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Борисов-Мусатов и художники группы Наби

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Oeieeineay Ioieoeeiaeueiay oeiea – aeiiacey ? 16

?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

“Ai?enia-Ionaoia e ooaeiaeieee a?oiiu “Iaae””

Iaua?yeiaa Ieaaa

Iineaa, 1997

Oa?aeoa?iay aeey ?onneiai eneonnoaa 1890-o – ia/aea 1900
aiaeia oaiaeaioeey e iiyoecaoeee ia?acia iaoea au?aaeaiea a oai?/anoaa
Aeeoi?a Yeueieaeeoi?iae/a Ai?eniaa-Ionaoiaa. Aai ee?e/aneia aea?iaaiea
noaei i?iyaeyoueny ooa n naiuo ?aiieo o/aie/aneeo eao a iaaeiuo ia?acao
iiyoe/aneie i?e?iaeu, ii eeoue n eiioea 1890-o aiaeia ii?aaeaeythony
e?oa ecethaeaiiuo oai Ionaoiaa e ia?acii-aeeaiieniay nenoaia aai
eneonnoaa. Anaie neeaie ooaeiaeiee no?aieony iinoe/ue aa?iiieth a ie?a
e, ia aeaey aa aie?oa, iuoaaony ainnicaeaoue aa a aiia?aaeaiee.

A aeiaieueii iaoe?iie eeoa?aoo?a, iinayuaiiie
oai?/anoao A. Y. Ai?eniaa-Ionaoiaa, cao?aaeaaaony aii?in i
acaeiiioiioaieyo ooaeiaeieea n o?aioeocneeie ianoa?aie eiioea XIX
noieaoey. Ieii yoiai aii?ina ia iiaeao i?ieoe ie iaeei aeia?ao Ionaoiaa:
aaaeue ooaeiaeiee iiciaeiieeny n iaeioi?uie ia?acoeaie iiaie
o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene aua a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia, iioii o/eeny ianeieueei
eao a Ia?eaea o O. Ei?iiia; ii i?aeeiiyeny ia?aae I. Ithae aea Oaaaiiii,
iaia?aaaeny iinooieoue e iaio a ianoa?neoth e aue neeueii ?aci/a?iaai,
eiaaea iieo/ee ioeac. Ecaanoii, /oi a Ia?eaea Ionaoia iiciaeiieeny n
i?iecaaaeaieyie o?aioeocneeo aeeaiienoeaa iiauo iai?aaeaiee. Oneeaieth
aai eioa?ana e aa?iiaeneiio eneonnoao niinianoaiaaee e ithioaineea
ciaeiiua, eioi?uo aeaa ?aca i?iacaeii iinauae Ionaoia. Iiae eiiaoe
aeecie yoa naycue ooaeiaeieea n caiaaeiui eneonnoaii oaai/aeinue oie
aunieie ioeaieie, eioi?oth iieo/eee aai i?iecaaaeaiey a ia?eaeneie
i?anna e a ienueia Aiae?a AEeaea, iinea oiai eae iie iiauaaee a Aa?eeia
e Ia?eaea.

Aii?in i acaeiiioiioaiee Ionaoiaa n o?aioeocneei
eneonnoaii nai niaie eae au iai?aoeaaaony; ii iaycaoaeai, aai iaeuecy
iaieoe. Aai cao?aaeaatho e ss.A. Ooaaiaeoieueae, e A.E. Noaitheiae/, e
E.A.Aaaeieeiia, e I.ss.Ei/ee a naiae aeenna?oaoeee. A aieaa ?acaeoie
oi?ia, n?aaieoaeueii n ae?oaeie, aai noaaeo A.A.?onaeiaa a naiae
iiiia?aoee 1966 aiaea. A.A.?onaeiaa iaia/aao ananoi?iiiaa ?aoaiea
aii?ina. Iia auaeaeyao ec anaai o?aioeocneiai eneonnoaa a?oiio “Iaae”
eae aeaaiue iauaeo aeey niiinoaaeaiee. Yoio auai? ieacuaaaony
ni?aaaaeeeaui, ii io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae. ?onaeiaa
eiaao a aeaeo ia oaeoe/aneoth naycue Ionaoiaa n iaaeaeaie, eioi?ie,
nei?aa anaai, ia nouanoaoao, a ecaanoioth ia?aeeaeue, eioi?ay ia?acoaony
aeaaiaea?y aeecinoe oai?/aneiai iaoiaea, iaueo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey e
oiai ianoa, eioi?ia caieiatho – niioaaonoaaiii ai o?aioeocneie e ?onneie
aeeaiiene iaaeaeu e Ai?enia-Ionaoia.

