo
i?oaeee ec eaa?oeeoa, iaiiieiathueo aeenee eee ne?aaea, aeaeeii,
eniieuecoaiua aeey ?aciaoee; ea?aieea: o?aaiaio ieaaii ioiaiooiai
aai/eea /a?iiaeeiyiiai ninoaea; o?aaiaio iaaieueoie ?o/ee, iaaeueiie a
na/aiee, aiacuaathueeny a niaoeeaeueiia ioaa?noea, i?iaeaeaiiia a ooeiaa
ninoaea, eioi?ia eiaei oa?iia?acioth oi?io, aieaa auoyioouo i?iii?oeee;
o?aaiaiou ninoaeia n ooeiaii a?ooaaeaeiie oi?iu; aeni/iay a?iiciaay
iiaeaanea iaaeueiie oi?iu, a iieoi?a iai?ioa; aeiaieueii aeeo?aoii
n?acaiiue eonie o?oa/aoie einoe n oaeiaui au?acii. I?aaeiaou iaeaeaiu a
ii?oaeueiie /anoe aeieueiaia.

Aoi?ie, ninoaaiie aeieueiai, ?aniieiaeai ainoi/iaa ieeoi/iiai i?e
iiaeuaia ia ai?o Aeieiai. Ii ni/aoaao a naaa /a?ou ieeoi/iuo e ninoaaiuo
nii?oaeaiee. Ioaeaeueiua aai eaiie ia?aaioaiu a aeaea A-ia?aciuo aeieia.
Eiaao a ieaia o?aiaoeeaaeaeioth eaia?o (2,23 o 2,10-1,80 i i?e aunioa
1,60-1,40 i). Ia?aaeiyy ieeoa iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iacaie aieiauo aeieia,
ia?acothueo ii?oaeueiua aunooiu. Iia eiaao ?acia?u 2,10×1,20 oI,32-0,30
i e niaaaeaia ii e?ayi a?acaie, a eioi?ua aoiaeeee ieii/aiey A-ia?aciuo
aeieia. E?oaeia ioaa?noea aeeaiao?ii 0,40 i ?aniieiaeaii aeiaieueii
iecei. Naa?oo ia?aaeiyy ieeoa iaeiaaea auea aua i?ee?uoa e?oiiui aeieii.
Aa iniiaaiea iieieony ia oe?ieii eaiia, ia?acothuai ieiuaaeeo ia?aae
aeieueiaiii e /anoe aai iiea. Aioo?e noaiu ouaoaeueii ia?aaioaiu
i?oaeeai, inoaaeaoai aieiiia?aciua neaaeu. Noaiu aai iie?uou ?aeueaoiuie
coaoeaie e ceacaaiia?aciuie ?acaie. Nia?oaee aeiee aeieueiaia
iiaeaea?aeeaatho 9 eaiiae-eiio?oi?nia. Ia?ae?uoea ec ianneaiie ieeou,
?acia?ii 3,00 o 3,20 o 0,30-0,40 i aie?oa aeieueiaia oaaaeuaathony
eiioo?u eaiaiiie aaoaiiia?aciie eiino?oeoeee, a eioi?oth ii eiaaea-oi
aue caeeth/ai. Aai ?aneiiee i?iaiaeeeenue yeniaaeeoeeae Eiieoaoa ii
io?aia, ?anoaa?aoeee enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae (ianeaaeey)
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay a ia/aea 2003 aiaea.

N oa??eoi?ee, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu aeieueiaiu, ioe?uaaaony i?ae?aniay
iaii?aia. Ia thaa aeieeia ?ae Iacua e Aaea?au, aiaaeathueo a ii?a o naea
Aeeaiiii?neia, ia caiaaea aeaeiaaony eo?i?o Aaeaiaeaeee e ai?a Aeiia. Ia
naaa?a, ca aeieeiie ?aee Oaan i?ioyioeny Aeaaiue Eaaeacneee o?aaao, ia
ainoiea ciaeeie aueaony aei?iaa ia Ieoaeeianeee ia?aaae. I/aiue
eioa?anai ieeoi/iue aeieueiai a ?aeiia iin. Oe?ieay Uaeue thai-ainoi/iaa
Aaeaiaeaeeea, a aeieeia ?aee Oaan, aaea ii ?aniieiaeai ia e?ath ?a/iiai
ia?uaa. Aai ia?aaeiyy ieeoa oe?aoaia i?iaiaioii I-ia?aciie oi?iu — aeaa
eieiiiu iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaeiiy?oniia ia?ae?uoea, iaae eioi?ui neaaa e
ni?aaa ?aniieiaeaiu ia?u iaaieueoeo ie?oaeuo auioeeinoae, iaiiieiathuea
aeaineea a?oaee. E?oaeia ioaa?noea ioi?ieaii ii e?ath aunooiathuei
ai?aeth?ii aeey aieaa ieioiie iiaeaiiee aooeee (i?iaee).

