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Беларусь в составе Речи Посполитой

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Ieienoa?noai Ia?aciaaiey ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue

AIOO

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«Aaea?onue a ninoaaa ?a/e Iiniieeoie»

Ieai

1. Ethaeyineay oiey. Ia?aciaaiea ?a/e Iiniieeoie

2. Oea?eiaue e ?aeeaey a Aaea?one a XVI a.

3. Aieiu ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one a na?aaeeia XVII a. Enoi?ey Aaea?one (n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei eiioea XIX a.)

4. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea Aaea?one a ninoaaa ?a/e
Iiniieeoie e aa ?acaeaeu

5. Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen ?a/e Iiniieeoie e aa ?acaeaeu

6. Eoeueoo?a Aaea?one a XVII – XVIII aa

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ethaeeineay oiey. Ia?aciaaiea ?a/e Iiniieeoie

Aii?in ia oiee aue ceiaiaeiaaiui aeey Iieueoe ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa
iieooi?a noieaoee. Iieueneea iaaiaou iiaeieiaee aii?in ia oiee ia
/aou?ao naeiao. Oeyooo i?eaeaeaee caiee Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa, /eiu e
aiaaonoaa. Iia ioe?uoi aeiaeaaeanue eiei?ii?aoeee Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa
Eeoianeiai. Eaeay oiee iaoiaeeea iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu aaei?onneie
oeyoou, iaaeayaoaeny iieo/eoue «cieiooth iieueneoth aieueiinoue». A 1562
a. aaei?onneay oeyooa nicaeaea a eaaa?a iiae Aeoaaneii eiioaaea?aoeeth e
ia?aoeeanue n i?inueaie e Aaeeeiio eiycth caeeth/eoue oieth n Iieueoae.
Iieueneay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue aeaeaea a oiee n?aaenoai ?anoe?aiey
naiaai aeeyiey ia ainoie.

A 1558 a. Eaai A?iciue ia/ae aieio n Eeaiieae. Aaeeeee iaaeno? I?aeaia
A. Eaooea? ia?aoeeny e Aaeeeiio eiycth Eeoianeiio e ei?ieth Iieueneiio
Neaecioiaeo II Aaaonoo (1548 – 1572 aa.) n i?inueaie i iiiiue. A
?acoeueoaoa I?aeai aue iiaeaeai ia aeaa /anoe: Eo?eyiaeneia aa?oeianoai
e eeoianei-iieueneoth i?iaeioeeth Eioeyiou. Eo?eyiaeneee aa?oeia i?eciae
naay aannaeii Aaeeeiai eiycy Eeoianeiai. A nayce n yoei oea?ue ia/ae
aieio i?ioea Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai. A 1563 a. acye Iieioee e
noae eiaiiaaoueny «Aaeeeei eiycai Iieioeeei». Ii caiye naaa?i-ainoi/ioth
Aaea?onue, aio ioe?ueny iooue ia noieeoeo eiyaeanoaa. Ainoaea?noai
ieacaeinue ia a?aie iieeoe/aneiai e?aoa e aiaiiie eaoano?iou, iiae
oa?ico auei iinoaaeaii naii aai nouanoaiaaiea.

A yiaa?a 1569 a. a Ethaeeia ioe?ueny iauee naei. I?iaeieaeaeny ii oanoue
ae?aiaoe/aneeo ianyoeaa. Eaaeaeay noi?iia noaaeea naie oneiaey, eioi?ua
ia i?eieiaeenue ae?oaie. Oaeaeaa oa?ico ianeeuenoaaiiiai caeeth/aiey
oiee ia iai?eaieaiuo oneiaeyo, iineu Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai
iieeioee ai?iae. Oiaaea iieueneay noi?iia i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea neeo.
Neaecioiae Aaaono II ecaeae oeac i i?eniaaeeiaiee e Iieueneiio
ei?ieaanoao Iiaeeyouey, Aieuie, Iiaeieee e Eeaaueiu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
ii/oe iieiaeia oa??eoi?ee Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai ioioea e
Iieueoa. Ieacaoue nii?ioeaeaiea Iieueoa eiyaeanoai ia iiaei. A yoeo
oneiaeyo auea naeaeaia iiiuoea ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u n Eaaiii IV i ie?a, ii
iia auea aac?acoeueoaoiie. A yoeo oneiaeyo aeaeaaaoeey Aaeeeiai
eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai auioaeaeaia auea aa?iooueny a Ethaeei e 1 ethey
1569 a. iiaeienaoue aeo oiee a oie oi?ia, eioi?oth i?aaeeaaaea Iieueoa.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeoii Iieueneia Ei?ieaanoai e Aaeeeia eiyaeanoai
Eeoianeia iauaaeeiyeenue a iaeii ainoaea?noai – ?a/ue Iiniieeooth .
Aaeeiiai ainoaea?y i?aaeiieaaaeinue ecae?aoue ia iauai naeia,
i?iaicaeaoay aai Ei?ieai Iieueneei, Aaeeeei eiycai Eeoianeei, ?onneei,
I?onneei, Iaciaaoeeei, AEaiieoneei, Eeaaneei, Aieuineei, Iiaeeyoneei e
Eioeyioneei. Ioaeaeueiia eca?aiea Aaeeeiai eiycy Eeoianeiai
i?ae?auaeinue. I?aaa iieyeia a eiyaeanoaa e aeeoaeae eiyaeanoaa a
Iieueoa o?aaieaaeenue. Aeey ianoaeaeaiey iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae
i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue iauea naeiu. Ethaeeineay oiey neeueii ia?aie/eaaea
noaa?aieoao eiyaeanoaa, ii aai ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ieii/aoaeueii ia
eeeaeaee?iaaea. Iii nio?aieei naia aienei, noaeaaioth nenoaio,
aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao, ia/aoue n Iiaiiae. Iaa /anoe ?a/e Iiniieeoie
eiaee naiinoiyoaeueiua iacaaiey e aei eiioea XVII a. – ainoaea?noaaiiua
ycuee. A eiyaeanoaa oaeiaui aue aaei?onneee.

A ?acoeueoaoa Ethaeeineie oiee Iieueoa iieo/eea aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe
aeey i?iaaaeaiey aaeeeiaea?aeaaiie iieeoeee a ioiioaiee ianaeaiey
Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa. Iieeoeea ?a/e Iiniieeoie ii ianaaeaeaieth ia
aaei?onneeo caieyo eaoieeoeecia e i?iaaaeaieth iieiiecaoeee aeiiieieee
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth aaei?onneiai iauanoaa yoii?aeeaeiciie
aeaceioaa?aoeeae. Iieiiecaoi?neea i?ioeannu i?eaaee e io?uao io
aaei?onneie yoie/aneie iauiinoe aa eioaeeeaaioeee, aunoeo neiaa, /ai
cao?oaeieee i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey aaeeiiai ia?iaea.
I?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue yoei yaeaieyi auei o?oaeii. Naiao ?a/e Iiniieeoie
ninoiye i?aeiouanoaaiii ec iieueneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae. A naeia, aaea ec
noa ainueieaeanyoe iineia oieueei ni?ie oanoue i?eoiaeeeinue ia Aaeeeia
eiyaeanoai, ec ieo ia aaei?onneea iiaaou – o?eaeoeaoue /aou?a.

Ia?yaeo n iieeoe/aneeie ia?aie/aieyie aaei?onneay oeyooa ii/oanoaiaaea e
yeiiiie/aneea ia?aie/aiey. Iia ia iiaea iieo/aoue caiee a oao ?aaeiiao,
/oi auee i?eniaaeeiaiu e Iieueoa. Iieueneay aea oeyooa noaea aeoeaii
iieueciaaoueny i?aaii i?eia?aoaiey eiaiee a eiyaeanoaa. Ana yoi yaeeinue
iniiaie naia?aoenoneeo e aeaaea aioeiieueneeo iano?iaiee a Aaea?one a 70
– 90 aa. XVI a. Auei iaiaei noi?iiieeia ?ac?uaa nithca n Iieueoae,
eioi?ua aaee ai?ueao ca iacaaeneiinoue naiaai ainoaea?noaa. A yoio
ia?eiae ?aaoey?ii nicuaaei naie naeiu AEE. A 1581 a. auea nicaeai aunoay
einoaioeey – O?eaoiae, a i?eiyoea a 1588 a. naiaai naiaea caeiiia –
Noaoooa – ii nouanoao naiaeeei ia iao iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey Ethaeeineie
oiee.

A 1572 a. oia? Neaecioiae II Aaaono, iineaaeiee Iieueneee Ei?ieue e
Aaeeeee eiycue Eeoianeee ec aeeianoee ssaaeeiiia, caieiaaoee o?ii ii
i?aao ianeaaeiaaiey. Iinea iaai ei?iee noaee ecae?aoueny naeiii, /oi
/anoi i?eaiaeeei e oae iacuaaaiui aanei?ieaaueyi, eioi?ua oyioeenue io
nia?oe iaeiiai iiia?oa aei eca?aiey ae?oaiai. Iinea i/a?aaeiiai
aanei?ieaauey ia i?anoie aue eca?ai Noaoai Aaoi?ee (1576 – 1586 aa.). A
1579 a. aienea ?a/e Iiniieeoie iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Noaoaia Aaoi?ey acyee
Iieioee, Aaeeae, Onayou e Aaeeeea Eoee, a 1582 a. ia/aee inaaeaeaoue
Ineia, ii caiyoue aai ia oaeaeinue. A 1582 a. Eeaiineay aieia
caaa?oeeanue ssi-Caiieueneei ie?ii, ii eioi?iio e ?a/e Iiniieeoie
ia?aoea any Eeaiiey, Iieioee e Aaeeae.

