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Беларусь в составе Российской империи

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Ieienoa?noai Ia?aciaaiey ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue

AIOO

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«Aaea?onue a ninoaaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee»

Ieai

1. Aaeieieno?aoeaii-ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey

2. Aieia 1812 a. ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one

3. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a.

4. Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a Aaea?one a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
a

5. Eoeueoo?a Aaea?one a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaeieieno?aoeaii-ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey Aaea?one e ?innee, eiia?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia/aei
i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo, iai?aaeaiioth ia ieaaee?iaeo ianoiuo iniaaiiinoae,
eiaaooth eiia/iie oeaeueth naeeaeaiea e neeyiea n nianoaaiii ?onneeie
?aaeiiaie. Ia i?eniaaeeiaiiua caiee auei ?ani?ino?aiaii
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea ia aoaa?iee e oacaeu. A
niioaaonoaee n ?aoi?iie 1802 a. ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one nicaeaaaeinue
iyoue aoaa?iee: Aeoaaneay, Iiaeeaaneay, Ieineay, Aeeaineay e
A?iaeiaineay. A 1807 a. ii oneiaeyi Oeeueceoneiai ie?a e ?innee ioioee
Aaeinoi//eia (n 1843 a. a ninoaaa A?iaeiaineie aoaa?iee).
Naiiaea?aeaaea, o/eouaay iia?aie/iia ?aniieiaeaiea Aaea?one, a oaeaea
iai?yaeaiiia iieeoe/aneia e nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, nicaeaei caeanue
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa: Aaei?onneia (1772 – 1856 aa.), a eioi?ia aioee
Aeoaaneay e Iiaeeaaneay aoaa?iee, Eeoianeia (Aeeaineia) (1794 – 1912
aa.), a eioi?ia aoiaeeee Ieineay, A?iaeiaineay e Aeeaineay aoaa?iee.
Aoaa?iee aeaeeeenue ia oacaeu (i?eia?ii ii 20-30 oun. ianaeaiey a
eaaeaeii). Aaia?ae – aoaa?iaoi?u oaeoe/anee iaeaaeaee iaia?aie/aiiuie
iieiiii/eyie. Iaeei ec ieo – a?ao *a?iuoaa – naia anaaeanoea
iiae/a?eeaae aeaaea niaoeeaeueiui o?iiii. Aeanoue aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ia
iie?aeanue ia iiuiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue, aiaiii-iieeoe/aneee aiia?ao.

Ianaeaiea aaei?onneeo caiaeue ia i?ioyaeaiee ianyoea iinea iioaeeeiaaiey
oeaca i?aaeoaeuenoaa i aeeth/aiee a ninoaa ?innee i?eaiaeeeinue e
i?enyaa. Oa, eoi ioeacuaaeny i?enyaiooue, aeieaeiu auee a o?aoiany/iue
n?ie auaoaoue ca a?aieoeo, ?ani?iaeaa iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai. Iniiaiui
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeieoiaioii a iaeanoe a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa inoaaaeny Noaooo Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai 1588a., oae eae
oea?neea aeanoe ia ?aoaeenue i?ieaii?e?iaaoue ei?aiiua ioee/ey
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey ianaeaiey aaei?onneeo caiaeue.
Ianoiua aeeoaee (oeyooa) eiaee aiciiaeiinoue caieiaoue ?acee/iua
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeieaeiinoe, ii aaaeouoth ?ieue a oi?aaeaiee e?aai
caieiaee noaaeaiieee eiia?neiai oeaio?a.

A ioiioaiee e ?aciui nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai iauanoaa iiaay aeanoue
i?iaiaeeea ?acioth iieeoeeo. Oeyooa, i?enyaioaoae oea?neiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao, aeaaaeenue ana i?aaa ?inneeneiai aeai?yinoaa. Ii
i?aaeoaeuenoai eeeaeaee?iaaei naiinoiyoaeueiinoue iaaiaoia, eeoeei eo
i?aaa eiaoue naie aienea, e?aiinoe, ia?aie/eea naiioi?aanoai oeyoou. A
oeaeyo oe?aieaiey naiae nioeeaeueiie aacu a i?eniaaeeiaiiuo e ?innee
caieyo oea?eci i?iaiaeee caeanue iieeoeeo ianaaeaeaiey ?onneiai
caieaaeaaeaiey. Oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acaeaaaei eiaiey n e?anoueyiaie
?onneei iiiaueeai, e?oiiui aiaiiui /eiai e /eiiaieeai. Ioaeaaaeenue
noa?inoaa e ei?ieaaneea yeiiiiee, naeaano?e?iaaiiua eiaiey iaaiaoia e
oeyoou, eioi?ua auaoaee ca ?oaaae, e aeaaeaiey iaeioi?uo
eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo iiianou?ae. E?oiiaeoeie aeaaeaeueoeaie noaee eiycue
A.A. Iioaieei, eioi?ue iieo/ee E?e/aaneia noa?inoai n 14274 e?aiinoiuie,
a?ao I.A. ?oiyioeaa-Caaeoiaeneee, eioi?ue noae nianoaaiieeii 11195
e?aiinoiuo a Aiiaeueneii noa?inoaa, A.A. Noai?ia iieo/ee 7oun. e?anoueyi
a Eia?eineie aieinoe A?anoneie yeiiiiee e ae?. Anaai ia oa??eoi?ee
Aaea?one Aeaoa?eia II e Iaaae I iiaeaeiaaee a ianeaaenoaaiiia aeaaeaiea
200 oun. ?aaecneeo (ioaeneeo) aeoo, eae e?aiinoiuo, oae e auaoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi.

Ia aaei?onneea ai?iaea auei ?ani?ino?aiaii iieiaeaiea «AEaeiaaiiie
a?aiiou ai?iaeai» 1785 a. Aeaenoaeai iaaaeaao?aneiai i?aaa auei
ioiaiaii. Aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ai?iaeia ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ai?iaeneeo nineiaee ecae?aeanue aeoia. Eoia/anoai
iieo/eei i?aai ia aeeueaeaeneoth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iiiai/eneaiiia aa?aeneia
ianaeaiea oeacii 1794 a. iiiaei iiae aeaenoaea caeiia i /a?oa inaaeeinoe
a i?aaeaeao Aaei?onneiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa e /anoe oe?aeineeo
aoaa?iee. N 1795 a. naeueneeo aa?aaa auei i?eeacaii ia?anaeeoue a
ai?iaea. N 1827 a. aianoi aeaiaaeiiai iaeiaa ia aa?aaa auea
?ani?ino?aiaia aieineay iiaeiiinoue. 19 aeaeaa?y 1844 a. auoae oeac i
eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaiia iaueiiie aaoiiiiee eaaaeia e iiae/eiaiee aa?aaa
iauei ai?iaeneei e oacaeiui aeanoyi. Ia?anooieoue yoo /a?oo ?ac?aoaeinue
oai aa?ayi, eioi?ua eiaee aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, ia?aoiaeeee a ae?oaoth
aa?o, ?aianeaiieeai, eoioeai ia?aie aeeueaeee.

Iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi Aaea?one ii/oe ia eciaieeinue. Ia ieo auea
?ani?ino?aiaia ?inneeneay iaeiaiaay nenoaia, eioi?ay niaiyea iiaeuiiue
(oicyenoaaiiue) ia iiaeooiue iaeia. Aia/aea, o/eouaay neaaoth
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eniiniaeaiey e?anoueyi e iiaie
iaeiaiaie nenoaia, iie iieo/eee eueaiou ii oieaoa iiaeooiuo iaeiaia. Ec
iieeoe/aneeo niia?aaeaiee e oicyenoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe n 1797 a. ia
i?ioyaeaiee 10 eao ai anao aoaa?ieyo Aaea?one iiaeooiue iaeia n
e?anoueyi niae?aeny a ?acia?a iaiieiaeio iaiueoei, /ai a ?onneeo
aoaa?ieyo. A aeaeueiaeoai e?anoueyinoai Aaea?one auei iinoaaeaii a
iaeeiaeiaua oneiaey n e?anoueyiaie ae?oaeo aoaa?iee ?innee.