I?e auacaea a naei Aic?iaeaeaiea (?aniieiaeaii ia thai-ainoiea io
Aaeaiaeaeeea), neaaa o aei?iae iaoiaeeony naeueneia eeaaeaeua. Ia
i?eai?ea iaaeaeo iei e aei?iaie noieo i?ae?anii ia?aaioaiiue ieeoi/iue
aeieueiai. O iaai ouaoaeueii ia?aaioaiu iacu niaaeeiaiey noai. Ninoiyiea
o iaai aaa?eeiia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oo?a/aiu eiio?oi?nu n iaaeo noi?ii e
caaeiyy noaia. Ia?aaeiyy noaia ?ano?aneaeanue e o?aaiaiou oo?a/aiu. Yoi
?acoeueoao ?acaiaeeiuo eino?ia o aoiaea a aeieueiai. Ia nia?aiaiiii
eeaaeaeua iaoiaeeony aua iaeei — aac e?uoee e eioa?anai oai, /oi ia
aieiaie ieeoa eiaaony aunooi aeey iie?aiey ieeou — eicu?ueea iaae
aoiaeii.

Aeaeaa neaaeoai ii ia?o?ooo, e iu iiiaaeaai a aeieeio ?aee AEaia, aaea
aei 1917 a. iaoiaeeeinue ioioie/uea eiaiea i?eioea A. I.
Ieueaeaiao?aneiai, ?iaenoaaiieea ?onneie eiia?aoi?neie naiuee, aaia?aea
?onneie a?iee, iauanoaaiiiai aeayoaey eiioea XIX — ia/aea XX aaeia. Ii
aue ecaanoai, eae iie?iaeoaeue iaaeeoeeineie iaoee, iiia/eoaeue o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee, i?ethoia.

Caeanue, iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho aeaa a?oiiu aeieueiaiia.

Ia?aay a?oiia ninoieo ec o?ao aeieueiaiia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ?yae, ia
?annoiyiee 20 i ae?oa io ae?oaa e i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oanaaeaie n
iaaieueoeie ioeeiiaieyie ia thai-ainoie, oi anoue, aiec ii neeiio a
noi?iio ?aee. Eaaeaeue ec aeieueiaiia n o?ao noi?ii, eneeth/ay
oanaaeioth /anoue, aue ie?oaeai caaea?iiaaiiie ianuiueth ec ?a/iuo
aaeoiia, aeinoeaathuae o?iaiy e?uoe aeieueiaiia. Aeeaiao? ianuie aie?oa
oeaio?aeueiiai e e?aeiaai caiaaeiiai aeieueiaiia aeinoeaaao 20 i.
Ianuiue aie?oa e?aeiaai ainoi/iiai aeieueiaia iaiueoa -ieiei 10-12 i a
aeeaiao?a.