A eiioea XVI – ia?aie /aoaa?oe XVII a. A i?aayueo e?oaao ?a/e Iiniieeoie
auea iiioey?iie eaeay i?eniaaeeiaiey e iae Iineianeiai eiyaeanoaa. Aa
iiaeaea?aeeaaee e aaeeeieiyaeaneea iieeoeee, ?ann/eouaaaoea, /oi a iiaii
ia?iiiii aa?iaceaoneii ainoaea?noaaiiii ia?aciaaiee eiyaeanoao aoaeao
i?eiaaeeaaeaoue eeaee?othuay ?ieue. Io aeeieiiaoe/aneeo niiniaia
inouanoaeaiey yoie eaeae – auaeaeaeaiey ia o?ii ?a/e Iiniieeoie
eaiaeeaeaoo?u Eaaia IV e aai nuia Oaaei?a a 1573 e 1587 aa. – ia?aoee e
aiaiiui iioiaeai Eaeaaeieo?eaa ia ainoie a 1604 e 1607 aa. A aiaiioth
eiiiaieth 1609 a. aienei ?a/e Iiniieeoie aa?ioei a ninoaa eiyaeanoaa
Niieaine, a a 1610 – 1612 aa. iaeaaeaei naiie Iineaie, ii auei ecaiaii
ia?iaeiui iiie/aieai iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Ae. Iiaea?neiai e E. Ieieia. A
aieia 1633 – 1634 aa. ?inney iiiuoaeanue acyoue ?aaaio ca Niieaine, ii
iioa?iaea iaoaea/o, e Iieyineee ie? iieeioe a?aieoeu i?aaeieie. Oai ia
iaiaa, a eiioea XVI – ia?aie iieiaeia XVII a. aeiieie?othuay ?ieue a
Ainoi/iie Aa?iia ia?aoea io Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai, a caoai ?a/e
Iiniieeoie, e eo niia?ieeo – Iineianeiio ainoaea?noao.

2. Oea?eiaue e ?aeeaey a Aaea?one a XVI a

E eiioeo XII a. a Aa?iia neiaeeeenue aeaa aieueoea ?aeeaeiciua ciiu:
ainoi/iay, i?aaineaaii-aecaioeeneay e caiaaeiay, ?einei-eaoiee/aneay.
A?aieoea iaaeaeo ieie i?ioiaeeea ii Caiaaeiiio Aoao. Aaea?onue noaea
ianoii ano?a/e e acaeiiaeaenoaey yoeo ?aeeaee, /oi ii?aaeaeeei
oieeaeueiia enoi?e/aneia iieiaeaiea aa a Aa?iia, iaoneiaeei
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue aa eoeueoo?u e eiioanneiiaeueioth iniaaiiinoue,
iaeiaeeei iniaue ioia/aoie ia iaioaeeoao aaei?onneiai ia?iaea.

Aei XIV a. a Aaea?one ia?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaiaaea i?aaineaaiay
oea?eiaue. E?aaneay oiey yoo iiiiiieeth ia?ooeea. Eaoiee/aneay aa?a
noaea aa?ieniiaaaeaieai ?oeiaiaeyueo e?oaia ainoaea?noaa. ssaaeei iaycae
ieaoiee/eoue ana ianaeaiea Eeoau. *a?ac iieoi?a aiaea iinea E?aaneie
oiee auei nicaeaii Aeeaineia eaoiee/aneia aieneiinoai, eioi?iio Aaeeeea
Eeoianeea eiycuey iiaea?oaiaaee ia?iiiua caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey. Aaaeioth
?ieue a ?ani?ino?aiaiee eaoiee/aneie aa?u ea?aee iiiaoaneea i?aeaia
o?aioeeneaioeaa, aaaonoeiia, aa?ia?aeeioeaa e ae?. E na?aaeeia XVI a.
eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue oe?aieeanue a Eeoaa e iia?aie/iuo n iae ?aeiiao
naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aaei?onneeo caiaeue. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iiceoeee
i?aaineaaey ana aieaa iioaniyeenue, iii ii-i?aaeiaio caaeaaaei oii a
aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa.

A XVI a. o?enoeainoai iinoea e?ecen: a eaoieeoeecia ii i?iyaeeny
?aoi?iaoeeae, a a i?aaineaaee – a?anyie. N 50-o aa. XVI a. eaeae
i?ioanoaioecia noaee ?ani?ino?aiyoueny a Aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeii.
Iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai ?aoi?iaoeee a Aaea?one noae eaeueaeieci. Aai
nioeeaeueiie iniiaie auea oaiaeaeueiay ciaoue, /anoue n?aaeiae e iaeeie
oeyoou. N?aaee i?inoiai ia?iaea eaeae caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie ?aoi?iaoeee ia
iieo/eee neieueei-ieaoaeue oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Ia?aoth ?aoi?iaoi?neoth iaueio nicaeae a A?anoa iaaiao Ieeieae
?aaeceaeee *a?iue. Caoai oaeea iaueiu auee nicaeaiu a Ianaaaea, Eeaoeea,
Caneaaea, Ieinea, Aeoaanea, Iieioeea e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao e ianoa/eao. A
XVI – ia?aie iieiaeia XVII aa. ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one auei nicaeaii
ainaiueaeanyo iyoue eaeueaeienoneeo e naiue a?eaineeo iauei.

A 60-a aa. ec eaeueaeiecia auaeaeeeinue ?aaeeeaeueiia oa/aiea –
aioeo?eieoa?eci, eioi?ia o?aaiaaei nioeeaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee,
inoaeaeaei e?aiinoie/anoai. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie aeayoaeyie
aioeo?eieoa?ecia auee Nuiii Aoaeiue, sseoa Eaeeiiaea, Iaaae ec Aeciu,
Iao? Aaiaica.

?aoi?iaoeey niaeaenoaiaaea iiauoaieth aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iie aeecie. A yoi
a?aiy ?ani?ino?aieeenue aoiaienoe/aneea eaeae, oaaee/eeinue /enei
a?aiioiuo. Iniaoth ?ieue a yoii ea?aee oeieu e eieaiia/aoaiea. Auee
iniiaaiu oeiia?aoee a A?anoa, Ianaeaea, Etha/a, Einea, Oyieii.
Ioaeeeiaaeenue ?aeeaeicii-ioaeeoeenoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey e
iaaeaaiae/aneay eeoa?aoo?a. A Aaea?one iaoiaeeee i?etho aaaeaoeu,
eioi?ua iino?aaeaee ca iiaoth aa?o a ae?oaeo no?aiao. N o/aieai i
aaeeinoaa aiaeanoaa aunooiee Oaiaeinee Einie ni naieie
aaeeiiiuoeaiieeaie, oaaaeaaoee a Aaea?onue ec Iineau. Iie aunooiaee
i?ioea eeiiiia/aoaiey, iaiaoiaeeiinoe oea?eae, i?ecuaaee e
iaiiae/eiaieth naaoneei e oea?eiaiui aeanoyi.

Oaeaeaa, /oi aeaeaeaiea auoiaeeo ec-iiae eiio?iey, oaiaeaeu a 70-o aa.
noaee iooiaeeoue io ?aoi?iaoeee. A XVII a. iia noiaeeo n enoi?e/aneie
a?aiu a Aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeii. I?ia?aiio auoiaea ec
?aoi?iaoeeiiiiai e?ecena Aaoeeai ?ac?aaaouaaao ia O?eaeaioneii niai?a.
Noaaeo a nianaiee eaoiee/aneie oea?eae ii naeaeae ia I?aeai eacoeoia,
nicaeaiiue a 1534 a. Eacoeou aoiaeeee a noa?u aeecie aa?iiaeneeo no?ai,
ioaa/aiiuo ?aoi?iaoeeae, e aeeyee ia ie? a oaiaeiii aeey ?eineie eo?ee
iai?aaeaiee.

Aia?aua a Aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa (a Aeeueii) iie iiyaeeenue a 1569 a. ii
i?eaeaoaieth eaoiee/aneiai aieneiia A. I?ioanaae/a. Oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiua, a?aiioiua, ioee/iua i?aoi?u, iie n?aco aea caaiaaaee
aaoi?eoao o ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe caaeeoi/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey. A Aeeueii
eie auea nicaeaia aanieaoiay oeiea, oae iacuaaaiue eieeaaeoi. *a?ac
eaeia-oi a?aiy eieeaaeoiu aicieeee a Iieioeea, Ianaeaea, Inoeneaaea,
Aeoaanea, Ieinea, I?oa, Iiaeeaaa.

Eaoieeoeeci a eacoeoao iaoae eae au aoi?ia aeuoaiea e noae auoaniyoue
ethoa?ainoai, eaeueaeieci, oieoa?eci e ae?oaea ?aeeaeiciua oa/aiey.
*a?ac iyoue eao iinea i?eacaea eacoeoia a Aeeueii a eaoiee/anoai ia?aoei
oanoue ouny/ /aeiaae. A eiioea XVI a. aunoea neie iauanoaa oaea a
ianniaii ii?yaeea iaiyee i?ioanoaioneoth aa?o ia eaoieeoeeci. E eiioeo
XVII a. Eiio??aoi?iaoeey a eiyaeanoaa iiaaaeeea.

Aaeaine?iaaiea Aaea?one ia i?ioyaeaiee noieaoee iaaeaeo o?enoeaineei
Ainoieii e eaoiee/aneei Caiaaeii iaoneiaeei iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea
eiii?iiennia e aeeao/anoue caeanue eaeae oea?eiaii-?aeeaeiciie oiee. A
eiioea XVI a. a oaeie oiee auee caeioa?aniaaiu o?e neeu. Aaoeeai,
iaia?aaaaoeeny i?eniaaeeiaieai ieeeeiiia aa?othueo ia ainoiea Aa?iiu
eiiiaine?iaaoue iioa?e naieo iiceoeee ai a?aiy ?aoi?iaoeee. I?aayuea
e?oae, ?ac?uaaaiua ?aeeaeiciie eiio?iioaoeeae ?a/e Iiniieeoie,
no?aieeenue n iiiiuueth oiee eiinieeaee?iaaoue iauanoai e oe?aieoue naia
ainoaea?noai. Eeaea?u aaei?onnei-oe?aeineiai i?aaineaaey eneaee iooe
auaiaea ec oiaaeea naiae oea?eae, iiceoeee eioi?ie iiaei?aaea
Ethaeeineay oiey, ?aoi?iaoeey e Eiio??aoi?iaoeey. I?aoaicee nicaeaiiiai
a 1589 a. Iineianeiai iao?ea?oaoa ia aeooiaioth aeanoue iaae
aaei?onnei-oe?aeineeie caieyie ?a/e Iiniieeoie oieeaee eo a noi?iio
eaoiee/aneiai Caiaaea, eioi?ue aeae ia?acaoe auoiaea ec e?ecena e
icaei?iaeaiey einoaea. Ioaeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaee aunoaai i?aaineaaiiai
aeooiaainoaa ?ann/eouaaee, /oi oiey ioe?iao ei iooue a Naiao, a oaeaea
auaaaeao oea?eiaue ec-iiae eiio?iey naaoneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e ioaeaeueiuo
eeoe.

