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Армия Пера I

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NIAeA?AEAIEA.

Aaaaeaiea

I?eno?anoea oea?y e aiaiiiio aeaeo

Iaoioa e ?oeiiaoiue aie

«Eiiiua iaoioeioeu

Oeaaoa aeuia e ieaiaie

Niaoeiac ei?ieae

«Nieaeaou oeeii a?athony, nieaeaou aeuiii a?athony».

Neaaiua aeaea Iao?a

ENIIEUeCOAIAss EEOA?AOO?A.

– «A?iey Iao?a I», ae. ?aaeaeoi? A Ia?aaic/eeia, ecae. aeii «Oaoieea –
iieiae?aee», Iineaa, 1994a.

– «Enoi?ey ?innee (eiiaoe XVII – XIX aae)», A. E. Aoaaiia, I. I.
Cu?yiia, ecae. I?inaauaiea, Iineaa, 2002a.

– aeo?iae «Ianoa? ?oaeue?», ?65 2002a., ae. ?aaeaeoi? O. Aaaeoeeaaa, CAI
«Oeiiaaeea», ioia/aoaii a Eeoaa.

– «Iaoa Iineaa (iooaaiaeeoaeue)», E. E. Iy/ei, ecae. «Iineianeee
?aai/ee», Iineaa, 1985 a.

– aaeaiaaeaeueiue eeethno?e?iaaiiue ni?aai/iee «Ae?aai iiciaiey», ?59
2004 a., o/?aaeeoaeue: «Ia?oae Eaaaiaeeo», ae. ?aaeaeoi? Aeaeie Eea?e.

Aaaaeaiea.

*aeiaaea io inoaeueiuo aeeaioiuo ioee/aao, ianiiiaiii, niiniaiinoue
iuneeoue aeoaiei e i?iaeoiaiii, no?ieoue ieaiu ia aoaeouaa, ?aoaoue
eioaeeaeooaeueiua caaea/e. Yoa niiniaiinoue neeueii aai enii?oeea. Ca
ia?o ieeeeiiia eao naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ethaee iiae/eieee naaa i?e?iaeo,
caiyee aieueooth /anoue ?iaeiie ieaiaou. Ei noaiiaeeinue oanii,
iaeioi?ua ec ieo auee niaeaniu ninouanoaiaaoue aie i aie, ae?oaea ia
iiaee ?acia?aoueny a naieo ioiioaieyo ie?iui ioo?i. Aicieeaee aieiu.
Aii?oae?iiua eiioeeeou i?iaeieaeaee e i?iaeieaeatho oiineoue aeecie
ethaeae e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo. E iiea ai?aeue /aeiaae ia enei?aieo yoi
yaeaiea iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ii ia niiaeao aicauneoue naay iaae
ie?oaeathuei ie?ii e iacaaoue naay ?acoiiui.

Iaeiaei ai ana aaea aaaeaiea aiei auei iieiie i?aioae?inoae iaoeie
oaeaaoue. A yoii iia noiaeia ni nii?oeaiie ioioie eee ?uaiie eiaeae.
?acieoea iaeia – ia aieia ethaee oaeaatho naaa iiaeiaiuo. ?acee/athony
yoe caiyoey /aeiaaea e ii oeaeyi. ?uaieiau e ioioieee-nii?oniaiu
oaeaatho ?aaee oaeiaieuenoaey, aieiu – /anoi ?aaee ie?a, ?aaee nianaiey
aeecie. Aea, yoi aeeei, no?aoii, iai?eyoii, ii iaecaaaeii.

A ?aciia a?aiy aieiu aaeenue ii-?aciiio. Ia ca?a noaiiaeaiey /aeiaaea
iiaaaeeoaey auyaeyea neea, eiaeinoue e iaauee aieia. N ioe?uoeai
/aeiaaeii iaoaeeia e ecia?aoaieai a?iie n?aaeaiey noaee auea?uaaoueny
caaeieai aei ano?a/e a?iee ia iiea a?aie. Oa, /uee eociaoeu eiaaee
a?iith aieaa i?i/ioth, a ia/e aieaa ino?ua, ?acaeaaee iai?eyoaey ia
aieia. Oaia?ue iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue nieaeao – ia aaeeinoaaiiue niinia
aeinoeaeaiey iiaaaeu. A iao aae aunieeo oaoiieiaee io oiaiey nieaeao
aanoe aeieaee e?iaii?ieeoiue ?oeiiaoiue aie ia caaeneo i?aeoe/anee
ie/aai. Iaanaaaea ooee a i?ioeia aoaee no?iai a iieiue ?ino, iiae
aa?aaaiiue aie e aaia?aeu, aa?oeothuea ia?aae aieneaie a ?anoeouo
cieiouo ioiaee?ao. Ni a?aiaie ecia?aoaiey aeaeueiiaieiie aeioiaee
E?enoioa?ii Oa?inii aienea noaee aoeaaeueii aaeeiaoueny a caieth,
nianaynue io niaeia?neiai oa??i?a. Oiaaea, a na?aaeeia XIX a. ie?
oaeaeae ia?aoth o?aioaeioth aieio. Nae/an an? ?aoaao oaoieea, a ia
auiineeainoue nieaeao.

ss oi/o ?anneacaoue i a?aiaie Iao?a I Aaeeeiai. A yoio enoi?e/aneee
ia?eiae aiaiiia aeaei ia?aaeeaaei naith «cieiooth na?aaeeio». Iiiaia
caaenaei io aeaeueiiaieiinoe ?oaeae, iooae, aaoaeoe, ii iaiaeoth ?ieue
ea?aea ioaaaa nieaeao, eo aeaaeaea iiaaaeu, aiaaie aeoo. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aiaeu i?aaeaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai – a?aiy naiuo «e?aneauo»
n?aaeaiee. Ia a?iee yoiai ?onneiai Oea?y y e iiaaaeath a nai?i
aeieeaaea.

A IA*AEA NEAAIUO AeAE.

Oea?aae/o Iao?o aaeaa eniieieeinue 15 eao, eae ii ana?ueac caiyeny
eco/aieai aiaiiiai aeaea. Oaeaeaiiue io e?aieaaneiai aeai?a n iaoa?ueth
e iaiiiaeie i?eaeeaeaiiuie a iiaeiineiaiia naei I?aia?aaeaineia, ii
aua?ae a oiaa?eue ia oieueei naa?noieeia ec aeai?yineeo e aiy?neeo
aeaoae, ii e nuiiaae neoaeeoaeae, e aeaaea ianoiuo e?anoueyi. Iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii e iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iiuoiuo ianoaaieeia A. A. Aieeoeuia,
A.E. Aieiaeeia, O. I. No?aoiaaa e oioae?aiiuo a ?aoiii aeaea eiicaioeaa
I. Ai?aeiia, O. Eaoi?oa, E. A?aiaeoa iaeieaoee-«iioaoiua» iao/aeenue
?oaeaeiui i?eaiai, ia?aaeaeaeaieyi a aiaauo ii?yaeeao, no?aeueaa,
oaooiaaieth, no?iaaie iiaeaioiaea. A 1683 aiaeo thiue oea?ue ?aniieaaae
oaea aeaoiy ?aaoey?iuie iieeaie, noaaoeie aiineaaenoaee ia?auie
aaa?aeaeneeie,— I?aia?aaeaineei e Naiaiianeei (iacaaiu a /anoue
aea?aaaiue, aaea iie oi?ie?iaaeenue). E?iia oiai, ia aai noi?iia
ieacaeenue e aeaa iieea «eiicaiiiai no?iy» — Ia?aiiineianeee
(Eaoi?oianeee) e Aoou?neee (Ai?aeiiianeee). Aeey aiieia aa?iyoiie
noaaoee ni noa?oae nano?ie Nioueae, oco?ie?iaaaoae i?anoie iinea
no?aeaoeeiai iyoaaea 1682 aiaea, yoi auea aanueia a?iciay neea. Iinea
O?ieoeeiai iioiaea a iaa 1689 aiaea iia e iaania/eea, ii nouanoao
aane?iaiue, i?eoiae e aeanoe Iao?a e aai a?aoa Eaaia.