Caiaaeiue aeieueiai a?oiiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie?oaeaiioth ianuiue
ii/oe e?oaeoth a ieaia iino?ieeo, nii?oaeaiioth ec e?oiiuo ouaoaeueii
ia?aaioaiiuo e iiaeiaiaiiuo ae?oa e ae?oao aeieia ian/aieea, e eioi?ui
i?eiueaao, e oanaaeiie /anoe, ii?oaeueiia nii?oaeaiea e iiuaiue,
ia?aaeaeaiiue noaiaie e e?aieaeie, aeai?. Aai oanaaeiay /anoue
(ioaa?noea) i?eaioe?iaaiii ia tha. Ieeoa ooiaeaiaioa (iiea) auea
ie?oaeie oi?iu aeeaiao?ii ieiei 3,3 i e oieueiie 0,4 i. Noaiu neiaeaiu
ec aeieia a o?e y?ona. Ei i?eaeaia eciaiooay oi?ia, aeey oiai /oiau i?e
nai?ea iie ia?aciauaaee caieiooia eieueoei. Aioo?aiiee aeeaiao? o iiea
2,56 i, a ia o?iaia ia?ae?uoey — 2,30 i. ?acia?u aeieia aa?uee?otho ii
aeeeia 2,4 i aei 1,4 i; ii aunioa — 0,65 i aei 0,45 i; ii oieueia — io
0,4 aei 0,6 i. Aunioa eaia?u o oanaaeiie ieeou 1,8 i. Aeeaiao? ioaa?noey
0,42 i. Ieeoa ia?ae?uoey ia nio?aieeanue, ii ii einaaiiui aeaiiui, iia
iiaea auoue i?eia?ii ieiei 4,5 i aeeeiiie e 3,8 i oe?eiie, e iae?uaaea
iaeiia?aiaiii eaia?o e ii?oae aeieueiaia. Caiaaeiay e ainoi/iay noaiu
ii?oaea ionoiyee ae?oa io ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee 2,2 i, a aai aeoaeia 1,1
i. Io iaai nio?aieeinue iyoue aeieia ec oanoe. Aeieueiai n o?ao noi?ii
ie?oaeai ianuiueth aeeaiao?ii ieiei 20 i, eioi?ay neiaeaia ec ?a/iuo
aaeoiia e e iiiaioo ia/aea ?aneiiie auea ieiei 1,5 i aunioie. E noaiai
iiae oaeii i?enoaaeaiu /aou?a eiio?oi?na ec ianneaiuo aeieia. Ia?aae
oanaaeiie /anoueth aeieueiaia, i?eiueay e iae, ?aniieaaaaony oe?ieee
ii/oe iieoe?oaeue a ieaia iiuaiue ieineeie aaeoiaie e iaeiieaie ieeo
aeai?, ieiuaaeueth ieiei 120 ea.i aai ioaeaeytho io ianuie aeaa
neiaeaiiua, a ianeieueei y?onia ec ianneaiuo e iaia?aaioaiiuo aeieia,
noaiu, aeeeiiith ieiei 5,5 i eaaeaeay. Ieaaii eciaiooua a ieaia, noaiu
i?eiueatho iaeiei eiioeii e aieiaui ieeoai aeieueiaia a ii?oaeueiie
/anoe, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiua e iieoe?oaeie a ieaia e?aieaea ec iaeeiiii
oeiaeaiiuo ieeo, ia?aaeaeathuae ieiuaaeue aeai?a ia?aae oanaaeii. A
oiaea ?an/enoee aeieueiaia e aeai?a ia?aae aai oanaaeii auei iaia?oaeaii
ieiei 200 ?acee/iuo iaoiaeie, aeaaiui ia?acii, o?aaiaiou ea?aieee, ieiei
59 o?aaiaioia einoae /aeiaaea, iaaieueoia eiee/anoai einoae aeeaioiuo,
i?yneeoea, a?iiciaue iaeiia/iee eiiuey, a?iiciaay aeyoa n ooeii,
a?iiciaay nie?aeueiay i?iiecea, a?iiciaue a?aneao, a?iiciaia aeni/iia
eieueoei, aeaeaciue iaeiia/iee eiiuey, e?aiiaaue ioeeaon. Ainoi/iue
aeieueiai oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?oaeoth a ieaia iino?ieeo,
onoaiiaeaiioth ia ooiaeaiaio, ninoiyuee ec o?ao ieeo, oeiaeaiiuo
ia?aeeaeueii ae?oa ae?oao ia niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiioth au?iaiaiioth
ieiuaaeeo. Ieeoa iiae oanaaeiie /anoueth aeieueiaia eiaao
naaiaioiaeaeioth oi?io, aeeeiiie 2,9 i, iaeaieueoae oe?eiie 1,7 i e
oieueiie – 0,35 i. Ieeoa iiae caaeiae /anoueth aeieueiaia, oaeaea,
naaiaioiaeaeiie oi?iu: aeeeia —2,8 i, iaeaieueoay oe?eia — 1,05 i,
oieueia — 0,35 i, oeaio?aeueiay i?yiioaieueiay ieeoa — aeeeiie 2,9 i,
oe?eiie — 1 i, oieueiie – 0,35 i.