A iiiia?aoee ?a/ue eaeao i aeecinoe Ionaoiaa Aiiia?o,
Aeaie (i?aaaea, ia yoii iaienaii nianai iaiiiai – a iniiaiii eeoue
i?eiaieoaeueii e iaeiiio ec ionaoianeeo i?iecaaaeaiee – “Aeaoien e Oeiy”
1901, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, /anoi. nia?.), ii aieueoa anaai ianoa aaoi?
iiiia?aoee ioaiaeeo i?iaeaia “Ionaoia – Athea?”. E?iia yoie aeecinoe,
eioi?ay auea iaaeaeo Ionaoiaui e Athea?ii – Aiiia?ii, ioia/aaony e
nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea. ?a/ue eaeao i iaeioi?ie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe
aeaeaeaiey. O Ionaoiaa – io eii?anneiiecia e neioaco, a o yoeo iaaeaeia
iaiai?io – io neioaca e eii?anneiiecio, eioi?ue ieacaeny iaeei
“aica?aoiui” yaeaieai ai o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene. A yoii i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
aeaeaeaiee iie eae au ia?anaeeenue. ?onaeiaie ioia/aii e ae?oaia
ianoiaenoai – ecaanoiay oi?iaeueiinoue eneaiee o?aioeocia e i?ei?eoao
iiyoe/aneie iaeooioai?aiiinoe a oai?/anoaa ?onneiai ianoa?a.

A neeo oiai, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiue aii?in ia yaeyaony aeey
A.A.?onaeiaie aeaaiui eee oioy au iaeiei ec aeaaiuo, iia i?aaeeaaaao
eeoue iauea iooe ?aoaiey, ia no?aiynue auaeaeiooue eaeea-oi oacenu a
i?ioeaiaan aaoi?o iiiia?aoee, a, iai?ioea, ainiieueciaaaoenue aa
iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie, iu iiiuoaainy eo ?acaeoue, eia-/oi e iei
aeiaaaeoue.

Niiinoaaeyy Ai?eniaa-Ionaoiaa e iaaeaeia, n naiiai ia/aea
neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi o ian iao aeaiiuo aeey oiai, /oiau ooaa?aeaeaoue
oaeoe/aneoth eo naycue eee oioy au ciaeiinoai e eaeia-oi
acaeiiioiioaiea. Nai Ionaoia ieeiaaea ie/aai ia aiai?ee ie i I.Aiiia?a,
ie ia Y. Athea?a eee I.Aeaie. Iaaa?iia ?onneee aeeaiienaoe ciae, aeaeae
i?iecaaaeaiey naieo ia?eaeneeo naa?noieeia – aaaeue iie /anoi aunoaaeyee
naie ?aaiou a oa/aiea anao 90-o aiaeia – a /anoiinoe, e a oi naiia
a?aiy, eiaaea Ionaoia o/eeny a Ia?eaea a ianoa?neie Ei?iiia. A
iineianeeo eieeaeoeeyo i?iecaaaeaiey iaaeaeia noaee iiyaeyoueny a 1900-a
e 1910-a aiaeu; neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoe i?iecaaaeaiey ia iiaee oaea
ieacaoue i?yiiai aeeyiey ia oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu Ionaoiaa. Oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi Ionaoia i?e aeiaieueii /anoii oiiieiaiee a ienueiao
eiai I. Ithae aea Oaaaiia, AE. Aanoueyi-Eaiaaea eee O. Ei?iiia nianai ia
aniiieiaao i iaaeaeao, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi, aeaeeii, eo
aeeaiienue iniaaiii neeueiiai aia/aoeaiey ia ?onneiai ooaeiaeieea ia
i?iecaaea. Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi Aiae?a AEeae, aeecei noiyaoee e
iaaeaeai, oaea a ia/aea XX a. ia?aoeeny n ainoi?aeaiiui ienueiii e
Ionaoiao, oaeaea ie/aai ia i?eaaaeyao e iaoaio aii?ino: ie i eaeeo
i?yiuo naycyo yoi ienueii ia aiai?eo, a aiai?eo eeoue i oii, /oi ia
o?aioeocneeo ooaeiaeieeia e ienaoaeae neiaiee/aneie i?eaioaoeee
eneonnoai Ionaoiaa i?iecaaei iaiaeia aia/aoeaiea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe a iniiaiii i oii
noiaenoaa iaoiaea, oai?/aneiai i?eioeeia, eioi?ia i?iaeeeoiaaii
aioo?aiieie, a ia aiaoieie i?e/eiaie.

