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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?anioaeeee Ao?yoey

Ai?iaeneia oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaiey

Eeiaaenoe/aneay aeiiacey ?3

Ath?aaaea – aeeciue a aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie

(?aoa?ao)

Auiieieea: Iao?iieia Aiia

o/aieoea 10a eeanna

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Iiiiaiaaa E.TH.

Oeai-Oaey

1999

Aaaaeaiea

Iiaaaeiiiniia oanoaea Ath?aaaeu, naiie ae?aaiae ec ecaanoiuo iai
icaei?iaeoaeueiuo nenoai, eioi?ay ca?iaeeeanue a i?aaeai?ueyo Aeiaeaaa,
eaaeaony oaea ia iiaeao auoue ie/ai inoaiiaeaii. Eaaeaeue, eoi iiae?iaii
ciaeiieony n iae eee eniuoae ia i?aeoeea i?eaiu aa oa?aiee ia iiaeao ia
ainoeuaoueny yoie oeaeueiie e anaiauaiethuae nenoaiu oeaeeoaeuenoaa.

Ath?aaaea – nie?iaeuieoea ciaiee a iaeanoe i?aeoe/aneie e oai?aoe/aneie
iaaeeoeeiu, eiathuay iiiaiaaeiaie aaoi?eoao ia oieueei a no?aiao
Ainoiea, ii e ca aa i?aaeaeaie. Ath?aaaea a aoeaaeueiii ia?aaiaea n
naine?eoa – “iaoea” i caei?iaie e aeieaie aeecie (“athn” – aeeciue,
“aaaea” – ciaiea”)- eiaeeeneia o/aiea, ae?aaiaeoea ec ecaanoiuo iai
naaiaeiy. Yoi ae?aaiea ciaiea, eioi?ia aicieeei iiiai ouny/aeaoee
iacaae, yaeyaony /anoueth ae?aaiae a?eeneie o?aaeeoeee.

Aaaeu – nayuaiiay iaoea i caei?iaie aeecie.

Ec enoi?ee Athoaaaeu.

Eiaaea-oi iiiai ouny/aeaoee iacaae nouanoaiaaei ae?aaiea ainoaea?noai
Aoa?aou-Aa?oa, eioi?ia caieiaei aieueooth /anoue ieaiaou e yaeyeinue
i?aaeoanoaothuei iaoae oeeaeeecaoeee. Yoi ainoaea?noai i?inouanoaiaaei
ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/aeaoee e 5 ouny/ eao iacaae iii i?ae?aoeei
naia nouanoaiaaiea. A oa ae?aaiea a?aiaia yoa eoeueoo?a ieacuaaea
aeiieie?othuaa aeeyiea ia anth ieaiaoo. Ii ae?aaiei iaione?eioai,
aeioaaeoeie aei ian, iu iiaeai ioeaieoue oe?ioo iuneae e aaee/aeooth
ioae?inoue oao ethaeae, eioi?ua aeeee a yiioo /aeiaa/anoaa. Oeeinioey,
?aeeaey, iaoea, eneonnoai, nioeeieiaey, yoeea e iaaeeoeeia auee
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu e aaeaioe?iaaiu aeey anao ia?iaeia, ianaeyaoeo Caieth.
Iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i ae?aaieo ethaeyo, eae i i?eieoeaiuo aeeea?yo, auei
iieiinoueth ?acaayii, eiaaea ciaiey Aaaee/aneeo eaiiiia auei ?ane?uoi
Caiaaeiiio ie?o. Ath?aaaea yaeyaony /anoueth eaiiie/aneiai ciaiey e
ae?aaiae iaaeeoeeiie a?eaa. A ianoiyuea a?aiy ia ecaanoii eaeeo-oi aieaa
ae?aaieo nenoai, /ai Ath?aaaea. Iia noa?oa eeoaeneie e iaiiiai noa?oa
iaoae caiaaeiie iaaeeoeeiu.

Iauai?eciaiii, /oi oai?ey e?iaiia?auaiey aue ioe?uoa Oeeueyiii
Aa?aaai a 17 aaea. Ii caaeieai aei yoiai, a 20 aaea aei iaoae y?u *a?aea
?ac?aaioae eiiieaenioth eiioeaioeeth e?iaiia?auaiey. E?iia yoiai
n/eoaaony, /oi iniiaiiieiaeieeii iniii?eaeaaiey yaeyaony aiaeeeneee a?a/
Yaeaa?ae Aeaeaiia?, oioy ath?aaee/aneee a?a/ Aeoaiaaioa?e oaea a 6 aaea
aei iaoae y?u oe?iei i?eiaiye aaeoeeiaoeeth. A ie?a n/eoaaony, /oi
aia?aua ieanoe/aneay iia?aoeey (ainnoaiiaeaiea iina) auea i?iaaaeaia
Aeaeicaoii E. Ea?ith. Ii a oanoii aaea aei iaoae y?u oaea auei ecaanoii
iiiaeanoai oe?o?ae/aneeo eino?oiaioia e Noo?ooa i?iaiaeee neiaeiaeoea
iia?aoeee aeaca, oaeaeyy eaoa?aeoo. Oaeaea aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo caneoaa
ecia?aoaiey “eana?aaa na/aiey” (ni. i?eeiaeaiea 1 )

Iaeiei ec noa?aeoeo naeaeaoaeuenoa eiaeeeneiai eneonnoaa oeaeeoaeuenoaa
yaeyaony “?ea-aaaea”, aicieeoay ieiei 2000 eao iacaae, aaea oaea
iienaiu iia?aoeee, i?ioacu, e aieaa 50 oeaeaaiuo ?anoaiee. Aieaa
iiae?iaiua naaaeaiey eiathony a eieaa “Aooa?aa-Aaaea”, iiyaeaoaeny ca
700 eao aei iaoae y?u, aaea iienaiu oaea 300 oeaeaaiuo ?anoaiee e
iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiinoae oa?aiaaoe/aneiai ea/aiey naiuo ?acee/iuo
caaieaaaiee.

Iiyoiio Ath?aaaeo niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai iiaeii n/eoaoue i?aiaoa?ueth
anao o?aaeeoeeiiiuo nenoai iaaeeoeeiu.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec yoeo nenoai iieacae, /oi oaeoe/anee iaeaieaa
ecaanoiua iaaeeoeeineea o?aeoaou, eioi?ua iiyaeeenue a ?acee/iuo /anoyo
iaoae ieaiaou auee eeoue aaeaioaoeeae ath?aeaee/aneeo i?eioeeiia, a?
aeai?eoiia ia ii?aaeaeaiiua aaia?aoe/aneea, eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey,
iniaaiiinoe ianoiinoe, ?aeeaee.

Aianoa n aoaeaeeeneeie iiiaoaie Ath?aaaea aeia?aeanue aei Eeoay e
Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, aeieaia a?aiy ieacuaay aeeyiea ia oiaie –
iaaeeoeeineia o/aiea N?aaeiaai Ainoiea. *a?ac Ia?neth ?ani?ino?aieeinue
aei A?aoeee e ?eia, noaa aacie aeey a?a/aneiai (aeiiie?aoe/aneiai) e
?eineiai (aaeaie/aneiai) iaaeeoeeineeo o/aiee, eioi?ua nio?aiyee naith
cia/eiinoue iieoi?u ouny/e eao.

Oeaaoneay iaaeeoeeia n/eoaaony ?iaeiie nano?ie Ath?aaaeu e a? aeaaiue
eaiii Aeaeoooe oaeoe/anee yaeyaony ia?aaiaeii ae?aaiaai ath?aaaee/aneiai
eaiiia “Aooa-o?eaeaynaioeoa”. Yoio ia?aaiae ia aue aaeiioe?iaai e
oneiaeyi oieiaeiiai e nooiai eeeiaoa Oeaaoa n o/aoii ianoiuo ?anoaiee,
aeeaioiuo, aeiieie?othuae a oi a?aiy ?aeeaeiciie nenoaiu – eaiaecia e
oiai a?aiaie, a eioi?ia aeeee ethaee.

Eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey, oiaea naiia auei naeaeaii a N?aaeiae Acee
Aaeoeaiiie. Aai eaiii a?a/aaiie iaoee yaeyaony aaeiioe?iaaiiui
ath?aaaee/aneei eaiiiii “*a?aea Naioeoa”. Anoanoaaiii, eeoaeneay
iaaeeoeeia oaeaea eiaao ioiioaiea e Ath?aaaea. ?aiueoa n/eoaeinue, /oi
eaei?aoeaenioa?aiey e aiiaua ?aoeaenioa?aiey yaeythony iaoiaeaie
eneeth/eoaeueii eeoaeneeie. Ii iineaaeiea enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi
iiiaea ia?iaeu iaeaaeaee ciaieai aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo oi/ae e eaiaeia
aeoioieoo?u . Yoe eaiaeu, iacuaaaiua a Ath?aaaea eioi?iaoeeiiiuie, auee
iienaiu a “Aooa-o?eaeaynaioeoa”.

Iicaeiaa, iiiai ouny/aeaoee nionoy, e eeoaeoeai iiiae iaeei ec eaiiiia
– “Naia ?aaeaee”, aeaoaeueii iienuaathuee eaei?aoeaenioa?aieth. Ia
iniiaa yoiai auea iniiaaia eeoaeneay iaaeeoeeineay nenoaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi Ath?aaaea yaeyaony iniiaie anao
iaaeeoeeineeo nenoai.

Ath?aaaea e nia?aiaiiay iaaeeoeeia.

O nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea aicieeaao aii?in: “Ca/ai aica?auaoueny e noieue
ae?aaiei eaiiiai?”

Ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa caiaaeiuo a?a/ae, nia?aiaiiay iaaeeoeeia ia
iiaeao ieacaoue ?aaeueiie iiiiue i?e ea/aiee o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee.
Oioy a ioiioaiee ino?uo eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee, caiaaeiay iaaeeoeeia
aeinoeaea aieueoeo aunio. Any iiiiuue iniiaaia ia niyoee neiioiiia
aieacie: oae?aaony aa?oooea aenaa?aa, ii naia aieaciue inoaaony.

Caiaaeiay iaaeeoeeia e aa iaoiaeu ea/aiey iniiaaiu ia oa?iaeioa?aiee e
oe?o?aee. Oa?iaeioa?aiey ieacuaaao i/aiue neeueiia e auno?ia
aicaeaenoaea. Oaea /a?ac ianeieueei ieioo iiaeii iuooeoue ?acoeueoao,
o.a. niyoue aieue, iiieceoue oaiia?aoo?o, ono?aieoue eaeea-oi iaiieaaeee
a ?aaioa na?aeoea.

Yoa i?inoioa a eniieueciaaiee i?eaeaeea caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea. Ii
na?ueaciua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi eniieueciaaiea oa?iaeii?aia?aoia
a oa/aiea 5-10 eao i?eaiaeeo e iaia?aoeiui iineaaenoaeyi.

Oa?iaeii?aia?aou ia iiaoo aini?eieiaoueny eeaoeaie i?aaiecia, eeaoee eo
ioaa?aatho. O eeaoie i?aaiecia anoue naiy aaeeiaay caueoa – ?aoeaioi?iue
aiia?ao, eioi?ue niiniaai i?eieiaoue neaiaeu oieueei nianoaaiiuo
ai?iiiia e oa?iaioia. Ia /oaea?iaeiua aauanoaa, eioi?ua aaiaeyony a
i?aaieci, eeaoea ia?acoao naith nianoaaiioth caueoo e ia i?iioneaao eo.
*oiau i?iieeiooue ooaea e ieacaoue aicaeaenoaea ia eeaoi/iue i?aaieci,
nia?aiaiiua oa?iaeii?aia?ou auioaeaeaiu ?ac?ooaoue eeaoi/ioth iaia?aio.
Anoanoaaiii, ?ac?ooaiea eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai i?eaiaeeo e iinoaiaiiiio
oaanaieth aeeciaiiuo nee i?aaiecia. I?eiaiaiea oa?iaeii?aia?aoia
iai?aaeaii ia oi, /oiau oiaiueoeoue neioiiaoeeo i?iyaeaiey aieacie. Ii
i?e/eiu, ei?iaaoth a? /anoue, oa?iaeii?aia?aou oieueei iiaeieouaatho,
iie canoaaeytho i?ioiaeeoue aieaciue ii aieaa neiaeiui noaiai, ii aieaa
oyaeaeiio oa/aieth. Iiyoiio aieaciue i?ia?anne?oao, e yoi oaeo
iauai?eciaiiue.

Oa?iaeii?aia?aou ieacuaatho iiai/iua yooaeou, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a
ia?aia a?aiy, oioy aeaeueiaeoea iineaaenoaey iiaoo auoue aua aieaa
iai?aaeneacoaiuie. Aieueoeinoai ec inoaoi/iuo a?oii oa?iaeii?aia?aoia
ioeeaaeuaathony a ia/aie. Iineieueeo ia/aiue -iiuiue aeieiae/aneee
oeeueo? caueou, ii i?inoi auioaeaeai caaea?aeeaaoue a naaa yoe
i?aia?aou. Nia?aiaiiay

iaaeeoeeia auynieea, /oi iiiaea o?iie/aneea caaieaaaiey ia?ae/ii naycaiu
n iaoieiaeae ia/aie. Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiaiaiea oa?iaeii?aia?aoia
iiaeaaeyao ooieoeee eeaoie ia/aie, e ia/aiue auioaeaeaia iaeaieeaaoue a
naaa inoaoi/iua a?oiiu, eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue naiua iaia?aoeiua
iineaaenoaey. E?iia oiai yoe i?aia?aou aaaeoo e nieaeaieth caueoiuo nee
i?aaiecia. Anee /oi-oi i/aiue neeueii aiineony ec aia, ca/ai i?aaiecio n
yoei ai?ioueny? Oi anoue i?aaieci naie aiciiaeiinoe ia/eiaao
oiaiueoaoue, oaanaao ooieoeey eiioiiie nenoaiu e ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
nenoai, auaiaeyueo oa eee eiua oiene/iua aauanoaa e aieaciaoai?iua
ia/aea. Eiaaea n oa/aieai a?aiaie iaeaieeaathony iineaaenoaey, oi i?aai
ia/eiaao ?ac?ooaoueny.Eiaaea a eiioea eiioeia ii ?ac?ooeeny,
nia?aiaiiay iaaeeoeeia i?aaeeaaaao aai oaeaeeoue e caiaieoue
o?ainieaioaioii.

Ath?aaaea eiaao naia nianoaaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoio n/ao. Iia
i?aaeeaaaao aeeoue a aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie e ea/eoueny oieueei
anoanoaaiiuie iaoiaeaie.

Ia Caiaaea eaeay oeaeueiinoe iuoeaiey, i?eciaiea aaeeinoaa oaea, oia e
aeooe ?acaeaaaony aeiaieueii iaaeeaiiuie oaiiaie, iioiio /oi a iaoae
nenoaia oeaiiinoae ?acaeaeaiea oaea e aeooe aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ea?aei
i?aiaeaaeathuoth ?ieue. Aannii?ii, auei au ia oeaeaniia?acii ia?aiineoue
eiaeeeneee ia?ac aeecie e oeeinioeth ia caiaaeiue noeeue iuoeaiey e
aeeciue. Iiyoiio a iineaaeiaa aeanyoue eao a aa?iiaeneii ?aaeiia e NOA
onoaiiaeeenue ?acee/iua iiaeaee, i?eaioe?othueany ia nenoaio Ath?aaaeu.

A Aa?iia i?aaeeaaathony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue 3 oi?iu Ath?aaeu.

Ath?aaaea ii Iaoa?eoe

Eiaeeeneee o/aiue Iaoa?eoe Iaoao Eiaa, ianoaaiee a?oiiu “Aeoec” e
ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo ee/iinoae, ia?aue ?ac?aaioae iiaeaeue Ath?aaaeu aeey
Caiaaea. Ii noiae iiaoaeeoue aaaeoueo a?a/ae Eiaeee, caieiathueony
ath?aaaeie e o?aiyueo iiiaea naiaeiua o?aaeeoeee, ?ane?uoue naie
i?aaeaea o?aieaoeany a oaeia ?aoeaioo?u e iaoiaeu oeaeeoaeuenoaa e
ia?aaeaoue eo ae?oaei. Ii aai eieoeeaoeaa iiuoiua a?a/e, caieiathueany
oeaeeoaeuenoaii ii Ath?aaaea, e eeoa?aoo?iaaaeu Eiaeee oaea a ia/aea
naieaeanyouo aiaeia iauaaeeieeenue aeey oiieie ?aaiou ii iiaoi?iiio
ia?aaiaeo i?eaeiaeueiuo oaenoia Ath?aaaeu ia nia?aiaiiue ycue, iioiio
/oi a i?ioaaeoea noieaoey iiiaea ciaiey auee iioa?yiu ii i?e/eia ieioiai
ia?aaiaea. A aeiiieiaiea e yoiio iie iainiiaaee aieaa aeoaieee niune
iiiaeo ae?oaeo aaae, aaea auee iienaiu niiniau oeaeeoaeuenoaa oaea e
aeooa, eioi?ua a iuiaoiae Eiaeee auee ecaanoiu oieueei ii iniiaiui
i?eioeeiai.

Caiaaeiua o/aiua niiinoaaeee iieo/aiiua oaeei iooai anaiauaiethuea
ciaiey n iao/iuie aeinoeaeaieyie. Oae aicieeea “Ath?aaaea Iaoe?aoe”,
eioi?ay iinoaaeea ia?aae niaie caaea/o ia oieueei i?aeoeeiaaoue
Ath?aaaeo, ii e i?aaeeaaaoue oaeaea e iioa?yiiua aniaeou a eo
ia?aiia/aeueiie aeoaeia e /enoioa.

Ath?aaaea Iaoe?aoe i?aeoeeoaony a no?aiao iaiaoeeiai ycuea n 1985 aiaea
a ?acee/iuo oeaio?ao icaei?iaeaiey. Iniiaiui a yoie iaoiaeeea yaeyaony
“iai/a-ea?ia”, eo?n oaeaeaiey oeaeia, eioi?ua aucuaatho a i?aaiecia
i?ioeannu ?anniaeaniaaiey n aeaeaei eaeoueie iineaaenoaeyie. E?iia oiai,
Ath?aaaea ii Iaoa?aoe i?aaeeaaaao oe?ieee auai? oi?i oa?aiee, iienaiiuo
a eeanne/aneeo oaenoao, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo a oeaeii niinianoaoao
oe?aieaieth caei?iauey. Nthaea ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe , naieia?u ii
caei?iaueth, oi?aaeiaiey eiae e aeuoaoaeueiua oi?aaeiaiey, ciaiey i
ieoaiee e i aeieiae/aneeo ?eoiao, a oaeaea o?ainoeaiaea-ioaeueiay
iaaeeoaoeey eae ia?ii?eyoea ii ?anneaaeaieth

I?aeoeea ath?aaaeu e oa?aiaaoe/aneee oeaio?.