Aua a 1685 aiaeo neeaie «iioaoiuo» aeey aieineeo yeca?oeeoeee
(oi?aaeiaiee) nii?oaeeee ai?iaeie I?aoao?a ia ssoca n iiaeeeiiuie
aanoeiiaie, e?aiinoiuie aaeaie e oe?aieaieyie. Auea oai e ianoiyuay
a?oeeea?ey. Nai oea?ue ne?iiii i?enaiee naaa /ei aiiaa?aee?a, oioy ii
?iniene /eneeeny iiia/aeo na?aeaioii a I?aia?aaeaineii iieeo. ?yaeii n
iei, ia /o?aynue oyaeaeiai oece/aneiai o?oaea, o/eeenue e ?aaioaee
aianoa n ?yaeiauie aoaeouea «ioaioeu aiacaea Iao?iaa» — Aeaenaiae?
Iaioeeia, Oaaei? Ai?aenei, Ieoaee Aieeoeui e ia?aua nieaeaou iiaie a?iee
Na?aae Aooainoia, sseei Ai?iiei, Eoea Oaaa?ia.

Anei?a iieiaeiio naiiaea?aeoeo iieacaeinue iaei «ia?niauo iioao» —
iiaeiniae /a?aae «iaiooiiauo». Iaeaeaiiue a na?aa naea Eciaeeiai noa?ue
aioee (aioaaeoee caoai a enoi?eth, eae «aeaaeooea ?onneiai oeioa») auaae
ia oa?aaoa?u ssocu e I?inyiiai i?oaea «iioaoioth» oeioeeeth. Aa ia?aua
ianoiyuea iaiaa?u ninoiyeenue eaoii 1692-ai ia i?inoi?ao Ieauaaaa ica?a
iiae Ia?aneaaeai.

A ia?aua «nooiiooiua» o/aiey i?iaaee aiaeii ?aiueoa — aeec
I?aia?aaeaineiai e Naiaiianeiai. A ieo o/anoaiaaee e eneooaiiua a aiyo
aiyee — aaoa?aiu E?uineeo e *eae?eineeo iioiaeia. Noa?aoaeueii ia?aieiae
eo o?iee «?ioieno? Iao? Aeaenaaa». Oi, /oi iaiaa?u ieacaeenue
iaoooi/iuie, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ienueii ainoaea?y Oaaei?o Ai?aeneio:
«I?ioea naai iyoiai ia aeanyoue /enea, a ii/e, a oanoii /ano eiycue Eaai
Aeieo?eaae/ (Aeieai?oeia — I?ei. aaoi?a) io oyaeeey naiay ?aiu, ia/a aea
ecaieaieai aiaeeei ia?anaeeny a aa/iua e?iau, ii /eio Aaeaiiao, eaeaaea
e anai iai ii a?aiaie auoe».

Ii e yoiai iaei — a 1693 aiaeo Iao? oacaeaao a A?oaiaaeuene, oaeaeaoue
ianoiyuaa ii?a, a 1694-i — ioi?aaeyaony a ieaaaiey ia yooa ii Aaeiio
ii?th. A ia/aaoeony eaoii 1694 aiaea Eiaeooianeeo (ii iacaaieth
iiaeiineiaiiai naea, aioaaeoaai iuia a ninoaa noieeoeu) iaiaa?ao
o/anoaiaaei oaea 30 ouny/ /aeiaae. «Eiaeooianeia aeaei» auyaeei
ianiiiaiiua i?aeiouanoaa iiauo iieeia iaae no?aeaoeeeie e anaeeei a
Iao?a oaa?aiiinoue a naieo neeao, eia a /ai ia?a?inooth a
naiioaa?aiiinoue.

IAOIOA.

Iaeiie ec ia?auo ?aoi?i, i?iaaaeaiiuo Iao?ii, noaea ?aoi?ia ii
ia?aiaioiaee?iaaieth e ia?aaii?oaeaieth a?iee. Iiae noaiaie Aciaa e
Ia?au aieueoay /anoue ?onneeo aiene aua iaea/aeanue a eaooaiu
no?aeaoeeiai oeia, ii oaea n oei?i/aiiuie iieaie e, a iauai-oi, aiieia
oaeiaiuie. Ii iinea ia?aneiai «eiiooca» ainoaea?ue ia/ae ?aoeoaeueiaa
aa?iiaece?iaaoue naith a?ieth.

Aioeoaaaeneee nithc Iao?a e Aaaonoa II Naeniineiai ai iiiaii iiaeeye ia
ia?aua aieineea oi?ie?iaaiey ?innee. Ii oa?aeoa?o iaioiaee?iaaiey
?onneea aieiu iaiaei oeaiiiai iicaeinoaiaaee o «iaioeaa». Ii ana aea
ia?acoeii aeey a?iaeneeo /anoae yaeeenue aaa?aeaeoeu I?aia?aaeaineiai e
Naiaiianeiai iieeia, ia?aciaaaoeony a 1693 aiaeo ec iioaoiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee thiiai oea?y. Iao?ianeee ?yaeiaie iaoioeiaoe-oocaea? aue
iaeao a noeiiiue eaooai, iau/ii oaiii-caeaiiai oeaaoa iauaaa?iiaeneiai
iie?iy n e?aniuie ?oeaaiuie iaoeaaaie n 4 aieueoeie iaaeiuie ioaiaeoeaie
ia eaaeaeii. Ia aethaeeio oaeeo aea ioaiaeoe canoaaeaaeny e nai eaooai,
a e eaaiio iea/o e?aieeny oceee aeue iiaii, i?eaea?aeeaathuee ia?aaycue
iao?iiiie noiu. Iiae eaooaiii iineeny eaicie-aanoa n ?oeaaaie eee aac
?oeaaia, canoaaeaathueeny ia ioaiaeoeu ?acia?ii iiiaiueoa, a iiae iei —
aaeay ?oaaoa. Ooaiu oeeenue ec noeia (a eaaaea?ee — ec eineiie eiaee),
aeeeiie aei eieai, n oaie aea eaicieueiuie ioaiaeoeaie. Ioiaee?
aeiiieiyee /oeee n aieueoeie ooiiiinuie aaoiaeaie, niaaaeaiiuie
i?yaeeaie. A iioiaeu e ea?aoeu oocaea? iaaeaaae naiiae n aunieeie
aieaieuaie, a a iaiiaiaeo e nooaeo aua e ieau-aiai/o ec oienoiai noeia n
aeaieiui ai?ioieeii.

Aai aioieoeey ninoiyea ec iao?iiiie noiu ia oienoie eiaeaiie ia?aayce n
i?yaeeie ia nieia, oienoeiiie eee eiaeaiie noiee-?aioea e eiaeaiie aea
ii?ooiae n eiianoyie, a iaoee eioi?uo anoaaeyeanue oiaaa eee aaaeiao
(aaeiiao) — oe?ieee e aeeeiiue ooue-iiae.

A?iiicaeeay e?aiiaaay oocay, eioi?ie aii?oaeaeenue nieaeaou,
ca?yaeaeanue ni noaiea iao?iiii a aoiaaeiii ea?ooca-iaa?oea. Aioo?e aa
iaoiaeeeenue ioey e ii?io. Aia/aea ea?ooc n ioeae neonuaaeny coaaie, a
ii?io aianoa n inoaoeaie iao?iia caeeaaeuaaeny a noaie. Caoai i/a?aaeue
oea ca ioeae n inoaoeaie ae?oaie iieiaeiu ea?ooca, e aanue ca?yae ieioii
caaeaaeny oiiiieii. Any i?ioeaaeo?a caieiaea ianno a?aiaie, e iau/ii a
aith iinea ia?aiai caeia a oiae oei oieiaeiia i?oaeea.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iaoioiue iiee a ?onneie a?iee ninoiye ec 10 oocaea?iuo
?io. Iinea 1704 aiaea /enei ?io oiaiueoeee aei 9 (8 oocaea?iuo e 1
a?aiaaea?neay). Ii ?aaeaiaioaoeee 1711 aiaea a iaoioiii iieeo auei oaea
4 oocaea?iuo aaoaeueiia ii 4 ?iou a eaaeaeii, a oaeaea ianeieueei (io 1
aei 3) ioaeaeueiuo a?aiaaea?neeo ?io. Ii onoaao 1716 aiaea oocaea?iay
?ioa aeeth/aea a naay 4 acaiaea — 4 ioeoea?ia, 10 oioa?ia, 144 ?yaeiauo,
2 aa?aaaiueeia, eaea?y e iena?y.