I?e niiinoaaeaiee Ionaoiaa n iaaeaeaie n?aco a?inathony a
aeaca iaeioi?ua iauea /a?ou. Ia/iai n oiai, /oi yoi ooaeiaeieee iaeiiai
iieieaiey – iie ii/oe ?iaanieee. Aeaie ?iaeeeny a oii aea aiaeo, /oi e
Ai?enia-Ionaoia, ?onnaeue, Aiiia?, e Athea? – ia 2-3 aiaea ?aiueoa.
N?aco aea a yoii neo/aa aicieeaao aii?in i caeiiiinoe aiaeiaee. Eai iu
i?eaueee e oiio, /oi ?onneea ooaeiaeieee ninoaaeytho iaeoth ia?aeeaeue
o?aioeocneei *aua anaai a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iie neaaeotho ca
iineaaeieie “ia ?annoiyiee” aeaoo aeanyoeeaoee. Oae auei e n ?aaeenoaie
aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a., e n eii?anneiienoaie. Eioa?anii, /oi eiaiii
Ionaoia nie?auaao yoi ?annoiyiea, iaeiaei iieiinoueth ?ac?ua ia
eeeaeaee?oao. Aeaei a oii, /oi a?aiy ?anoeaaoa oai?/anoaa iaaeaeia e
Ionaoiaa ia niaiaaeaao. Iau/ii enoi?eee o?aioeocneiai eneonnoaa “yiioie”
iaaeaeia n/eoatho 1888-1900 aiaeu. Aeey Ionaoiaa yoi nei?aa a?aiy
oi?ie?iaaiey oaeaioa, ia?aoaiey naiaai nianoaaiiiai iooe, eioi?ue
ooaa?aeaeaaony ieii/aoaeueii ia ?oaaaea 1890-1900-o aiaeia. Aeaaioth
naith ?ieue a enoi?ee ?onneiai eneonnoaa ii ea?aao ?aaioaie ia?aie
iieiaeiu 1900-o aiaeia, oiaaea eae enoi?e/aneay ?ieue iaaeaeia e oiio
a?aiaie oaea en/a?iuaaaony: a ioee/ea io Ionaoiaa, Aiiia?, Athea? e
Aeaie i?iaeieaeatho ?aaioaoue aua aeieaea aiaeu, ii aeoeaiie iiaaoi?neie
?iee iie oaea ia ea?atho. Nie?auaiea ?ac?uaa i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao oiai,
/oi Ionaoia, ioe?uaay a ?onneie aeeaiiene aeaeaeaiea e neioaoe/aneiio
aini?eyoeth e aeaei?aoeaiie nenoaia, aeaeaao ?aoeoaeueiua oaae aia?aae
e, aoaeo/e ia?aui, aiieia iiaeao auoue niiinoaaeai n oaie, eoi ai
O?aioeee – ia ia?aua. Eai iaaeaeu eiatho ca nieiie iiuo Nacaiia e
Aiaaia, eioi?uo iie aanueia /oyo e io eioi?uo iooaeeeaathony. Aeecinoue
onoaoaeyaony oai, /oi iaaeaeu, aoaeo/e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaeaieai
iinoeii?anneiienoe/aneei, a eaeie-oi ia?a ia/eiatho aic?iaeaeaoue
eii?anneiieci, oiaaea eae Ionaoia ia ai anai oniaaaao io iaai
ioi?aaoueny.

A naiae ecaanoiie eieaa “AEeaiienoeu XX aaea” Aa?ia?
Aei?eaaeue ienae: “Ana ioaeaeyao Aiiia?a io Iiia – e i?aaeaea anaai oi,
/oi ea?oeia aeey iaai ieeiaaea ia yaeyaony ieiii, ioe?uoui a i?e?iaeo,
?aoaieai iaecaaea, eae aeey ae?oaiai, ii noaiiaeony iniiaaoaeueii
iino?iaiiui i?aaieciii (aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea ei ia eaaeaony) e /anoi
i?aaieciaaiiui a niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie aeaei?aoeaiiai eneonnoaa”.
Iiaeiaiay oi?ioee?iaea (eaeeo iu, enoaoe, iaeaeai aeiaieueii iiiai a
eieaao i ooaeiaeieeao-iaaeaeao) aiieia iiaeioea au e c?aeiio oai?/anoao
Ai?eniaa-Ionaoiaa.

Ii eioa?anii oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aiaeiaee Ionaoiaa
n iaaeaeaie aicieeatho ia oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea ia?aue ia?aoaao
oai?/aneoth c?aeinoue. Ia?aaeienaeueii, /oi ?aiiee Ionaoia, aua aiana ia
ciaaoee ia?eaeneie aeeaiiene ia/aea 90-o aiaeia, a eeoue oieueei
ia/oaaoee i Ia?eaea aianoa ni naieie ae?ocueyie, nicaeaao oaeea aaue,
eioi?ua naeeaeatho aai n iaaeaeaie. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a yoi a?aiy –
iniaaiii a 1894 a., ca aiae aei iiacaeee a Ia?eae – ionaoianeay
aeeaiienue eiaao aeaa iai?aaeaiey, niiinoaaeiuo n aeeaiienueth
o?aioeocneie. Iaeii eii?anneiienoe/aneia, i?aaenoaaeaiiia i?aaeaea anaai
aeaoiy i?iecaaaeaieyie – “Iaee a naaeo” (1894) e “Iaeneea oeaaou”
(1894). “Iaee” ia neo/aeii canoaaeytho enneaaeiaaoaeae ionaoianeiai
oai?/anoaa i?aaeiieaaaoue ciaeiinoai ooaeiaeieea n Eeiaeii Iiia. Oi/iay
aeaoa e /an, ioia/aiiua ooaeiaeieeii ia oienoa, aiai?yo i iiiaii. Io
iineianeiai ?aiiaai eii?anneiiecia, io o?aaeeoeee Iieaiiaa, neieue
ii?aaeaeaiii i?iyaeythueony a “Iaeneeo oeaaoao”, Ionaoia ia?aoiaeeo e
aieaa ?aoeoaeueiiio yenia?eiaioo e iaia?oaeeaaao oaea aeinoaoi/ioth
c?aeinoue a eii?anneiienoe/aneii iuoeaiee, iicaieythuoth i?aaeiieaaaoue
aai nei?ia iineaaeothuaa i?aiaeieaiea. E yoie aiaeiaee iiaeii i?eaaaeoue
aua iaeio. Ionaoianeee yothae “E?ueueoei aea/e” 1884 aiaea i/aiue iioiae
ia yothae Athea?a “Neainue ieii”. Yoi iaeiecaanoiia i?iecaaaeaiea
Athea?a iaienaii a 1889 a. – eiaaea iinoeii?anneiienoe/aneea
oaiaeaioeee, oa?aeoa?iua aeey c?aeiai oai?/anoaa iaaeaeia, aua ia ai
anai iaia?oaeeaatho naay.