Iiaeaeue Ath?aaaeu, i?aeoeeoaiay a Oaaeoea?ee, n oao ii? oiaea
iiaeoaa?aeeea naith oniaoiinoue. ?aciinoi?iiiyy e acaaoaiiay i?ia?aiia
Oaaeoea?neiai oa?aiaaoe/aneiai oeaio?a i?aaeeaaaao oeaeeoaeueiua
i?ioeaaeo?u iai/a-ea?iu, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaeaiaioe?otho e
i?iaiaeyo a aeeciue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a THaeiie Eiaeee iiuoiua
“aaeaeuey”- a?a/e o?aaeeoeeiiiie ath?aaaee/aneie iaaeeoeeiu. Aianoi
o?ainoeaiaeaoaeueiie iaaeeoaoeee caeanue i?aaeeaaathony ae?oaea iaoiaeu
?anneaaeaiey- eiaa e aeuoaoaeueiua oi?aaeiaiey. I?aeoe/aneie ?aaioie
?oeiaiaeeo eiaeeeneee a?a/ aeieoi? iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe Aoeaaiao ?ae,
eioi?ue noaaeo naiae oeaeueth iinoaaeoue Ath?aaaeo, oae /oiau noaei
aiciiaeiui yooaeoeaiia nio?oaeie/anoai n nia?aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu.

Eiaiaaaea

Yoio oa?iei icia/aao “Einoeooo ii iaaeaaiaeea caei?iauey e iauaaeaiaiea
ii niaeaenoaeth eiaa e Ath?aaaea”. Yoio enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo
iniiaae aua a 1977 aiaeo Ithioaia eiaeeeneee enneaaeiaaoaeue i?e?iaeu e
aaieia i?io. aeieo. ?ie Eiai. Iniiaiie oeaeueth yoie iiaeaee auei
i?aaenoaaeoue Ath?aaaeo eae naiaiaeioth io anyeie eaeaieiaee e iao/ii
iniai?iaaiioth nenoaio icaei?iaeaiey.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy Caiaaeiue ie? i?iyaeyao ana aieueoee eioa?an e
Ainoi/iui o?aaeeoeeyi, nio?aieaoei ei?ie Aaaee/aneie eoeueoo?u. Ia
ia?aoiaea e o?aoueaio ouny/aeaoeth aica?auaiea e enoieai oeeaeeecaoeee
aeaao iaaeaaeaeo ia enoeaeaiea iaoaai aieueiiai iauanoaa.

O?e eeoa Ath?aaaeu.

Ath?aaaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeiaaeueiuo ?acaeaeia Aaaee/aneie
eoeueoo?u. Iia iniiauaaaony ia o?ao eeoao : oeeinioneie nenoaia
Naieouey; Aeaethoa?aaaea, ninoiyuae ec Aaaee/aneie ano?ieiaee
aeieinii?eoiieiaee e Aaaee/aneie iaoo?aiaoee (anoanoaaiiuo iaoiaeao
i?ioeeaeoeee e ea/aiey caaieaaaiee).

Oeeinioey Naieouey

Oeeinioey Naieouey – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo oeeinioneeo nenoai a?eeneie
oeeaeeecaoeee Aoa?ou-Aa?oa.

Oeeinioey Naieouey a /ai-oi noiaea n oeceeie. Iia oaeaea iiae?iaii
iienuaaao no?iaiea anaeaiiie aieioue aei no?iaiey aoiiia, a oaeaea
iienuaaao aaaeiaeoea caeiiu anaeaiiie. Ii nia?aiaiiay oeceea, a ioee/ee
io oeeinioee Naieouey, eeoue /anoe/ii eiaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i ciaiee
ae?aaieo caeiiia.

Yoa oeeinioey iienuaaao no?iaiea anaeaiiie n iiceoeee ia?aiyeaiaioia.
Nia?aiaiiua o/aiua aeoiatho, /oi yoi oaeia i?eieoeaiia ioiioaiea e
iaoea, oae eae oaeea ia?aiyeaiaiou eae caiey, aiaea, iaiiue, aicaeoo,
yoe? eaaeoony /ai-oi i/aiue i?inoui. Ae?aaiea a?eeoeu iiae yoeie
ia?aiyeaiaioaie iiae?acoiaaaee i?eioeeiu ono?ienoaa iaoa?ee, i?eioeeiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Yoe iyoue noeoee a Ath?aaaea iaicia/athony eae
“Ninoaaiua yeaiaiou auoey”. Iie nin?aaeioi/eaatho a naaa eioaeeaeo iaoae
iaoo?u e oi?ie?otho no?oeoo?o iaoaai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. Iie aeaeatho
ian oai, /oi iu anoue, a eiaiii: aeeauie i?aaieciaie, eioi?ua iino?iaiu
ii aioo?aiiaio ieaio ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee n aeoaieeie ei?iyie- yoi
eioaeeaeooaeueiay ia?ae/iay noanoaioeey, eioi?ay oi?aaeyao ?acaeoeai
eaaeaeie eeaoee iaoaai oaea.

Oae noeoey caiey ioee/aao i?eioeei no?oeoo?u. I?eioeei aiaeu
iiae?acoiaaaao caeii a?aaeoaoeee, oi anoue oi, /oi naycuaaao ana aoiiu
aianoa. Noeoey iaiy icia/aao i?eioeei eceo/aiey oaiea, yia?aee. Yeaiaio
aicaeooa iieacuaaao i?eioeei aeaeaeaiey- caeii ?acaeoey anaeaiiie. E,
iaeiiaoe, yeaiaio yoe?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeoth iieaaoth no?oeoo?o,
yia?aieioi?iaoeeiiioth iao?eoeo anaeaiiie.

E?iia yoiai, oeeinioey Naieouey iienuaaao oaeea oiieiiaoa?eaeueiua
yeaiaiou: eae /oanoaa, oi, eioaeeaeo e oae iacuaaaiia eiaeiia yai. Yoe
yeaiaiou eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea e ioiioaiea e iaoaio oaeo. Oae eae
iaoa oaei yaeyaony iaeiie ec /anoeoe anaeaiiie, oi ciaiea iee?ieinia –
no?iaiey iaoaai oaea i/aiue aaaeii n iiceoeee iaua anaeaineiai ianooaaa.

N/eoaaony, /oi yoe iyoue ia?aiyeaiaioia, ni/aoaynue iaaeaeo
niaie,ia?acotho o?e yeaiaioa aeeciaiiie eee aeieiae/aneie yia?aee:

-yoe? e aicaeoo ia?acotho i?eioeei aeaeaeaiey

-iaiiue e aiaea yaeythony i?eioeeiii i?aa?auaiey

-caiey e aiaea yaeythony i?eioeeiii i?eaeaiey oi?iu oi anoue no?oeoo?u.

Yoe o?e aeeciaiiua yia?aee, o?e aeinoe eiatho a Ath?aaaea iacaaiey:
“aaoa”, “ieooa” e “eaioa”.

Cia/aiea e ooieoeee o?ao aeiyia?aaoe/aneeo nee ?acuyniythony a o/aiee i
o?ao aeinoao eioi?ia yaeyaony iniiaie Ath?aaaeu. Ii yoiio o/aieth, a
eaaeaeii aeeaii i?aaiecia i?enoonoaotho o?e iaaeaeeiuo, naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie aeaea yia?aee, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho e ?aaoee?otho i?aaieci.
Iie ii?aaeaeytho eae aiaoithth oi?io, oae e aioo?aiiea
ooieoeee.I?eiaieoaeueii e ethaeai yoi icia/aao, /oi iaoa aeeciue,
oece/aneia e aeooaaiia caei?iauea, eae e iaoa nouiinoue ii?aaeaeythony
ninoaaii e acaeiiaeaenoaeai yoeo o?ao oaeeo iaoa?eaeueiuo yia?aee.
Iaioaoia Aaiaee neacae: “Ie? ninoieo ec iyoe noeoee: caiee, aiaeu,
aicaeooa, iaiy e yoe?a. Yoi ioiineony e e iaoaio oaeo. Iii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia/oi a?iaea iee?ianaeaiiie. Iioiio ana yoe noeoee aeieaeiu auoue
i?aaenoaaeaiu a i?aaiecia a i?aaeeueiii niioiioaiee: /enoay caiey,
/enoay aiaea, /enoue iaiiue eee nieia/iue naao, /enoue aicaeoo e
naiaiaeiia i?ino?ainoai.”

Yia?aey Aaoa: ana i aeaeaeaiee.

Ec yoe?a e aicaeooa aicieeaao “aaoa”- aeinoa, ioaaonoaaiiay ca
aeeciaiiue i?eioeei: “Aeaeaeaiea, oa/aiea e aeaeaeouay neea”. Naienoaa
iaaeo noeoee eo/oa anaai iienaoue eae i?iieeathuea, iiaeaeaeiua, aeaeea,
eaaeea, oa?ioiaaoua, nooea e oieiaeiua. A i?e?iaea “aaoa” i?e?aaieaaaony
oaeaea e aao?o. A iaoai oaea yia?aey “aaoa” oi?aaeyao anai, /oi ioaa/aao
ca aeaeaeaiea oaea, oia, i?aaiia /oanoa e ca i?ioeannu auaeaeaiey.
“Aaoa” yaeyaony aeinoie- “oea?ai”, iineeieueeo iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
/enooth aeeciaiioth yia?aeth e i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea iaa ae?oaea aeinoe
– “ieooo” e “eaioo”. Neea “aaoa” aicaoaeaeaao iaoo aeooo (ineoeeo), iia
?aaoee?oao aeuoaiea e aucuaaao aeoeaiinoue.