A eiioanneiiaeueiie noa?a aeanoe i?eaea?aeeaaeenue, a iniiaiii,
iaauaiee, aeaiiuo ai a?aiy ?acaeaeia ?a/e Iiniieeoie. I?aaaea, auee
i?eiyou ia?u, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaiaaee eaoiee/aneiio e oieoa?iiio
aeooiaainoao neeiiyoue a naith aa?o i?aaineaaiuo. Ai a?aiy ai?ueau n
ainnoaieai ai aeaaa n Einothoei Aeaoa?eia II iin/eoaea iaiaoiaeeiui
oe?aieoue iiceoeee i?aaineaaey ia?aaiaeii ooaea oieaoia (oeac 22 ai?aey
1794 a.). A i?aaineaaea ia?aoei 1,5 iei. /aeiaae. I?e i?aaiieea
Aeaoa?eiu II iiiaea ec “ainniaaeeiaiiuo” ia?aoee a oieth. Eaoiee/aneay
oea?eiaue oo?aoeea naia ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a Aaea?one, oioy a
niioaaonoaee n aea?noaaiiie a?aiioie Aeaoa?eiu II 1774 a. o/?aaeaeaeanue
Aaei?onneay eaoiee/aneay aia?oey. Caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey einoaeia e
eaoiee/aneeo iiianou?ae nio?aiyeenue.

I?eniaaeeiaiea e ?innee nicaeaei oneiaey aeey aeeth/aiey oa??eoi?ee
Aaea?one a iaua?inneeneoth ainoaea?noaaiioth nenoaio, ieacaei
aicaeaenoaea ia ana io?anee yeiiiieee, noaei ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythuei
aeey aeaeueiaeoae oicyenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeee. Nicaeaaaeenue iiaua
iaiooaeoo?u (iieioiyiua, ia?oneiiaua, eaiaoiua, noeiiiua e ae?.), a
E?e/aaa auea caeiaeaia noaeiaa?oue, no?ieaoay noaea aeey *a?iiii?neiai
oeioa. A naeueneii oicyenoaa i?ienoiaeeei oaaee/aiea iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae,
a oii /enea iiae oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u. Nauo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?iaeoeoia noeioee?iaaeny ioiaiie iioeei ia eo i?iaeaaeo, eeeaeaeaoeeae
aioo?aiieo oaiiaeai. ?anoe?eeenue oi?aiaua nayce n ?onneeie ai?iaeaie.
Aeoeaecaoeey oi?aiaee niinianoaiaaea ?aeiino?oeoeee noa?uo e
no?ieoaeuenoao iiauo aei?ia. Aeeth/aiea aaei?onneeo caiaeue a
?inneeneoth eiia?eth aaei e enei?aiaieth ia i?eniaaeeiaiiuo caieyo
o?aaeeoeee n?aaeiaaaeiaie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, oioy ?anoe?yei e oe?aieyei
e?aiinoiia i?aai. Auei iieiaeaii ia/aei ia?ai?eaioaoeee yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie Aaea?one ia Ainoie.

2. Aieia 1812 a. ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one

12 (24) ethiy 1812 a. 600-ouny/iay a?iey eiia?aoi?a O?aioeee Iaiieaiia
I, a eioi?ie ian/eouaaeinue 120 oun. iieyeia, ia?aoea ?. Iaiai e
aoi?aeanue ia oa??eoi?eth Aaea?one. *oiau aeiaeoueny iiaeaea?aeee o
iieueneeo e ianoiuo aaei?onneeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, Iaiieaii iaeaioia
aieiu iiiaauae aic?iaeeoue ?a/ue Iiniieeooth a a?aieoeao 1772 a. Iiyoiio
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianoiie oeyoou ia iiaeaea?aeeaaea iai?iieoaeueiuo
ia?ii?eyoee oea?neie aaeieieno?aoeee e, a /anoiinoe, nio?aieea
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua neeaaeu aei i?eoiaea iaiieaiiianeeo aiene.

Ionooieaiea 1-e e 2-e ?inneeneeo a?iee iiae ia/aeii aaia?aeia I. Aa?eeay
aea Oieee e I. Aaa?aoeiia ii aaei?onneei caieyi nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aiyie
n iaiieaiiianeeie aieneaie. Iie i?iecioee iiae Aeoiaai, Eaaioeii,
Ai?eniaii, Naenei/ueth, Eaoiaiii, Noa?ui Auoiaii. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua
n?aaeaiey ninoiyeenue a ?aeiia i. Ie? e iiae Eia?eiii. A aiyo iiae
Iiaeeaaii o aea?aaaiue Naeoaiiaea, Aeaoeiaea e Iiainaeee ?inneeneea
aieiu i?iyaeee ia?acoeu ioaeanoaa e aa?iecia. A ninoaaa ?inneeneeo aiene
n?aaeaeinue cia/eoaeueiia /enei aaei?onia. A ethea 1812 a. aieueoay
/anoue Aaea?one (e?iia thaeiuo oacaeia) auea caiyoa aieneaie Iaiieaiia.

Ianaeaiea Aaea?one ?acaeaeeeinue a naieo neiiaoeyo: eiaeenue eae
noi?iiieee ?innee, oae e i?eaa?aeaioeu Iaiieaiia. Aieueoeinoai oeyoou
neiiaoece?iaaei Iaiieaiio e aeaeaei a iai aine?aneoaey ?a/e Iiniieeoie.
Aanueia iaaaoeaii ioianeanue e Iaiieaiio i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue.

Ianna aaei?onneiai e?anoueyinoaa inoaaaeanue eiaeeooa?aioiie e auea
icaai/aia eeoue oai, eae ecaaaeaoue oaeania aieiu, nio?aieoue naia
eiouanoai. A ia/aea /anoue e?anoueyinoaa aeaeaei io Iaiieaiia
oi?acaeiaiey e?aiinoiiai i?aaa (eae i?iecioei a Iieueoa, aaea e?anoueyia
a 1807 a. iieo/eee ee/ioth naiaiaeo) e noaee iaiaaeaoue ia iaineea
onaaeueau. Ii Iaiieaii ia ii?aaaeae eo iaaeaaeae. Ii i?eeacae aunueaoue
aieineea eiiaiaeu aeey onie?aiey iyoaaeieeia. Iiiaea e?anoueyia, caa?aa
neio e eiouanoai, ooiaeeee a eana, ia/eiaee ia?oecaineoth aieio.
Iaiieaii auioaeaeai aue inoaaeoue a Aaea?one 100-ouny/iue io?yae aeey
ai?ueau n ia?oecaiaie, io?aiu eiiioieeaoeee, nai?a i?iaeaioa e oo?aaea.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one nicaeaaaeenue aii?oaeaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey, eioi?ua
aiaaaee ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?iiao. Iai?eia?, aeey a?iee Iaiieaiia
auee nicaeaiu /aou?a iieea eaaaea?ee, iyoue iieeia iaoiou, aaa?aeaeneee
oeaineee iiee e ae?. N ae?oaie noi?iiu – a ?yaeao ?onneeo aiene iiae
Ai?iaeeii, iieacuaay ia?acoeu ioaeanoaa e ioaaae, n?aaeaeinue ia iaiaa
10 oun. aaei?onia, eioi?ua auee ?ae?ooe?iaaiu a ?onneoth a?ieth. Nioie
thiea?ia, oioa?ioeoea?ia e ?yaeiauo Eeoianeiai oeaineiai iieea ca
o/anoea a aeoaa iiae Ai?iaeeii iieo/eee aiaiiua iaa?aaeu.

1 ethey 1812 a. a Aeeueii auea nicaeaia Eiienney a?aiaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai (i?aaeoaeuenoai) ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ianoiie oeyoou. Aicaeaaee eiienneth auaoee i?aaenaaeaoaeue ia?aiai
aeaia?oaiaioa Ieineiai aeaaiiai noaea Eaieineee. Ieineei aoaa?iaoi?ii
noae iieueneee a?enoie?ao A?iieeianeee. A Aeoaaneie e Iiaeeaaneie
aoaa?ieyo auee o/?aaeaeaiu eiiennee «iieueneiai i?aaeaiey», aiia?ao
eioi?uo eiiieaeoiaaeny iieueneie oeyooie e iiae/eiyeny o?aioeocneiio
eiiaiaeiaaieth. A nei?ii a?aiaie aoaa?iee auee ia?aeiaiiaaiu a
aeaia?oaiaiou, eioi?uie oi?aaeyee o?aioeocneea aoaa?iaoi?u.

Iniiaiua oyaiou aieiu eaaee ia iea/e e?anoueyinoaa, eioi?ia noaei
iauaeoii nenoaiaoe/aneeo ?aeaeceoeee e iau/iiai a?aaaaea aiththueo
noi?ii. Iiaay aeanoue oaaee/eaaea iiai?u n ianaeaiey, ia caauaay aeaaea
acuneaoue iaaeieiee, ia?aciaaaoeany i?e ?onneie aeanoe. Yoi aucuaaei ana
ia?anoathuaa iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey. A iaiaeie noaiaie yoiio
niinianoaiaaei ia?iaea?noai iaiieaiiianeeo nieaeao. Iiiaea e?anoueyia
noaiiaeeenue ia?oecaiaie, eioi?ua i?e oaeiaiii neo/aa iaiaaeaee ia
o?aioeocneeo nieaeao. Yoi ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea aeinoaaeei iiiaeanoai
iai?eyoiinoae ieeoiaioai, /ai iauaeoeaii iiiiaaei ?onneei aieneai.