Io yoie “i?ioiiaaeaeianeie” aiaeiaee eaaei ia?aeoe e e
ae?oaei. ?a/ue eaeao i a?oiia i?iecaaaeaiee ia?aie iieiaeiu 90-o aiaeia
– a iniiaiii 1894 aiaea, – auiieiaiiuo ii i?aeiouanoao aoaoueth. “Ia
ieyaea”, “A iaeeaeaiee ainoae”, “Aeaa aeaiu ia iaeoaa”, “Aieaa” – aio
naiua oeie/iua i?eia?u yoie oaiaeaioeee. Yoe i?iecaaaeaiey anaaaea
canoaaeyee oaeeaeyoueny oao, eoi ienae i Ionaoiaa. Ia?aui yoi oaeeaeaiea
au?acee ss. Ooaaiaeoieueae a naiae noaouea “Iieiaeua aiaeu Ionaoiaa”. Ia
iaeiii ec yothaeia ii ienae: “Aio aua aieaa no?aiiue iaa?inie, – o
noiyiee ia?ioiaea, aaea o aeaiu, neaeyuae ia neaiaeea, eaeea-oi
ciaaaeaeiua, oeuiua ?oee a ia?/aoeao e oceay, aeooeay aieiaa, –
iaa?inie, eioi?ue, eacaeinue au, iiaeii i?eienaoue eaeiio-ieaoaeue
yiiioeo, Ooeoc-Eio?aeo e eiio oaiaeii, ii oieueei ia “iaaeiiio”
Ionaoiao!”. Ia ianoi “eiai oaiaeii” iai oioaeinue au caeanue iinoaaeoue
eiaiii Athea?a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia.

O iaai anoue a?oiia i?iecaaaeaiee, a iniiaiii auiieiaiiuo
ianeii e ioiinyueony e 1890-o aiaeai, – “Aeaa aeaiu o eaiiu”,
“Ooiiathuay”, “Iaoue e aei/ue”, “Iecey e Aaeeioii”. Eae i?aaeei, yoi
iaeiioeao?iua eee aeaoooeao?iua eiiiiceoeee, /aua a eioa?uea?a, eiiaaea
ia aicaeooa. Naieie iioeaaie ionaoianeea aoaoe iioiaee ia ea?oeiu
Athea?a. AEaiueiu n ciioeeaie, aeaa oeao?u ae?oa aicea ae?oaa ca noieii,
/anoi aicea eaiiu (o Ionaoiaa anoue ea?aiaeaoiua ?enoiee, ecia?aaeathuea
ethaeae ca noieii /eoathueie, ieooueie). Niauoea ionoonoaoao. A naieo
iioeaao iiae/a?eiooa eioeiiay noi?iia aeecie. Yoi ia i?inoi
iauaeaiiinoue, a eiaiii eioeiiay iauaeaiiinoue. Eai e?oa i?aaeiaoia,
n?aaea – iaia?aiii ia?aie/eaathony. Ia neo/aeii /aua anaai aeaiu
eioa?uea?iua noeaiu. Ii eonie ie?a, aua?aiiue ooaeiaeieeii o?aeooaony ei
ia iaeo?aeueii-nica?oeaoaeueii, a iiae/a?eiooi yeni?anneaii. Oeao?u,
i?aaeiaou oaeaeaiu ino?i, noaa/aiu auno?i, i?aaeacyoi. Aeaaiui
n?aaenoaii ieacuaaaony oeaaoiaia iyoii, eeiey, ia?aie/eaathuay yoi
iyoii. ?ieue neeoyoa a yoeo aauao ia?iiia. Ia c?y Athea? a iacaaieyo
naieo ea?oei /anoi eniieuecoao neiai “neeoyo”: “Neeoyo aeaaooee”,
“Neeoyo n ciioeeii”. A iiae/a?eiooie eeiaeiinoe anoue neaaeu aeeyiey
a?aoeee, eioi?ua n oniaoii e oaeiaieuenoaeai caieiaeenue a yoi a?aiy
iaaeaeu – iniaaiii oiaaea, eiaaea iie i?eieiaee o/anoea a ioi?ieaiee
aeo?iaea “La Revue blanche”, auaoaai i?iiaaaiaeenoii noeey iiaea?i.