Yia?aey ieooa: ana i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey.

Aeinoa “ieooa” ninoieo ec iaiy e aiaeu. I?e yoii iaoiaeeo au?aaeaiea
aeaaiui ia?acii neea noeoee iaiy, a noeoey aiaeu ieacuaaao eeoue
iaaieueoia aeeyiea. A i?eioeeia, iaiiue eiaao naienoai eciaiyoue
iaoa?eth, iineieueeo ii i?aia?acoao ai?th/ea aauanoaa. Iaiiue nicaeaao
oaeaea aea?, aai ieaiy iaeeaeaiii, eaaei, i?iieeathuaa, naaoei e nooi. A
nayce n oaeei naienoaaie, “ieooa” a iaoai oaea ioaa/aao ca ana ?aaeoeee,
i?e eioi?uo aicieeaao oaiei. E?iia oiai iia iaeaaeaao naeeaathuei
aeaenoaeai e i?e ia?aaa?eaaiee ieue iia nie?auaao oaiei oaea e niaaaeaao
aai ioaeaeueiua i?aaiu oaieii. Ana i?ioeannu ia?aaa?eaaiey e iaiaia
aauanoa oi?aaeythony yoie aeinoie. “Ieooo” oaeaea iacuaatho aeaeaeouae
neeie aeecie, iineieueeo iia iaino?yao eioaeeaeo, noeioee?oao
niiniaiinoue e aeaeaeaieth e aicaoaeaeaao o /aeiaaea
oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue.

Yia?aey eaioa: ana eiaao neiaeeaoothny no?oeoo?o.

Eiiaeiaoeey aiaeu e caiey aeaao aeinoo “eaioo”, eioi?ay eiaao
aiaeyienoua e oaa?aeua naienoaa, iaiiaeiaea caiee. Oa?aeoa? aeaenoaey
aiaeu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau naeaeaoue oaei aeaaeiui e iieiui, a
oaeaea /oiau aai aeeaeeea ninoaaeythuea iaoiaeeeenue a aeaeaeaiee. A?
naienoaaie yaeythony ieioiinoue, oyaeanoue, iyaeinoue, eia?oiinoue,
oaeo/anoue, aeaaeiinoue e oieiae. I?eioeei aeaenoaey noeoee “caiey”
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau naeaeaoue oaei oaa?aeui, neeueiui, oyaeaeui,
aeanoeei. Iaiauaiii aeey aeinoe “eaioa” aeaenoaotho neaaeothuea
oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee: oyaeaeue, ianeyienoue, iaaeeaiiue, oieiaeiue,
onoie/eaue, i?i/iue e eia?oiue. I?eiaieoaeueii e oaeo yia?aey “eaioa”
aeaenoaoao, i?eaeaaay oi?io e oi?ie?oy no?oeoo?o.«Eaioa» ioaa/aao ca
no?iaiea eeaoie e neaeaoa. Iia i?eaeaao oaeo onoie/eainoue e i?i/iinoue,
ii iaeiia?aiaiii e aeaeinoue. Anee iaa ae?oaea aeinoe – “aaoa” e “ieooa”
i?eaiaeyo a aeaenoaea e iaa?aaatho iao aeeciaiiue aeaeaaoaeue, oi
“eaioa” caaioeony i oii, /oiau iu i?aaeeueii e naaeaine?iaaii
ia?auaeenue ni naieie aeeciaiiuie yia?aeyie. A ea/anoaa no?oeoo?iiai
i?eioeeia iia ioaa/aao ca ineoieiae/aneoth onoie/eainoue e noieeinoue.
Iia i?aaeinoaaeyao ?aca?au, eioi?ua i?eaeatho oaeo e aeooa neeo e
auaea?aeeo.

Aeaeueioa?aaaea.

Aeaeueioa?aaaea ninoieo ec aaaee/aneie ano?ieiaee e aeieinii?eoiieiaee.

Aaaee/aneay ano?ieiaey iieacuaaao naycue /aeiaaea (iee?ieinia) n
ie?oaeathuei ie?ii (iae?ieinia). “Oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo iaaa?oo, oi
i?ienoiaeeo aieco”. Ano?ieiaey niio?eo ia iaaaniua oaea, eae ia
eiaeeeaoi?u ?acee/iuo caeiiia i?e?iaeu, a ia ia eino?oiaio, aeeythuee
ia aeinoa?o Caiee. Ii iaeioi?ua iaaaniua oaea oaeea eae Nieioea, Eoia,
aeeaeaeoea ieaiaou iiaoo iai?yioth aeeyoue ia /aeiaaea

Yoe aeeyiey ?anniao?eaaao ae?oaie ?acaeae Aeaeueioa?aaaeu –
aeieinii?eoiieiaey. A iaoe aeie yoa iaoea oneeaiii eco/aaony. Aia?aua
nia?aiaiiua ?aaiou auee naeaeaiu *eaeaaneei, eiaaea ii eco/ae aeeyiea
Nieioea ia /aeiaaea.

A ae?aaiea a?aiaia aeieinii?eoiieiaey auea oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaia. Iia
iienuaaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea oece/aneeo iaaaniuo oae ia
aeieiae/aneea iauaeou. Ii aeey /aai Ath?aaaea ioaeia aeieinii?eoiieiaey?

Ana iaoiaeu ea/aiey, i/euaiey, iaoiaeu nai?a ?anoaiee – ana naycaii n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie einie/aneeie ?eoiaie. A ae?aaieo ath?aaaee/aneeo eaiiiao,
aaaeiaeoei ec eioi?uo yaeythony “*a?aea-naioeoa”, “Noo?ooa-naioeoa” e
“Aooa-o?eaeaynaioeoa”, eiaaea yoe ?anoaiey iaae?atho iaeaieueooth neeo.
Iiyoiio nai?u ?anoaiee inouanoaeythony no?iai ii ii?aaeaeaiiui oacai
eoiu, a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy aiaea, a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy nooie. Aieaa
oiai o/eouaaaony eiie?aoeea ?anoaiee, oi anoue aeey /aai iia niae?aaony.
Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii ciaoue iaoaieciu einie/aneeo caeiiia, ieacuaathueo
aeeyiea ia /aeiaaea.

Aaaee/aneay iaoo?iiaoey.

Aaaee/aneay iaoo?iiaoey iienuaaao ?acee/iua naienoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey,
eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee ieia?aeia, i?eiaieoaeueii e aic?anoo, iieo, oeio
eiinoeoooeee /aeiaaea, ianoo i?iaeeaaiey, i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e oai
eee eiui caaieaaaieyi, nooi/iui e naciiiui ?eoiai. A iaeiii ec
ath?aaaee/aneeo eaiiiia aiai?eony: “An? /oi ie?oaeaao ian – ana yaeyaony
eaea?noaii, ioaeii oieueei ?aniiciaoue aai e i?aaeeueii eniieueciaaoue”.

Eaea?noaaiiua ?anoaiey ninoaaeytho iniiao ath?aaaee/aneeo iaoiaeia
ea/aiey.Iie ia ieacuaatho iaiiaaiiiai aeaenoaey, e aeey iieo/aiey
aeaeaaiiai yooaeoa, ioaeii i?eieiaoue oio eee eiie i?aia?ao a oa/aiee
ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa. Ii caoi anee yoe eaea?noaaiiua ?anoaiey
i?aaeeueii nia?aiu e neiiaeie?iaaiu iaaeaeo niaie, iie iaeaaeatho
niiniaiinoueth aicaeaenoaiaaoue eiaiii ia i?e/eio aieacie /a?ac iaoaieci
aeoeaecaoeee anoanoaaiiuo nee naii?aaoeyoeee; i?aaieci iieo/aao
oneeaiea, ia ianooiaao aeiee?iaea caueoiuo nee, iiauoaaony eiioieoao.
E?iia yoiai eaea?noaaiiua ?anoaiey ieacuaatho iiieaaeeaathuea aeaenoaea.

Oa?iaeii?aia?aou iaiiny oaea? ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?aaio, iaaaoeaii
aeeytho ia aanue i?aaieci a oeaeii. Ii, a ioee/ea io oa?iaeii?aia?aoia,
eaea?noaaiiua i?aaeeueii i?eiaiaiiua ?anoaiey iiaoo iiaeaenoaiaaoue
eiaiii ia ioaeaeathueeny a iiiiue i?aai. Iie auaiaeyo aieaciue ia?oaeo,
oi anoue iie ia oae?atho neiioiiu, a eeeaeaee?otho eiaiii ei?aiue
aieacie. I?eiaiaiea eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee i?eaiaeeo ia e o?iiecaoeee, a
iaino?aieth aieacie, /oi i?aeoe/anee aaaeao e aucaei?iaeaieth.

E niaeaeaieth, nae/an oeoioa?aiey neeueii aeene?aaeeoe?iaaia. A iaoa
a?aiy, i?e i?eaioiaeaiee oiai eee eiiai eaea?noaaiiiai ?anoaiey, ia
o/eouaaaony ianoi e a?aiy eo nai?a.