Noaiu aeieueiaia neiaeaiu ec 18 ouaoaeueii ia?aaioaiiuo aeieia
ian/aieea, oeiaeaiiuo a o?e y?ona. ?acia?u eo eieaaethony ii aeeeia io
1,75 aei 0,8 i, ii aunioa io 065 aei 0,45 i, ii oieueia io 0,45 aei 0,25
i. E?oaeia ioaa?noea aeeaiao?ii 0,42 i, i?eaioe?iaaiii ia thai-ainoie,
o.a. oanaaeii a noi?iio nionea e ?aea AEaia. Aeieueiai ia?ae?uo ieeoie
auoyiooie iai?aaeeueiie oanoeoaieueiie oi?iu n cae?oaeaiiuie oaeaie. Aa
iaeneiaeueiay aeeeia 2,49 i e oe?eia 2,42 i e oieueia 0,40 i. E
aeieueiaio ni anao noi?ii i?eiueaao ianuiue, iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie
eioi?ie yaeythony eiio?oi?nu (iaeeaaeea ec e?oiiuo niaoeeaeueii
ia?aaioaiiuo eaiiae) e aoeuaeiay auiinoea aeai?a ia?aae oanaaeiie
/anoueth aeieueiaia.

Ieiuaaeea (aeai?) ia?aae aeieueiaiii auea oe?eiie io 1,8 i, aei 5,5 i ia
?annoiyiee a 4,4 i io oanaaea. Aa?iyoii, ianuiue, cae?uaaea aanue
aeieueiai aei ia?ae?uoey, eneeth/ay, oanaaeioth /anoue. A oiaea
?an/enoee iino?ieee e ianuie, auei iaia?oaeaii ieiei 1200 ?acee/iuo
iaoiaeie: o?aaiaiou ea?aieee, ianeieueei einoae /aeiaaea, iaaieueoia
eiee/anoai einoae aeeaioiuo, o?aaiaiou e oeaeua ecaeaeey ec a?iicu e
aeaeaca, aeaa noaeeyiiua aoneiu. Ii a?oeoaeoo?iui iniaaiiinoyi e
no?ieoaeueiui i?eaiai, e?oaeua a ieaia iino?ieee, a?oiiu AEaia aeeaea e
eiaeiieoiieueiui nii?oaeaieyi oieiniia?aciiai oeia (oiein — io
a?a/aneiai “naiae”, eoiie).

Iaaeaeo ieie ?aniieiaeai ii/oe eaaae?aoiue a ieaia aeieueiai, neiaeaiiue
ec /aou?ao ouaoaeueii ia?aaioaiiuo ieeo. Oanaaeiay /anoue neaaea
o?aiaoeeaaeaeiie oi?iu, aunioie 1,8 i, iniiaaiea aeeeiie 2,8 i, aa?oiee
e?ae aeeeiie io 2,6 i e iaeneiaeueiie oieueiie 0,44 i. Ieeoa i?eaeaia
auioeeay oi?ia. A 0,3 i io ieaeiaai e?ay ieeou — iaoiaeeony e?oaeia
ioaa?noea aeeaiao?ii 0,4i. Ia ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe ieeou iaianai
?aeueaoiue i?iaiaio I — ia?aciie oi?iu — aeaa eieiiiu iiaeaea?aeeaatho
aeaoouy?oniia ia?ae?uoea (aunioa iii? 1 i, aeeeia ia?ae?uoey 2,1 i).

Aieiaua noaiu eiatho iaeeiaeiaua ?acia?u: aeeeia — 3,9 i, aunioa
Ii?oaeueiuo aunooiia — 1.7 i, aunioa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ii?oaeueiuo noi?ii
— 1.58 i, oieueia — 0.43 i. Oi?oeu ni noi?iiu oanaaea i?iaiaioe?iaaiu
o?aiy ?yaeaie aa?oeeaeueiuo ia?aeeaeueiuo ceacaaia. Aunooiathuea ca
oanaaeioth ieeoo ia 0.68 i aieiaua noaiu aianoa n ia?ae?uoeai e. ieeoie
iiea ia?acotho ii?oae. Aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue noai eaia?u oe?aoaia
auaeoui i?iaiaioii a aeaea ai?eciioaeueiiai ?yaea naenathueo
o?aoaieueieeia (aieiaua e ia?aaeiyy ieeou) e ceacaaa (caaeiyy ieeoa).
I?iaiaio ia?acoao nieioiie ai?aeth? i?eaeeceoaeueii a 60 ni
i?eaeeceoaeueii 16-17 oiii. I?eaioe?iaai ii ia thai-ainoie.