Aeiaaaei e yoiio eioa?anioth aeaoaeue. Ionaoiaa aua aei
iiacaeee a Ia?eae aai ae?ocuey iacuaaee “yiiioeai”. Yoi i?icaeua,
aeaiiia aio ia c?y, n?aco aea aucuaaao a iaiyoe oio eioa?an e yiiineiio
eneonnoao, eioi?ue ai O?aioeee aue aneaae ca eii?anneiienoaie o
iinoeii?anneiienoia, a o iaaeaeia a /anoiinoe. Eioa?anii, /oi a n?aaea
iaaeaeia auea i?eau/ea aeaaaoue ae?oa ae?oao i?icaeua.
“Iaaeaeii-yiiioeai” aue iacaai Aiiia? – aaeaa ee ia naiue cia/eoaeueiue
ec ooaeiaeieeia yoie a?oiiu e iaeaieaa aeeceee naiae aeeaiieniie
nenoaiie Athea?o.

Eoae, ia iuoaynue yoo aiaeiaeth iaaeaeo iieiaeui Ionaoiaui e
iaeioi?uie iaaeaeaie iauynieoue ?aaeueiuie naycyie ooaeiaeieeia, iu
aeieaeiu oai ia iaiaa eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi oaea a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia
?yaeii n eii?anneiienoe/aneeie oaiaeaioeeyie a oai?/anoaa ?onneiai
aeeaiienoea iiyaeeenue oaeea /a?ou, eioi?ua oeacuaaee ia no?aieaiea
oaea oiaaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue eii?anneiiecio iinoeii?anneiienoe/aneoth
oai?/aneoth eiioeaioeeth. Ia aoaeai eneaoue eiie?aoiuo i?e/ei yoeo
iiaoaeaeaiee. Aeaei a oii, /oi, eae iu oaea ciaai, a ?onneii eneonnoaa
aanueia /anoi oa iai?aaeaiey, eioi?ua ai O?aioeee eee Aa?iaiee
neaaeotho ae?oa ca ae?oaii, eae au auyaeyy “/enooth” eiaeeo yaiethoeee
e niaiu i?eioeeiia, ieacuaathony ia?aeeaeueiuie, nouanoaotho ?yaeii,
niaoeaathony. Eiaiii oae e i?ienoiaeeo a oai?/anoaa Ai?eniaa-Ionaoiaa
ia?aie iieiaeiu 90-o aiaeia.

Aeaeueiaeoay yaiethoeey Ionaoiaa ecaanoia. Ianoa?neay
Ei?iiia, aini?eyoea – iiieii ianoa?neie – iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia
eii?anneiiecia, iooue /a?ac yoio eii?anneiieci e iiaie – aeaei?aoeaiie
nenoaia, i?eaaaeoee e c?aeinoe. Eae neacae Ooaaiaeoieueae, “ii aue
iaeiei ec ia?auo e iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo iaoeo eii?anneiienoia – e
iaeei ec ia?auo i?aiaeieae yoio eii?anneiieci ai eiy nica?oeaiey, aieaa
iaiauaiiiai e ee?e/aneiai”. Yoi aieaa iaiauaiiia e ee?e/aneia
nica?oeaiea anoue c?aeue Ai?enia-Ionaoia, eioi?ue, i?aiaeieaaay
iaeioi?oth eneonnoaaiiinoue oaeeo aauae, eae “Aa?iiiey” (1900 aiae) eee
“Iioea aac neia” (1900 aiae), i?eoiaeeo e naiae eeanneea – e
“Aiaaeaio” (1901 aiae), “Aiaeiaio” (1902 aiae), “Ecoi?oaeiiio
iaea?aeueth” (1903 – 1904 aiaeu). “I?ec?aeai” (1903 aiae) e “?aeaeaio”
(1905 aiae). Yoio c?aeue Ionaoia n iiaie neeie ?iaeaeaao annioeeaoeee n
caiaaeiie aeeaiienueth eiioea noieaoey, n iaaeaeaie, n iaueie
oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene ia
iinoeii?anneiienoe/aneii yoaia. Ii caeanue oaea ?a/ue ia oieueei ia
ioaeaeueiuo ia?aeeaeyo, niaiaaeaieyo, a i i?eioeeiao, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo
niciaoaeueii e o?aioeocneeie e ?onneeie aeeaiienoeaie, i oeaeyo,
eioi?ua i?aneaaeotho iie naiei eneonnoaii.