Iiaeaioiaea oiee i?iaeieaeaeanue 5 eao. A 1591 a. a?oiia i?aaineaaiuo
aieneiiia ia?aoeeanue e Ei?ieth e Aaeeeiio eiycth Neaecioiaeo III n
ienueiii i iaiaoiaeeiinoe caeeth/aiey oiee. Eaoii 1595 a. aieneiiu E.
Oa?eaoeeee e E. Iaoeae, iiaeienaa aianoa n ae?oaeie ea?a?oaie aeo ia
oiee, auaoaee n yoei aeieoiaioii e Iaia a ?ei. Eeeiaio VIII n
?aaeinoueth i?eiye iineia e aeae naia aeaaineiaaiea e niaeanea ia oieth.
A /anoue yoiai auea auaeoa iaaeaeue n iaaeienueth «Ia niaaeeiaiea
?onneeo». Neaecioiae III Ei?ieue Iieueneee, a naith i/a?aaeue, a 1595 a.
ecaeae oieaa?nae, a eioi?ii i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue a ?a/e Iiniieeoie
iauyaeyeanue niaaeeiaiiie n eaoiee/aneie.

A 1596 a. a A?anoa ninoiyeny Niai? aaei?onnei-oe?aeineiai i?aaineaaey. A
iai o/anoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaoo i?aaineaaiuo iao?ea?oia
-Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai e Aeaenaiae?eeneiai. Niai? ?aneieieny ia aeaa
/anoe. Iaeio ninoaaeee noi?iiieee oiee, eioi?uo aicaeaaee Eueaianeee
eaoiee/aneee a?oeaieneii Noeeeianeee. Aoi?ay /anoue ninoiyea ec
i?aaineaaiuo, eioi?ua ia auee niaeaniu n oieae. Eo aicaeaaee Eueaianeee
ainoi/iue aieneii Aaaeaii Aaeaaai. I?aaineaaiue niai? canaaeae ia a
o?aia, a a /anoiii aeiia, oae eae aieneii Iaoeae, e aia?oee eioi?iai
i?eiaaeeaaeae A?ano, cai?aoee aioneaoue a ai?iaeneea o?aiu i?ioeaieeia
oiee. Oieaou eeoeee naia aieneiiia e ioeo/eee io oea?eae oao ec ieo, eoi
aue i?ioeaieeii, a i?aaineaaiua naeaeaee oi aea naiia a ioiioaiee
oieaoia.

Iaia ?eineee e i?aaeoaeuenoai ?a/e Iiniieeoie ni/ee oieth ninoiyaoaeny.
Ii aa oneiaeyi, i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue iiae/eiyeanue Iaia ?eineiio,
i?eiyea eaoiee/aneoth aeiaiaoeeo, nio?aiea i?aaineaaioth ia?yaeiinoue.
Iiaay aa?a ioaeaeeeanue io i?aaineaaiie e ia neeeanue n eaoiee/anoaii. A
yoii auea aa niaoeeoeea. A?anoneay oea?eiaiay oiey auea i?ecaaia
caeiaeeoue iniiao iauaaeeiaiey ia?iaeia-iieyeia e aaei?onia, eaoieeeia e
i?aaineaaiuo. Iaeiaei iia ia i?eianea a Aaea?onue ie?a e niaeaney. A
Aaea?one ia/aeinue ianeeuenoaaiiia ianaaeaeaiea oieaonoaa e
eaoieeoeecia. ?aeeaeiciay aeeciue noaea nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ai?ueaie. A
cae?uoee i?aaineaaiuo o?aiia e iiianou?ae, a ianeeuenoaaiiii
ianaaeaeaiee oiee iniaaiii ioee/eeny iieioeeee oieaoneee a?oeaieneii
Einaoao Eoioeaae/. A 1623 a. a Aeoaanea aniuoioei ainnoaiea, Eoioeaae/ e
aai niiaeaeaeieee auee oaeou. Iaae ainnoaaoeie auea o/eiaia aeanoieay
?ani?aaa.

I?eiyoea oea?eiaiie oiee ineiaeieei iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo
a Aaea?one. Iii niinianoaiaaea aieaa aeoeaiiio i?iieeiiaaieth iieueneiai
?aeeaeicii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeyiey, /oi a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaaei e oiaaeeo
aaei?onnei -ycu/iie eoeueoo?u.

3. Aieiu ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one a na?aaeeia XVII a. Enoi?ey Aaea?one (n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei eiioea XIX a.)

A 1648 – 1651 aa. a Aaea?one oea aioeoaiaeaeueiay aieia, eioi?ay
?acaa?ioeanue a nayce n ia/aeii ainnoaiey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aaoiaia A.
Oiaeueieoeeiai ia Oe?aeia. A inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieia oe?aeineiai ia?iaea
A.Oiaeueieoeeee e aai noa?oeiu, no?aiynue nicaeaoue nianoaaiiia
ainoaea?noai, ieaie?iaaee aeeth/aiea a iaai caiaeue thai-ainoiea
Aaea?one -Iiaeiai?iauey e Iieanuey. Oaea aaniie 1648 a. a yoe ?aeiiu
iai?aaeythony aaeoaoi?u, anei?a iiyaeythony e eacaoeeea io?yaeu.

Eaoii 1648 a. tha e ainoie Aaea?one auee ioaa/aiu ai?ueaie
eacaoeei-e?anoueyineeo io?yaeia i?ioea oeyoou, eoioeia, iaaiaoia e
eaoiee/aneiai aeooiaainoaa. Eacaoeeea io?yaeu E?eaioaiee, Aa?eooe,
Aieiaaoeeiai e ae?oaeo iieeiaieeia eiaee a naiai ninoaaa iiiai
aaei?onia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue auoiaeoeaa ec aaaeiaeoaai e?anoueyinoaa e
iauainoaa. Ec-ca iieiiecaoeee aa?oia oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa yoi
inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aioeoeyoaoneia aeaeaeaiea a Aaea?one, oaeaea eae e ia
Oe?aeia, eiaei yaioth aioeiieueneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue.

A 1648 a. eacaoeei-e?anoueyineia aienei ?acaeei iiae ?a/eoeae oi?oaae
Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Aieiae/a, iiae ianoa/eii
Ai?aieue – io?yae ai aeaaa ni no?aaeieeii Ie?neei. Ainnoaaoea caiyee
Aiiaeue, Eiaa, A?ano, Aia?oene, Iicu?ue, Ieine, Oo?ia, ?a/eoeo, Eia?ei,
*a/a?ne e ae?oaea ai?iaea e ianoa/ee ia thaa e thai-ainoiea Aaea?one.
AEeoaee yoeo ai?iaeia ii/oe ia ieacuaaee nii?ioeaeaiey ainnoaaoei.
Oeyooa, eaoiee/aneia e oieoa?iia aeooiaainoai aaaeaee aaeoaue
eiyaeanoaa.

Ia ai?ueao n ainnoaaoeie ei?ieue iai?aaee 14-ouny/iia aienei, eiaaoaa
a?oeeea?eth. Io?yaeo Ie?neiai oaeaeinue acyoue Ieine. Aieaa o?ao ouny/
iauai, eo aeai e aeaoae auee oaeou. Caoai aienea Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa
acyee A?ano, Noa?ue Auoia, Neooee. A Oo?iaa ana aeeoaee, ia oniaaoea
ioieoe aianoa n eacaoeei -e?anoueyineeie io?yaeaie, auee oaeou. A
*a/a?nea ii i?eeaco aaoiaia ss. ?aaeceaeeea iieooi?anoa eacaeai ionaeee
i?aaua ?oee, iyoueaeanyo /aeiaae iinaaeeee ia eie, a inoaeueiuo aeeoaeae
ii?oaeee. AEanoiei ?ani?aaeeny aaoiai e n aeeoaeyie Aia?oenea, aac
nii?ioeaeaiey ioe?uaoei ai?ioa ai?iaea. Ainueienoai auee io?oaeaiu ?oee,
noi /aeiaae iinaaeeee ia eie. E na?aaeeia 1649 a. aienea Aaeeeiai
eiyaeanoaa ainnoaiiaeee eiio?ieue iaae thaeiie /anoueth Aaea?one.

*oiau eni?aaeoue iieiaeaiea, A. Oiaeueieoeeee iai?aaee a Aaea?onue
io?yaeu iieeiaieeia Aieiou, E?e/aaneiai, Aa?eooe e Iiaaaeaeei. Iaeiaei
30-ouny/iia eacaoeei-e?anoueyineia aienei 31 ethiy 1649 a. a aeoaa iiae
Eiaaii auei ?acaeoi aieneaie aaoiaia ss. ?aaeceaeeea. Iinea yoiai
aioeoaiaeaeueiay ai?ueaa ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one iioea ia oaueue. Iiiuoee
aiciaiiaeoue aa eaoii 1650 e 1651 aa. auee iiaeaaeaiu aieneaie ss.
?aaeceaeeea, iinea /aai eacaoeeea io?yaeu iieeioee Aaea?onue e
iai?aaeeenue ia Oe?aeio.

Iiaua aaaenoaey ia Aaea?onue ia?ooeeenue a oiaea aieiu ?innee n ?a/ueth
Iiniieeoie a 1654 – 1667 aa. A ieoya?a 1653 a. Caineee niai? aeae
niaeanea i?eiyoue Oe?aeio iiae aeanoue ?innee. Iaeiia?aiaiii oea?ue
Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ iauyaee i iiaeaioiaea e aieia e i naiai aeaeaiee
«eaeoe ia ae?oaa naiaai iieueneiai ei?iey». No?aiynue ca?o/eoueny
iiaeaea?aeeie aaei?onia, oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai canueaei a Aaea?onue
iiiai/eneaiiua a?aiiou, ?ann/eoaiiua ia i?aaineaaiia ianaeaiea. A ieo
oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaauaei oeyooa e aeooiaainoao nio?aieoue eo
aeaaeaiey e aeaaea naeaeaoue iiaua iiaeaeiaaiey a neo/aa, anee iie
iiaeaeatho neoaeeoue Iineianeiio Ainoaea?th. Iauainoao aa?aioe?iaaeanue
naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey n ?onneeie ai?iaeaie. Anai, eoi aoaeao aeia?iaieueii
naeaaaoueny oea?neei aieneii, iaauaeenue eueaiou, iiaeaeiaaiey e
iaa?aaeu. Oaeay iieeoeea i?eianea naie ieiaeu.