Oniaoiiio iao/aieth aieiia i?aiyonoaiaaee eae ieieioi aeaa
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Ai-ia?auo, i?aeoe/anee iiaieiaiay iaa?aiioiinoue
?ae?ooia — e?anoueyineeo ia?iae, ia ioee/aaoeo eaaoth e i?aaoth noi?iiu,
e, ai-aoi?uo, ieceea ii?aeueiua e eioaeeaeooaeueiua ea/anoaa
eiicaioeaa-ioeoea?ia, iaae?aaiuo ca/anooth neo/aeii.

I?iaeaio iiaeaioiaee eiiaiaeiuo eaae?ia ?aoeee aeiaieueii i?eaeiaeueii:
aiaaui aaa?aeaeneei iieeai aeaee i?aeiouanoai a aeaa /eia. E i?e
ia?aaiaea ec aaa?aeee a a?ieth ii?o/ee aaoiiaoe/anee noaiiaeeny iaei?ii.
Yoi iicaieyei aio ia /oanoaiaaoue naay ouaieaiiui, caoi a?iaeneee iiee
i?eia?aoae iiuoiiai aiaaiai ioeoea?a.

Iao/aiea aea ?yaeiauo iaoioeioeaa ia/eiaeinue ni no?iaaie iiaeaioiaee —
aac iaa oi?aaeyoue ia?aaeaeaeaieai, ia?ano?iaieai e iaiai ?yaea eee
oa?aiae auei iaaiciiaeii. Ii iiaieth enoi?eea Aeeu Aaaoiiaie, aia/aea
nieaeaoa o/eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui i?eaiai — iiai?ioai ii eiiaiaea,
ia?oe?iaaieth, no?iaaie noieea, e iaeiiaoe, ?oaeaeiui i?eaiai. Oieueei
iinea iaaeaaeiiai eo onaiaiey ia?aoiaeeee e a?oiiiaui caiyoeyi. Nia/aea
a ninoaaa «eai?aeuenoaa» (ioaeaeaiey); caoai «ieooiiaa» (acaiaea) e
aeaeaa — ?iou e aaoaeueiia. Neaaeothuei oaaii yaeyeanue no?aeueaa. Ii
caeiiai eeiaeiie oaeoeee yooaeoeaiay no?aeueaa aaeanue ec oae iacuaaaiuo
acaeaiaiiuo oa?aia, eiaaea no?ie ia?aae aiai oieioiyeny a aeaa ?yaea, e
ana iiae?acaeaeaiea iiaei aanoe iaiiue ii iai?eyoaeth. A 1700 —1704
aiaeao oa?aia ia ia?oa auei a, i?e acaeaaeaaiee — 3. Caoai eo /enei
aeiaaee niioaaonoaaiii aei 8 e 4. Eiiaiaeie neoaeeea o?aca eiiaiaee?a:
«N iieiaeiu ?yaeia iai?aai (iaeaai) aia?aae oa?aiae acaeaie!»
Acaeaaeaaee oaeaea e ?yaeu (ii eiiaiaea «*a?ac ?yae iai?aai ?yaeu
acaeaie!»). Yoi iicaieyei oaaee/eoue iiaeeueiinoue, aaaeue aeaeaaoueny
ii ia?ana/aiiie ianoiinoe eaa/a ii 4, /ai ii 8.

Eiaiii a yiioo Iao?a I i?iecioei oi?ie?iaaiea ?onneiai a?iaeneiai
?oeiiaoiiai aiy, aia?aaoaai a naay ana naiia ia?aaeiaia e yooaeoeaiia ec
iaoeeiiaeueiiai iiuoa, a oaeaea ec aa?iiaeneeo e ainoi/iuo nenoai.
Oeiea, nicaeaiiay ai a?aiaia Iao?a, noaea ooiaeaiaioaeueiie a ?acaeoee
yoie noi?iiu aieineiai eneonnoaa ?onneie a?iee, a iineaaeothuea
aeanyoeeaoey eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeeee eeoue a iacia/eoaeueiuo aeaoaeyo.

A aieneao i?eieiathony ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiua aeaeu i?oaeey: ?oaeuea ni
ooueii (oocay eee iooeao), e?aiiaaue ienoieao, oiaaa, iaeao, ioeoea?neee
i?ioacai, na?aeaioneay aeaaa?aea, eaca/uey ieea e naaey. Aeey eaaeaeiai
aeaea nicaeaaony onoaiiaea ia aaaeaiea aiy. A?iey aeaeeony ia
iaoioeioeaa-oocaea?ia, ae?aaoi e a?oeeea?enoia.

N ia?auo aea n?aaeaiee ni oaaaeaie auea auyaeaia ieceay
i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea ?onneeo aiene. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyee
eeoue aaa?aeaeneea iieee, iieo/eaoea oi?iooth oeieo aaaeaiey aiy e a
«iioaoiuo» aaoaeeyo, e iiae noaiaie Aciaa n oo?eaie.

Iinea ia?aneiai ii?aaeaiey ioaeii auei o/eoueny i?aaeeueiiio aith, a
o/eoueny auei o eiai e auei /aio.

Iao?ianeea ioeoea?u e nieaeaou naie iiieiaee, /oi noa?ay, aeaaeianeay
nenoaia aiy ieeoaea ia aiaeeony e ioaeii i?eeiaeeoue ana neeu, /oiau
n?aaiyoueny n o?iaiai a?aaa, iao/eoueny aeoue aai. Ai a?aiy noaaoie e
nou/ae n iai?eyoaeai niaoeeaeueiua eiiaiaeu ia/eiatho ioioeoueny ca
oaaaeaie, eioi?ua iaeaieaa eneonii aeaaeatho i?oaeeai. Oaeeo ae?ooicia
ieaiyee, e ia?aaeei a ?onneeo eaaa?yo, ia aeaoaeao iiaeii auei
iaaethaeaoue ea?oeiu, eae ae?aaoiu e oocaea?u ie?oaeaee aeeaie noaiie
aeaoo ieaiieeia, aii?oaeaiiuo ooiuie oiaaaie, e canoaaeyee eo anooiaoue
ae?oa n ae?oaii a iiaaeeiie, a naie aeaaeii o/eeenue o ieo
oaooiaaeueiiio eneonnoao, eiaeee eaaeaeue oeio e ioae?aiue oaea?,
caiiieiaee oeo?ua auiaaeu. *anoi ai?aeua oaaaeu ioeacuaaeenue aunooiaoue
a ea/anoaa aaeaaaiiuo oooia… Oiaaea ?onneea nieaeaou naie anooiaee a
iiaaeeiee ni naieie ieaiieeaie, iiciaaaee ia naiai nianoaaiiii i?eia?a
i?aneiaooia ianoa?noai a?aaia.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie nenoaia ?oeiiaoiiai aiy a Iao?ianeoth yiioo?
I?ineaaeei iiyoaiii ana aeaeu a?iaeneiai aii?oaeaiey, a oaeaea
oi?aaeiaiey e i?eiaiaiea eo ia i?aeoeea.

Aeaaeeinoaieueiia, e?aiiaaia ?oaeuea-oocay ninoiyei ia aii?oaeaiee
iao?ianeie a?iee. Aei 1708 aiaea oocay eiaea aeey aaaeaiey ?oeiiaoiiai
aiy anoaaeythueeny aioo?ue noaiea oanae-aaaeiao n aea?aayiiie
?oeiyoueth, i?yiui oe?ieei eacaeai ieiei iieoiao?a aeeeiie. Aie
aaaeiaoii aanoe auei e?aeia iaoaeiaii. Ai a?aiy noaaoie io oaea?ia
i?ioeaieea ii /anoi auneaeuecuaae ec noaiea e nieaeao aeieaeai aue aanoe
aie oieueei iaeiie oocaae, eniieuecoy aa eae aeoaeieo, oae eae aieueoa
ieeaeiai i?oaeey o iaai ia auei.