Ooaeiaeieee a?oiiu “Iaae” (a aieueoeinoaa naiai), n iaeiie
noi?iiu, e Ai?enia-Ionaoia – n ae?oaie, nicaeaaaee oaeia eneonnoai,
eioi?ia ii i?eioeeiai ioiioaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ia?aciie
no?oeoo?a naycaii n neiaieeciii. I?aaaea, aeaia?eaoeeiiiay eeiey,
ioaeaeythuay neiaieeci io ianeiaieecia, i?ioiaeeo eae ?ac iin?aaeeia
a?oiiu “Iaae”. Iieacaoaeueii, iai?eia?, /oi a yeniiceoeeth aunoaaee
“AEeaiienue o?aioeocneiai neiaieecia”, ono?iaiiie a 1972 aiaeo a
Aiaeee, Aiiia? e Athea? ia aioee, eiaaea eae ae?oaea iaaeaeu –
?ainii, Na?thcuea, Aeaie, ?onnaeue, Iaeieue ia yoie aunoaaea auee
i?aaenoaaeaiu. Yoa a?aiue oneiaia. Oaeia ?acaeaeaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i oii, /oi neiaieeci ia aue oai aeaaiui ne?aieythuei ia/aeii, eioi?ia
ia?aciaaei a?oiio iaaeaeia. Iaeiaei neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi oa
“neioaoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey”, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie ?acai?a/eaaaony
oai?/anoai iaaeaeia, eiaea ei?ie e a eneonnoaa Aiaaia, i?e/anoiinoue
eioi?iai e neiaieecio a?yae ee iiaeao auoue na?ueacii inii?aia.
Aianeiaieenoe/aneoth – nacaiiianeoth eiioeaioeeth neioaoecia iaaeaeu,
ianiio?y ia ii/oeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e Nacaiio, ia aini?eiyee. Ii a
aiaaiianei-neiaieenoe/aneii aa?eaioa iinoeii?anneiieci, anoanoaaiii,
oiaaea aue iinoeii?anneiieciii, eiaaea a iai eii?anneiieci ieacuaaeny
i?aiaeieaiiui. Ia neo/aeii aeaa e?oiiaeoeo iaaeaea inoaeenue aia
neiaieecia – aica?aoiue iooue e eii?anneiiecio a ia/aea XX a. e aai
aiiaue ioe?uaoeany aiciiaeiinoe a 90-a aiaeu nua?aee caeanue
ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue. Iiyoiio a onoaiiaeaiee ia?aeeaeae n iaaeaeaie o
Ionaoiaa ia iineaaeiai – c?aeii yoaia aai ?acaeoey ?yaeii n oeao?aie
Athea?a e Aiiia?a iu iai?aiaiii aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue aua iaeii Ii?ena
Aeaie.

Ii aa?iainy e i?iaeaia neiaieecia. E iaaeaeu e Ionaoia auee
neiaieenoaie aoi?iai i?ecuaa a naieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeieao. Ia?auie auee
Ithae aea Oaaaii, Athnoaa Ii?i. Iaeeeii ?aaeii ai O?aioeee e A?oaaeue a
?innee. Neiaieeci Ii?i e Ithae a eaeie-oi ia?a iiaeii n/eoaoue
aeeaai?e/aneei; ii eiaao aeaaeaie/aneea iniiau. A?oaaeue, oioy ii ii
a?aiaie e cia/eoaeueii ionoieo io oiiiyioouo o?aioeocneeo aiaeiaia e
i/aiue ia iioiae ia ieo, eai aia?ae a naay iiiaea iiaoanoaa aa?iiaeneiai
eneonnoaa eiioea XIX aaea, ea?aao i?eaeeceoaeueii oaeoth aea ?ieue. Ii
oi?ie?oaony ia aeaaeaie/aneie iniiaa, eiaao – oioy e ia noieue
au?aaeaiioth, eae o o?aioeocia, – eeoa?aoo?ioth ii/ao. Neiaieeci
iineaaeothueo ooaeiaeieeia – iaaeaeia, Ionaoiaa, a ca iei e ianoa?ia
“Aieoaie ?icu” iiaeii iacaaoue nei?aa aeeaiieniui, /ai eeoa?aoo?iui, ii
no?ieony a aieueoae ia?a ia ieanoe/aneie iniiaa e niaiaaeaao n ia?aeiiii
io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey iaoo?u e iiin?aaeiaaiiiio, io
yothaea-ea?oeiu e iaiii, io iai?iecaieueiiai a?oenoecia e ieanoe/aneie
nenoaia – ia?aeii, eioi?ue aue oae aaaeai aeey noaeaa anae aa?iiaeneie
aeeaiiene. Aia neioaoecia neiaieeci ia yoii naiai aoi?ii yoaia
iaaiciiaeai. Ii o?aaoao i?aiaeieaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaaeaie/aneiai
iaoo?aeecia, eioi?ue aue o Ithae aea Oaaaiia, oiiaeiaeyy aai neiaieu
aeeaai?eyi, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – eii?anneiiecia. Iineaaeiee
eoeueoeae?oao iaiiaoi?eii eiie?aoiia, a iii i?aiyonoaoao oie
iiiaicia/iinoe ia?aca, ianaiaeeiinoe aai e eiie?aoiui cia/aieyi, eioi?ua
e yaeythony nouiinoueth enoeiiiai neiaieecia. Yoi i?aiaeieaiea iu e
ano?a/aai o iiiaeo iaaeaeia, a /anoiinoe o Aeaie e o Ionaoiaa.