Aeaaiaea?y e?iiioeeaiio iiiaieaoiaio e oii?iiio o?oaeo a?oaieiaia
Caiaaeii-Eaaeacneie a?oaieiae/aneie yeniaaeeoeee Einoeoooa Enoi?ee
Iaoa?eaeueiie Eoeueoo?u ?AI (a. Naieo Iaoa?ao?a) a 1997 a. e 1999 a.,
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe A. A. O?eoiiiaa, o
iiiai/eneaiiuo iinaoeoaeae iaiyoieea naaiaeiy iiyaeeanue ?aaeeay
aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeaoue, aianoi ii?inoeo eanii ?oei, aiiaue ia?aooea
iiioiaioaeueiinoue, ae?aaiea neeaiu aeieeiu ?aee AEaia. Iniaaiii
neeueiia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeo iaoe?iue (ieiei 300 ea.i) iiuaiue
ieeoaie e aaeoiaie aeai?, i?eiueathuee e oanaaeo oeaio?aeueiiai
aeieueiaia. Ii i?eaeiaeueiinoe iiioiaioaeueiie a?oeoaeoo?u,’
aeaei?aoeaiiio ioi?ieaieth iia?aaaeueiie eaia?u e noaiaie nio?aiiinoe
iaiyoieea, yoio aeieueiaiiue eiiieaen ia eiaao naaa ?aaiuo a i?aaeaeao
anaai Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca.

Ai aoi?ie a?oiia anoue iaaieueoie ieeoi/iue aeieueiai n ioaa?noeai ia a
ia?aaeiae, a a caaeiae noaia (n iioaeiui aoiaeii). Io inoaeueiuo
ieeoi/iuo aeieueiaiia inoaeenue i?inoi ?acaaeeiu ieeo. Aie?oa iiaeii
oaeaeaoue ianeieueei nioai n?aaeiaaaeiauo eo?aaiia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii
iaiei aa?aaai ?aee.

A aeieeia ?aee Ioaaea nin?aaeioi/aia iieiaeia anao aeieueiaiia
Aaeaiaeaeeea. Iie noaee ecaanoiu aua a ia/aea XIX aaea e oiiieiathony ai
anao ecaeaieyo iinayuaiiuo *a?iiii?neiio iiaa?aaeueth. Nae/an ecaanoii 9
ioieoia, aaea nio?aieeenue aeieueiaiu.

Iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth iieuecothony aeieueiaiu, iaoiaeyueany a
ianoa neeyiey ?ae Ioaaeu e Aeiaoaa. Iaeei ec naiuo e?oiiuo aeieueiaiia
ia oa??eoi?ee E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, ?aniieiaeai ia neeiia aicauoaiiinoe,
o o?annu Iiai?inneenea-Noooineiai oinna. Ii ioiineony e ieeoi/iui
nii?oaeaieyi o?aiaoeeaaeaeiie oi?iu e eiaao ?acia?u: ia?aaeiyy ieeoa
aunioie — 1,97 i, aeeeiie aaa?oo — 2,10 i, aeeeiie aieco — 2,85 i, e
oieueiie — 0,37 i; caaeiyy ieeoa aunioie — 1,76 i, aeeeiie aaa?oo — 1,67
i, aieco — 2,47 i e oieueiie 0,40 i; aieiaua ieeou — naaa?iay aunioie —
1,75 i, aeeeiie aaa?oo — 2,0 i, aieco — 4,40 i, oieueiie 0,40 i, thaeiay
— aunioie — 1,75 i, aeeeiie aaa?oo — 2,0 i, aieco — 4,37 i e oieueiie —
0,35 i; ?acia?u ia?ae?uoey – aeeeia 4,62 i, oe?eia — 2,90 i e oieueia —
0,40 i. Neiaeai ii ec ianneaiuo ieeo ian/aieea e ca iineaaeiea 100 eao
neeueii eciaieeny. Aianoi e?oaeiai ioaa?noey a ia?aaeiae noaia i?i?oaeai
i?iai. Io ?acaiaeeiuo aioo?e eaia?u e ?yaeii ni noaiaie eino?ia ieeou
iie?aniaee e iio?aneaeenue. Ana aie?oa auoiioaii iiiai/eneaiiuie
yeneo?naioaie e oo?enoaie. Nionoeaoenue /ooue ieaea ii neeiio iiaeii
iniio?aoue aeaa ieeoi/iuo aeieueiaia o?aiaoeeaaeaeiie oi?iu, neiaeaiiuo
oaeaea ec ianneaiuo ieeo ian/aieea, ouaoaeueii iiaeiaiaiiuo ae?oa e
ae?oao e iaeei n?aaieoaeueii iaeaiueeee.