Ecaanoii, /oi iaeii e oi aea ?anoaiea iaeaaeaao iiiainoi?iiiei
aeaenoaeai, oi anoue iaeii e oi aea ?anoaiea iiaeao auoue e ii/aaiiiui,
e aeae/aaiiiui, naaeaoeaiui, e aeaaoii?ioaeoi?iui, e eaeei eeai ae?oaei
i?aia?aoii. Eaaeaeia ?anoaiea niae?atho, niia?acoynue n einie/aneeie
?eoiaie. Auae?aaony niioaaonoaothuay eoiiay oaca, aeaiue e a?aiy nooie.
Iaeioi?ua o?aau iiaeii niae?aoue oieueei 2-3 aeiy a ianyoea e oieueei ia
ainoiaea nieioea. A ae?oaia a?aiy yooaeoeaiinoue cia/eoaeueii
nieaeaaony. O/eouaaaony oaeaea oa?aeoa? ianoiinoe. Iaeii e oi aea
?anoaiea, nia?aiiia a eano, ia iieyia, o ica?a, ia oieia, iiae oieiii
eee ia aieioa aoaeao iaeaaeaoue niaa?oaii ?aciuie naienoaaie

Ii iaei nia?aoue eaea?noaaiiia ?anoaiea a ioaeiii ianoa, iaiaoiaeeii aua
i?aaeeueii i?eaioiaeoue ec iaai eaea?noai, a ioaeiuo i?iii?oeeyo e
niioiioaieyo neiiaeie?iaaoue n ae?oaeie ?anoaieyie. Ath?aaaea aeaao
oi?ioea ia?acu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii iiiyoue noaio i?eaioiaeaiey
eaea?noaaiiiai i?aia?aoa.

?anoaiea, eioi?ia aoaeao ieacuaaoue aeaaiia aicaeaenoaea ia aieaciue,
eiaoue i?aeiouanoaaiiue yooaeo ia aeaiioth iaoieiaeth, iacuaaaony
oea??i. Anee yoi ?anoaiea ia yaeyaony oiene/iui, iii aaiaeeony a
i?aia?ao a aieueoii eiee/anoaa. Ii oae eee eia/a ?anoeoaeueiua i?aia?aou
oaeaea, eae e oa?iaeii?aia?aou, eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua iiai/iua yooaeou.
Aeey niya/aiey io?eoeaoaeueiiai aeaenoaey ?anoaiey-oea?y, aio ioaeia
oea?eoea. Aaaaeaiea oea?eoeu iaycaoaeueii, oae eae iia iaeo?aeecoao
io?eoeaoaeueioth i?iioaao ?anoaiee. Oea?ue ia iiaeao iaeei ai?ioueny n
aieaciueth, aio ioaeia naeoa, a?iey. A iiiiuue oea?th aaiaeyony
?anoaiey- aieiu. Iie eeai niinianoaotho oneeaieth aeaenoaey oea?y, eeai
ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia ae?oaea ?oaaaee aieacie. E?iia oiai aua
iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe oaeie ?anoeoaeueiue eiiiiiaio, eioi?ue oneeeo eee
iai?aaeo a?ieth oi/ii a oeaeue. Oaeia ?anoaiea, iacuaaaony
i?iaiaeieeii. Iai?eia?, aeey ia/aie i?iaiaeieeii yaeyaony oao?ai, aeey
iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu – ea?aeaiii, aeey eaaeeo – aien e o.ae.
Nouanoaoao a?oiia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?anoaiee, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo a?ieth e
oea?y a ianoi, aaea aiacaeeony aieaciue.Nia?aiaiiay iaoea onoaiiaeea,
/oi aeey i?iieeiiaaiey aeoeaiuo iieaciuo yeno?aeoia a eeaoeo, ioaeii
i?aiaeieaoue nenoaio eaiaeia, nenoaio ?aoeaioi?ia eeaoi/iie caueou,
eioi?ua niiniaiu i?eieiaoue oieueei naie nianoaaiiua ai?iiiu, naie
nianoaaiiua iaoaieciu naii?aaoeyoeee. Aeey yoiai a iiiaieiiiiiaioiua
nai?u aaiaeeony ?anoaiea-eeth/ . Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ecaanoii aeaa
oaeeo eiiiiiaioa-yoi ei?aiue nieiaeee e aeiy. Yoe ?anoaiey niiniaiu
ia?aciaaoue eeiiniiu, eioi?ua aini?eieiathony ?aoeaioi?aie eeaoee eae
naie. Oaeei ia?acii yeno?aeou ?anoaiee iiaoo i?iieeaoue a eeaoeo e
ieacuaaoue naia aicaeaenoaea.E, iaeiiaoe, aaiaeeony aua iaeei eiiiiiaio,
eioi?ue iacuaaaony eiiai. Eiiue – yoi oio ninoaa, ia eioi?ii
aeinoaaeythony yeno?aeou eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee a i?aaieci. Yoi iiaeao
auoue aiaea, iaae, ianei, nie?o eee /oi-ieaoaeue ae?oaia.

A Ath?aaaea eniieueciaaeinue aieaa 3000 eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaiee e ia eo
iniiaa ninoaaeyeenue iiiaieiiiiiaioiua nai?u, ninoiyuea ec 40, 50, 100
eiiiiiaioia. Yiia?e/aneei iooai ninoaaeoue eaea?noaaiiue nai?
iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey ea?aao nouanoaaiioth
?ieue. Niaaeeiea eiiiiiaiou iaaeaeo niaie a ae?oaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, iiaeii iieo/eoue i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue yooaeo.

Aeeaaiinoeea

I/aiue aaaeiia ianoi a Ath?aaaea caieiaao aeeaaiinoeea. Aa niiniau ii
Ath?aaaea noa?u eae naia aeeciue, ii oai ia iaiaa oaeiaeaoai?ytho naiui
nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi. Ouaoaeueiia ianeaaeiaaiea iicaieyao ia oieueei
ii?aaeaeeoue aeae caaieaaaiey, ii e onoaiiaeoue noaaeeth aai ?acaeoey. E
iaoiaeai aeeaaiinoeee, i?iaiaeeiui ia oaea ioiineony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeeaaiinoeea ii ioeueno, i?e eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei /anoioa
ioeuena, ii e i?aiaeaaeathuea ni/aoaiea aeino. Oae “aaoa” au?aaeaaony a
ia?aaoey?iii, i?iecaieueiii ioeuena, eioi?ue a Ath?aaaea n?aaieaaaony n
aeaeaeaieai ciae. “Ieooa” neacuaaaony a auno?ii, neeueiii, nei?aa aeaaea
noo/auai ioeuena, ii/aio aai iacuaatho “ioeuenii eyaooee”. “Eaiea”
iaiiieiaao aeaeaeaiea eaaaaey-ioeuen auaaao iaaeeaiiui e neieuecyuei.

A oeaeii a?a/e-niaoeeaeenou ii Ath?aaaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ianeieueei
?acee/iuo iaoiaeia ianeaaeiaaiey, /oiau iiaee?aieoue naie aia/aoeaiey e
onoaiiaeaiiua aeaiiua. E iei ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

-aeeaaiinoeea ii ioeueno

-enneaaeiaaiea ii/e e nooea

-iniio? ycuea, iiaoae iaeueoeaa ia ?oeao, eiaee

-aeeaaiinoeea ii eeoeo (iauaio iaeeeo)

-aiaeec aieina

Noiia iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiee iicaieyao iieo/eoue ea?oeio
oaeouaai ninoiyiey; ii iei iiaeii naeaeaoue oi/iua auaiaeu ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii oeia eiino?oeoeee e ?acee/iuo ia?ooaieyo a
aeieiae/aneeo ?eoiao yia?aee. Iiaeiaiua ia?ooaiey aaaeoo e anaaiciiaeiui
aieaciyi e iaaeoaai.

Aeeaoieiaey

A Ath?aaaea nouanoaoao ianeieueei niiniaia ai?ueau n ieie. Iaeiei ec
oaeeo iaoiaeia ea/aiey yaeyaony aeeaoieiaey. Ianoieueei iiae?iaii eae
yoi naeaeaii a Ath?aaaea, aeeaoieiaey ieaaea ia ?acia?aia. A Ath?aaaea
ia?iiiia cia/aiea ioaeaaaeinue i?eiaiaieth aeeaou, iacia/aieth
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. Ath?aaaee/aneee a?a/
aiai?ee iaoeeaioo: “Anee au aoaeaoa niaethaeaoue oo eee eioth aeeaoo, oi
iieo/eoa 50% ?acoeueoaoa”.