Caeanue neaaeoao ?acaeaeeoue aiaeiaee. N Aeaie – iie eiatho
ia?acii-niuneiaie oa?aeoa? e ai aoi?oth i/a?aaeue, eae neaaenoaea, –
aeeaiienii-eiiiiceoeeiiiue.

I?aaaea, neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi Aeaie oyaioae e ?aeeaeiciui nthaeaoai,
/oi ?aoeoaeueii ?acaeaeyao aai n Ionaoiaui. Ii ?iaeieo iiiaia ae?oaia. O
Aeaie a aai ea?oeiao “Naaaeaaiia oanoaea” (1892 – 1893), “Iocu” (1893),
“Naae /enouo aeaa” (1893), “AEaiu-ie?iiineoeu” (1894), “Nayuaiiay
?iua” (1897), eae i?aaeei, nia?aii ianeieueei aeaenoaothueo eeoe. Iie
neaeyo eee eaeoo, ii/oe ieeiaaea ia ?acaiaa?eaatho ae?oa n ae?oaii,
nica?oeatho, iie iia?oaeaiu a naay, i?aauaatho a eaeii-oi iac?eiii
iauaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii. *aua anaai yoi noeaiu a iaecaaea, /anoi – ia
oiia iaecaaea. Ana yoe iienaiey iiaeii auei au n oniaoii i?eiaieoue e e
i?iecaaaeaieyi ?onneiai aeeaiienoea. *anoi o Ionaoiaa aeaiueiu iioiaee
ae?oa ia ae?oaa, eae ?iaeiua nano?u, eai anaaaea yoi iaeia eaeaaeueiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i /aeiaaea. O Aeaie aai aeaiueiu oaeaea iioiaee ae?oa
ia ae?oaa. Aieaa oiai: a 1897 aiaeo Aeaie ieoao ii?o?ao Eaiiu Ea?ieue
a o?ao ?acee/iuo iicao; caeanue iao iiiuoee ?anoe?eoue a?aieoeu a?aiaie
– yoe o?e oeao?u iaeiie aeaiueiu nouanoaotho ii/oe aacioiineoaeueii e
a?aiaie; iao iiiuoee aeaoue ?aciua a?aie oa?aeoa?a – Aeaie eioa?anoao
aiciiaeiinoue auyaeoue aioo?aiithth iac?eioth naycue iaaeaeo yoeie
o?aiy eeoeaie a iaeiii iaeeea. Yoi aioo?aiiaa iauaiea inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth iauaaeeiythuaai eo i?aaeiaoa – oeaaoia. Caeanue naiaia?aciue
“ycue oeaaoia” – ia neo/aeii iu ainiieueciaaeenue iacaaieai ea?oeiu
iieiaeiai Iao?iaa-Aiaeeeia, i?yii auoaaeoaai ec ionaoianeiai e?oaa.

I?yioth aiaeiaeth aeatho iai aeaa ia?iuo ii?o?aoa – ii?o?ao Ia?ou e
Ii?ena Aeaie (aaoiii?o?ao n aeaiie) 1897 aiaea e “Aaoiii?o?ao n
nano?ie” Ionaoiaa 1898 aiaea. Iie aeecee ia oieueei ii caaea/a e
a?aiaie i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ii e ii iaeeiaeiaui i?eioeeiai iino?iaiey
ia?iiai ii?o?aoa ia iniiaa aioo?aiiae aeecinoe ia?niiaaeae.

Aeaie a naieo “Oai?eyo” iinoiyiii ieoao i naiaia?aciii ioiioaiee
ooaeiaeieea e naiae caaea/a, i “i?ineaaeaiee” iaoo?u, i oii, /oi
ooaeiaeiee-neiaieeno ia ecia?aaeaao iaoo?o, a i?aaenoaaeyao aa n
iiiiuueth “ieanoe/aneeo e oeaaoiauo yeaeaaeaioia”. Aeaie eiinoaoe?oao
oanioth naycue iaaeaeo oi?iaie e yiioeeyie, iaaeaeo
aeeaiienii-ieanoe/aneeie yaeaieyie e ninoiyieai aeooe. A aai
i?aaenoaaeaiee, a oi?iao iai?aiaiii i?inaa/eaaao cia/aiea,
niaea?aeaoaeueiia, aeooiaiia ia/aei. Yoi eae ?ac e anoue oa iiceoeey, ia
eioi?ie iiaei aicieeiooue eneonnoai iiiaeo iaaeaeia ai O?aioeee e
Ionaoiaa a ?innee.