N 1708 aiaea a ?onneie a?iee aaiaeeony ia aii?oaeaiea ooue n o?oa/aoie
iniiaie e aieiaie oaeeie. Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi iiaeiaiue ooue iiyaeeny
aia?aua ai O?aioeee, ii ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia iieo/ee. Eeoue oieueei eiaaea
oaaaeu n 1696 aiaea aaaee aai o naay, aieaa oniaa?oainoaiaaee e ii
ca?aeiiaiaeiaae naay i?aioee/ii, oi ana aa?iiaeneea a?iee i?eiyee yoio
ia?acaoe ia aii?oaeaiea.

Aaaeaiea ?oeiiaoiiai aiy ?oaeueai ni ooueii aaeinue, eae i?aaeei, aeaoiy
?oeaie ni anaaiciiaeiuie aa?eaoeeyie oaea?ia, oeieia, iiaeiiaeae,
i?iaeaia. Ethaay /anoue ?oaeuey, aoaeue oi i?eeeaae, oeaauea eee noaie,
eniieueciaaeanue a noaaoea ia ii?aaeaiea i?ioeaieea, ia ia?e?iaaiea
oaea?ia. Noieea inoaaaeanue o?aaeeoeeiiiay — eaaay iiaa aia?aae.
Nouanoaiaaea «oaaaeneay» iaia?a aaaeaiey ?oeiiaoiiai aiy a iaoai no?ith.
Caeeth/aeanue iia a eniieueciaaiee eaaie ?oeie iooeaoa ni ooueii, a a
i?aaie — oiaae. A oeaeii iaia?a eieoe?iaaea aie XVI aaea ia oiaaa n
aeaaie (eeiaeae aeey eaaie ?oee), ii iooeao auiieiye i?aeiouanoaaiii
aoaeothuoth ?ieue a ea/anoaa aua?ina eee oaea?a a noi?iio i?ioeaieea, e
oio aeieaeai aue ia?e?iaaoue aai, /oiau iaaciianeoue naay e oai naiui
inoaaeye naay iacaueuaiiui… I/a?aaeue oea ca oiaaie aoaeothuaai e aeey
iaeneooaiiiai a oiieinoyo aiy nieaeaoa yoa noaaoea iiaea ieii/eoueny
o?aae/anee. Iao?ianeea aieiu auno?i ia?aieiaee «oeo?inoue» i?ioeaieea e
a aeaeueiaeoai aeinoaoi/ii oniaoii i?aeoeeiaaee oaaaeneee «aeaieiie
iaie?». Iiaeiaioth nenoaio aiy eniieueciaaee iaoioiua ioeoea?u,
aii?oaeaiiua iiieii oiaae — i?ioacaiii (naiaia?aciui ?iaeii
oe?ieieacaaiiiai eiiuey n iiia?a/iui iieoianyoeai), a oaeaea na?aeaiou —
aeaaa?aeie. Iaia?a oa aea: i?ioacai eee aeaaa?aea — a eaaie ?oea, oiaaa
— a i?aaie. A ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiuo yeaiaioia aeey aaaeaiey
?oeiiaoiiai aiy eniieueciaaeenue ienoieaou, aea?aeaueany ca ?oeiyoue eee
noaie, iiaeiu oiaae, a oaeaea i?aaeiaou aioieoeee, aieiaiua oai?u,
auiieiyaoea /enoi caueoiua ooieoeee.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei ae?oaie aeae i?oaeey. Oiaaa, iaeao, naaey ?iaenoaaiiu
ii naiae nooe e ?anoiaeyony eeoue a aeaoaeyo. Oiaaa e iaeao — i?oaeea n
i?yiui eeeieii ?aciie aeeeiu, iaeiieacaaiiua eee iaithaeiino?ua, oe?eiie
io 3 aei 5 ni. I?eiaiyeenue aeey eiethueo eee ?oayueo oaea?ia. Naaey
eiaea eciaiooue, iaeiieacaaiiue eeeiie. Iao?ianeay iaoioa aii?oaeaeanue
oei?i/aiiui aa?eaioii oiaae — iaoioiui (n 1708 aiaea). A eaaaea?ee
i?enoonoaiaaee ana aeaeu ?oayua-eiethuaai i?oaeey. Ia aii?oaeaiee
ae?aaoia eiaeanue oei?i/aiiay oocay ni ooueii, ia?a ienoieaoia, iaeao. A
ioiioaiee oieiaeiiai i?oaeey ?aaeaiaioaoeee ia auei. Nicaeathueany iaeei
ca ae?oaei ae?aaoineea iieee o?aaiaaee ouny/e aaeeieoe. A aeaei oei ana
— noa?ua caianu, o?ioae, iiaaiueeea eeeiee ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
e iieoiaaiua ca a?aieoeae.

A eiiiii no?ith i?eiaiyeanue oaeoeea, aiaeaie au?aaioaiiay aieiaie, i
iae oiiieiaeinue auoa. Iniaaiiinoue aeaiiiai ia?eiaea caeeth/aeanue a
oii, /oi eaaaea?eeneia n?aaeaiea oaea aaeinue n eniieueciaaieai
iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey, oaeoe/aneeo iiaoanoa e iao/aiea eiiiiio aith
noaei iaiiiai ?aciiia?aciaa. Oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue aea?aayiiua
o?aiaaea?u n aeaaieai e iiaeaaniie «aaoeie» (ieaoaiue iy/, iaiieiaiiue
caieae). Eaaaea?enoia o/eee auoue aeaeeie, ?acaeaaoue oi?n aeey
iaeneiaeueiiai a?auaiey a naaeea, iiiaei ae?oaei oi?aaeiaieyi, eiaioaiui
aieueoeaee?iaeie. Aeey oniaoiiai aeaaeaiey eeeieii iaiaoiaeeiu auee
ioee/ii ?acaeoay eenoue e iea/i. E oi?aaeiaiey, eiia/ii,
i?aaeoniao?eaaee eo ?acaeoea. Nenoaia aiy iiae?acaeaeyeanue ia oaea?u n
oeieaie e ia?e?iaaiea n aeaeueiaeoei ia?aoiaeii ia ii?aaeaiea
i?ioeaieea. Aeaenoaea eeeieii i?e ?oayueo oaea?ao oei «io iea/»,
«ec-iiae eieoy», «ec-ca aieiau», «io aieia». Ia?e?iaaiea — ia i?ee?uoea
aieiau, iea/, aieia, iia e ia ioaiae oeieia, iai?aaeaiiuo a ?acee/iua
/anoe oaea. Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iaoaai aiy auee oeeiiaiey, i?iaeau,
no?aieoaeueiua ia?aaeaeaeaiey, oaea?u aieiaie, iiaie, ia?aoaaou
?oeaie… Aeaaea a iaioiaee?iaaiee e yeeie?iaea ae?aaoi i?enoonoaiaaee
yeaiaiou aeey aieaa oaeiaiiai aaaeaiey ?oeiiaoiie. Iai?eia?, iieu
eaooaia iie /anoi iiaeai?a/eaaee ca iiyn, ii-eaca/uee, anoaaeyee a
o?aoaieeo aeaeaciua ia?o/e-eaneaou aeey i?aaeio?aiaiey aieiau e o.ae.

Aieueoia cia/aiea a aiaaii oaooiaaiee ea?aea aa?aea — /aoaaeaeiia eee
aeoaeeiia?aciia i?ee?uoea eenoe ?oee. Auiieiyea iia ia oieueei caueoiua
ooieoeee. Ia?aaeei aieoeu i?eiaiyee aa aeey iaianaiey oaea?ia,
niaoeeaeueiuie aa?aeiauie e?th/eaie e «onaie» i?iecaiaeeee «caoaaou» e
iaaci?oaeeaaee i?ioeaieea.