I?iaeaeaaynue ii eaaiaa?aaeueth ?aee Ioaaea e aa aa?oiaueyi, a 4-o ei io
naea Ioaaea iaaeaeo uaeyie Iaianiaa e Eaeoniaa, ia iaaieueoie ieineie
aicauoaiiinoe, ii?inoae eenoaaiiuie ii?iaeaie aea?aaueaa, ?aniieiaeaiu
aeieueiaiu. N caiaaea i?ioaeaao ?aea Ioaaea, n naaa?a iaoiaeeony ia?aa,
n thaeiie e ainoi/iie noi?iiu — iaaieueoay naaeeiaeia, any ieiuaaeue,
caiyoay iino?ieeaie, ninoaaeyao 1000 ea.i. Ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee noiyo
aeaayoue nii?oaeaiee. Ainaiue aeieueiaiia auno?ieeenue aeaoiy ?yaeaie
ia?aeeaeueii aa?aao ?aee. Aeaayoue aeieueiai iieiinoueth ?ac?ooai,
o?aoee e /aoaa?oue — /anoe/ii.

Iie ioiinyony e ieeoi/iui- iino?ieeai, e ia?aiio oeio aeieueiaiia.
Eaia?a eo /aou?aooaieueiie oi?iu, neiaeaia ec ioaeaeueiuo
ieeo-iiiieeoia, iie?uoa naa?oo iiuiie ieeoie-ia?ae?uoeai. Ieeou iiea
iaeiia?aiaiii neoaeao iyoi/iuie ieeoaie nii?oaeaiey. Eaia?u eiatho
o?aiaoeeaaeaeioth oi?io ia oieueei a ieaia, ii a i?iaeieueiii e
iiia?a/iii na/aieyo. Aa?oiea ieeou i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu. A ia?aaeieo
noaiao eiathony e?oaeua e iaaeueiua ioaa?noey. Oanaaeu aeieueiaiia
i?eaioe?iaaiu ia caiaae e thai-caiaae, e ?oneo ?aee Ioaaea. Iauay eo
aunioa eieaaeaony io 1,60 i aei 2,05 i, aeeeia io 2,50 aei 3,60 i,
oe?eia a ia?aaeiae /anoe —1,65 — 1,70 i.

Aeieueiaiu ioiinyony e oeie/ii ii?oaeueiui iaiyoieeai — aieiaua ieeou
neeueii aunooiatho aia?aae. E aeieueiaio ? 6 i?enoaaeaiu
aeiiieieoaeueiua ieeou. Ia?aaeiyy ieeoa aeieueiaia I> 7 oe?aoaia
aieienouie a?aciuie eeieyie. I?iaaaeaiiua a 1972 aiaeo ?aneiiee aioo?e
aeieueiaiia e aie?oa ieo iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue, /oi a ii?oaeueiie /anoe
ia?aae oanaaeii ono?aeaaeenue o?eciu. Caeanue nia?aia eioa?aniay
eieeaeoeey ea?aieee, oa?aeoa?iie aeey aeieueiaiiie eoeueoo?u Caiaaeiiai
Eaaeaca. Iia o?aieony a Ainoaea?noaaiiii Enoi?e/aneii iocaa.

Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao ei?uoiia?aciue aeieueiai, ?aniieiaeaiiue ia
naaa?i-ainoi/iie ie?aeia naea Ioaaea o eaniieeee, aia/aea Neoieiaie
uaee. Ii aue auoanai ec aieueoie ioaeaeueii noiyuae aeuau ian/aieea
(3,80 o 2,57 i). A iae auna/aia eaia?a ona/aiii-iaaeueiie oi?iu. A
i?iaeieueiii ?ac?aca eiaao oi?io o?aiaoeee. Ioaa?noea iaaeueiia
(0,34-0,37 i) e i?eaioe?iaaiii ia naaa?. Oanaae ioi?ieai ii?oaeueiuie
aunooiaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie ii aieai ?iaiie noaiu o?aiaoeeaaeaeiie oi?iu
n ieiuaaeeie ia?aae iath. Ia?ae?uoea eiaei iiaei?yiioaieueioth oi?io
(3,70 o 2,70 o 0,45 i). 50 eao iacaae iiaeecinoe auei aua aeaa
ei?uoiia?aciuo e aeieueiai-iiiieeo, io eioi?uo ie/aai ia inoaeinue.
?yaeii iaoiaeyony aeeaiieniua neaeu.

Ia aiaei?acaeaea ?ae Ioaaea e Oaein, a ai?ao, iaoiaeeony o?i/eua
Oeuaaieia aoe. Aeieueiaiu auno?iaiu ia neaeueiii o?aaoa, auoyioaoenue
oeaii/eie. A 1916 aiaeo A.I. Ni?oei caoeene?iaae 18 aeieueiaiia.
Iieiinoueth nio?aieeenue oieueei naiue.