A 1654 a. a Aaea?onue aioei 100-ouny/iia aienei oea?y Aeaenay
Ieoaeeiae/a i?e iiaeaea?aeea eacaoeeeo io?yaeia E. Cieioi?aiei. Iie
?acaeee aienea Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa iiae Iiaeeaaii. I?e iiaeoiaea
oea?neeo aiene ia aai noi?iio ia?aoei iauainoai *aon, E?e/aaa, I?oe,
Eiiuey, Iiaiai Auoiaa, Iieioeea. Iiieii yoiai auee acyou ai?iaea Ae?oy,
Inoeneaaeue, Aeoaane, Aiiaeue, Oeeia, ?a/eoea, I?iiiene. Aianoa n oai
aa?ieciiu iaeioi?uo ai?iaeia ieacuaaee ?onneei aieneai oii?iia
nii?ioeaeaiea. Aiiaeue i?eoeinue inaaeaeaoue ni?ie aeiae. Neooee e
Noa?ue Auoia oae e ia auee acyou ?onneeie aieneaie. A ?yaea neo/aaa
nii?ioeaeyaoeany ai?iaea ?ac?ooaeenue, a ianaeaiea oie/oiaeaeinue. Aieaa
aeanyoe ouny/ /aeiaae iiaeaee a Inoeneaaea. Auee ?ac?ooaiu e niaeaeaiu
?a/eoea, AEeiaei, ?iaa/aa e ae?.

Ai a?aiy eiiiaiee 1655 a. oea?neea aienea caoaaoeee Ieine e noieeoeo AEE
Aeeueii. A aaaonoa – ieoya?a 1655 a. auee caiyou A?iaeii, Eeaea,
Iiaia?oaeie, Eauea, Ei?aee/e, Ianaeae, Noieaoeu. Iineianeee ainoaea?ue
noae oeooeiaaoue naay «anay Aaeeeey e Iaeuy e Aaeuy ?one
naiiaea?aeoeai». A oaeie neooaoeee aaoiai ss. ?aaeceaeee iioae ia
iiaeienaiea a Eaeaeaiao (1655 a.) iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie oiee ni Oaaoeeae,
/oi icia/aei ?ac?ua oneiaee Ethaeeineie 1569 a. oiee n Iieueoae. Ii oiey
AEE ni Oaaoeeae a nayce n aiacaiiie nia?oueth aaoiaia oae e ia auea
?aaeeciaaia. Aiaoaoaeuenoai a aiaiiua aeaenoaey Oaaoeee i?ioea ?a/e
Iiniieeoie i?eaaei a eiioea 1655 a. e i?ae?auaieth aiaiiuo aeaenoaee a
AEE. A 1656 a. iaaeaeo ?inneae e ?a/ueth Iiniieeoie auei iiaeienaii
ia?aie?ea.

A?aiaiiia ia?aie?ea iaei a /ai eciaieei iieiaeaiea ie?iiai ianaeaiey
Aaea?one. Caiyoua oea?neeie aieneaie aaei?onneea caiee i?aa?auaeenue a
i?iaeioeee Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa. *oiau aucaaoue eiyeueiinoue
ianoiiai ianaeaiey, oea?ue inoaaee ai?iaeai iaaaeaao?aneia i?aai,
?acaeaaae io?aiiua a?aiiou, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee io?aiyoue io ianeeey
iineianeeo ?aoieeia, iiaeaea?aeeaae ianoioth oeyooo, i?aaineaaioth
oea?eiaue. Ianiio?y ia yoi ceioiio?aaeaiey e ecaeaaaoaeuenoaa oea?neeo
?aoieeia, eacaeia, oaaaeia noaee anaiauei yaeaieai. Ianaeaiea Aaea?one
oa?iaei ia?iiiua ethaeneea iioa?e io aniuoioaoeo yieaeaiee,
ianeeuenoaaiiiai ia?anaeaiey aeeoaeae a ?inneth.

Iionoioaiey, aieiae, ianniaue ianeeuenoaaiiue auaiae ianaeaiey a ?inneth
i?eaaee e nicaeaieth aioeiineianeiai oeyoaoneiai iiie/aiey, aii?oaeaiiuo
io?yaeia. A yoio i?ioeann aeeth/eeanue /anoue iauainoaa e
iiiaino?aaeaeueiiai e?anoueyinoaa. Ethaee ooiaeeee a eana, a?aee a ?oee
i?oaeea, nicaeaaaee ia?oecaineea io?yaeu. Iie inaiaiaeeee /anoue
iaaieueoeo ai?iaeia: Eoeiieue, *aoieee, Aeoaieia. Iauaia Iiaeeaaa,
Oeeiaa, Inoeneaaey, Aeeniu, iiaeiya ainnoaiey, ecaiaee iineianeea
aa?ieciiu.

A 1659 a. iiyoue aiciaiiaeeenue aiaiiua aeaenoaey ?aaoey?iuo aiene ?a/e
Iiniieeoie ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one, eioi?ua iinoaiaiii ioaiaauaaee
oo?a/aiiia. Eaoii a 1660 a. iiae Eyoiae/aie auea ?acaeoa a?oiie?iaea
aiene oea?neiai aiaaiaeu E. Oiaaineiai. A oii aea aiaeo ia Iiaeeaaueia
auea ?acaeoa a?iey TH?ey Aeieai?oeiai. A 1666 a. auea inaiaiaeaeaia
noieeoea AEE Aeeueii. Iiae eiio?ieai oea?neeo aeanoae inoaaaeenue ?aeiiu
Iiaeaeiuey, Iiaeiai?iauey. E yoiio a?aiaie iaa noi?iiu enoiueee naie
neeu e i?enooieee e ia?aaiai?ai i ie?a.

A aeaeaa?a 1667 a. a aea?aaia Aiae?oniai, ieiei Inoeneaaey, auei
iiaeienaii ia?aie?ea ia o?eiaaeoeaoue n iieiaeiie eao. Aaea?onue
inoaeanue a ninoaaa ?a/e Iiniieeoie. Niieaiueia, *a?ieaiaueia e anth
eaaiaa?aaeioth Oe?aeio n Eeaaii cae?aieea ca niaie ?inney. «Aa/iue ie?»,
iiaeienaiiue a Iineaa a iaa 1686 a. ooaa?aeee nouanoaiaaaooth ia oi
a?aiy a?aieoeo.

Aieiu n na?aaeeiu XVII aaea i?eianee aaei?onneiio ia?iaeo oyaeaeua
eeoaiey e oo?aou. Iiaeaei ieiei iieiaeiu ianaeaiey Aaea?one. A
Inoeneaaneii, Iieioeeii, Aeoaaneii iiaaoao ionoiaaei aei 70%
e?anoueyineeo eca. Eiee/anoai ianaeaiey Aaea?one nie?aoeeinue n 2,9 iei.
/aeiaae aei 1,4 iei.

4. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea Aaea?one a ninoaaa ?a/e
Iiniieeoie e aa ?acaeaeu

Iaeaioia Ethaeeineie oiee a Aaea?one i?iaeeaaei 1800 oun. aeeoaeae,
eioi?ua ii naiaio nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio iieiaeaieth aeaeeeenue ia
o?e nineiaey: oeyooa, e?anoueyia e iauaia. Oeyoaoneia nineiaea
aeaeeeinue ia a?oiiu ii yeiiiie/aneiio ninoiyieth e iieeoe/aneie ?iee a
ainoaea?noaa. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie auee aeaaaeoeaoue aeaayoue iaaiaoia,
eiaaoea ii 1000 e?anoueyineeo «aeuiia», ninoaaeyee 0,7%
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e aeaaeaee 42% e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa. Naiie
iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiiie auea iaeeay oeyooa, eioi?ay ian/eouaaea aieaa 3
oun. /aeiaae e a ainiiaenoaothuai nineiaee ninoaaeyea aieaa 70%, ii a aa
?oeao auei oieueei 28% e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa. Iaeeay oeyooa ninoaaeyea
iniiaioth /anoue a?iee AEE. Oeyooa auea cae?uoui nineiaeai e no?iai
iaa?aaaea naie ?yaeu.

Naiui iiiai/eneaiiui nineiaeai iauanoaa auei e?anoueyinoai. Iinea
aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu e?anoueyia aeaeeeenue ia neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee: oyaeua,
inaaeiua, iai?iaeieee e neoae. Oyaeua e?anoueyia aeieaeiu auee
io?aaaouaaoue aa?ueio ii aeaa aeiy a iaaeaeth, ieaoeoue /eio io 6 aei 21
a?ioae n aieiee e ia?ie. Inaaeiua (iai?i/iua) e?anoueyia ia oiaeeee ia
aa?ueio, ii ieaoeee 30 a?ioae /eioo e auiieiyee ae?oaea iiaeiiinoe
ia?aaia n oyaeuie. E e?anoueyiai-neoaai ioiineeenue ?aianeaiieee,
eociaoeu, eiithoe e ae?. Naiie aaaeiie /anoueth e?anoueyinoaa auee
iai?iaeieee, oaeoiieee e eooieee. Iai?iaeieee ia eiaee iaoioiie caiee,
oieueei iai?iae, oaeoiieee eiaee oieueei aeii, a eooieee aeaaea
nianoaaiiiai aeiia ia eiaee.

A eiioea XVI – ia?aie iieiaeia XVII a. a AEE ieii/aoaeueii oaeoe/anee e
th?eaee/anee ioi?ieeinue e?aiinoiia i?aai. Noaooo 1588 a. aaae n?ie
?icunea aaaeuo e?anoueyi aei 20 eao. Ii eeoee i?aaa e?anoueyi ia?aoiaea
e ca/eneye a iieiaeaiea iaiioiaeeo ethaeae oao, eoi i?iaeee ia caiea
oaiaeaea 10 eao. E?anoueyiei noae iauaeoii caeiaa, eoiee-i?iaeaaee, eae
n caieae, oae e aac iaa. N eaaeaeui aiaeii oaaee/eaaeanue aa?ueia, /eio,
iaoo?aeueiue ia?ie. A iaeioi?uo eiaieyo aa?ueia aeioiaeeea aei oanoe
aeiae a iaaeaeth. E?anoueyia ieacaeenue ia naiie ieaeiae eanoieoea
oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa. Iinoiyiiue eee a?aiaiiue aeaaeaeaoe – iai – a
ethaia a?aiy iia ioiyoue o e?anoueyieia caieth, ia?anaeeoue aai a
ae?oaia ianoi, i?iaeaoue ni anai eiouanoaii, caieae eee aac iaa,
caeiaeeoue ca ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaiaaeioth noiio. Iieoiaoaeth eee
e?aaeeoi?o i?e yoii i?aaeinoaaeyeinue iieiia i?aai noaeeoue, ea?aoue e
aeaaea eeoaoue aeecie e?anoueyieia.