Aeey nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea yoi ia nianai iiiyoii. Oai ia iaiaa
oaaeoea?neea o/aiua onoaiiaeee, /oi ca naith aeeciue, /aeiaae nuaaeaao a
n?aaeiai 20 oiii ieue. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iioneay /a?ac naay oaeia
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ieue, eioi?ay yaeyaony no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii aeey
iaoaai oaea e yia?aaoe/aneei

noano?aeoii, ia iiaeao ieacuaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey a
caaeneiinoe io oie eee eiie niaoeeoeee. E aio aeey yoiai auea nicaeaia
nenoaia eiinoeoooeee /aeiaaea. Iia auea i/aiue aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaia e
nouanoaiaaei iiiyoea i eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eiinoeoooeee /aeiaaea (“Aaoa”,
“ieooa” eee “eaioa”). N/eoaeinue, anee /aeiaae iaoiaeeony a ?aieao naiae
eiinoeoooeee, oi anoue aaeain iaaeaeo aioo?aiieie aeinoaie ia ia?ooai,
oi aieaciue ia iiaeao aicieeiooue. Ii anee aieaciue, ana oaee, aicieeea,
oi n iiiiuueth aeeaou iiaeii auei ieacaoue i?ia?aiie?othuea aicaeaenoaea
ia ninoiyiea ai?iiiaeueiie nenoaiu. Iiyoiio eaaeaeiio i?iaeoeoo ieoaiey
i?enaaeaaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua naienoaa. “?inna”- ia?ae/iue aeon.
Ia?ae/iue aeon, iuouaaiue ia ycuea, caioneaao oa?iaiou
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa e iicaieyao ieua eo/oa ia?aaa?eaaoueny. Oae
aea a aeeaoieiaee i?enoonoaotho oaeea oa?ieiu eae “ae?ueae”, “aeiae” e
“i?iioaaa”

“Ae?ueae”- yoi iaeay yia?aaoeea ieue, oi anoue ethaay ieua iiaeao ianoe
a naaa yia?aeth e a oie eee eiie noaiaie oeo/oaao eee caiaaeeyao
i?ioeann ieuaaa?aiey, a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoe i?aaiecia a yia?aee.

“Aeiie”- aoi?e/iue aeon iinea ia?aaa?eaaiey, eioi?ue oaeaea ea?aao
nouanoaaiioth ?ieue. Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey onoaiiaeee, /oi eeoa/iee
eiaao ?aoeaeoi?iua ciiu, e aicaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeonia ia yoe ciiu
aucuaatho au?aaioeo niaoeeaeueiuie eeaoeaie eeoa/ieea- aioaeioeeoaie
aiaeiaia anao ecaanoiuo ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ai?iiiia. Oaeei ia?acii,
n iiiiuueth i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey iiaeii ono?aieoue oio eee eiie aeaoeoeeo.

“I?iioaaa”- ea/anoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ieue. Oi anoue ieua iiaeao
aicaeaenoaiaaoue eae eaea?noai. A Ath?aaaea anoue i?eioeei: “Ana /oi ian
ie?oaeaao, ana /oi iu aeaeei aie?oa ian – eaea?noai”.

Ath?aaaea – o/aiea, ia naycaiiia ni a?aiaiai, e ioaaouaathuea ana
eoeueoo?u, aienuaathuaany a ethaoth yiioo e ethaia noieaoea. Oaia?ue ia
enoiaea aoi?iai i?eoei a?aiy ainiieueciaaoueny e iai caia/aoaeueiuie
i?eioeeiaie e oeeinioeae Ath?aaaeu. Aa?aaeii ioiioaiea e ie?oaeathuaio
ian ie?o, i?inoay aeeciue e aicauoaiiia iuoeaiea ianiiiaiii iiiiaoo iai
aeiaeoueny n/anouey e aeaaiaeainoaey.

Yeeene? aeecie *aaaii?ao.

Enoeiiay Ath?aaaea.

*aaaii?ao – oieeaeueiue aeinoeioeyoi?, nicaeaiiue ia iniiaa 49
iaoo?aeueiuo eiiiiiaioia, nia?aiiuo a aunieiai?iuo ?aeiiao Aeiaeaaa. Ii
yaeyaony y?eei i?eia?ii ath?aeaee/aneiai a?a/aaaiey n eniieueciaaieai
n?aaenoa anoanoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. *aaaii?ao ecaanoai aieaa 5 ouny/
eao. Ca yoi a?aiy aai ninoaa ia iaiyeny e nae/an i?iecaiaeeony oi/ii
oaeaea, eae e ouny/aeaoey iacaae. *aaaii?ao ii ?aoeaioo?a yaeyaony
iaeaieaa ae?aaiei eaea?noaaiiui ?anoaieai. Nie ouny/aeaoee
neiioeaio?e?iaai a yeeene?a aeecie *aaaii?ao. Aai ciatho e iineaaeiea 10
eao n oniaoii i?eieiatho a 27 no?aiao ie?a. Oieeaeueiue ninoaa yoiai
yeeene?a ii?aaeaao aiia?aaeaiea caiaaeiuo a?a/ae e o/aiuo, ii aai nae?ao
ecaanoai oieueei eiaeeeneie oe?ia “Aeaao?”.

Eaaaiaea i *aaaii?aoa.

Eiaaea-oi a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe a nayuaiiuo Aeiaeayo aeee Eia e
?aeeaeiciue iiaeaeaeiee *aaai. Iiiaea aiaeu i?iaiaeee ii a ?aciuoeaieyo
i aiaa. E aio iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea naiiiaaeayiiiio aneaoo iieacaeinue, /oi
ii aeinoea aaniethoiie nayoinoe, Ainiiaeue ?aoee eniuoaoue aai. Ii
ono?iee oae, /oi e?anaaeoea Noeaiuey, aei/ue oea?y Oa?ueyoe iio?aaiaeeea
oaaeeiaiea *aaaia. Aa e?anioa ii?aceea aneaoa- ethaiaue e aeaeaiea
caai?aeinue a aai na?aeoea. E ii ia niia i?aiaeieaoue neeueiia /oanoai,
aeaeouaa aai e iae. A *aaai aue aeaeaei ia iieiaee ia aiaao /oiau
aeaieoueny ia aei/a?e oea?y. E ii no?anoii aciieee Aiaa, oaea i?iny i
aea?ao caiiuo. E ainiiaeue, ciay aai i?aaeuaeouea caneoae, aeae aio ana
iaiaoiaeeiia, ii naiui aanoeaiiui aea?ii aue ?aoeaio /oaeiaeaenoaaiiiai
yeeene?a, iieuecoynue eioi?ui aneao i?aa?auaeny a iieiaeiai e caei?iaiai
thiioo.

N oao ii? yoio /oaeiaeaenoaaiiue yeeene? ecaanoai eae *aaaii?ao- “ieua
*aaaia”. Aai ?aoeaio aue cia/eoaeueii iicaea iienai a ae?aaiaeoeo ec
aeioaaeoeo aei ian iao/ii-iaaeeoeeineii o?aeoaoa *a?aea – Naioeoa,
iaienaiiue aieaa /ai ca 2 ouny/aeaoey aei ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa. Iaienae
yoio aaoi?eoaoiue o?oae *a?aea, ecaanoiue ath?aaaee/aneee a?a/.

*a?aea ?aeiiaiaeoao yoio ninoaa ethaeyi aeai?yineiai nineiaey,
aeooiaainoao e oea?th. Ii ieoao “*aaaii?ao yaeyaony aaee/aeoei yeeene?ii
aeecie. Ii niinianoaoao ecea/aieth aanieiaeey, iiiiaaao i?aaeeueii
?acaeaaoueny ca?iaeuoo a /?aaa iaoa?e, niinianoaoao ioaeaeaieth
noa?inoe, a noa?ui ethaeyi iiiiaaao i?iaeeeoue aiaeu. *aaaii?ao
ecea/eaaao eaoaeue, o?eiu, iioa?th aieina, a?oaeiua aieacie, na?aea/iua
aieacie, aieacie ii/aiieiaie nenoaiu. I?e aioo?aiiai i?eiaiaiee yoiai
yeeene?a eaaeaeue /aeiaae, iacaaeneii io aic?anoa, nio?aieo iieiaeinoue,
eioaeeaeo, e?aieoth iaiyoue, eine, caei?iauea, ino?ioo aini?eyoea ie?a,
naenoaeueioth neeo, /oaeaniia ieuaaa?aiea. Iiaeeeie aea /aeiaae aoaeao
/oanoaiaaoue naay thiioae e i?iaeeaao aua iaeei n?ie aeecie.

O?e aeaaiuo yooaeoa *aaaii?aoa.

*aaaii?ao, aeaaiaea?y oieeaeueiiio iiiaieiiiiiaioiiio ninoaao
eaea?noaaiiuo o?aa e ieia?aeia, ieacuaaao iieeaaeaioiia aeaenoaea ia
i?aaieci /aeiaaea. O?e aeaaiuo yooaeoa ninoaaeytho nouiinoue yeeene?a.

1. *aaaii?ao yaeyaony eiioiiiiiaeoeyoi?ii. Iau/iay aeoeaecaoeey
eiioieoaoa ia anaaaea aeaaii?eyoia, o.e. nouanoaoao a?oiia aieaciae,
naycaiiuo n aooieiioiiie aa?anneae, iai?eia?, a?iioeaeueiay anoia,
iae?iaea?ieo e ae?oaea. *aaaii?ao ii?iaeecoao eiioiiue ioaao i?aaiecia;
anee ii iiieaeaii – iiauoaao, anee ii aeia?aeoeaai – iiieaeaao.

2. *aaaii?ao iaeaaeaao iiieaaeeaathuei yooaeoii. Oaeie yooaeo naycai ni
niiniaiinoueth i/euaoue i?aaieci io eeaoi/iiai “ioni?a” e i?iaeoeoia
iaiieiiai iaoaaieecia.

Iai?eia?, ii auaiaeeo aauanoai eeiioonoeei, niaea?aeauaany a ia?aiuo
eeaoeao, eioi?ia e i?eaiaeeo e i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiio noa?aieth. *aaai?ao
oneeeaaao aioeieneaeaioioth caueoo, ?aaaia?aoeeth eeaoie, eo aeaeaiea e
ainnoaiaaeeaathuea niiniaiinoe. E?iia yoiai, ninoaaiua aeaiiiai yeeene?a
iaeo?aeecotho aeae?ieneaeiue ?aaeeeae; n aai ?ani?ino?aiaieai
naycuaatho iaeio ec i?e/ei ?acaeoey aoa?ineea?ica.