?ae?ooai — a/a?aoiei e?anoueyiai i?eoiaeeeinue ooai io iinoiyiiuo
yeca?oeeoeee n oyaeaeuie eeeieaie. Aieia oea iieiui oiaeii, e aeieaiai
a?aiaie ia iao/aiea ia ioaiaeeeinue. Onaiea acu ae?aaoineiai aiy, iie
iinueaeenue ia ia?aaeiaoth, e oai oaea, a nou/eao e n?aaeaieyo n
iai?eyoaeai iiciaaaee a niaa?oainoaa «aiaiioth iaoeo». *anoi ia?aua
noaaoee caeai/eaaeenue aeey iiaiyaeaiiuo ae?aaoi o?aae/anee… Ii oa,
eoi auoiaeee aeeaui ec aaea ?oaee, a aeaeueiaeoai noaiiaeeenue iiuoiuie
aieiaie. Ai ana a?aiaia n/eoaeinue, /oi i?aeoeea iaoo?aeueiiai aiy aieaa
anaai niinianoaoao aeinoeaeaieth aiaiiiai ianoa?noaa.

Iai?aacieaeaiiuie eiiiuie aieoeaie auee eacaee — ?iae eaaeie eaaaea?ee,
aoiaeeaoee a ninoaa e??aaoey?iuo oi?ie?iaaiee ?onneie a?iee ia/eiay ni
a?aiai Iao?a. Eacaee auee aii?oaeaiu ?oaeueyie-naiiiaeaie, ienoieaoaie,
ieeaie e naaeyie (iicaeiaa oaoeaie). I?eo/aiiua n aeaonoaa e aiaaie
aeecie, iie auee ianoiyueie ae?ooicaie ai aeaaeaiee i?oaeeai. Eaca/uey
ieea oiio?aaeyeanue «aeaoeiia/ii»: iaeiia/iee — aeey oeiea e ooiie
eiiaoe — aeey oaea?a.

Ae?AAOIU.

Ia?aneee ?aca?ii 1700 aiaea yanoaaiii aunaaoee iaaeinoaoee, i?enouea
iiianoiie aeai?yineie eaaaea?ee,— ieceoth aiaaoth iiaeaioiaeo,
iaoeiiieaeoiaaiiinoue, i?aiaa?aaeaiea aeenoeeieeiie. Iao? i?ae?anii
iiieiae, /oi aac nia?aiaiiie iiaeeueiie e oi?ioi aii?oaeaiiie eiiieoeu
iaeieaoue oaaaeia aoaeao iaaiciiaeii. E ia i?ioyaeaiee 1701 aiaea, aa?y
ca i?eia? iiyoue aea nithcioth naeniineoth a?ieth, a ?innee nicaeaee 12
ae?aaoineeo iieeia, iiieii aeaoo oaea eiaaoeony (eo noi?ie?iaaee ceiie
1699 aiaea iiae ia/aeii iiuoiuo iaiaoeeeo ioeoea?ia Aoeeoea e
Oiaaaioea).

Oi, /oi auai? iae eiaiii ia ae?aaoineea iiae?acaeaeaiey, eiia/ii aea, ia
neo/aeii. E ia/aeo XVIII noieaoey «eiiiua iaoioeioeu», eae iacuaaee eo
nia?aiaiieee ca oiaiea n?aaeaoueny aa?oii e a iaoai no?ith, aeinoeaee
naiaai ?anoeaaoa. Aia/aea (a niioaaonoaee n aeaaiae o?aaeeoeeae) iiaua
iieee eiaiiaaee ii oaieeeyi eiiaiaee?ia. E eeoue a 1708 aiaeo iacaaiea
/anoe noaei iaicia/aoue ianoi aa eiiieaeoiaaiey.

Iau/ii iiee ninoiye ec 5 yneaae?iiia, a eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aoiaeeei ii
2 ?iou. A iineaaeiae /eneeeinue 92 ?yaeiauo nieaeaoa, 8 oioa?ia (4
eai?aea, eaioaia?ion, oo?uea? — iineoaeue ?ioiiai cia/ea, aaoieno? e
iiaei?aii?uee — noa?oeia), 3 ioeoea?a. Eoiai a oeiiieaeoiaaiiii iieeo
iaoiaeeeinue 1328 aiaiiineoaeaueo, a oaeaea 1300 eioaaeae (1000 no?iaauo
e 300 oi?yaeiuo). Nioeeaeueiue ninoaa ieacaeny aeiaieueii iano?ui. Iiiai
(a oii /enea — n?aaee ?yaeiauo) auei aeai?yi — neacuaaeanue
oianeaaeiaaiiay io aeaaeia o?aaeeoeey i?anoeaeiinoe neoaeau a eaaaea?ee.
A?aee oaeaea aieueiuo e «ioi/eo» ia?iae e ioaeeeia io 25 aei 40 eao, ia
/o?aeenue e aeaoi/iuo, eioi?uo caae?aee a a?ieth iiaeeciaiii. Iaiaei
auaoeo iinaeaiiuo e ei?iiauo (oi anoue neoaeeaoeo ca aeaeiaaiuea —
«ei?i») ae?aaoi ia?aoee a iiaua iieee e inaieee iiaua iaauee Aeey
«oeo/oaiey ii?iaeu eioaaeae» oea?ue ?anii?yaeeeny nicaeaoue iiaua eiiiua
caaiaeu — a Eacaineie, Acianeie e Eeaaneie aoaa?ieyo. A naaa?iua iaeanoe
ia?aaacee ianeieueei ynoeyiaeneeo oyaeaeiaicia-eeaiia?ia — aeey
?acaaaeaiey ianoiuo ii?iae aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee i?oaeee, iaica e o.i.

*a?ac 11 eao eiiaiaeiaaiea ooaa?aeeei iiaia ooaoiia ?anienaiea a?iee.
?aaoey?iay eaaaea?ey ninoiyea oaia?ue ec 30 ae?aaoineeo iieeia (a
eaaeaeii ii 10 ?io), 3 eiiiia?aiaaea?neeo iieeia (i ieo ?a/ue iieaeao
ieaea) e 3 iaiieiuo aa?ieciiiuo iieeia Iineieueeo auoaaeoee a 1716 aiaeo
«Onoaa Aieineee» ?aaeaiaioe?iaae aiaaua aeaenoaey a iaoai no?ith, oi
ae?aaoiu iieueciaaeenue ei ia?aie/aiii. A eiiiuo noaaoeao
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue «E?aoeei iienaieai n ioaeiaeoeie iauyniaieyie i?e
iao/aiee eiiiiai ae?aaoineiai no?iy, eaeie i?e oii iinooeaoa e a
niio?aiee eiaoe ainiiaeai aunoei ioeoea?ai e i?i/ei ia/aeueieeai e
o?yaeieeai iao/aoe ono?ienoaai, eae iineaaeoao». Iaeiaei nae aeieoiaio
ii?aaeaeye aua e iaycaiiinoe e ianoi eaaeaeiai a no?ith. Iieeii
?oeiaiaeeee 4 noa?oeo (iaa?) ioeoea?a — eiiaiaee? a /eia iieeiaieea,
caianoeoaeue — iiaeiieeiaiee, ioaaonoaaiiue ca no?iaaoth iiaeaioiaeo
i?aiuea?-iaei? e caianoeoaeue iineaaeiaai naeoiae-iaei?. Nouanoaiaae
oaeaea iaeue (oioa?) ooaa. A iaai aoiaeeee eaa?oe?iaenoa?, aoaeeoi?
(noaeaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue), eaea?y, eiiiaae-aaoa?eia?, nayuaiiee e
iaea/-i?ioin. Eiiaiaee? ?iou (iau/ii a eaieoaineii /eia) i?e iino?iaiee
caieiae ianoi iina?aaeeia e ia?aae ia?aie oa?aiaie; aai caianoeoaeue —
eaieoai-ii?o/ee — ia i?aaii eee eaaii oeaiaa. Aeaa ae?oaeo ioeoea?a —
iiaeii?o/ee e i?aii?uee-ciaiaiinaoe (io noa?ineaayineiai «i?aii?», oi
anoue «ciaiy») oiaea ?aniieaaaeenue ia oii eee ae?oaii oeaiaa ia?aie
oa?aiae. Oa?aia, eae i?aaeei, auei o?e (ii 30 aieoeia), e nieaeaou
?aaiyeenue a caoueie ae?oa ae?oao.