A XVI a. i?ienoiaeeo o?aaiecaoeey aaei?onneiai iauanoaa, iiyaeythony
iiaua ai?iaea. Ii/oe ana ai?iaea iieo/eee iaaaeaao?aneia i?aai, eioi?ia
niaeaenoaiaaei ?acaeoeth a ieo ?aianea e oi?aiaee, aeaaaei
iacaaeneiinoue io ei?ieaaneeo /eiiaieeia. A AEE ian/eouaaeinue 112
ai?iaeia e ianoa/ae. A e?oiiaeoeo ec ieo ?aianei auei i?aaenoaaeaii
ianeieueeeie aeanyoeaie i?ioannee. Aeaa – o?e ?aca a iaaeaeth ai anao
ai?iaeao e ianoa/eao i?iaiaeeeenue oi?ae. Aaei?onneea eoioeu oi?aiaaee n
Aa?oaaie, Iiciaiueth, Aaeaiueneii, ?eaie, Ei?ieaaoeii, Iiaia?oaeeii,
Oaa?ueth, Iineaie, naycuaay oaeei ia?acii Caiaae e Ainoie Aa?iiu.

Ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue Aaea?one a eiioea XVII – ia/aea
XVIII aa. ieacaee aeeyiea iiiaieaoiea aieiu, eioi?ua i?eaaee e
?ac?ooaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, e ?aci?aieth e?anoueyinoaa,
oaiaeaeueiiai oicyenoaa, oiaaeeo oi?aiaee, oiaiueoaieth eiee/anoaa
ianaeaiey. Anee a 1650 a. ia Aaea?one i?iaeeaaei 2,9 iei. /aeiaae, oi e
1670 a. – ia aieaa 1,4 iei. Yoi cia/eo, /oi /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey
nie?aoeeanue aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. Ai?iaeneia aea ianaeaiea a na?aaeeia
XVII a. oiaiueoaeinue ia 55%. Iinea aieiu 1654 – 1667 aa. ionoiaaei
aieaa iieiaeiu iaoioiuo caiaeue.

Ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu XVIII a. a yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee Aaea?one
i?ienoiaeyo cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey. Yoi iaoei naia io?aaeaiea a
oaaee/aiee /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. Anee a 1717 a. a aaei?onneeo caieyo
AEE i?iaeeaaei ieiei 1,5 iei. /aeiaae, oi a 1791 a. – aieaa 3,6 iei.
Iinea aiaiiiai eeoieaouey iinoaiaiii ainnoaiaaeeaaeinue naeueneia
oicyenoai, ?acaeaaeanue aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy oi?aiaey, a aianoa n ieie e
oiaa?i-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey. A 1766 a. auee aaaaeaiu aaeeiua aeey AEE
ia?u aana, iauaia e aeeeiu. I?aaeoaeuenoai ?a/e Iiniieeoie aaaei
aaeeioth iioeeio, iaycaoaeueioth aeey anao, a oii /enea aeey oeyoou e
aeooiaainoaa, eioi?ua ?aiueoa aa ia ieaoeee, e ioiaieei aioo?aiiea
iioeeiu. ?inoo aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oi?aiauo naycae niinianoaiaaei
no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo aei?ia e eaiaeia. *a?ac iieanneea aieioa
i?ieeaaeuaathony ieinei-neiieineee e ieinei-aieuineee o?aeou. A 1784 a.
auei caeii/aii no?ieoaeuenoai ia aeaiueae aaoiaia I. Iaeineiai eaiaea,
niaaeeiyaoaai Ua?o n ssnaeueaeie, a /a?ac ieo – Aeiai? n Iaiaiii. Oaea
ai a?aiy ?acaeaeia ?a/e Iiniieeoie aue caaa?oai Aeiai?i-Aoaneee eaiae,
niaaeeiyaoee Ieio n Iooiaoeai – i?eoieii Aoaa. A 1784 a. ii yoiio iooe a
Aa?oaao e Aaeaiuene i?ioae ia?aue ea?aaai noaeia.

A iaaiaoneeo oieueaa?eao iiiaueee ec-ca ?anooueo oeai ia ca?ii oaaee/eee
nianoaaiioth caiaoeo. Ioaeaeueiua oaiaeaeu n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey
i?eaueueiinoe naieo aeaaeaiee noaiiaeeenue ia iooue ?aaeeeaeueiie
ia?ano?ieee aaaeaiey naiaai oicyenoaa. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo eeeaeaee?iaaee
aa?ueio e caiaieee aa /eioai. Iiiaea iiiaueee nicaeaaaee a naieo
aeaaeaieyo i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iaiooaeoo?iiai oeia. I?e/ai
iiiiiieey oeaoia ia ai?iaeneeo ?uieao iaoneiaeea ?aciauaiea iaiooaeoo? a
iaeuo ai?iaeao e ianoa/eao, aoiaeeaoeo a iaaiaoneea aeaaeaiey. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiuie ec ieo auee noaeieueiue caaiae a Iaeeaieao, Neooeeay oaa?eea
oaeeiauo iiynia, aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiue caaiae a Aeoiaaa e ae?. Iniaoth
a?oiio i?aaenoaaeyee e?oiiua aio/eiiua i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaiiua
iiaenea?aeai AEE Aioiieai Oucaiaaocii a A?iaeiaineie e A?anoneie
ei?ieaaneeo yeiiiieyo . Ii iino?iee aeaaaeoeaoue o?e oaa?e/iuo
i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao ceaoioeaiuo ecaeaeee, noieiaiai aaeuey,
/oeie, e?oaeaa, ea?aeueiuo ea?o. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo Oucaiaaoca ?aaioaei 3
ouny/e /aeiaae.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa Aaea?one a iniiaiii caaa?oeeinue e
60-i a. XVIII a. A yoio ia?eiae a Aaea?one ainiiaenoaiaaea niaoaiiay
?aioa. I?e yoii aeaiaaeiay e io?aaioi/iay oaaee/eaaeenue, a iaoo?aeueiay
ana aieueoa oo?a/eaaea naia cia/aiea. Oae, aaeaiaaeaeueiay aa?ueia
oyaeuo e?anoueyi, eioi?ay ninoaaeyea ia caiaaea Aaea?one a 40 – 50-a aa.
8 – 12 aeiae n oyaeiaie aieiee, e 70 – 80 aa. oaaee/eeanue aei 10 – 16
aeiae. A ainoi/iie /anoe Aaea?one aa?ueia auea iaiueoa. E?iia aa?ueiu
e?anoueyia auiieiyee ?aaiou ii nieaao eana, ia?aaicea a?ocia,
aei?iaeii-?aiiioiua e no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou. Ii-i?aaeiaio iie inoaaaeenue
aani?aaiuie. Ethaie oeyooe/ iia oaeoue eee iiaaneoue ca iacia/eoaeueiia
i?anooieaiea naiaai e?anoueyieia, ioaeaoue aai ca aeieae ?inoiaueeo e
o.ae.

Ia oneeaiea oaiaeaeueiiai aiaoa e?anoueyia ioaa/aee /aua anaai iiaaaaie
a ae?oaea oaiaeaeueiua aeaaeaiey, a ai?iaea e ianoa/ee, ioeacuaaeenue io
auiieiaiey iiaeiiinoae, iiaeaeeaaee iiiaue/uee iino?ieee. Iaeiei ec
e?oiiaeoeo aunooieaiee e?anoueyinoaa a Aaea?one auei aii?oaeaiiia
ainnoaiea e?anoueyi a E?e/aaneii noa?inoaa a eiioea 1743 – ia/aea 1774
a. Ainnoaiea aicaeaaee Aaneeue Aiueei. A eaaa?a iianoaioeaa
ian/eouaaeinue aei 4-o oun. /aeiaae. Ainnoaiea auei aeanoiei iiaeaaeaii
n iiiiuueth ?aaoey?iuo aiene. Aioeoaiaeaeueiua aunooieaiey ia
i?ae?auaeenue e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu. Iaeiaei ana iie eiaee
ia?aie/aiiue, noeoeeiue, ?ac?iciaiiue e eieaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVII a. ia/aeinue iinoaiaiiia aic?iaeaeaiea
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ai?iaeia. Eae e i?aaeaea, iie yaeyeenue oeaio?aie
?aianae, aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ai?iaeaia aeiaeaaeenue oeo/oaiey
ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Eiiaaea iie a?aeenue ca i?oaeea. A ai?ueaa n
iaaiaoneei naiioi?aanoaii e oaiaeaeueiie aia?oeae ai?iaea, eae i?aaeei,
iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue oeaio?aeueiuie aeanoyie ainoaea?noaa. A 1661 a.
iauaia Iiaeeaaa, a ianeieueei iicaea e A?iaeii, iieo/eee i?aai eca?aiey
ai?iaeneeo aieoia. A 1764 a. naei eeeaeaee?iaae a ai?iaeao noaeaaioth
th?enaeeeoeeth oeyoou e aeooiaainoaa. Ai?iaeaia, aeeaoea ia th?eaeeeao
oaiaeaeia, noaee iiaeaeanoiu iaaeno?aoai.

A XVII – XVIII aa. iaino?eeanue eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo o?enoeaiaie
e eoaeayie a ?aianeaiie/aneie e oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Caaa?oeeanue
iia iiaaaeie aa?aaa. Aeaei a oii, /oi aa?aeneei eoioeai, a?aiaeaoi?ai,
ei?/ia?yi, ?inoiaueeai ieacuaaee iiaeaea?aeeo iaaiaou e oeyooa. Eaaaeu
iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue e eaoiee/aneeie i?aeaiaie iioiio, /oi aa?ae aaiaeeee
a iai?io aeaiaaeiua naa?aaeaiey iiiaoia. Aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai aa?aaa
nicaeaaae eaaae, iaueia, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iaeiia?aiaiii e
?aeeaeicioth naeoo e naiaia?aciue i?aeai, eioi?ue niaoeeaeece?iaaeny ia
?inoiaue/anoaa e oi?aiauo iia?aoeeyo. ?oeiaiaenoaoynue a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe oaeioaeneei i?aaii, eaaaeu ia aeiioneaee eiieo?aioeee
iaaeaeo aa?aeneeie iin?aaeieeaie. O?enoeaineia aea eoia/anoai e oeaoe
onooiaee aa?ayi a i?aaiecaoeee e nieeaea?iinoe. Eo ?acaeaeyea
?aeeaeiciay ai?ueaa (eaoieeee, i?aaineaaiua, oieaou, noa?iaa?u e ae?.)