Ionooieaiea o?aioeocneie a?iee i?ioiaeeei /a?ac oa??eoi?eth Aaea?one. A
na?aaeeia iiya?y a?iey Iaiieaiia iiaeioea e Ai?eniao e ia/aea
ia?ai?aaeyoueny /a?ac Aa?aceio a ?aeiia ae. Nooaeaiee. Caeanue o?aioeocu
iioa?yee aieaa 20 oun. nieaeao e ioeoea?ia. 22 iiya?y aicea Iieiaea/ii
aue ?acaeo iineaaeiee io?yae o?aioeocneie a?iee. Ec Nii?aiie Iaiieaii,
iieeioa inoaoee naieo aiene, a iaeaaeaea iieueneiai ioeoea?a aaaeae a
Ia?eae.

Aieia i?eianea aaei?onneiio ia?iaeo ia?iiiua aaaenoaey. Aaea?onue
iioa?yea ieeeeii aeeoaeae, oi anoue eaaeaeiai /aoaa?oiai. Aeoaane,
Iieioee, A?iaeii e ae?oaea ianaeaiiua ioieou auee ?aca?aaeaiu e
niaeaeaiu. A Ieinea a 1811 a. ian/eouaaeinue 11200 aeeoaeae, a a eiioea
1812 a. – oieueei 3480.

12 aeaeaa?y 1812 a. Aeaenaiae? I iiaeienae iaieoano, i?iaicaeaoaaoee
«Caaaaiea i?ioeiai, anaiauaa i?iuaiea». Aeanoe ia noaee i?aneaaeiaaoue
ie o/anoieeia aieiu i?ioea ?innee, ie oao, eoi ?aaioae i?e Iaiieaiia a
i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey. Yoi nianei io ?aci?aiey iiiaea eiaiey,
i?aaeioa?aoeei yiea?aoeeth. Aeai?yinoai Aeeueii ono?ieei aae a /anoue
eiia?aoi?a ?innee a oii aea caea, aaea ianeieueei ianyoeaa iacaae aue
oaeie aea aae a /anoue Iaiieaiia.

3. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a

A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. a Aaea?one i?ienoiaeeee iauea aeey ?inneeneie
eiia?ee i?ioeannu, eioi?ua aaee e ?aniaaeo oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie
nenoaiu, e aicieeiiaaieth iiauo – eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?ino ai?iaeia e oi?aiaee. N
1825 ii 1859 aa. a iyoe caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo /enei i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee oaaee/eaaeinue n 96 aei 549, a eiee/anoai ?aai/eo ia ieo –
n 3310 aei 6508 /aeiaae, n?aaee eioi?uo aieueiiiaaiiua ninoaaeyee 43%.
Iiyaeeenue ia?aua oaa?eee a ianoa/eao Oiine e Einiai A?iaeiaineie
aoaa?iee, aaea i?eiaiyeenue ia?iaua aeaeaaoaee. Noi?ie?iaaeenue oaeea
io?anee, eae aeaeaciia?aaaouaathuay, noaeieueiay, aoiaaeiay,
naaeeinaoa?iay. Aeaaeaeueoeaie iaiooaeoo? e oaa?ee auee iiiaueee. A
oeaeii aea i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aaea?one aieioue aei ?aoi?iu 1861 a.
?acaeaaeanue neaai. I?aaei?eyoee oaa?e/ii -caaiaeneiai oeia auei iaei.
*enei ?aai/eo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaeei aeinoeaaei 10 /aeiaae.

A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. i?ienoiaeee caiaoiue ?ino ai?iaeia e oi?aiaee.
N eiioea XVIII a. ii 60-a aiaeu XIX a. ianaeaiea aaei?onneeo ai?iaeia
aic?inei a 4 ?aca (n 82 oun. aei 320 oun. /ae), a oaeaeueiue aan
ai?iaeai a iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey oaaee/eeny n 3,5 aei 10%. ?ino
yoio aue iaoneiaeai aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi aa?aeneia ianaeaiea auei
i?eioaeeoaeueii ia?anaeaii ec aea?aaaiue a ianoa/ee. ?acaeoea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ai?iaeia noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea oi?aiaee. Ai aioo?aiiae
oi?aiaea iiyaeeenue iiaua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu: eaai/iay oi?aiaey
i?iiuoeaiiuie ecaeaeeyie e i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey, aaeaiaaeaeueiua y?ia?ee
a ai?iaeao e ianoa/eao. Eoia/anoai a aieueoii iauaia auaiceei i?iaeoeou
naeueneiai oicyenoaa e eaniuo i?iiuneia ca a?aieoeo. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a. cia/eoaeueii aic?in oi?aiaue eaieoae. A eiioea
50-o aiaeia a Aaea?one iauyaeee eaieoaeu 1060 aeeueaeaeneeo eoioeia ia
noiio aei 2 iei. 600 oun. ?oaeae.

Iiaua yaeaiey, naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee,
i?iyaeeenue e a naeueneii oicyenoaa, eioi?ia ana i?i/iaa naycuaaeinue n
?uieii. N aic?anoaieai ni?ina ia oeaa ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uiea
?inea oiaa?iinoue iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoa. Iiiaueee ?anoe?yee caiaoeo iiauo
ieiuaaeae, a oii /enea e ca n/ao e?anoueyineeo oaiaeee. A 30 – 40-a
aiaeu 80% aeioiaeia ei aeaaaea i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaiui ia?acii ca?ia, aiaeee,
nie?oa.

I?eniinaaeeaaynue e iio?aaiinoyi ?uiea, iiiaueee ia?ano?aeaaee naia
oicyenoai, aunaaay aieaa auaiaeiua a oiaa?iii ioiioaiee eoeueoo?u.
Iiyaeeenue ?aeiiu n oie eee eiie niaoeeaeecaoeeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiie ec aeioiaeiaeoeo eoeueoo? noae ea?oioaeue. Ii noae
ia oieueei aaaeiui i?iaeoeoii ieoaiey, ii e iniiaiui nu?ueai
aeiieo?aiiuo caaiaeia, eioi?ua aeaaaee aei 60% anao aeioiaeia
iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoa. A eiaieyo iiiaueee noaee nayoue naoa?ioth naaeeo,
ioe?uaaoue naoa?iua caaiaeu. AEeaioiiaiaenoai, ca eneeth/aieai
iaoeaaiaenoaa, a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. aua ia noaei oiaa?iie
io?aneueth. ?acaeaaeanue aa?ioaoieea. A e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo iiiaue/ueeo
oicyenoaao ia/aee eniieueciaaoueny naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu,
ni?oiaua naiaia, oaeia?aiey. ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a
iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoaao Aaea?one aucaaei oaaee/aiea iaaiiiai o?oaea,
eniieuecoaiiai aeaaiui ia?acii ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. A
naeueneii oicyenoaa iaaiiue o?oae /aua anaai aue naciiiui. A eiaieyo,
aaea e?anoueyia auee ia ia?iea, eniieueciaaiea iaaiiiai o?oaea i?eia?aei
iau/iue oa?aeoa?. Iaeiaei iiaua yaeaiey a iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoaao
ioaaoeee iaaieueooth a?oiio e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo oicyenoa.

E?anoueyineia oicyenoai aoyaeaaeinue a i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeeaiiae ii i?e/eia ainiiaenoaa aa?ueiiie
nenoaiu. E?anoueyia a yoi a?aiy ninoaaeyee 90% anaai ianaeaiey Aaea?one
– 70% e?anoueyi auee iiiaue/ueeie, 19% – oae iacuaaaiuie eacaiiuie
(ainoaea?noaaiiuie). Inoaeueiua iiieiaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeaee ainoaea?noao,
ii iaoiaeeeenue a «a?aiaea» o aeai?yi e /eiiaieeia. 97% e?anoueyineeo
oicyenoa iaoiaeeeenue ia aa?ueia, eioi?ay aeinoeaaea 6 /aeiaaei-aeiae a
iaaeaeth n e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Oaaee/eeenue ii?iu oieie, aaaeoia e
ae?oaeo ?aaio. Iiiaea iiiaueee ioaeaaaee naieo e?anoueyi ii eiio?aeoo
iiae?yae/eeaie ia no?ieoaeueiua e aei?iaeiua ?aaiou. Ieaoa ca eo ?aaioo
aeinoaaaeanue iau/ii iiiaueeo. A e?anoueyineii caieaiieueciaaiee auee
?aaeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey. Ia caiaaea e a oeaio?a iii auei iiaeai?iui, ia
ainoiea – i?aeiouanoaaiii iaueiiui.