Iao?ianeea ae?aaoiu iaei ioee/aeenue io oocaea?ia-iaoioeioeaa, ii auee
iaoou a aunieea naiiae-aiooi?ou n eeaiaiaie e oii?aie, a a ii?ooiayo o
ieo aianoi ei?ioeeo iaoioiuo oiaa a?icii e?aniaaeenue aeeeiiua
eaaaea?eeneea iaeaoe. Aianoi iaoioiie iao?iiiie noiu iineeanue
iaaieueoay noii/ea-eyaeoiea ia oceie ia?aayce, eoaea aiauaeanue
aethaeeia iao?iiia. Oocay oeaieyeanue ca e?the ia oe?ieie ia?aayce –
iaioaea?a, a noaie anoaaeyeny a aooiao — niaoeeaeueiue iaaieueoie /aoie,
e?aieaoeeny o naaeea. A eiao?ao-ieueno?ao, i?ee?aieaiiuo e ia?aaeiae
/anoe naaeea, iaoiaeeeenue eaaaea?eeneea e?aiiaaua ienoieaou. Io
aeiaeaey e aeaae iie i?ee?uaaeenue noeiiiuie iaoeaie-/ooeaie e
caoyaeaaeenue oio?eii. Iau/ii o ae?aaoi eiaeenue 1 — 2 ienoieaoa.
Iineieueeo i?oaeey (iniaaiii ia ia?aii yoaia aieiu) ino?i ia oaaoaei, o
ae?aaoi ia?aaeei ano?a/aeenue «iaooaoiua» no?aeaoeeea ieuaee, naaee,
eiino?aiiua eeeiee n i?e/oaeeeauie aeouie aa?aeaie e aeaaea iaoioiua
i?ioacaiu e aeaaa?aeu. Ioeoea?u ia iineee ie iaa?oaeiuo ciaeia, ie
o?aooeaaoiuo oa?oia. Aeey aieueoeinoaa ec ieo aeaaea cieioie aaeoi
yaeyeny ?ineioueth, e, eae i?aaeei, ei iaoeaaeenue o?aoaieea, ii?ooiay,
ia?aaycue eyaeoiee, e?aae ia?/aoie. Io aeaeaiey e aiciiaeiinoae
eaaeaeiai oei eniieueciaaiea e ae?oaeo oi?i ioee/ey: oeyiiue iethiaae,
aei?iaia noeii ioiaee?a, aiaaoay aioieoeey, iiciei/aiiua oii?u e eiineay
na?oy. Naiaia?aciui o?iioiaui oeeii o ae?aaoineeo ioeoea?ia auei iioaiea
o?ioaeiiai iaa?oaeiiai ciaea — ai?aeaoa ni nieeaiiuie aaicaeyie Ea?ea
XII. Iiaeiaiia ia?ooaiea oi?iu aeaaea i?eaaonoaiaaeinue eiiaiaeiaaieai,
oae eae naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i ee/iie aeiaeanoe e ioaaaa iaeaaeaoaey.
E1707 aiaeo ioiineony iiiuoea Iao?a noi?ie?iaaoue ia?aua a ?innee /anoe
eaaeie ?aaoey?iie eaaaea?ee. Iaeeo/oee ia?acaoe — iiae?acaeaeaiey
aaiaa?neeo aona? — oea?ue iiaeaeae ai a?aiaia iiacaeee ii Aa?iia a 1697
– 1698 aiaeao. Aea e ciaeiinoai n eaaaiaea?iui eiycai ?aeioee e aai
aieiaie-eo?ooeaie ia i?ioei aeey iaoeo aiaia/aeueieeia aanneaaeii.
Io?yae a 300 naaaeue i?e 8 ioeoea?ao nia?ae ?onneee ioeoea?, na?a ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth Aiinoie Ee/e/. A iaai aoiaeeee a iniiaiii aeeoaee
i?eaeoiaeneie ianoiinoe — aaeaoe, o?aineeueaaioeu, aaia?u e na?au. A
I?ooneii iioiaea eaaeay eaaaea?ey ie/ai naay ia i?iyaeea, caoi ana
iaaethaeaoaee ioiaoeee ieceoth aeenoeeieeio eo?ooeae. Iiyoiio Iao?
?aoeeny ia eo ?anoi?ie?iaaiea, inoaaea eeoue iaiieioth ?ioo na?aneeo
aona?, neoaeeaoeo iiaiio ioa/anoao ia ca no?ao, a ca niaanoue. N oniaoii
caiaiyea a ?yaea neo/aaa aoaeoueo aona? e oeai e??aaoey?iay eiiieoea. Ia
iaeioi?uo yoaiao Naaa?iie aieiu aa /eneaiiinoue aeinoeaaea 120 ouny/.
Eo/oa ae?oaeo i?aaieciaaee naia aieinoai oe?aeineea eacaee, aunoaaeyaoea
a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe 10 iieiioeaiiuo e oi?ioi aii?oaeaiiuo iieeia.
I?aeoe/anee ai anao eaiiaieyo o/anoaiaaee e aeiineea, yeoeeea,
aieaeneea, oa?neea e a?aaaineea eacaee. E?iia ieo, a iai?eau/iuo
oneiaeyo n oniaoii n?aaeaeenue iiae?acaeaeaiey eaeiueia e aaoee?,
ia?aaeei iaaiaeeaoeo ia iai?eyoaey oaean naieie eeoeie aaniiuaaeiuie
aoaeaie.

A?OEEEA?Ess.

Iaeieaoiaio Iao?o aai ioaoe Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ iacaaeieai aei nia?oe
iiaea?ee ieieaoth?ioth iooeo eaeea?ii a 1/2 a?eaiu (27 ii) e aanii 9 ea,
eioi?ay iicaea noaea iaeiie ec ethaeiuo ea?ooae oea?aae/a. A 1684 aiaeo
yoa iooea o/anoaiaaea a «aiyo» ca iioaoioth caieyioth e?aiinoue
I?anao?a. A ninoaaa I?aia?aaeaineiai iieea auea noi?ie?iaaia
aiiaa?aee?neay ?ioa, eioi?ay e noaea ?iaeiia/aeueieoeae iao?ianeie
iieaaie a?oeeea?ee. Nai Iao? «neoaeee» aiiaa?aee?ii a yoie ?ioa.

Aiiaa?aee?neay ?ioa o/anoaiaaea a iaieo Acianeeo iioiaeao. A oiaea
aoi?iai ec ieo, a 1696 aiaeo, iiae Acia auei aeinoaaeaii 260 inaaeiuo e
iieeiauo i?oaeee, ia n/eoay noaeiauo iooae.

18 ethiy 1698 aiaea /aou?a caeia ec 25 iooae, eioi?uie eiiaiaeiaae
iieeiaiee aea A?aaa, ia?aoeee a aaanoai /aou?a iyoaaeiuo no?aeaoeeeo
iieea o Aine?anaineiai iiianou?y (aaeece Iiaiai Ea?onaeeia).

Auaoaaoee a ia/aea 1698 aiaea ca a?aieoeo Iao? acye n niaie 30 ethaeiuo
aiiaa?aee?ia, /anoue ec eioi?uo ii inoaaee o/eoueny.

A aieueoii eiee/anoaa caeacuaaeenue ca a?aieoeae e a?oeeea?eeneea
i?oaeey. Oae, iai?eia?, a yiaa?a 1698 aiaea auei caeacaii a Ethaaea 30
iooae, 12 aaoaeoe e 24 ii?oe?u. Eioa?anii, /oi naiui e?oiiui iinoaaueeii
a?oeeea?ee auea Oaaoeey. Ea?e XII iiaea?ee Iao?o 300 iooae, eioi?ua
i?eauee a ?inneth eaoii 1697 aiaea. N?aaee ieo auei 150 3-ooioiauo (oi)
iooae aanii 25 — 28 ioaeia e 150 3,5-oi iooae aanii 36 — 41 ioae. *a?ac
iiaai?iaeneiai aiaaiaeo Ai?aeneia aue naeaeai caeac ia

280 /oaoiiuo iooae eo/oaio noieaieueineiio eeoaeueeo Y?aie?aeoeo, ec
eioi?uo ia iaiaa 100 auee aeinoaaeaiu a 1699 aiaeo a Iiaai?iae.