3. *aaaii?ao yaeyaony enoeiiui oiieeii. A iaoa a?aiy a ea/anoaa
oiiece?othuaai n?aaenoaa eniieuecotho /ae e eioa, niaea?aeauea
aeeaeieaeiue eioaei. Oioy eo i?eiaiaiea aeaao yooaeo iiauoaiey
iano?iaiey, iiauoaiey oiiona oaea, i?eaiaeeo e iinoaiaiiiio oooaeoaieth
oa/aiey yia?aaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a i?aaiecia. O eioaeia anoue
niiniaiinoue ia?aaaeaine?iaaoue yia?aeth io ii/ae e aa?oiae /anoe oaea,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e oeaeiio ?yaeo caaieaaaiee. A *aaaii?ao iaeaaeaao
oieeaeueiie niiniaiinoueth i?eiineoue yia?aeth ec aia. Oae iai?eia?,
anee n?aaieoue aeieiae/aneoth aeoeaiinoue *aaaii?ao e aeaiueoaiy, oi
aeaeia ia?iiiay ?acieoea. Anee aeaiueoaiue eiaao aeieiae/aneoth
aeoeaiinoue 80 aaeeieoe, oi *aaaii?ao-200.

Oae iai?eia? aeieoi? iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe, i?ioanni?, caa. Eaoaae?ie
ae?oaeioa?aiee e ?aoo?aeueiuo iaoiaeia ea/aiey A. E. E?aoaithe i?iaae
enneaaeiaaiey e iieo/ee ii?aceoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou.

*aeiaae i?eieiae 1 /aeioth eiaeeo *aaaii?aoa iaoiuae. Caoai ecia?yee
aai yia?ai – eioi?iaoeeiiiiaiiea a oa/aiee 1 – 2 /ania iinea i?eaia.

Aei i?eaia iaeei /an iinea i?eaia.

I?e?ino yia?aee iiey

ninoaaeyao 30% Aeaa /ana.

Yia?aey aeinoeaea 70%

Aio ii/aio, aeaaea iaeia eiaeea *aaaii?aoa aeaao ca?yae yia?aee ia
oeaeue aeaiue.

*aaaii?ao, a ioee/ee io aeaiueoaiy, ia iiauoaao a?oa?eaeueiiai
aeaaeaiey. Iiyoiio aai iiaoo i?eieiaoue ethaee, no?aaeathuea
aeia?oiie/aneie aieaciueth.

Ninoaa.

?anoaiey, ninoaaeythuea *aaaii?ao au?auaiu a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo a
Aeiaeayo. Iiyoiio aaeain iee?iyeaiaioia ia ia?ooaaony. Iniiao *aaaii?ao
ninoaaeyao ?anoaiea aiea. Yoi iaeii ec o?ao ieiaeia ie?aaieaiu.
I?aeoe/anee ie iaeei i?aia?ao ia iaoiaeeony aac yoeo o?ao ieiaeia. A
*aaaii?aoa aiea yaeyaony oea?ai.

Aiea – ia?aia ?anoaiea, iiyaeaoaany ia ieaiaoa Caiey. Ai anyeii neo/aa
oae n/eoatho eiaeonu. A ae?aaiaeoeo eiaeaeneeo ienueiaiao aieo iacaaee
ieiaeii aiaia e i?iaeoe?iaaee aioo?aiiea no?iaiea o?aiiauo eoiieia ii
aiaeiaee n oanoea?aiiie oi?iie aa yae?a. Eiaeeeneia aea?aai aiea a
ath?aaae/aneie iaaeeoeeia n/eoaaony iaeiei ec naiuo iieaciuo ?anoaiee. A
eiioea oaa?aey – na?aaeeia ai?aey nic?aaatho aai aeaeoi-caeaiua ieiaeu,
ii aeaeo iaiiieiathuea aeu/o. A ioee/ea io iineaaeiae, aiea ia
oiio?aaeyaony a ieuo, ec-ca /?acia?ii ayaeouaai aeona. Ii oa aea naiua
aeoaeeueiua aauanoaa ai?thony e n ainiaeaieyie eiaee- yoi ciaao ia
oieueei nia?aiaiiay einiaoieiaey: ainiaeaiey ea/eee yeno?aeoii aieu n
iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai, e aeaaea eoiieeeea eiaeeeneea i?eioeannu i?ioaee ei
naie oea?noaaiiua i?ioeee. E?iia yoiai aiea iaeaaeaao au?aaeaiiuie
aioeieneaeaioiuie naienoaaie, i/euaao ia/aiue, e?iaue e eeoa/iee,
iiauoaao aaiiaeiaei, ?aaoee?oao o?iaaiue naoa?a e oieanoa?eia,
niinianoaoao ?inoo aiein e iiaoae, oe?aieyao einoe e coau.

Oea?eoeae a *aaaii?aoa yaeyaony oa?eoaee. Oea?ue e oea?eoea aoaeoo a
oeaeii iiauoaoue caueoiua neeu i?aaiecia. Oa?eoaee aoeaaeueii
ia?aaiaeeony, eae “?anoaiea e?aaeouaa aieacie”. Yoi ?anoaiea i?eaiaeeo
a ?aaiiaanea ana ia?aiyeaiaiou oaea.

Aaea au ia aicieeae iaoieiae/aneee i/aa, yoi ?anoaiea iiaeaaeyao aai,
aeoeaece?oy caueoiua neeu. Oa?eoaee oeo/oaao ?aaioo iicaa, oe?aieyao
iaiyoue e iiauoaao niiniaiinoue e iao/aieth; niinianoaoao aaeaioaoeee
i?aaiecia e iaaeaaii?eyoiui aaioece/aneei, iaoai?ieiae/aneei e
oaoiiaaiiui aicaeaenoaeyi.

10 ei?iae: Aeeiau, Aaieiaooe, Neiiaee, Eania?uee, Iaoaeu, Oaeeia?ie,
I?eoieia?ie, A?eoaoe, Eaioaea?e e Aaoeo?u eee Aeaoaioe yaeythony
aieiaie. Ei?ie iauaaeeiaiu ia neo/aeii. Eaaeaeue ei?aiue iai?aaeai ia
ii?iaeecaoeeth ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai yiaeie?eiiiai i?aaia. Ana 10
ei?iae ii?iaeecotho ninoiyiea anae iae?iyiaeie?eiiie nenoaiu, ?aaoee?oy
ooieoeeth aeiioaeaiona e aeiioeca. Iiyoiio aeaoaioe eniieuecoaony a
ath?aaaea aeey ea/aiey ai?iiiaeueiuo caaieaaaiee.

A *aaaii?aoa ?anoaieai-eeth/ii yaeyaony ei?aiue nieiaeee. Ii niiniaai
ia?aciauaaoue eeiiniiu, eioi?ua i?eieiathony eeaoeie eae naie. Iiyoiio
yeno?aeou ae?oaeo ?anoaiee, aoiaeyueo a *aaaii?ao, iiaoo i?iieeaoue a
eeaoeo, ia ?ac?ooay eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu.

E?iia yoeo iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia, a *aaai?ao aoiaeyo iiiaea ae?oaea
?anoaiey, ieacuaathuea naia nianoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia oo eee eioth
iaoieiaeth. Aio eeoue iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

Aoaaaaiaeoa – Iaeaaeaao i/aiue neeueiui oiiece?othuei naienoaii, n
eioi?ui iiaeao n?aaieoueny oieueei aeaiueoaiue, ii a ioee/ee io
aeaiueoaiy, aoaaaaiaeoa ia iiauoaao a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey, oi anoue
aucuaaao i?ioeann caoi?iaaeeaaiey a ei?a aieiaiiai iicaa. Ii yaeyaony
iaeiia?aiaiii e naaeaoeaiui e aaeaioiaaiiui n?aaenoaii. E?iia yoiai
eniieuecoaony aeey ea/aiey ino?uo e o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee. Aoaaaaiaeoa
niaea?aeeo ?anoeoaeueiua aiaeiae ioaeneeo iieiauo ai?iiiia, iiyoiio
eniieuecoaony aeey ei??aeoeee ?acee/iuo naenoaeueiuo ?anno?ienoa.

Oaoaaa?e, aeaaiaea?y aunieiio niaea?aeaieth aeaineeo iieiauo ai?iiiia,
ieacuaaao au?aaeaiiia iiieaaeeaathuea aeaenoaea ia aeaineoth
?ai?iaeoeoeaioth nenoaio. A Ath?aaaea iia eniieuecoaony aeey
ii?iaeecaoeee iany/iiai oeeeea, aeey ea/aiey aanieiaeey, o?iie/aneeo
ainiaeeoaeueiuo caaieaaaieyo iieiaie noa?u, oea?iieiiao iaoee e iiei/iuo
aeaeac, niinianoaoao aeaaii?eyoiiio i?ioaeaieth aa?aiaiiinoe e oneeeaaao
au?aaioeo iieiea. I?e oii, /oi yoi “aeaineia” ?anoaiea, iii aeaaii?eyoii
aeeyao e ia ioaeneie i?aaieci; eniieuecoaony aeey ea/aiey eiiioaioeee.

Aaiaoe. Aioo?aiiyy, iiei/iay /anoue ei?u aaiaoea iaeaaeaao
a?iioioe/aneei e iooa?eeaathuei yooaeoii. Iia ono?aiyao ainiaeeoaeueiua
i?ioeannu a aeuoaoaeueiie nenoaia, oe?aieyao e iiieaaeeaaao
a?iioi-eaai/ioth nenoaio.