A e?anoueyineie n?aaea iaiaoeeanue eiouanoaaiii-nioeeaeueiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey. Oi?ie?iaaeanue yeiiiie/anee-onoie/eaay a?oiia e?aieeo
oicyenoa, eioi?ua eniieueciaaee o?oae iaeiinaeue/ai.

E 50-i aiaeai XIX a. i?ioeann ?aniaaea oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie
nenoaiu ia?aoae a iieiaeaiea e?ecena. Aai iieacaoaeai yaeeinue
nie?auaiea i?e?inoa ianaeaiey, ?aci?aiea e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa,
oiaaeie iiiaue/ueeo eiaiee. Iinaau oeaaa a 50-a aa. nie?aoeeenue a
n?aaiaiee n ia?aui aeanyoeeaoeai XIX a. a 1,4 ?aca. O?iaeaeiinoue
nieceeanue a iineaaeiai aeanyoeeaoee ia?aae ?aoi?iie ia 24 – 42%
ioiineoaeueii e ia/aeo XIX a. ?acei oaaee/eeenue iaaeieiee ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui iiaeaoyi e ieaoaaeai. E 1856 a. iie ninoaaeee 8 iei.
?oaeae. Ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?yeenue iao?iaeaeiua aiaeu. Ca 1820 – 1850
aa. a Aeoaaneie e Iiaeeaaneie aoaa?ieyo eo auei aeanyoue. E 1859 a. a
iyoe aaei?onneeo aoaa?ieyo ieiei 60% e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi auee caeiaeaiu
eo aeaaeaeueoeaie.

Iaaeyaeiui iieacaoaeai ia?anoathuaai e?ecena nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu auei e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea. A ia?aie o?aoe XIX a. i?iecioei
ni?ie oanoue e?oiiuo e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee, ai aoi?ie o?aoe – aieaa 90.
Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey iaino?yeenue iaoeeiiaeueii-?aeeaeiciie
a?aaeaeie iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e iiiaueeaie. Nioeeaeueiay
iai?yaeaiiinoue oneeeaaeanue aioenaiiaea?aeaaiie aaeoaoeeae, eioi?oth
aaee n?aaee ianaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/anee iano?iaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee oeyoou.
N iae aeanoe aieioioth noieeioeenue i?e onie?aiee a 40-a aiaeu
aunooieaiee e?anoueyi a eiaiee Nii?aiiue Aeeaineie aoaa?iee. Ianooaau e
oii?noai e?anoueyineie ai?ueau auioaeeee aeanoue aaiaeeoue aieineea
eiiaiaeu, i?iaiaeeoue yecaeooeee. A 1855 a. a nayce n nie?auaieai
iaaeaeia e oaaee/aieai iaeiaia iuoaeenue aeiaeoueny inaiaiaeaeaiey io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e?anoueyia Ianaeaeneie i?aeeiaoeee ?aaeceaeeeia.
A 1856 a. ia onie?aiea aieiaiey a aiiaeueneii eiaiee eiycy Ianeaae/a
auei iai?aaeaii aeaa aaoaeueiia nieaeao. Ana yoi auioaeeei oea?eci
i?iaiaeeoue ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one aieaa aeaeoth
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo e i?aaei?eieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oaae
ii ?aoaieth aa?a?iiai aii?ina.

Ii ?aoaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 1839 a. a caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo ia/aeanue
?aoi?ia n?aaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi. Eieoeeaoi?ii e iniiaiui
i?iaiaeieeii ?aoi?iu noae ieieno? ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa ?innee a?ao
I.Ae. Eenaeaa. 28 aeaeaa?y 1839 a. auee iiaeienaiu oeacu i iiaie nenoaia
?oeiaiaenoaa e ethno?aoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaiee a caiaaeiuo
aoaa?ieyo. Oeac i?aaeoniao?eaae iiae?iaiia iienaiea eiaiee, nicaeaiea
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey eie, ia?aniio? caiaeueiuo iaaeaeia e iiaeiiinoae
e?anoueyi. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeiiinoe oiaiueoeeenue ia 30 – 35% ia caiaaea
Aaea?one e ia 62 – 65% – ia ainoiea. Iicaea ana ainoaea?noaaiiua
e?anoueyia auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia ia?ie, i?ae?auaeanue i?aeoeea naea/e eo a
a?aiaeo. Ia ianoao nicaeaaaeenue auai?iua e?anoueyineea i?aaiu
naiioi?aaeaiey, eioi?ui aeiaa?yeinue ?aoaiea oicyenoaaiiuo,
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e noaeaaiuo aeae. Oi?aaeythuei eiaieyie cai?auaeinue
i?eiaiyoue e e?anoueyiai oece/aneea iaeacaiey.

N oeaeueth ineaaeaiey e?ecena e?aiinoie/aneeo ioiioaiee a iiiaue/ueae
aea?aaia i?aaeoaeuenoai iioei ia i?iaaaeaiea eiaaioa?iie ?aoi?iu, ia/aei
eioi?ie iieiaeee oeac 15 ai?aey 1844 a. Nooue aa naiaeeeanue e
?aaoee?iaaieth ?acia?ia iaaeaeia e oeenaoeee iiaeiiinoae e?aiinoiuo
e?anoueyi. Yoei caieiaeenue aoaa?ineea eiaaioa?iua eiieoaou ec
ainoaea?noaaiiuo /eiiaieeia e i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeai?yinoaa. Iaycaoaeueiua
eiaaioa?e auee aaaaeaiu ai anao eiaieyo Caiaaeiie, Oeaio?aeueiie e,
/anoe/ii, Ainoi/iie Aaea?one. ?aoi?ia ano?aoeea nii?ioeaeaiea iiiaueeia.
Aeanoe ianeieueei ?ac iaiyee iiaeoiaeu i?e aa inouanoaeaiee, iiyoiio iia
caoyioeanue aei 1857 a. Ianiio?y ia e?aiinoioth ia?aie/aiiinoue,
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e iacaaa?oaiiinoue ?aoi?ia noaaeea i?aaeae
aeanoe iiiaueeia e ioe?uaaea ii?aaeaeaiiua eaaaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
e?anoueyiai aeey ionoaeaaiey naieo eioa?ania. A oeaeii ?aoi?iu 40 – 50-o
aa. ia cao?aaeaaee iniia oaiaeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia.

4. Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a Aaea?one a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
a

Eeeaeaeaoeey ?a/e Iiniieeoie, eaeae o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee, niauoey
aieiu 1812 a. ieacaee aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey ia caieyo Aaea?one. Oeyoaoneay
eioaeeeaaioeey, o/auayny iieiaeaaeue, iaaeiaieueiua ?acaeaeaie ?a/e
Iiniieeoie, iauaaeeiyeenue a e?oaeee e oiaa?euanoaa aeey au?aaioee e
inouanoaeaiey naieo nioeeaeueiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaeaaeia. Eaeaeii e,
/anoe/ii, i?aaiecaoeeiiii iie auee naycaiu n iieueneei iauanoaaiiui
aeaeaeaieai, eiioaeoe?iaaee n ia?aaeiauie ethaeueie ?innee.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo oaeiuo iauanoa auea «Aeeaineay annioeeaoeey»,
?ac?aaioaaoay a 1797 a. aeieoiaio – «Aeo aeeaineiai ainnoaiey», a
eioi?ii noaaeeanue oeaeue ainnoaiiaeaiey ?a/e Iiniieeoie ia iniiaa
eiinoeoooeee 3 iay 1791 a. Iia eiaea naie ioaeaeaiey a A?anoa, Eia?eia.
A?iaeii, Ieinea e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao. *eaiu yoie i?aaiecaoeee auee
a?anoiaaiu, noaeeiu, eeoaiu oeyoaoneiai caaiey e ioi?aaeaiu a Neae?ue.