Ii ?yaeii n yoie aeooiaii-niaea?aeaoaeueiie i?iaeaiaoeeie a oai?ee
Aeaie i?enoonoaoao e ae?oaay – aeeaiienii-ieanoe/aneay. Iia iiiai
aiai?eo i ea?oeia eae i oeaeinoiii i?aaiecia, any/anee iiae/a?eeaaao
ieineinoiia ia/aei, iiaa?oiinoue, eae iaeoth ia?aiiniiao aeeaiieniiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Oe?iei ecaanoiu neiaa Aeaie: “Iiiieoue, /oi ea?oeia,
i?aaeaea /ai noaoue aiaaie eioaaeueth, iaiaaeaiiie aeaiueiie eee
eaeei-ieaoaeue aiaeaeioii, yaeyaony ii nouanoao, ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth,
iie?uoie e?aneaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea”. A yoeo
neiaao – i?ia?aiia oiai neioaoecia, i eioi?ii oea ?a/ue. A iaeiii
ii?aaeaeaiee niaaeeieeenue aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiuo iieiaeaiey – i
ieineinoe eae enoiaeiie oi/ea e i ii?yaeea, nenoaia, ?aoeeiiaeueiii
iiiaioa a “i?iecaiaenoaa” ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca. E iiyoue oaeia
ii?aaeaeaiea eaaei i?eeiaeeoue e aeeaiieniui i?iecaaaeaieyi Ionaoiaa.

Iu ioia/aee ecaanoiue neie?aoeci a ionaoianeii oai?/anoaa. Yoi –
iaoeeiiaeueiay /a?oa, eiathuay enoi?e/aneea ei?ie. A XIX – ia/aea XX
aaea iu /anoi noaeeeaaainy n i?iyaeaieai yoiai naienoaa. Eaaiia,
No?eeia, A?oaaeue, Ionaoia a yoii ioiioaiee noiaeiua oeao?u. A eaaeaeii
ec ieo nia?aiu ?acee/iua /a?ou, eioi?ua, nouanoaoy a ca/aoi/iii aeaea,
eiatho a aeaeueiaeoai aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeaaoueny e aeic?aaaoue.
Ioiaeaeiooua io ia?aaeiaai e?ay ?acaeoey aa?iiaeneiai eneonnoaa ia
iaeioi?oth aeenoaioeeth e aianoa n oai, a neeo oaeaioa e aeaaiaea?y
iauaieth eiay aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeoeacuaaoue eaeea-oi aoaeouea /a?ou, yoe
ooaeiaeieee niaaeeiytho a naaa a/a?aoiaa, naaiaeiyoiaa e caao?aoiaa. Yoi
ea/anoai iicaieyao a /ai-oi ioaeaeeoue Ionaoiaa oi iaaeaeia. Ii
ieacuaaaony oe?a naieie niaea?aeaoaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie. E?iia oiai,
aeey naiae oeieu ii i?i?ie-i?aaeoa/a. Iaaeaeo oai iaaeaeu, iacaaaoea
naay i?i?ieaie, nei?aa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?ao?iniaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea
ai o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene. Iii ia?auaii ia a aoaeouaa, a a i?ioeia.
Iicaeiea Aiiia? e Athea? eeoue io?aaeatho a eaeie-oi ia?a ia naaa
ionaaou iiauo iai?aaeaiee. *oi aea eanaaony Ionaoiaa, oi aai iiuo
ieacuaaaony ii/oe iaycaoaeueiui yoaiii ia iooe ooaeiaeieeia e aoaeouei
aeeaiieniui aeinoeaeaieyi. *a?ac ionaoianeee yoai i?ioee iiiaea:
aieoai?iciaoeu – Eociaoeia, Ooeei, Naioiia; Iao?ia-Aiaeeei, aini?eiyaoee
ionaoianeee neiaieeci e ia?ainiuneeaoee aai; Ea?eiiia e Aii/a?iaa, o
eaaeaeiai ec eioi?uo aue oeaeue ionaoianeee yoai; Eii/aeianeee e Oaeuee,
eioi?ua aei “Aoaiiaiai aaeaoa” eni?iaiaaee – ia aac iieuecu aeey
aoaeouaai – ionaoianeee eii?anneiieci; e aua iiiaea ae?oaea. Yoa ?ieue
Ionaoiaa a enoi?ee ?onneie aeeaiiene aiai?eo naia ca naay. ?onneay
aeeaiienue a ia/aea OO aaea iaoeaeaia aia?aae; iia auno?i aeaeaeaony e
?acaeaaaony. A Ionaoiaa caeeth/aia yoa aiciiaeiinoue; ii oiaea ono?aieai
aia?aae. E yoi ia i?inoi iniaaiiinoue oaeaioa, ii e iaoeeiiaeueiia
naienoai, ii?aaeaeyaiia enoi?e/aneie neooaoeeae.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Ae. A. Na?aaueyiia “?onneay aeeaiienue XIX aaea n?aaee
Aa?iiaeneeo oeie” Iineaa, 1980.

2. Enoi?ey ?onneiai eneonnoaa. Iineaa, 1987.

3. E. A. Aieueoaeiaa “Ainoaea?noaaiiay O?aoueyeianeay
Aaea?ay. Iineaa, 1978.

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