?yae eciaiaiee Iao? i?iecaae e a oi?aaeaiee a?oeeea?eae. 19 iay 1700
aiaea Iooea?neee i?eeac aue i?aia?aciaai a I?eeac a?oeeea?ee, ai aeaaa
iiaiai i?eeaca aue iinoaaeai oea?aae/ Eia?aoeineee Aeaenaiae? A?/eeiae/,
eioi?ue noae ia?aui aaia?ae-oaeueaeoeaeoiaenoa?ii.

Inaaeiay a?oeeea?ey ?onneeo ia ia?aii yoaia Naaa?iie aieiu a iniiaiii
ninoiyea ec noa?uo i?oaeee. Oae, e?oiiaeoea inaaeiua iooee (40-oi
ieuaee) «Eaa» e «Iaaeaaaeue» ioeeee aua a 1590 aiaeo i?e oea?a Oaaei?a
Eiaiiiae/a. I?oaeey auee naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo nenoai e eaeea?ia. Iooee
(ieuaee) auee a 40,29,24,20,18,17,15,10 ooioia e o.ae., aaoaeoeu
1-ioaeiaua, ii?oe?u 2- e 3-ioaeiaua. Oyaeaeua ieuaee auee «ooo/iiai»
ecaioiaeaiey e eiaee eiaia nianoaaiiua: «Naeoie» — 40 oi, «Ni?iiay» — 28
oi, «Aa?n» — 17 oi, auei aeaa «Nieiauey» a 20 e a 15 oi e o.ae.
Nia?aiiua e yoei i?oaeeyi 44 000 nia?yaeia aeaaea iaaiciiaeii auei
iiaeiaiaoue iiae ana yoe eaeea?u.

Iieeiaay a?oeeea?ey a ioee/ea aea io inaaeiie auea aiieia nia?aiaiiie.
Iiae Ia?aie auei 50 (ii ae?oaei naaaeaieyi — 64) iieeiauo iooae eaeea?a
ieiei 3 oi. Eaoaou iiiaeo i?oaeee auee aaooeie e ?ac?ooaeenue iinea 3 —
4 auno?aeia «iiiaaea ana auei noa?i e iaeni?aaii», ienae Iao? a naiai
aeiaaieea.

Ii oaaaeneei aeaiiui iinea Ia?aneiai ?aca?iia auei caoaa/aii 177 ?onneeo
i?oaeee, a ii iaoei aeaiiui — 145. Oaeaeinue nianoe oieueei 14 i?oaeee,
auaoeo i?e I?aia?aaeaineii e Naiaiianeii iieeao. A ieai iiiae e
aaia?ae-oaeueaeoeaeoiaenoa? Aeaenaiae? A?/eeiae/.

Iaeiaei aii?aee iiaieth aieueoeinoaa enoi?eeia Iao? iinea Ia?au ia
inoaeny aac a?oeeea?ee. I?inoie a?eoiaoe/aneee ?an/ao iieacuaaao, /oi o
iaai iaeieo iiauo iieaauo oaaaeneeo iooae inoaeinue ia iaiaa 350 i?ioea
50 iieeiauo iooae, iioa?yiiuo iiae Ia?aie. Aea e ciaiaieoue Iao?ianeee
oeac i niyoee /anoe eieieieia a iiianou?yo e ai?iaeao a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a aue neaaenoaeai iaieee. N iniaui ?aaieai noae nieiaoue eieieiea
aeoiiue aeueye Aiae?ae Aeieon, eioi?ue caaaaeiaae Neae?neei i?eeacii, a
iinea Ia?au aua iieo/ee caaiea «Iaaece?aoaey a?oeeea?ee». Aeieon
i?aaeeiaeee Iao?o aeaaea niyoue iaaeioth e?iaeth n oea?neeo aeai?oeia, a
eo iie?uoue «aeia?ui eoaeaiui aeaeacii, aoaeao e?aniaeoi e i?i/ii». Ca
ia?aoth iieiaeio 1701 aiaea a Iineao iaaacee ieiei 90 000 ioaeia
eieieieueiie iaaee, a ca aanue 1701 aiae ec?anoiaeiaaee anaai 8000
ioaeia. Aeaei auei ia oieueei a ia?aaeaiee — ec eieieieueiie iaaee eeoue
iooee aac aeiaaaie iaeuecy, a aeiaaaie-oi e ia oaaoaei (caeanue, eae e a
aeieoiaioao oiai a?aiaie, iooee eiaiothony iaaeiuie, oaeoe/anee aea a
iao?ianeea a?aiaia iooee eeeenue ec a?oeeea?eeneiai iaoaeea: 100 /anoae
iaaee e 12 /anoae ieiaa). Ai?i/ai, e ia?aaeaiey oaaoaei. Aeieon ienae
Iao?o «iouay inoaiiaea, Ainoaea?ue, io iueyinoaa ianoa?ia, eioi?uo ie
eaneie, ie aeoueai io oie no?anoe ioo/eoue iaaiciiaeii».

Iicaea, a nayce n ia?aiauaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a
Iaoa?ao?a, I?eeac a?oeeea?ee ?acaeaeeeny ia aeaa /anoe. Iineianeay
/anoue i?iaeieaeaea iacuaaoueny A?oeeea?eeneei I?eeacii e a 1720 aiaeo
auea ia?aeiaiiaaia a A?oeeea?eeneoth eaioeaey?eth, a a 1722 aiaeo – a
A?oeeea?eeneoth «eaioi?o». Iaoa?ao?aneay /anoue ia?aeiaiiaaia auea
oaeaea a A?oeeea?eeneoth eaioeaey?eth, i?aia?aciaaiioth a 1722 aiaeo a
Aeaaioth a?oeeea?eeneoth eaioeaey?eth.

Iao? nenoaiaoe/anee ecaeaaae oeacu, iai?aaeaiiua ia aaaaeaiea
aaeeiiia?acey a a?oeeea?ee. Iai?eia?, a 1716 aiaeo Iao? ecaeae oeac i
?acia?ao a?oeeea?eeneeo i?oaeee, a /anoiinoe, 30-oi i?oaeey aeieaeiu
auee auoue aeeeiie a 18 eea, 24-oi – a 19 eea, 18-oi – a 20 eea, 12-oi –
a 21 eea, 8-, 6- e 4-oi — a 22 eea.

17 yiaa?y 1724 aiaea Iao? aaae «AINO» ia iooa/iue ii?io: 3 cieioieea
(12,8 a) ii?ioa aeieaeiu aua?anuaaoueny ec i?iaiie ii?oe?ee ia
?annoiyiea ia iaiaa 73 oooia (22,2 i).

Ii, ianiio?y ia ana a?iciua oeacu Iao?a, noaiaea?oecaoeee a ?onneie
a?oeeea?ee aeinoeaiooue oae e ia oaeaeinue. Oae, aan 24-oi iaaeiuo
iooae, ioeeouo a 1701 aiaeo, eieaaaeny io 111 aei 233 ioaeia, oi anoue a
aeaa n eeoiei ?aca, a 12-oi iaaeiuo iooae — io 107 aei 178 ioaeia.
Aeeaiao?u aeoeueiuo ioaa?noee i?oaeee iaeiiai eaeea?a a ooioao iiaee
ioee/aoueny ia ianeieueei ieeeeiao?ia.

Aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee i?oaeey o?aaiaaeinue io 2 aei 4 eioaaeae.
Ii?iaeueiue aiaeiiieaeo 3-oi e 4-oi iooae ninoiye ec 120 yaea? e 30
ea?oa/ae. Aiai?eianu eaaeeo iooae ia?aaiceee ia aeaooeieaniii ca?yaeiii
yueea, a aeey aaoaeoe e ii?oe? eniieueciaaeenue aiiaiaua yueee —
/aou?aoeieaniua aeeeiiua oo?u ni nia?yaeiuie eeaoeaie e aeeeiiie
aeaoneaoiie e?uoae. Aeaeueiinoue ai?eciioaeueiie no?aeueau aeey 3-oi
iooae ia i?aauoaea 100 naaeaiae (213 iao?ia). Ia iaeioi?uo 3-oi iieeiauo
iooeao e?aieeinue e aiaaie ine ii aeaa 6-oi ii?oe?ee aeey no?aeueau
ea?oa/ueth, eiiaaea ii?oe?ea e?aieeanue e aeoeueiie /anoe noaiea.
Eaaeaeue a?oeeea?eeneee iiee eiae ii 2 i?oaeey, Naiaiianeee — 6, a
I?aia?aaeaineee — 8.