A 1817 a. a Aeeaineii oieaa?neoaoa ii eieoeeaoeaa nooaeaioia Aaeaia
Ieoeeaae/a, Oiiaoa Caia, ssia *a/ioa auei nicaeaii «Oiaa?euanoai
oeeiiaoia», eioi?ia eiaei naie ioaeaeaiey a Naenei/neie aeiiacee,
Iieioeeii iey?neii o/eeeua e ae?oaeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. Iie
i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee eaeae ?aaainoaa e naiaiaeu. Aoaeouaa Aaea?one aeaeaee
a eeeaeaeaoeee e?aiinoie/anoaa, aaaaeaiee eiinoeoooeeiiiie oi?iu
i?aaeaiey. A 1825 a. yoe iauanoaa auee ?ane?uou, noi /aeiaae a?anoiaaii,
iiiaea auee iinaaeaiu a oth?ueio e nineaiu a Neae?ue.

A Aaea?one iieo/eei ii?aaeaeaiiue ioeeee e iiaeaea?aeeo aeaeaeaiea
aeaeaa?enoia. Aeaeaa?enou, a naith i/a?aaeue, neaaeeee ca ?acaeoeai
iieueneiai iaoeeiiaeueii -inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey e iuoaeenue
onoaiiaeoue naycue n aicieeoei a 1821 a. iieueneei «Iao?eioe/aneei
oiaa?euanoaii», eioi?ia eiaei naie ioaeaeaiey a Aaea?one. I?aaia e?uei
«Oiaa?euanoaa» oei ia nithc n aeaeaa?enoaie i?e oneiaee, /oi Iieueoa
aoaeoo aica?auaiu ana caiee a a?aieoeao 1772 a. Eaoii 1823 a. «THaeiia
iauanoai» aeaeaa?enoia aiiaue iiiuoaeinue onoaiiaeoue naycue n
ioaeaeaieyie «Oiaa?euanoaa» a Aaea?one. ?ann/eouaay ia eo iiiiuue,
aeaeaa?enou ?ac?aaaouaaee ieai ainnoaiey a Aia?oenea e a?anoa oea?y ai
a?aiy niio?a aieineeo /anoae, ii ec-ca iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e ?aciiaeanee
a ?oeiaiaenoaa yoio ieai ia aue inouanoaeai.

A 1823 a. oeeiiao I. ?oeaae/ nicaeae a ianoa/ea A?yine Aaeinoieneiai
oacaea oaeiia iauanoai aeaeaa?enoneiai oeia «Aiaiiua ae?ocuey», a
eioi?ii iaeio ec aeaaiuo ?ieae ea?ae eaieoai E. Eaaeueno?ii. Iii
iauaaeeiyei ioeoea?ia eeoianeiai ei?iona, ianoiuo /eiiaieeia, oeyooe/ae,
o/auothny iieiaeaaeue. Ninoiyei iauanoai ec o?ao nooiaiae. A ia?aoth
(«Aiaiiua ae?ocuey») aoiaeeee ?oeiaiaeeoaee iauanoaa e ioeoea?u, ai
aoi?oth («Niaeanea») – a?aaeaeaineea eeoea, a o?aoueth («Ca?yia») –
o/aueany Naenei/neie e Aaeinoieneie aeiiacee. 24 aeaeaa?y 1825 a.
iauanoai «Aiaiiuo ae?ocae» ni?aaei oea?aiiieth i?enyae ia aa?iinoue
Ieeieath I. Iiiuoea ainnoaiey auea i?ana/aia, a aa i?aaiecaoi?u
a?anoiaaiu. A oaa?aea 1826 a. a Aia?oenea ai a?aiy niio?a iieea
i?aii?uee N. O?onia, iaiaaeea oiaao ia?aae nieaeaoneei no?iai, «iiiinee
ainoaea?y eiia?aoi?a e anth aaaonoaeooth oaieeeth» e i?ecaae n i?oaeeai
a ?oeao aunooieoue ca naiaiaeo, i?ioea oea?y-oe?aia. Iaeiaei iiaeiyoue
nieaeao ia ainnoaiea ia oaeaeinue.

A ioaao ia yoe niauoey a Aaea?one oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai Ieeieay I
ia/aei i?iaiaeeoue ?ai?anneaioth iieeoeeo. O anao /eiiaieeia noaee
a?aoue iiaeieneo i iieeoe/aneie aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe e ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
e oaeiui iauanoaai. ?yae io?aiii-iieeoeaeneeo ia? aue i?aaei?eiyo ii
ioiioaieth e o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi. Iaeiaei iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea iiaeaaeoue ia oaeaeinue.

A iiya?a 1830 a. a Aa?oaaa ia/aeinue oeyoaoneia ainnoaiea, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
eioi?iai noaaeee iniiaiie oeaeueth ainnoaiiaeaiea ?a/e Iiniieeoie a
a?aieoeao 1772 a. Iiaeaioiaeo ainnoaiey a Aaea?one inouanoaeyee
iieueneay e iiiey/aiiay oeyooa, iieueneay eioaeeeaaioeey, nooaeaiou,
/eiiaieee, ioeoea?u-iieyee, eaoiee/aneia e oieaoneia aeooiaainoai,
yienna?u Ei?ieaanoaa Iieueneiai. A ia/aea 1831 a. aeey iiaeaioiaee
ainnoaiey a Aaea?one aue nicaeai Aeeaineee Oeaio?aeueiue iianoai/aneee
eiieoao , eioi?ue ieacaeny iaeiaeaenoaaiiui e ia?aoeoaeueiui. Iauaai
?oeiaiaenoaa ainnoaieai a Aaea?one ia auei, iii i?ioiaeeei
?acae?iaeaiii, ii iiaaoai. E?anoueyia e iauaia ia aeaeaee eaeoe a
iianoai/aneea io?yaeu, oae eae e ?a/e ia oei i ?aoaiee eo nioeeaeueiuo
i?iaeai, e oiio aea aeoeaioth i?iiaaaiaeenoneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aaee
oea?neea aeanoe, eioi?ua iaauaee inaiaiaeaeaiea ec-iiae aeanoe
iiiaueeia-iianoaioeaa. Anaai a naaa?i-caiaaeiuo iiaaoao Aaea?one
ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 10 ouny/ iianoaioeaa.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one cia/eoaeueiuo aiaiiuo aeaenoaee ia auei, oioy
?inneeneei aieneai e i?eoeinue ioaeaaoue o iianoaioeaa Naaioyiu, Aeenio,
Aeeaeeo, Ioiyiu, Eaiaeue. A eiioea iay iianoai/aneea io?yaeu a Aeeaineie
e Ieineie aoaa?ieyo auee ?aca?iieaiu. Aiaiiua aeaenoaey aaee oieueei
io?yaeu, i?eauaoea ec Iieueoe iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Oeiiianeiai e
Aaeaoaea. Iauaaeeiaiiua neeu ainnoaaoeo 19 ethiy 1831 a. iiiuoaeenue
caoaaoeoue Aeeueii, ii auioaeaeaiu auee ionooieoue. Eaoii 1831 a.
ioaeaeueiua aunooieaiey i?iecioee a thaeiuo ?aeiiao Aaea?one, ii a
oeaeii ainnoaiea iioei ia niaae e a aaaonoa i?aeoe/anee auei iiaeaaeaii.
?aca?ii ainnoaiey i?eaae e ioiaia aaoiiiiee Iieueoe e Eiinoeoooeee 1815
a. Iiiaea aai o/anoieee auee i?aaeaiu noaeo. Eiaiey oeyooe/ae
eiioeneiauaaeenue. Iiiaeo o/anoieeia ainnoaiey ioaeaee a nieaeaou,
auneaee a Neae?ue ia iinaeaiea. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one (a nia?aiaiiuo
a?aieoeao) a 1837 a. auee eiioeneiaaiu 115 eiaiee n 38544 e?anoueyiaie
ioaeneiai iiea.

Iiaeaaeaiea ainnoaiey ia niiaei inoaiiaeoue iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea a Aaea?one. Ana aieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue noaee ea?aoue
i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeaiie?aoia, au?aaeaaoeo eioa?anu
e?anoueyinoaa e o?oaeyueony ai?iaea. Iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea i?eia?aoaao
nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue, noaaeo caaea/e ee/iiai inaiaiaeaeaiey
e?anoueyi, naa?aeaiea oea?ecia. Iiaia iieieaiea ?aaiethoeeiia?ia
oi?ie?iaaeinue ec ?acii/eioeaa. Iiiaea o?iaeaioeu Aaea?one o/eeenue a
Iaoa?ao?aa e ae?oaeo ?inneeneeo ai?iaeao, o/anoaiaaee oai a oaeiuo
iauanoaao e e?oaeeao, /oi ieacuaaei aeeyiea ia eo iieeoe/aneia niciaiea.
N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth a Aaea?one i?iaeieaeaei
ieacuaaoue aeeyiea iieueneia iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea.