Oeuaaieia aoe eioa?anai oai, /oi a iai eiaeenue nii?oaeaiey naiuo
?acee/iuo eiino?oeoeee — iau/iua ieeoi/iua, aei/iua, aeaa
ei?uoiia?aciuo. O ieo eiathony eaiaiiua ianuie, e aieiaui noaiai —
iiaeii?iua ieeou. Ia?aaeiea e caaeiea ieeou eiatho eaaae?aoioth e
o?aiaoeeaaeaeioth oi?io. Aieiaua noaiu e ieeou ia?ae?uoey aunooiatho
aia?aae, ia?acoy ii?oae. A ia?aaeieo ieeoao au?acaiu e?oaeua ioaa?noey.

Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho aei/iua aeieueiaiu. Caeanue eiaaony
aeieueiai, aieiaua noaiee eioi?iai ninoiyo ec aeaoo aeieia eaaeaeay. O
ae?oaiai — aieiaua noaiee ninoiyo ec 5-6 ieeo, iieiaeaiiua ieaoiy ae?oa
ia ae?oaa. Ia?aaeiyy e i?aaay noaiee o?aoueaai aeieueiaia ninoaaeaiu ec
ianeieueeeo ?yaeia iaeeeo aeieia. Aua o iaeiiai nii?oaeaiey ieeoa
aieiaie noaiu iaaeno?iaia oceei aeieii. Yoi oeie/iue i?eia?
aeaa?aaeaoeee ciae/anoaa ia caeaoa aeieueiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

4. Nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey e i?iaeou

I?iaeieaeaaony ?aaioa ii eco/aieth iaaaeeoe/aneeo iaiyoieeia,
inoaaeaiiuo iai a ianeaaenoai ia?iaeaie, aeeaoeie 5000 eao iacaae. Iie,
iiaeioynue iaaaaeiiie o?aaeeoeee e aa?a, a ea?uea?ao Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca
au?oaaee aeaoaee oaioanoe/aneeo nii?oaeaiee, eioi?ua noaee /anoueth
iaiiaoi?eiiai eaaeacneiai iaecaaea. ?ac?aaioaia aeieaia?aiaiiay
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?ia?aiia ii eco/aieth, ?anoaa?aoeee e eniieueciaaieth
aeieueiaiia Eaaeaca, eioi?ay aeeth/aao neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee: eioaineaiay a?oaieiae/aneay ?acaaaeea niaoeeaeueii
aua?aiiuo ?aaeiiia n iaeneiaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae iaiyoieeia a
E?aniiaea?neii e?aa e ?anioaeeea Aaeuaay; eaiaeoaooiua enneaaeiaaiey n
eniieueciaaieai Aaia?aoe/aneie Eioi?iaoeeiiiie Nenoaiu: (GIS) aeey
aiaeeca i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeieueiaiaie, iinaeaieyie eo
nicaeaoaeae e ?ano?naie; oanoe?iaaiea iaiyoieeia, aeeth/ay yeaeo?iiiue
ciiaeaae, n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey eo o?iiieiaee e ooieoeee;
a?oeoaeoo?iua iaia?u iaaaeeoia e nicaeaiea eiiiuethoa?iie aacu aeaiiuo,
niioaaonoaothuae aa?iiaeneei noaiaea?oai eiaaioa?ecaoeee e o/aoa; nai? e
aiaeec iaeaiaioaie/aneeo, ieia?aeueiuo e eiuo ia?acoeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee eeeiaoa, eaiaeoaooa, nenoaiu aeeciaiaania/aiey,
yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe e niaoeeaeecaoeee a?oii ianaeaiey, nicaeaaoeo
iaaaeeou; yoii-a?oaieiae/aneea ?acaaaeee a ciiao ?annaeaiey ei?aiiiai
ianaeaiey aeey nai?a n?aaieoaeueiiai yoiia?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea,
?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia ?anoaa?aoeee e iocaeoeeaoeee aeieueiaiia.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eao a Aaeaiaeaeeeneii oa??eoi?eaeueiii ie?oaa
?aaioatho yeniaaeeoeee ii eco/aieth aeieueiaiia: Einoeoooa Enoi?ee
Iaoa?eaeueiie Eoeueoo?u ?AI (a. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe A.A. O?eoiiiaa — a aeieeia ?aee AEaia;
Einoeoooa A?oaieiaee ?AI (a. Iineaa), iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe A.A. Iaeaoei — a iin. A?oeii-Ineiiaea; Eiieoaoa ii
io?aia, ?anoaa?aoeee e yenieoaoaoeee enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae
(ianeaaeey) E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaaiiai
niaoeeaeenoa ioaeaea a?oaieiaee Ae.Y. Aaneeeiaiei — a naaeeiaeia iaaeaeo
aa?oeiaie ai? Iaenen e Aeieueiai, a ?aeiia iin. Naaoeue.