Aieueoea ai?iaea yaeyeenue e?oiiuie oi?aiauie oeaio?aie. Ioiaia a
na?aaeeia XVIII a. oaiiaeaiiie eeiee iaaeaeo ?onneeie aoaa?ieyie e
eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiie oeo/oeea oneiaey aeey auaica oiaa?ia a ?inneth ec
Aaea?one. Aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee oi?aiaee ea?aee y?ia?ee. Iaeioi?ua
ec ieo aeeeeenue ii ianeieueei iaaeaeue. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie a eiioea
XVIIIa. auee y?ia?ee a Ieinea, Oeeiaa, Aaoaieiae/ao, Caeueaa e Ino?iaii.

5. Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen ?a/e Iiniieeoie e aa ?acaeaeu

Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen ?a/e Iiniieeoie auoaeae eae ec aa aioo?aiiaai, oae e
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey. A XVIII a. iaino?eeanue eiio?iioaoeey
iaaeaeo ?aciuie iaaiaonei-oeyoaoneeie a?oiie?iaeaie ca aeanoue.
I?iaeieaeaeanue ?acai?aaoayny aua a 70-a aiaeu XVII a. ai?ueaa iaaeaeo
?aaeceaeeeaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e Naiaaaie e Iaoeaie – n ae?oaie
noi?iiu. Iaeiaei Iaoeu, noaa a iiiiceoeeth e ei?ieth, ia/aee
eiioeeeoiaaoue n Naiaaaie e Iaeineeie. Caoai, eiaaea Naiaae oe?aieee
naie iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee, i?ioea ieo aicieeea oe?ieay eiaeeoeey ai
aeaaa n Iaeineeie e Aeoiaaaoeeeie. Yoe iaaeaeioniaeoeu ia?a?inee a
ia/aea XVIII a. a a?aaeaeaineoth aieio.

Aaaey ai?ueao iaaeaeo niaie, yoe oaiaeaeueiua a?oiie?iaee ia?auaeenue ca
iiiiuueth e eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai. Oaea a oiaea Naaa?iie aieiu
/anoue iaaiaoia iioea ca nithcieeii Iao?a I Aaaonoii II Naeniineei,
aoi?ay eca?aea ei?ieai Noaieneaaa Eaueineiai – nithcieea Oaaoeee.
Aeaaiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one i?ioiaeeee a 1706 –
1708 aa. 28 naioya?y 1708 a. ieiei aea?aaie Eaniay ?onneay a?iey
iaea?aeaea aaaeioth iiaaaeo iaae oaaaeneei aieneii. Naaa?iay aieia
onei?eea aaiieth. ?inney a ?acoeueoaoa aieiu oe?aieyeanue. ?a/ue
Iiniieeoay i?eoiaeeea a oiaaeie, oa?yea cia/aiea e?oiiiai aa?iiaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa, iiiaaeaea a caaeneiinoue io ninaaeae.

A ?a/e Iiniieeoie neiaeeeanue oaeay neooaoeey, eiaaea aaca?aie/iay
oeyoaoneay aeaiie?aoey aaea e ineaaeaieth oeaio?aeueiie, ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe. Oaeoe/anee no?aia noaiiaeeanue ea?ooeie a ?oeao neeueiuo
ieeaa?oe/aneeo a?oii, eioi?ua iieeoe/anee e yeiiiie/anee iiae/eieee naaa
oeyooo. Iie aeoeaii eniieueciaaee i?aai «liberum veto» (cai?auath), ii
eioi?iio iaeei aeaiooao iia caaeiee?iaaoue ethaia ?aoaiea e aeaaea
ni?aaoue ?aaioo naeia. N 1652 ii 1764 aa. ec 80 naeiia 44 auee ni?aaiu,
iie ia i?eiyee ieeaeeo ?aoaiee. Aiaeaie ?a/ue Iiniieeoay inoaaaeanue aac
aunoaai i?aaia aeanoe. A yoi a?aiy ?inea ?ieue iiaaoiauo e aiaaiaeneeo
naeiia. Iie i?enaaeaaee ooieoeee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoe,
aaiaeeee iiaua iaeiae. Ei?ieaaneay eacia iinoiyiii iuouaea iaoaaoeo
aeaiaa, ei?iee iaoiaeeeenue a aieueoie caaeneiinoe io iaaiaoia, eioi?ua
eiaee naie aienea.

Ineaaeaiiay ?a/ue Iiniieeoay oa?yea naia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea e a
eiioea XVIII a. noaea aeiau/ae naieo aieaa neeueiuo ninaaeae –
aano?eeneie, i?onneie e ?onneie iiia?oee. Aeey aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaea
?a/e Iiniieeoie aue eniieueciaai oae iacuaaaiue «aeenneaeaioneee»
aii?in. ?inney iinoaaeea ia?aae iieueneei Naeiii aii?in i iieiii
o?aaieaaiee a i?aaao iaeaoieeeia (aeenneaeaioia) n eaoieeeaie. Naei
ioaaoee ioeacii. Oiaaea a 1767 a. i?e iie?iaeoaeuenoaa ?innee e I?onee a
Neooeea auea nicaeaia i?aaineaaiay, a a Oi?oia i?ioanoaioneay
eiioaaea?aoeee, eioi?ua noaee aeiaeaaoueny ?aaainoaa aa?othueo ?aciuo
eiioannee. Aeey iiaee?aieaiey eiioaaea?aoia a Iieueoo aue aaaaeai
40-ouny/iue ?onneee ei?ion. ?onneea aienea ie?oaeeee Naei a Aa?oaaa, e
ii aue auioaeaeai ioiaieoue ana caeiiu, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea
aeenneaeaioia. Aeaoa?eio II Naei iaaeaeee iieiiii/eyie iaa?aaaoue ia
oieueei i?aaineaaea aaei?onia, ii e naio ?a/ue Iiniieeooth.

Iaeiaei yoe ?aoaiey ano?aoeee nii?ioeaeaiea /anoe iieueneie oeyoou. Iia
a oaa?aea 1768 a. a a. Aa?a ia Oe?aeia nicaeaao naith eiioaaea?aoeeth.
Cia/eoaeueiie iiaeaea?aeeie aa?neea eiioaaea?aou iieueciaaeenue e a
Aaea?one. Ia/aeanue aii?oaeaiiay ai?ueaa n o/anoeai ?onneeo aiene.
Aa?neea eiioaaea?aou auee ?acaeou. Iinea yoiai i?iecioae ia?aue ?acaeae
?a/e Iiniieeoie iaaeaeo ?inneae, I?onneae e Aano?eae. A 1772 a. ?innee
ioioea ainoi/iay /anoue Aaea?one – Aeoaaueia e Iiaeeaaueia. Nia?aaoeeny
a 1773 a. a A?iaeii Naei, iiae iaaeeiii ?onneie aeeieiiaoee,
iiaeoaa?aeee onooieo ioioaaeoeo e ?innee oa??eoi?ee.

Ia?aue ?acaeae aeae e?aieee oie/ie iao?eioe/aneei /oanoaai a iieueneeo
i?ia?anneaiuo e?oaao. Ia?anoaei no?aieaiea oi?ne?iaaoue i?iaaaeaiea
?aoi?i ii oe?aieaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Oai aieaa, /oi ia
iieeoe/aneoth a?aio auoiaeeei o?aouea nineiaea. Iiae aai aeaaeaieai
i?aaeoaeuenoai aaaei aaeeioth iioeeio, iaycaoaeueioth aeey anao, a oii
/enea aeey oeyoou e aeooiaainoaa. Nicaeaaony ia?aue iinoiyiii
aeaenoaothuee oeaio?aeueiue eniieieoaeueiue i?aai (i?aaeoaeuenoai),
eioi?iio iiae/eiyeenue ana ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey.

?aaeeeaeueii iano?iaiiay /anoue aeaiooaoia *aou?aoeaoiaai naeia (1788 –
1792 aa.) i?aaei?eiyea iiiuoeo eeoeoue ?inneth aeaeueoa aiaoeaaoueny a
aeaea ?a/e Iiniieeoie. Naei i?eiye ?aoaiea ia oaaee/aiee a?iee aei 100
oun. /aeiaae, caeii i naeieeao, ii eioi?iio aaccaiaeueiay oeyooa auea
eeoaia ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. Aaiee?u e th?enou iieo/eee oeyoaoneia
caaiea. Ai?iaeaia iieo/eee i?aai i?eia?aoaoue caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey,
iieo/aoue aeooiaiua e naaoneea aeieaeiinoe, ioeoea?neea caaiey.

A iaa 1791 a. Naei ooaa?aeee iiaoth Eiinoeoooeeth, eioi?ay
?ac?aaaouaaeanue iiae aeeyieai o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee. Eiinoeoooeey
nio?aieea ca oeyooie ana i?aaa e ?ac?aoeea ae caieiaoueny oi?aiaeae.
Iieeoe/aneea i?aaa iieo/eea i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay /anoue iauai. Iieiaeaiea
e?anoueyinoaa oaeoe/anee ia eciaieeanue, ii a Eiinoeoooeee
i?iaicaeaoaeanue iiaea iaae iei ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Eiinoeoooeey
nouanoaaiiui ia?acii eciaieea ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie. Auai?iinoue
ei?ieae ioiaiyeanue, ii nio?aiyeanue auai?iinoue aeeianoee.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeaea Ei?ieth e nicaeaiiiio i?e iai
Niaaoo a ninoaaa i?eiana e iyoe ieieno?ia (iieeoeee, aiaiiiai, oeiainia,
eiino?aiiuo aeae e ieieno?a-o?aieoaey ia/aoe). Naei inoaaaeny aunoei
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii. Liberum veto e eiioaaea?aoeaiue naei auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu. Ana ?aoaiey aeieaeiu auee i?eieiaoueny i?inoui
aieueoeinoaii aieinia. Ioiaiyeanue Ethaeeineay oiey, /oi aaei e
eeeaeaeaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiinoe Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai,
nicaeaaaeanue naiinoiyoaeueiay i?aaineaaiay aia?oey, iiae/eiaiiay
iai?yioth Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiio iao?ea?oo. Eiinoeoooeey eiaea
i?ia?anneaiia cia/aiea e nicaeaaaea aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia e ianeo/aeii ano?aoeea nii?ioeaeaiea eae aioo?e
ainoaea?noaa, oae e ca a?aieoeae.