Iieueneay yiea?aoeey ia oa?yea iaaeaaeaeu ia aiciaiiaeaiea aii?oaeaiiie
ai?ueau, eae iie n/eoaee, a «?onneie Iieueoa», o.a. a Aaea?one. A 1833
a. i?aaenoaaeoaeue iieueneeo yiea?aioia, o?iaeaiaoe eiaiey Ii?a/uea
Neiieineiai oacaea I. Aieiae/ ia?aoae a?aieoeo n ?inneae e noi?ie?iaae
ia?oecaineee io?yae ec e?anoueyi naiae aea?aaie. I. Aieiae/ aue noaa/ai
e i?eaiai?ai e iiaaoaieth. A 1838 a. ioaee/ii aue ?anno?aeyi aua iaeei
yiea?aio O. Eaia?neee, nicaeaoaeue e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iauanoaa «Iieiaeay
Iieueoa».

Nooaeaio Aeeaineie iaaeeei-oe?o?ae/aneie aeaaeaiee, o?iaeaiaoe Ieiueiu,
O?aioe Naae/ iniiaae a 1836 a. a Aeeueii «Aeaiie?aoe/aneia
oiaa?euanoai», /eaiu eioi?iai i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee eaeae nieeaea?iinoe
ia?iaeia a ai?ueaa i?ioea naiiaea?aeaaey, aunooiaee ca inaiaiaeaeaiea
e?anoueyi e iaaeaeaiea eo caieae. Eaeaaeii iieeoe/aneiai no?iy aeey
Naae/a e aai aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia auei iauanoai ?aaiuo aiciiaeiinoae. A
1838 a. «Aeaiie?aoe/aneia iauanoai» auei ?aca?iieaii. A 1846 – 1849 aa.
a Aeeueii, Ieinea, A?iaeii, Eeaea, Iiaia?oaeea, Ioiyiao e ae?oaeo
ai?iaeao aeaenoaiaaea oaeiay i?aaiecaoeey «Nithc naiaiaeiuo a?aoueaa»,
ian/eouaaaoay aeaanoe /aeiaae. Aaeanue i?iiaaaiaea n?aaee nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia ieineiai aa?ieciia.

Ia?yaeo n ?ai?anneyie ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaaei a Aaea?one ?yae
iieeoe/aneeo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oe?aieaiea
caeanue naiae aeanoe, auno?aeoaa neeyiea caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee n nianoaaiii
?onneeie aoaa?ieyie iiae ciaiaiai i?aaineaaey e aaeeiie ?onneie
ia?iaeiinoe. Eiioeneiaaiiua e eacaiiua eiaiey ?acaeaaaeenue ?onneei
aeai?yiai e /eiiaieeai. A 1831 a. a Aeoaaneie e Iiaeeaaneie aoaa?ieyo
auei i?ae?auaii aeaenoaea Noaoooa Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai 1588 a,
a a 1840 a. ii aue ioiaiai a Aeeaineie, A?iaeiaineie e Ieineie
aoaa?ieyo. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I. Nia?aineiai anei?a auea caaa?oaia
iiaeaioiaea «Nai?a ianoiuo caeiiia», eioi?ue noae iniiaie oneeaiey
?inneeneiai aeeyiey. Oea?ue ooaa?aeee oaeaea iinoaiiaeaiea i ia?anaeaiee
a Aaea?onue «auoiaeoeaa ec aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee, eioi?ua i?eianoo n niaie
a nae e?ae, /oaeaeathueeny ?innee, iao ycue, iau/ae, i?eaa?aeaiiinoue
?onneiio i?anoieo». A ianaeaiee Aaea?one i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeaei oieueei
«iieyeia», i?aiaa?aaaei aaei?onneei e?anoueyinoaii e aaei?onneie
eoeueoo?ie. Oaeiio iiaeoiaeo niinianoaiaaea iiceoeey I. Io?aaueaaa ,
eioi?ue noiae oaaaeeoue i?aaeoaeuenoai a iaiaoiaeeiinoe ai?ueau n
iieueneei «aeooii e?ay» e i?aa?auaiee aai a ?onneee aeoo. Oioy
iniiaaiiue a Iaoa?ao?aa ec aunoeo naiiaieeia Eiieoao ii aeaeai Caiaaeiuo
aoaa?iee aue i?eaioe?iaai «o?aaiyoue caiaaeiue e?ae ai anao ioiioaieyo n
aioo?aiieie ?inneeneeie aoaa?ieyie», aai aeayoaeueiinoue iineea
aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoeaeneee oa?aeoa?.

A oeaeyo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo oeyoaoneeo aieiaiee aue i?iaaaeai
oae iacuaaaiue «?acai? oeyoou», yoa i?ioeaaeo?a i?aaenoaaeyea
oioaeueioth i?iaa?eo aeieoiaioaeueiuo naeaeaoaeuenoa i oeyoaoneii
i?ienoiaeaeaiee. Oa, eoi ia iia iiaeoaa?aeeoue naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea,
eeoaeny aeai?yineiai caaiey e ia?aaiaeeeny a iai?eaeeaae?iaaiiua
nineiaey: iaeiiaeai?oeaa – a naeueneie ianoiinoe, a?aaeaeai – a
ai?iaeao. Cia/eoaeueiia /enei yoeo naiaenoa auei ia?anaeaii a thaeiua
?aeiiu ?innee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee iieeoeee oea?ecia auea ai?ueaa i?ioea
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Aeanoe iioee ii iooe oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa
aeooiaainoaa e iiae?uaa aai yeiiiie/aneie aacu. A 1832 a. aue ecaeai
oeac i eeeaeaeaoeee iaeiiieaeoiuo (iaei/eneaiiuo) eaoiee/aneeo
iiianou?ae e ia?aaea/e eo eiaiee a eacio. A 1841 a, nnueaynue ia oi «eae
iai?enoieii aeooiaiie iniaa io?uaaoueny io aa i?yiuo nayuaiie/aneeo
iaycaiiinoae», iiyaeeny ?yae oeacia i i?eaia a eacio nianoaaiiinoe anao
eiaiee aunoaai i?aaineaaiiai e eiiaa?/aneiai aeooiaainoaa caiaaeiuo
aoaa?iee. A 40-a aiaeu naeoey?ecaoeey oea?eiaiuo aeaaeaiee auea a
iniiaiii caaa?oaia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ieiei 100 oun. ?aaecneeo aeoo
iiiieieee ?yaeu ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi. Oaeei ia?acii, oea?eiaue
noaaeeanue a aieueooth caaeneiinoue io ainoaea?noaa.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe a ?aaeiia aeanoe n/eoaee
eiinieeaeaoeeth aaei?onneiai ianaeaiey iiae yaeaeie i?aaineaaey – iii?u
naiiaea?aeaaey. A 30-a aiaeu aeanoe neeiiytho ia naith noi?iio aunoaa
oieaoneia aeooiaainoai ai aeaaa n aieneiiii Eineoii Naiaoei. 12 oaa?aey
1839 a. ia niai?a a Iieioeea i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i i?eniaaeeiaiee
oieaoneie oea?eae e ?onneie i?aaineaaiie. Eeeaeaeaoeey oieaoneie oea?eae
nii?iaiaeaeaeanue oie/oiaeaieai aa eeoa?aoo?u e ae?oaeo
?aeeaeicii-eoeueoiauo oeaiiinoae. Ia aaei?onneeo caieyo onoaiaaeeaaaony
ainiiaenoai ?onneiai i?aaineaaey. A 1840 a. oea?ue ?anii?yaeeeny ia
oiio?aaeyoue a aeaeiauo aoiaaao oa?ieiu «aaei?onneea» e «eeoianeea»
aoaa?iee, a ia?a/eneyoue eo ii iacaaieth. Aaiaeeeinue iacaaiea
«Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue e?ae».