Aooieaiea ii?iaeecoao ?acee/iua ooieoeee ia/aie, iaeaaeay au?aaeaiiuie
aaiaoii?ioaeoi?iuie e i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiuie naienoaaie.

Ieiiaee yaeyaony oi?ioei noeioeyoi?ii ieuaaa?eoaeueiuo aeaeac, ono?aiyy
ianaa?aiea, iaoai?eci, caiaoe, ieioie aiiaoeo, oaeaeyao ecauoee neece ec
i?aaiecia.

Aaea ii?iaeecoao iaoaaieeci eeaoie na?aea/iie iuooeu e ei?iia?iia
e?iaiia?auaiea, iiieaeaao aicaoaeeiinoue ieiea?aea, i?aaeioa?auay
aicieeiiaaiea a?eoiee.

Oao?ai eniieuecoaony a Ath?aaaea, eae iaeei ec eo/oeo i/enoeoaeae e?iae
e noeioeyoi?ia y?eo?iiiyca e ieioiiiyca (neioac eeaoie e?iae), oneeeaaao
aeaenoaea anao ii/a/iuo o?aa e iiieaaeeaaao aeaineoth ?ai?iaeoeoeaioth
nenoaio.

Aaeoo?a eniieuecoaony aeey ea/aiey ii/aiieiaie noa?u. Aaeoo?a iaeaaeaao
i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai e, eiay aieueoie caian nieae e?aiiey,
i?aaeioa?auaao ia?aciaaiea eaiiae.

Inoaeueiua eiiiiiaiou *aaaii?aoa aeiiieiytho aeaenoaea aeaaiuo ?anoaiee
e yaeythony anoanoaaiiuie eiina?aaioaie e aioenaioeeaie. Ana eiiiiiaiou
*aaaii?aoa naaeaine?iaaiu. Iiyoiio ii ia ieacuaaao iiai/iuo
aicaeaenoaee. Aaeeinoaaiiue iiai/iue yooaeo- yoi iiauoaiea aana. Ii
yaeyaony aiaaieeeii e i/aiue iieacai aeey nii?oniaiia. I?aeoe/anee /a?ac
40 ieioo iai?a?uaiuo o?aie?iaie aee?u ia/eiatho ?aceaaaoueny e ?aniaae
aee?ia ii?iaeaeaao iiiaeanoai oiene/iuo aauanoa, eioi?ua iiaoo yaeyoueny
i?e/eiie iiiaeanoaa caaieaaaiee. *aaaii?ao niiniaai auaiaeeoue i?iaeoeou
iaoaaieecia e i?aiyonoaiaaoue ?aniaaeo aaeeia. Iineieueeo iiiaea
eiiiiiaiou ieacuaatho aeaenoaea eae aiaaieeee, oi iie niinianoaotho
?acaeoeth iuoa/iie nenoaiu e oiaiueoaiey aee?iaie iannu.

I?eiaiaiea *aaaii?aoa.

I?eiaiaiea *aaaii?ao i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao ia?aiineoue
oece/aneea e no?anniaua iaa?ocee, oae eae *aaaii?ao – oi?ioee
aaeaioiaai.

Iiiaie?aoiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi *aaaii?ao:

– nieiaao iineaaenoaey no?annia, aeai?annee, neiae?ii o?iie/aneie
onoaeinoe;

– i/euaao e?iaue, ia/aiue, eeoa/iee, iiaeaeaeoaei/ioth aeaeaco io oeaeia
e oieneiia;

– oeo/oaao ?aaioo aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa;

– iiaeaaeyao ?ino iiooieaauo eeaoie;

– iaeo?aeecoao iiai/iua yooaeou oeieioa?aiee e iineaaenoaey i?e?ia
aioe?aeiauo eaea?noa;

– ii?iaeecoao ?aaioo yiaeie?eiiie nenoaiu;

– oeo/oaao iieacaoaee e?iae, iiauoaao aaiiaeiaei, nieaeaao niaea?aeaiea
oieanoa?eia;

– ii?iaeecoao e?iayiia aeaaeaiea;

– oe?aieyao na?aea/ioth iuooeo;

– i?aaeio?aiyao io i?inooaeu e eioaeoeee;

– iiauoaao iieiaua ooieoeee: ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue i?e eiiioaioeee e
o?eaeaeiinoe;

– nieaeaao oieneeic o aa?aiaiiuo aeaiuei;

– i?e caaieaaaiee ooaa?eoe?cii ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue ia?aeeaeueii n
iniiaiui eaea?noaii;

– oeo/oaao ?aaioo iicaa, oe?aieyao iaiyoue e iiauoaao niiniaiinoue e
iao/aieth;

– ii?iaeecoy iaiaiiua i?ioeannu, niinianoaoao ei??aeoeee aana;

– naea?aeeaaao ?ino naiaiaeiuo ?aaeeeaeia e auaiaeeo eo ec i?aaiecia;

– iiauoaao auiineeainoue i?aaiecia a yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo;

*aaaii?ao i?eiaiyeny ia i?aeoeea a aieueieoeao e aeeniaina?ao e oaeaea
iieacae i?aainoiaeiua ?acoeueoaou. (ni. I?eeiaeaiey 2, 3, 4 )

Caeeth/aiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, *aaaii?ao ieacuaaao iauaoe?aieythuaa, oiiece?othuaa,
aaeaioiaaiiia, eiioiio?iiiia e iiieaaeeaathuaa aeaenoaea, aai
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eieiaoue aeey i?ioeeaeoeee oe?ieiai niaeo?a o?iie/aneeo
e ino?uo caaieaaaiee. Ni/aoaiea i?e?ia yeeene?a ni niaoeeoe/aneei
ea/aieai oaaee/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue ea/aiey a 2-3 ?aca. *aaaii?ao
iieacai a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee oyae?euo o?iie/aneeo e eioaeoeeiiiuo
caaieaaaiee, a oii /enea i?e ooaa?eoe?ca e ?aea. Iniaaiii ?aeiiaiaeiaai
ethaeyi, i?iaeeaathuei a yeieiae/anee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo ?aeiiao,
iaoiaeyueiny a ciiao n iiauoaiiie ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth e oai, /uey ?aaioa
naycaia n aicaeaenoaeai ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo oaoiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia e
iinoiyiiuo ineoiyiioeeiiaeueiuo ia?aa?ocie. *aaaii?ao /?acau/aeii
iieacai nii?oniaiai aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey nee, yia?aee e iiauoaiey
auiineeainoe i?aaiecia. (ni. I?eeiaeaiea 5)

?ene iiai/iuo yooaeoia a yeeene?a nieaeai aei ieieioia, oae eae ana
eiiiiiaiou i?enoonoaotho a aaiaiiaoe/aneeo aeicao e iieiinoueth
naaeaine?iaaiu. *aaaii?ao ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue i?e ino?uo
caaieaaaieyo ii/ae e i?aaiia aeaeoaei/ii – eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, a oaeaea
inoi?iaeii eniieueciaaoue i?e oyaeaeuo oi?iao naoa?iiai aeeaaaoa.

*aeiaa/anoai anaaaea ia/oaei i nicaeaiee oieeaeueiiai eaea?noaaiiiai
i?aia?aoa. Ieuaaay aeiaaaea *aaaii?ao aiieiuaao yoo ia/oo a aeeciue.

Nienie enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aao?ia E. E. – aeieoi? ath?aaaee/aneeo e oeaaoneeo iaaeeoeei. Eaeoeey
«*aaaii?ao – enoeiiay Ath?aaaea.»

Ainoieia A. «Aaeue eaia.» Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Ea?i» a. Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a
1994 a.

Aacaoa «Eaeaiaea?ue» 1/1999 a. Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a

AEo?iae «Cosmetics» 9/1998

Ea?ei Oooo «Ath?aaaea aeey anao». Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Eee I?ann» Neiaaeey
1998

Iaoa?eaeu ii eoiaai eiioa?aioeee a?a/ae ii Ath?aaaea a a. Naieo –
Iaoa?ao?aa. Etheue 1998 a.

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?anioaeeee Ao?yoey

Ai?iaeneia oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaiey

Eeiaaenoe/aneay aeiiacey ?3

Aeueoa?iaoeaiua enoi/ieee yia?aee.

(?aoa?ao)

Auiieieea: Iao?iieia Aiia

o/aieoea 10a eeanna

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Eoaeaeaaa E.E.

Oeai – Oaey

1999

Ieai

Ath?aaaea

1 Ec enoi?ee Ath?aaaeu.

2 Eaiiiu Ath?aaaeu. Ath?aaaea – iniiaa anao iaaeeoeeineeo nenoai.

3 Ath?aaaea e nia?aiaiiay iaaeeoeeia.

4 3 eeoa Ath?aaaeu:

a) Oeeinioey Naieoueyth O/aiea i o?ao aeinoao.

a) Aeaeueioa?aaaea: Aeieinii?eoiieiaey e Aaaee/aneay ano?ieiaey.

a) Aaaee/aneay iaoo?iiaoey.

Yeeene? aeecie *aaaii?ao.

1 Anooieaiea.

2 Eaaaiaea i *aaaii?aoa.

3 O?e aeaaiuo yooaeoa *aaaii?aoa.

4 Ninoaa.

5 I?eiaiaiea *aaaii?aoa ii eoiaai enneaaeiaaiee.

6 Caeeth/aiea.

I?eeiaeaiey.

Nienie enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u.

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