Ia?iiiay ?aaioa i?iaaaeaia ii naa?ea iaiyoieeia a?oaieiaee n ooi/iaieai
eiee/anoaa aeieueiaiia, eo ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey, nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey. 24
oaa?aey 2004 aiaea, i?eeacii ca ? 22-i Eiieoaoa ii io?aia, ?anoaa?aoeee
e yenieoaoaoeee enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae (ianeaaeey)
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, ooaa?aeaeai nienie auyaeaiiuo iauaeoia
eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey, a oii /enea e iaiyoieeia a?oaieiaee
Aaeaiaeaeeeneiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ie?oaa. A aeieeia ?aee AEaia a ?aeiia
Aaeaiaeaeeea nicaeaaony ia?aue a ?innee ia?e eaaeacneeo aeieueiaiia.
?aaioa ii inouanoaeaieth i?iaeoa aaaeaony n 1997 aiaea
Caiaaeii-Eaaeacneie yeniaaeeoeeae EEIE ?AI (a. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a) i?e
niaeaenoaee Eiieoaoa ii io?aia enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay e ?aeiiiie eaniio?aiiie neoaeau. A i?iaeoa
i?eieiatho o/anoea niaoeeaeenou ii enneaaeiaaieth e ?aeiino?oeoeee
ae?aaieo iaaaeeoe/aneeo iaiyoieeia ec Aieeaiaeee, Aeaiee, NOA e
O?aioeee.

I?aaeoniao?eaaaony nicaeaiea a aeeaiieniie aeieeia ?aee AEaia
a?oaieiae/aneiai ia?ea iauae ieiuaaeueth 100 aa. Aeaaiuie
a?oaieiae/aneeie iauaeoaie ia?ea noaioo o?e a?oiiu aeieueiaiia,
eaiaiieiiiy e eo?aaiu yiioe a?iicu, n?aaeiaaaeiaue eo?aaiiue iiaeeueiee
e iinaeaiea. Eiiiaeoiia ?aniieiaeaiea iaiyoieeia e aeaaii?eyoiia
ni/aoaiea eo iao/iuo e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo aeinoieinoa n
aeeaiieniinoueth ie?oaeathuaai eaiaeoaooa e ?acaeoie ianoiie
eio?ano?oeoo?ie nicaeatho aiciiaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey caiiaaaeiie
ciiu iaeiia?aiaiii a ?aaeeia ia?ea, iocay, eoeueoo?iiai,
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai e iao/iiai oeaio?a.

Caeeth/aiea

Nio?aiaiea aeieueiaiia, iaiyoieeia ie?iaiai eeanna — yoi aii?in
eoeueoo?u, iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeinoiyiey, niaanoe e iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
*aeiaae o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey aeieaeai noaoue ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue
naiaai ?acaeoey, iie?aynue ia iiuo i?ioeiai, oaaaeaoue eoeueoo?iua
o?aaeeoeee ooaaeoeo iieieaiee, nio?aiyoue iaiyoue i?aaeeia. Ia
?ac?ooaoue, a ainnoaiaaeeaaoue iaiyoieee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u, aaaeue aac
i?ioeiai iao ianoiyuaai, ia aoaeao e aoaeouaai.

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia

1. A.I. ?aoooiye. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee Eoaaie n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai ii 1920
a. O/aai. iiniaea: E?aniiaea?, 1996.

2. A.A. O?aoa?aoia. ?iaeiay Eoaaiue. No?aieoeu enoi?ee. O/aai. iiniaea:
E?aniiaea?, 2003.

3. Eanueyiia A.A. Enoi?ey Eoaaie n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei eiioea OO a.
O/aaiee aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee: E?aniiaea?, 2004.

4. A.E. Ia?iaeiue. A?oaieiae/aneea ioe?uoey ia Eoaaie 2004 a. Ni?aai/iia
iiniaea: ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 2005.

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