I?ioeaieeaie Eiinoeoooeee ieacaeenue iaaiaou, iaeeay oeyooa,
eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, iaineay eo?ey. Iiiaea ?aoaiey Naeia aucaaee
ino?ia iaaeiaieuenoai ?innee, eioi?ay oaea noiaea ?ac?aoeoue naie
i?iaeaiu n Oo?oeeae e Oaaoeeae. Iiia?oe/aneea ainoaea?noaa Aa?iiu a yoi
a?aiy eiinieeaee?othony, eo i?ioeai?a/ey iooiaeyo ia aoi?ie ieai ia?aae
iauaaeeiythuae eo iaiaaenoueth e ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee. A ia/aea 1792
a. ?inneeneea aienea iai?aaeeenue a Iieueoo. I?e iie?iaeoaeuenoaa
Iineau, iaaeiaieueiay ?aoaieai naeia oeyooa i?aaieciaaea a iaa 1792 a.
Oa?aiaeoeeoth (Oe?aeia) eiioaaea?aoeeth, eioi?ay aianoa n ?inneeneie
a?ieae noaea ai?ioueny ca ainnoaiiaeaiea naieo i?aaeieo i?aa. A?iey ?a/e
Iiniieeoie ia niiaea i?ioeainoiyoue iauaaeeiaiiui neeai ?innee e
oa?aia/ai. 24 ethey ia noi?iio eiioaaea?aoia ia?aoae Ei?ieue, a no?aia
onoaiiaeeanue aeanoue eiioaaea?aoia. ?aoaiey *aou?aoeaoiaai naeia e
Eiinoeoooeee 1791 a. auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu.

O?eoio oa?aia/ai aue e?aoeia?aiaiiui. Iiaeaioiaea aiaiiue ?aca?ii ?a/e
Iiniieeoie, iie iiaeaioiaeee aoi?ie aa ?acaeae. 13 yiaa?y 1793 a.
iaaeaeo ?inneae e I?onneae aue iiaeienai aeo aoi?iai ?acaeaea ?a/e
Iiniieeoie, ia oa??eoi?eth eioi?ie anooieee e i?onneea aienea. 17
aaaonoa iineaaeiee Naei ?a/e Iiniieeoie, nia?aaoeeny a A?iaeii,
?aoeoeoee?iaae aeiaiai? i ?acaeaea n ?inneae, a 23 naioya?y 1793 a. auei
iauyaeaii i ?aoeoeeaoeee aeiaiai?a n I?onneae. E ?innee iooiaeeea
I?aaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia e oeaio?aeueiay /anoue Aaea?one n ai?iaeaie
Ai?enia, Ieine, Neooee, Ianaeae, Oo?ia, Ieine. I?onney caoaaoeea
Aaeaiuene, Oi?oiue, ii/oe anth Aieueooth Iieueoo, /anoue Iaciaoe e
E?aeianeiai aiaaiaenoaa.

Iineaaeiae iiiuoeie eiinieeaeaoeee iauanoaa e i?ioeainoiyiey iieiiio
en/aciiaaieth ?a/e Iiniieeoie eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa noaei
ainnoaiea 1794 a, eioi?ia aicaeaaee o?iaeaiaoe Aaea?one Oaaeaoo
Einothoei. 24 ia?oa a E?aeiaa aue iauyaeai aeo ainnoaiey. Oeaeueth
ainnoaiey auei ainnoaiiaeaiea ?a/e Iiniieeoie a a?aieoeao 1772 a. e
aica?auaiea e Eiinoeoooeee 1791 a. O. Einothoei , ae?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee
ainnoaiey iuoaeenue iauaaeeieoue eioa?anu ia?aaeiaie /anoe oeyoou,
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, aeaeaee oaae, iai?aaeaiiua ia oeo/oaiea
iieiaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa (Iieiiaoeeee oieaa?nae ), ii ia niiaee
aeinoe/ue oe?ieie iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey.

Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai ainnoaiea ia/aeinue 16
ai?aey, a a ii/ue n 22 ia 23 ai?aey a ?oeao ainnoaaoeo ieacaeny ai?iae
Aeeueii. 24 ai?aey ia ieiuaaee ia?aae ai?iaeneie ?aoooae aue iauyaeai
Aeeaineee «Aeo ainnoaiey ia?iaea eeoianeiai» e iaeiia?aiaiii ia/ae
?aaioaoue i?aai ii ?oeiaiaenoao ainnoaieai ai anai Aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa –
«Iaeaunoee Eeoianeee Niaao», a eioi?ue aioee aeaaaeoeaoue aeaayoue
iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo aeayoaeae ainnoaiey, a oaeaea o?eaeoeaoue naiue
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aiaaiaenoa, iiaaoia e ai?iaeia. Aii?oaeaiiay ai?ueaa
?ani?ino?aieeanue ii anae Eeoaa e Caiaaeiie Aaea?one. Caeanue ainnoaaoeo
aicaeaaee sseoa ssneineee (ia ia/aeueiii yoaia).
Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay i?ia?aiia iianoaioeaa a Aeeueii auea aieaa
?aaeeeaeueiie, /ai a Aa?oaaa.

A Aaeeeii eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeii aiaiiua aeaenoaey i?iaeieaeaeenue n
ai?aey ii naioya?ue 1794 a. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaea?one a ainnoaiee i?eiyei
o/anoea ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/ /aeiaae. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua
n?aaeaiey i?iecioee aicea ae. Iieyiu (7 iay), ae. Nieu (25 ethiy),
Neiieia (4 aaaonoa), Aeeueii (22 aaaonoa), ae. E?oi/eoeu (17 naioya?y).
Iiiuoee ?ani?ino?aieoue ainnoaiea ia oa??eoi?ee, ?aiaa aioaaeoea a
ninoaa ?innee, oniaoa ia eiaee. Iaaeaaeaeu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ainnoaiey ia
iiiiuue ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Ainnoaiea auei
iiaeaaeaii. 29 ieoya?y 1794 a. ia?aae oea?neeie aieneaie ai aeaaa n
A.A.Noai?iaui eaieooee?iaaea Aa?oaaa.

13 ieoya?y 1795 a. auea iiaeienaia eiiaaioeey iaaeaeo Aano?eae, I?onneae
e ?inneae ia ieii/aoaeueiii ?acaeaea ?a/e Iiniieeoie. E ?innee ioioea
caiaaeiay /anoue Aaea?one (ai?iaea A?iaeii, Iiaia?oaeie, A?ano-Eeoiane),
ca eneeth/aieai Aaeinoieneie iaeanoe, eioi?ay aei 1807 a. iaoiaeeeanue
iiae aeanoueth I?onnee, aieueoay /anoue eeoianeeo caiaeue e Eo?eyiaeey.
E Aano?ee ioioea /anoue Ethaeeineiai aiaaiaenoaa, Iiaeeynneiai,
Naiaeiie?neiai, A?ano-Eeoiaeiai. E I?onnee ioioea inoaeueiay /anoue
iieueneeo caiaeue. 25 iiya?y 1795 a. io i?anoiea io?aeny iineaaeiee
ei?ieue Noaieneaa Aaaono Iiiyoianeee. Iaeiaaea iiao/aa ainoaea?noai
ia?anoaei nouanoaiaaoue.

6. Eoeueoo?a Aaea?one a XVII – XVIII aa

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII – XVIII aa. oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey aaei?onneie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u oooaeoeeenue. Oneeeeenue iieiiecaoeey e
ieaoiee/eaaiea ianaeaiey ainoi/iuo caiaeue ?a/e Iiniieeoie. Aaei?onneee
ycue iinoaiaiii auoaniyeny ec noaeaaiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa, a a eiioea XVIIa. aai eniieueciaaiea eae
ioeoeeaeueiiai e ienueiaiiiai ycuea auei cai?auaii. Iinoaiiaeaieai naeia
a 1696a. ana ia?aaiaeeeinue ia iieueneee ycue. N XVIIa. eieae
ia/aoaeenue ia iieueneii, o?aioeocneii, eaoeineii, eoaeueyineii,
iaiaoeeii, ?onneii, aa?aeneii ycueao. Oneeeeinue ouaieaiea i?aa
i?aaineaaiuo e i?ioanoaioia. A 1668 a. Caei cai?aoee ia?aoiaeeoue ec
eaoiee/anoaa a ae?oaea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey. I?aaineaaiie oeyooa,
nayuaiieeai, iauaiai aue cai?auai aeinooi a ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu
aeanoe.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeeciue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII – ia/aea XVIII aa.
oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue eae au aeaeaeaieai aniyoue. Caauaaeenue aeinoeaeaiey
a?aiai yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e ?aoi?iaoeee, niiaa i?eia?aee iiioey?iinoue
eaeae ia?eiaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Oneiaey, a eioi?uo ?acaeeanue eoeueoo?a
Aaea?one, ii?aaeaeeee aa iniaaiiinoue – iieeeeiaaenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Ec-ca iaaeaaii?eyoiie neooaoeee aaei?onneiycu/iie auea i?aeiouanoaaiii
ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a – eoeueoo?a e?anoueyinoaa, ai?iaeneeo iecia, /anoe
oeyoou e aeooiaainoaa.

Oeieueiia ia?aciaaiea aei na?aaeeiu XVIII a. eiioeaio?e?iaaeinue, a
iniiaiii, a ?oeao iiiaoaneeo i?aeaiia. Aieueoeinoai oeie i?eiaaeeaaeaei
eacoeoai. Auea i?ae?auaia aeayoaeueiinoue a?aoneeo e i?ioanoaioneeo
oeie. I?aiiaeaaaiea aaeinue ia eaoeineii ycuea, i?aaeiaoaie aeey
iao/aiey auee a?aiiaoeea, ?eoi?eea, aeeaeaeoeea, a?eoiaoeea, aaiiao?ey,
iocuea e ano?iiiiey. Oeaio?aie ia?aciaaiey auee Aeeaineay Eacoeoneay
aeaaeaiey e Iieioeeay Eacoeoneay eieeaaey. A 1773 a. auea nicaeaia
Eiienney ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio ia?aciaaieth (Aaeoeaoeeiiiay eiienney). Aa
noa?aieyie oeiea i?eia?aoaao naaoneee oa?aeoa?.

A iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie iunee ainiiaenoaiaaea noieanoeea. Iaeiaei
oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee aoaenoe/aneea acaeyaeu Eaceie?a
Euueineiai. Inoaaea I?aeai eacoeoia, ii iaienae o?aeoao «I
ianouanoaiaaiee Aiaa», aaea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi Aia ia nouanoaoao, a
yaeyaony oieueei eeethceae, ?iaeaeaiiie oaioaceae ethaeae. Eaoiee/aneia
aeooiaainoai aeanoiei ?ani?aaeeinue n aaei?onneei aieueiiaeoioeai. A
1689 a. E. Euueineee aue niaeaeai ia eino?a.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. ia oa??eoi?eth Aaea?one ia/aee i?iieeaoue
iao/ii-oeeinioneea eaeae caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo i?inaaoeoaeae O. Aieueoa?a,
AE.AE. ?onni, Ae. Aeeae?i, ?. Aeaea?oa e ae?. A Aaea?one iiyaeeenue
o/aiua-oeeiniou, ?acaeaeyaoea i?inaaoeoaeueneea eaeae o?aioeocia. N?aaee
ieo E. Ia?aoo, A. Aeaaoaae/, I. Ea?iiae/. Noi?iiieeaie eaeae oeceie?aoia
auee E. O?aioiae/, E. No?ieiianeee, I. Ea?iiae/ e ae?. Oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue iieo/ee oeeinio e oea?eiaiue aeayoaeue A. Eiienneee,
eioi?ue auniei oeaiee anoanoaaiiua iaoee e eo ?ieue a iiciaiee i?e?iaeu.

Iaeiei ec y?eeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaei?onneie eeoa?aoo?u oiai a?aiaie aue
Neiaii Iieioeeee (1629 – 1680 aa.). Nouanoaaiiay /anoue aai aeecie auea
naycaia n Iineaie. N. Iieioeeee nicaeae ?oeiieniua nai?ieee «Aao?ia?aae
iiiaioeaaoiue», «?eoiieiaeii». Ienae ia aaei?onneii, eaoeineii e
noa?ineaayineii ycueao. Ii aue ainieoaoaeai oea?neeo aeaoae, iniiaae
oeiia?aoeth a E?aiea e Neaayii-a?aei -eaoeineoth aeaaeaieth. Ia
noaiiaeaiea aaei?onneie eeoa?aoo?u a iaiaeie noaiaie iiaeeyei onoiia
ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai. Eeoa?aoo?iay aeeciue Aaea?one XVIII a. ioee/aeanue
aua aieueoeie iieeeeiaaeciii, /ai a i?aaeuaeouoth yiioo.

Oaao?aeueiay aeeciue Aaea?one ia ?oaaaea XVII – XVIII aa. auea
i?aaenoaaeaia oeieueiui oaao?ii e ia?iaeiui eoeieueiui – aaoeaeeie. A eo
?aia?ooa?a i?aiaeaaeaee iinoaiiaee ia iieueneii e eaoeineii ycueao. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. i?ienoiaeeo noaiiaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
oaao?a. I?e yoii i?aiaeaaeaee e?aiinoiua oaao?u. Iaaiaou i?eaeaoaee ia
i?eaeai?ioth noeaio ca?oaaaeiuo aeoa?ia, iocueaioia. Iniaaiii aunieei
aue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue o?iaaiue e?aiinoiuo oaao?ia Ianaeaea, Neooeea,
Oeeiaa, A?iaeii, ?oaeai, Neiieia, Iiaeeaaa.

A eaiaiiii ciae/anoaa i?iyaeeenue iniaaiiinoe aa?ieei. A ai?iaeao e
aea?aaiyo no?ieeenue iiiiaciua einoaeu, iiianou?e, caiee. E oaeei
nii?oaeaieyi ioiinyony aa?ia?aeeineee, a?eaeaeneee, eacoeoneee einoaeu a
A?iaeii, o?aioeeneaineee einoae a Ieinea, Iiianou?neee eiiieaen a
AEe?iae/ao e ae?.

A XVII – XVIII aa. aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/eea eeiiiienue. Aaaeouaa
ianoi a naaoneie aeeaiiene caieiaao ii?o?ao. Neiaeeeinue ianeieueei
oeiia ii?o?aoa: ia?aaeiue, ?ai?acaioaoeaiue, ?uoea?neee, iia?aaaeueiue.
?acaeaaeanue eieaeiay a?aoeea. Aunieee o?iaaiue ioi?ieaiey e
eeethno?e?iaaiey eiea aeaiiino?e?iaaee Noi?aneueneay e Iiaeeaaneay
oeiia?aoee. I?eciaiea ca i?aaeaeaie Aaea?one iieo/eei ianoa?noai ianoiuo
?ac/eeia. Aaei?onneea ianoa?a nicaeaee ?yae aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
eeiiinoania aeey Aeiineiai, Neiaiiianeiai, Iiai-Ea?onaeeineiai e ae?oaeo
iiianou?ae. Eie aea ioi?ieaiu iiiaea niai?u, iiiauaiey Iineianeiai
E?aiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaea?onue ia iyaeu ouny/aaiaeaecyc. – Ii.: AaeYi, 2000. – 432 n.

2. A?oiacne? A.O. A?noi?uy aecy?aeaau ? i?aaa Aaea?on?: Ao/ya. aeaiai. –
Ii.: Yeaia?niaeouaa, 2000. – 300 n.

3. Ainoi?uy Aaea?oni: Ao/ya. aeaiai.: O 2 /. / ss. E. Iiaie, A.N.
Ia?oeoeue, ?.E. Ea/aeac ? ?io.; Iaae ?yae. ss.E. Iia?ea, A.N. Ia?oeoey.
– Ii.: Oi?aa?n?oyoeeaa, 2000.

4. Ainoi?uy Aaea?oni: O 6 o. O.1. / A. Ay?aae, ?. Aaiaoeeay, I. Ao?ui ?
?io.; ?yaeeae.: I.I. Eanoethe (aae. ?yae.) ? ?io. – Ii.: Aae. Iaaoea,
2001.

5. A?noi?uy Aaea?on? c 1795 a. aea ayniu 1917 a.: Ao/ya. aeaiai. /?.?.
Eiceaeue, ?.I. E?yiue, E.O. Ay?yeoue ? ?io.; ?yae. eaeaa?y: ?.I. E?yiue,
?.?. Eiceaeue. – Ii.: Aaa?nya, 2001. – 400 n.

6. A?noi?uy Aaea?on?: O 2 /.: Eo?n eaeoeue. *.1. Na noa?aaeuoiuo /anic
aea eaioea OVIII no./ ?.I. E?yiue, ?.?. Eiceaeue, N.A. Ia?icaaa ? ?io. –
Ii.: ??AO, 2000. – 655 n.; *.2. XIX – XX noaaiaeaeci / I.?. A?uaaaec?i,
O.O. Eaaeunac, I.?. Cye?ine? ? ?io. – Ii.: ??AO, 2002. – 656 n.

7. A?noi?uy aaea?oneaaa ianoaoeoaa: O 6 o. – Ii.: Iaaoea ? oyoi?ea, 1987
– 1994.

8. A?noi?uy aaea?oneaaa oyao?a : O 3 o. – Ii.: Iaaoea ? oyoi?ea, 1983 –
1987.

9. A?noi?uy aaea?oneae e?oa?aoo?u O?O – ia/. OO no.: Iaae?o/i?e / Iaae
aaoe. ?yae. I.A. Eaca?oea, A.A. Naiyiia?/a. – Ii.: Auoyeoay oeiea, 1998.
– 559 n.

10. A?noi?uy aaea?oneae e?oa?aoo?u OO noaaiaeaecy: O 4 o. / Iaaoe. ?yae.
O.A. Ai?eai?aeac. – Ii.: Aaea?oneay iaaoea, 1999 – 2001.

11. A?noi?uy nyeyinoaa Aaea?on?: Na noa?aae. /anic aea 1996 a.: O 3 o.
O.1–2./ Aae. ?yae. I.I. Eanoethe. – Ii.: Aae. iaaoea, 1997 – 2002.

12. Aeicia?-Caiieuene? I.A. A?noi?uy Aaea?on?. – Ii.: AaeYi, 1994. – 510
n.

13. Ae?iaia E.I. AEeaiienue Aaei?onnee O?O – ia/aea OO aa. – Ii.:
Auoyeoay oeiea, 1974. – 334 n.

14. C a?noi?uye ia “Au”: Ioae?oeunou/iuy a?oueoeu / Oeeaae O. A?eiaa. –
Ii.: Ianoaoeeay e?oa?aoo?a, 1991. –398 n.

15. Enoi?ey Aaea?one a aeieoiaioao e iaoa?eaeao / Aao.-nino. E.I.
Eociaoeia, A.A. Iacaoe. – Ii.: Aiaeoay, 2000. – 672 n.

16. Enoi?ey Aaea?one: O/aaiia iiniaea /A.E. Aaaoeaaea?neay, I.E.
A?eaaaeei, E.A. AEeeoiiae/ e ae?.; Iiae ?aae. A.A. Eioaiianeiai e ae?. –
Ii.: Yeiia?niaeoeaa, 1997. – 319 n.

17. ?aiaoicne? O.I. Ea?ioe? ia?un a?noi?u? Aaea?on?. – Ii.: Aaea?onue,
1992. – 190 n.

18. Ea?ne? ss. Aaea?onu / Oeeaae. ? eaiaio. N. Aa?ai?ia ? E. Eycooi;
Iaaoe. ?yae. A. Iaeueaec?n; I?aaei. ss. ssiooeaa?/a ? E. Oea??e?. – Ii.:
Aaea?one? ei?aacai?, 2001. – 640 n.

19. Eiaeaeue E., ss?ionee Y. Enoi?ey Aaea?one n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei
iaoaai a?aiaie. – Ii.: Aaa?nya, 2000. – 591 n.

20. Eacoea A.A. A?noi?uy ianoaoeoaac: Ao/. aeaiai. – Ii.: Aaea?onue,
1996. – 399 n.

21. Eu/ E., Iaa?oee? O. A?noi?uy eoeueoo?u Aaea?on?. – Ii.:
Yeaia?niaeouaa, 1997.– 486 n.

22. I??aiia?/ ss. Iaaaeoay a?noi?uy Aaea?on?. – Aaeanoie, 1999. – 270 n.

23. Ia?unu a?noi?u? Aaea?on?: O 2 /. / I.I. Eanoethe, O.O. ?naaiea, A.A.
Oouoac ? ?io.– Ii.: Aaea?onue,1994.

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