5. Eoeueoo?a Aaea?one a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey aaei?onneeo caiaeue e ?innee
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea Aaea?one i?ioiaeeei a iiauo oneiaeyo,
naycaiiuo n oi?ie?iaaieai eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.
A iae i?ienoiaeeee na?ueaciua ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Auea ia?ooaia
?aeeaeiciay iiiiiieey a eoeueoo?a. Iia ana aieueoa i?eieiaea naaoneee
oa?aeoa?.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u Aaea?one auei oneeaiea a ia?aie
o?aoe XIX a. aa iieiiecaoeee. Yoi auei iaoneiaeaii iieeoeeie eiia?aoi?a
Aeaenaiae?a I, eioi?ay auea iai?aaeaia ia noaiiaeaiea iieueneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, e iaoea iiaeaea?aeeo n?aaee iieueneiai iaaiaonoaa e
iieiiece?iaaiiie oeyoou. Iieueneee ycue aue ycueii aaniethoiiai
aieueoeinoaa ia?aciaaiiiai ianaeaiey, ycueii i?inaauaiey, eeoa?aoo?u e
oaao?a. Iniaaiii aeoeaii, aei ecaiaiey ec ?innee a 1820 a., aeaenoaiaaee
a yoii iai?aaeaiee eacoeou. Iie ?aniieaaaee ?yaeii o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.
Iao/aiea a ieo aaeinue ia iieueneii ycuea. Iniaaiii aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaea
Iieioeeay eacoeoneay eieeaaey, eioi?ie a 1812 a. oeacii oea?y auea
i?enaiaia noaiaiue Aeaaeaiee.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a Aaea?one i?iaiaeeeanue iieeoeea ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. Yoa iieeoeea auea inoi?iaeiie i?e Aeaoa?eia II, eeaa?aeueiie
i?e Aeaenaiae?a I e aeanoeie e ?aoeoaeueiie ai a?aiaia Ieeieay I. Oioy
aa ino?ea auei iai?aaeaii i?ioea aeeyiey iieueneie eoeueoo?u, iia
iauaeoeaii naea?aeeaaea ?acaeoea aaei?onneie. Aaei?onneee ycue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaeny eae aeeaeaeoiue aiai? ?onneiai. Ia iaeia?yaoea
iieeoeeo ?oneoeeaoeee, ca i?aaeaeu Aaea?one auee auneaiu ss. *a/io, A.
Naae/, ia 25-eaoithth neoaeao ii?aaeaeeee I. Aaa?eia e o.ae.

Aaconeiaii, eoeueoo?a Aaea?one io?aaeaea nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o
iauanoaa. Ninoaaiuie /anoyie aa auee iaaiaoneay eoeueoo?a,
iiianoii-aeai?yineay eoeueoo?a n?aaeiae e iaeeie oeyoou, eoeueoo?a iauai
e ianaeaiey ai?iaeia e ianoa/ae, e?anoueyineay eoeueoo?a. Eiioanneiiiay
iaiaeii?iaeiinoue ianaeaiey i?eaiaeeea e eoeueoo?iie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
ii ?aeeaeiciiio i?eciaeo e /anoi iineea oa?aeoa? ino?iai i?ioeainoiyiey.
Ii o?iaith ?acaeoey, yoie/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe eoeueoo?a Aaea?one a
?aciuo ?aaeiiao eiaea ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou.

A niioaaonoaee n ?aoi?iie i?inaauaiey 1803 – 1804 aa. oeieueiay nenoaia
no?ieeanue ii i?eioeeio aaeeinoaa e i?aainoaaiiinoe. A eaaeaeii
aoaa?ineii ai?iaea nicaeaaaeanue aeiiacey, a oacaeiii ai?iaea – oacaeiia
o/eeeua, a aea?aaiyo – oea?eiaii -i?eoiaeneea oeieu. Ana o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey aaei?onneeo aoaa?iee aioee a ninoaa Aeeaineiai o/aaiiai
ie?oaa e noaee iiae/eiyoueny Aeeaineiio oieaa?neoaoo, eioi?ue
inouanoaeye eiio?ieue ca ?aaioie oeie, aai i?aiiaeaaaoaee aioiaeee
i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey, ienaee o/aaieee. E?iia ainoaea?noaaiiuo, ?aaioaee
aeiiacee i?e eaoiee/aneeo e aacueyineeo iiianou?yo, eioi?ua aeaaaee
n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea. Ia?aciaaiea aa?aaa, eioi?ua ninoaaeyee ii/oe
iieiaeio ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey Aaea?one, inouanoaeyeinue a
oaeioae-oi?ao, oiaei?ieiao e ae?oaeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, eioi?ua
niaea?aeaeenue ia aeaiueae aa?aeneeo iauei. A ieo aeaoe eco/aee
nayuaiiua eieae eoaeaecia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ?aaaeiia.

Iinea ainnoaiey 1830 – 1831 aa. oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaiyao iieeoeeo
a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey. 1 iay 1832 a. aue cae?uo Aeeaineee oieaa?neoao. A
Aeeueii inoaaony Iaaeeei-oe?o?ae/aneay Aeaaeaiey, nicaeaiiay ia aaca
iaaeeoeeineiai oaeoeueoaoa (?aaioaao aei 1840 a.). Iao/aiea ai anao
oeiao oeie ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue. O/eoaey, ia aeaaeathuea ?onneei
ycueii, iono?aiythony io i?aiiaeaaaiey. ?onneiycu/iuo o/eoaeae aeey
Aaea?one ia/eiaao aioiaeoue Iaoa?ao?aneee o/eoaeueneee einoeooo e
nicaeaiiay a Aeoaanea a 1834 a. o/eoaeueneay naieia?ey (?aaioaao aei
1839 a.). N?aaee ae?oaeo niauoee a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue ioe?uoea a 1840 a. Ai?e-Ai?aoeeie caieaaeaeue/aneie oeieu,
eioi?ay a 1848 a. auea i?aia?aciaaia a caieaaeaeue/aneee einoeooo, a
oaeaea ioe?uoea eaaeaoneeo ei?ionia a Iieioeea e I?oa. Eiee/anoai
o/aieeia a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo auei iaaieueoei: iaeei o/aiee i?eoiaeeeny
ia aeaanoe /aeiaae ianaeaiey.

Aaea?onue noaea iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiee ?inneeneeo o/aiuo. Oaea a 1773 a.
Aeaaeaiey iaoe iineaea nthaea aeaa yeniaaeeoeee ai aeaaa n E.
Eneaiueaaui (ano?iiiie/aneay) e E. Eaiaoeiui (oece/aneay). Eioa?an e
eco/aieth Aaea?one i?iyaeee iieueneea o/aiua O. *aoeeee, TH. Iaioeaae/,
E. Eaeaaaeue e ae?. Cia/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey aeinoeaea ano?iiiiey,
iaoaiaoeea, iaaeeoeeia – a Aeeaineii oieaa?neoaoa, aa?iaeieiaey – a
Ai?e-Ai?aoeeii caieaaeaeue/aneii einoeoooa. Auaeaeeeenue aaei?onneay
a?oaieiaey, yoiia?aoey, oieueeei?enoeea, aaea ieiaeioai?ii ?aaioaee
C.ss. Aeieaiaa-Oiaeaeianeee, O. Ia?aoo, a?aouey A.I. e E.I. Ouoeaae/e,
A. Ee?ei?, I.I. Oieeaaneee. O?oaeu aaei?onenoeee, ioaeeeaoeee
oieueeei?enoia, yoiia?aoia niinianoaiaaee i?iaoaeaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
niciaiey aaei?onia.

A onoiii ia?iaeiii oai?/anoaa yoiai a?aiaie iaoee io?aaeaiea niauoey
nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie. Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee
aaei?onneie eeoa?aoo?u nua?aee ss. Ai?uaaneee, ss. *a/io, A. ?eieineee e
ae?. ssi *a/io ecaeae oanoue oieueeei?iuo nai?ieeia «Aea?aaaineea
ianie», ssi Ai?uaaneee ecaeae /aou?aooiiiue nai?iee «Oeyooe/ Caaaeueiy,
eee Aaea?onue a oaioanoe/aneeo ?anneacao» e o.ae. Auaeathueieny
iaiyoieeaie eeoa?aoo?u ia?aie iieiaeiu XlX aaea yaeythony aiiieiiua
iiyiu «Yiaiaea iaauaa?ao» e «Oa?an ia Ia?iana». Ia?aui eeanneeii
aaei?onneie eeoa?aoo?u noae Aeioeaio Aeoiei-Ia?oeieaae/. Aia?aua aeeaie
aaei?onneee ycue cacao/ae a aai i?iecaaaeaiee «Naeyiea» («Eaeeeeey»). A
ia/aea 60-o aa. ii nicaeaao naia eo/oaa i?iecaaaeaiea «Ieineay oeyooa».

A eoeueoo?a Aaea?one ia?aie iieiaeiu XlX aaea cia/eoaeueiia ianoi
i?eiaaeeaaeaei oaao?o. ?acaeaaeinue eae ethaeoaeueneia, oae e
i?ioanneiiaeueiia oaao?aeueiia eneonnoai. Niauoeai a oaao?aeueiie aeecie
Aaea?one auei aicieeiiaaiea ia?aie o?oiiu aaei?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oaao?a A. Aeoieia-Ia?oeieaae/a. 23 naioya?y 1841 a. ninoiyeanue
i?aiuea?a eiie/aneie iia?u «?ae?ooneee aa?aeneee iaai?». Iocueo e iae
iaienae N. Iaithoei e E. Eaeeaeaiianeee, a eea?aooi – A.
Aeoiei-Ia?oeieaae/.

Ia?aay iieiaeia XlX aaea yaeeanue ia/aeii nai?a e ioaeeeaoeee
aaei?onneie ia?iaeiie ianie, iiiuoee aa eiiiiceoi?neie e eiioea?oiie
ia?aaioee. Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho i?iecaaaeaiey A. Aa?aiiae/a,
A. Noaoaiiae/a, O. Ieeaaeianeiai. A eiaiee Caeanuea ia Nii?aiiueia ienae
iieiiacu Ieoae Eeaioan Iaeiuenee. Aeoaieee neaae a aaei?onneie
iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?a inoaaee eeannee iieueneie iocuee, o?iaeaiaoe
Eaoiaineiai oacaea N. Iaithoei.

?acaeoea a?oeoaeoo?u ii?aaeaeyeinue a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaii: cano?ieeie
oeaio?ia ai?iaeia aeiiaie niaoeeaeueiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai iacia/aiey.
Aeey a?oeoaeoo?u auea oa?aeoa?ia niaia noeey aa?ieei ia eeanneoeeci. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aeai?aoe-onaaeueaa ?oiyioeaauo-Ianeaae/ae e niai?
Iao?a e Iaaea a Aiiaea, aoaa?iaoi?neee aeai?aoe a Aeoaanea, niai? Eineoa
a Iiaeeaaa. Aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneeie ioaeaeaie auei aucaaii no?ieoaeuenoai
e?aiinoae a Aia?oenea, Ai?eniaa, A?anoa.

Ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee aeeaiiene nua?aee ainieoaiieee
Aeeaineie oeieu aeeaiiene – ioaeaeaiea ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa
oaeoeueoaoa eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa Aeeaineiai oieaa?neoaoa. Iniiaaoaeai
oeieu aue i?ioanni? O. Nioaeaae/. Ca /aoaa?oue aaea oeiea iiaeaioiaeea
aieaa aeaoonio iyoeaeanyoe ooaeiaeieeia, a?aaa?ia, neoeueioi?ia. *eai
eiia?aoi?neie aeaaeaiee eneonnoa Eineo Ieaoeaae/ (1777 – 1830 aa.)
iaienae ii?o?ao A. *a?oi?eeneiai , I.?aaeceaeeea, E. Naiaae, A.
Ieoeeaae/a e ae?. I?aaenoaaeoaeue ?iiaioecia A. Aaiueeiae/ (1800 – 1885
aa.) nicaeae ii?o?aou iiyoia A. Iooeeia, A. Ai?aoeeiai, ieaienoee I
Oeiaiianeie, a oaeaea ea?oeio «Ieoeeaae/ ia neaea Ath-Aeaa» e ae?.
AEeaiienaoe ssi Aeaiaeue (1780 – 1840 aa.) nicaeae ea?oeiu enoi?e/aneiai
aeai?a «Nia?oue Aeeineiai a iaaiea», «Inaiaiaeaeaiea O. Einothoei ec
oaiieoeu», «Ionooieaiea o?aioeocia /a?ac Aeeueii a 1812 a.». O?ooeeee
(1810 – 1883 aa.) ?aaioae a aeai?a eeanne/aneiai iaoth?ii?oa e auoiaie
aeeaiiene. Iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae aaei?onneiai ?aaeenoe/aneiai iaecaaea
aue A. Aeiioianeee (1807 – 1867 aa.). Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie neoeueioi?aie
oiai a?aiaie auee E. Aeueneee e aai nuiiauey ssi e Eaceie?, ?. Neecaiue
e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo iieiiecaoeee e ?oneoeeaoeee aaei?onneee ia?iae
noiae nio?aieoue yoie/aneee iaeee, oi?ie?iaaoue e ?acaeaaoue
iaoeeiiaeueioth eoeueoo?o, eioi?ay i?iyaeeanue a noaiiaeaiee
aaei?onneiai ycuea, iiaie aaei?onneie eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

2. A?noi?uy Aaea?on? c 6 o. O. 4. – Ii.: Yeaia?niaeouaa, 2005

3. Ia?unu a?noi?u? Aaea?on? c 2 o. O. 1. – Ii.: Aaea?onue, 1994

4. A?oaaeia?y Aaea?on?: O 4 o. O.1 – 3. / ?yaeeae.: I.A. A?/ (noa?o.) ?
?io. – Ii.: Aae. iaaoea, 1997 – 2000.

5. Aaea?onu: A?no.-yoiaa?. aeaneaae.: O 8 o. O.3 – 5. / IAI Aaea?on?;
?yaeeae.: A.E. Aaiaea?/ue ? ?io. – Ii.: Aae. iaaoea, 1999-2001.

6. Aaea?onue ia iyaeu ouny/aaiaeaecyc. – Ii.: AaeYi, 2000. – 432 n.

7. A?oiacne? A.O. A?noi?uy aecy?aeaau ? i?aaa Aaea?on?: Ao/ya. aeaiai. –
Ii.: Yeaia?niaeouaa, 2000. – 300 n.

8. Ainoi?uy Aaea?oni: Ao/ya. aeaiai.: O 2 /. / ss. E. Iiaie, A.N.
Ia?oeoeue, ?.E. Ea/aeac ? ?io.; Iaae ?yae. ss.E. Iia?ea, A.N. Ia?oeoey.
– Ii.: Oi?aa?n?oyoeeaa, 2000.

9. Ainoi?uy Aaea?oni: O 6 o. O.1. / A. Ay?aae, ?. Aaiaoeeay, I. Ao?ui ?
?io.; ?yaeeae.: I.I. Eanoethe (aae. ?yae.) ? ?io. – Ii.: Aae. Iaaoea,
2001.

10. A?noi?uy Aaea?on? c 1795 a. aea ayniu 1917 a.: Ao/ya. aeaiai. /?.?.
Eiceaeue, ?.I. E?yiue, E.O. Ay?yeoue ? ?io.; ?yae. eaeaa?y: ?.I. E?yiue,
?.?. Eiceaeue. – Ii.: Aaa?nya, 2001. – 400 n.

11. A?noi?uy Aaea?on?: O 2 /.: Eo?n eaeoeue. *.1. Na noa?aaeuoiuo /anic
aea eaioea OVIII no./ ?.I. E?yiue, ?.?. Eiceaeue, N.A. Ia?icaaa ? ?io. –
Ii.: ??AO, 2000. – 655 n.; *.2. XIX – XX noaaiaeaeci / I.?. A?uaaaec?i,
O.O. Eaaeunac, I.?. Cye?ine? ? ?io. – Ii.: ??AO, 2002. – 656 n.

12. A?noi?uy aaea?oneaaa ianoaoeoaa: O 6 o. – Ii.: Iaaoea ? oyoi?ea,
1987 – 1994.

13. A?noi?uy aaea?oneaaa oyao?a : O 3 o. – Ii.: Iaaoea ? oyoi?ea, 1983 –
1987.

14. A?noi?uy aaea?oneae e?oa?aoo?u O?O – ia/. OO no.: Iaae?o/i?e / Iaae
aaoe. ?yae. I.A. Eaca?oea, A.A. Naiyiia?/a. – Ii.: Auoyeoay oeiea, 1998.
– 559 n.

15. A?noi?uy aaea?oneae e?oa?aoo?u OO noaaiaeaecy: O 4 o. / Iaaoe. ?yae.
O.A. Ai?eai?aeac. – Ii.: Aaea?oneay iaaoea, 1999 – 2001.

16. A?noi?uy nyeyinoaa Aaea?on?: Na noa?aae. /anic aea 1996 a.: O 3 o.
O.1–2./ Aae. ?yae. I.I. Eanoethe. – Ii.: Aae. iaaoea, 1997 – 2002.

17. Aeicia?-Caiieuene? I.A. A?noi?uy Aaea?on?. – Ii.: AaeYi, 1994. – 510
n.

18. Ae?iaia E.I. AEeaiienue Aaei?onnee O?O – ia/aea OO aa. – Ii.:
Auoyeoay oeiea, 1974. – 334 n.

19. C a?noi?uye ia “Au”: Ioae?oeunou/iuy a?oueoeu / Oeeaae O. A?eiaa. –
Ii.: Ianoaoeeay e?oa?aoo?a, 1991. –398 n.

20. Enoi?ey Aaea?one a aeieoiaioao e iaoa?eaeao / Aao.-nino. E.I.
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21. Enoi?ey Aaea?one: O/aaiia iiniaea /A.E. Aaaoeaaea?neay, I.E.
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