A 1723 aiaeo Iao? nianoaaiii?o/ii ii?aaeaeee niaea?aeaoue anaai a iieeao
80 3-oi iaaeiuo iooae.

?yae enoi?eeia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi «Iao? aaae eiiioth a?oeeea?eth, eioi?ie
aua ia eiaea ie iaeia a?iey Aa?iiu». Ia naiii aea aeaea i?eneoaa
iieeiauo i?oaeee aeaenoaeoaeueii acaeeea aa?oii; iaei oiai, ia?aae
n?aaeaieai o aea?aaie Eaniay ia ia?oa oeaeua iaoioiua iieee
ia?aaeaeaaeenue ia eioaaeyo. Ii iinaaeeoue i?eneoao aa?oii e nicaeaoue
eiiioth a?oeeea?eth — aeaeaei ia iaeii e oi aea. A a iao?ianeia a?aiy
aeaaea a ae?aaoineeo iieeao iinea ieii/aiey aiaauo aeaenoaee
a?oeeea?eeneea eioaaee ecuiaeenue. Ianoiyuay aea eiiiay a?oeeea?ey a
?onneie a?iee auea nicaeaia oieueei a 1796 aiaeo.

Aei 1706 aiaea ana i?oaeey ia?aaiceeenue e?anoueyiaie, eioi?ua
iaae?aeenue ia?aae ia/aeii eaiiaiee. N 1706 aiaea nicaeathony
niaoeeaeueiua oo?ooaoneea eiiaiaeu aeey ia?aaicee a?oeeea?ee, eioi?ua
yaeeenue, eiia/ii, oaaii aia?aae ii n?aaiaieth n «caineie
iiaeiiinoueth», ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, auee aua no??iaaoii ii n?aaiaieth
n i?aaiecaoeeae XIX aaea, eiaaea e iieaaay, e inaaeiay a?oeeea?ey
iinoiyiii eiaea iieiue eiiieaeo ooaoiuo eioaaeae.

1 — 2-ioaeiaua e 1-ioaeiaua iaaeiua aaoaeoeu iieaaie a?oeeea?ee eiaee
aeeeio noaiea 6 — 8 eaeea?ia, oeeeeiae?e/aneoth eee eiie/aneoth eaii?o,
no?aeyee aiiaaie eee ea?oa/ueth. Aeaeueiinoue no?aeueau aaoaeoe
ai?eciioaeueiay — ieiei 500 naaeaiae (107 i), iiae oaeii 45° — ieiei 840
naaeaiae (1800 i).

A inaaeiie a?oeeea?ee a iao?ianeia a?aiy ia?yaeo n 5-ioaeiauie eiaeenue
ia?iiiua 9-ioaeiaua ii?oe?u, a e?aiinoiie a?oeeea?ee ano?a/aeenue e
7-ioaeiaua.

Neiaeiinoe n ca?yaeaieai e aiceie 9-ioaei-auo ii?oe? canoaaeee
i?ae?aoeoue eo i?iecaiaenoai, e iinea Iao?a e aei ia/aea XX aaea naiuie
e?oiiuie e aeaaeeinoaieueiuie ii?oe?aie a ?onneie inaaeiie e e?aiinoiie
a?oeeea?ee inoaeenue 5-ioaeiaua ii?oe?u.

E?iia oyaeaeuo ii?oe?, a iao?ianeia a?aiy a ?innee auee i?eiyou ia
aii?oaeaiea 6-oi (104 ii) «Eoai?iiau» (ecia?aoaiiua aieeaiaeneei
eiaeaia?ii Eoai?iii (1641 — 1704 aa.) ii?oe?u. Iie naieie oeaioaie
anoaaeyeenue a iiaeoeaioaiieee aea?aayiiiai iniiaaiey (niniiaie
eieiaeu), aeey ia?aiinee ii?oe?u e eiioeai iniiaaiey e?aieeenue
ioeeaeiua ?o/ee. Aan oaeiai i?oaeey — ieiei 15 ea, a iniiaaiey — 26,6
ea, oi anoue iii eaaei iiaei ia?aiineoueny a?o/ioth. Iiaeuaiiue iaoaieci
eiae naeoi? n ioaa?noeyie, e eioi?iio e?aieeinue ooi ii?oe?u, ioeeoia
caiaeii n aa aeoeueiie /anoueth.

Aeaeueiinoue no?aeueau 6-oi a?aiaoie ninoaaeyea ieiei 400 oaaia, aan
ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa a a?aiaoa 1/3 oi (130 a). Eioa?anii, /oi iiaeiaiua
ii?oe?u ninoiyee a ?onneie a?iee aei ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, iineaaeiee
caeac ia ieo aue auaeai a 1915 aiaeo.

Ia?yaeo n iau/iuie i?oaeeyie ecaioaaeeaaeenue e i?eaeiaeueiua ecaeaeey.
Iai?eia?, a 1722 aiaeo ia Ieiiaoeeeo caaiaeao ioeeee /oaoiiia i?oaeea n
i?yiioaieueiui na/aieai eaiaea (80 o 230 ii). Ii iaeiie aa?nee yoi aue
eaiiaiao aeey no?aeueau iaeeei eaiiai, ii ae?oaie — iooea ca?yaeaeanue
o?aiy ai?eciioaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiuie 3-oi yae?aie, caaa?ioouie a oieno
ia aea?aayiiii iiaeaeiia — oieiaea e iaaycaiiuie aa?aaeaie.

Io iao?ianeeo a?aiai aeioee aei ian aeaa nei?ino?aeueiua eaciica?yaeiua
/oaoiiua iooee n aa?oeeaeueiui eeeiiaui caoai?ii. Caie?aiea e ioie?aiea
caiea i?iecaiaeeeinue i?eniiniaeaieai, iiiauaiiui a i?eeeaa i?oaeey. Iaa
iooee auee ioeeou ia Ieiiaoeeeo caaiaeao a 1711 aiaeo, eaeea? iaeiie — 1
oi, ae?oaie — 3 oi. ?ani?ino?aiaiey yoe iooee ia iieo/eee ec-ca ieioie
iaoth?aoeee caiea (oi anoue i?i?uaa ii?ioiauo aacia iaaeaeo eeeiii e
eeeiiaui ioaa?noeai e caaeaaiey eaiaea inoaoeaie nai?aaoaai ii?ioa).

Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a niaa?oainoaiaaiee iooa/iiai aeaea nua?aee ?aeaou.
A ?onneie a?iee iie iiyaeeenue eae neaiaeueiia n?aaenoai ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XVII aaea. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao aaia?aea I. Ai?aeiia, Iao?
caieiaeny eie «n ieaaeuo iiaoae». Aua a 1680 aiaeo auei iniiaaii
niaoeeaeueiia ?aeaoiia caaaaeaiea. Oea?ue naiiee/ii ecaioiaeye ?aeaou,
i?eaeoiuaae ninoaau «iaiaiiuo nia?yaeia» e oaea?aa?eia. Enoi?ey
nio?aieea aei iaoeo aeiae ainoaea?aau caienee ia inaaoeoaeueiuo
ninoaaao, aaeuo e neieo iaiyo, «cieioii aeiaeaea», niaoeeaeueiuo
caaeeaaoaeueiuo oeoeeyo. A iao?ianeay caaeeaaoaeueiay ?aeaoa ia?acoea
1717 aiaea i?inouanoaiaaea a a?iee aac eciaiaiee iieoi?a noieaoey!

?onneay a?oeeea?ey aianea nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a iiaaaeu ?onneeo aiene.
Iiae Iieoaaie Iao?o oaeaeinue iaania/eoue iiiaie?aoiia i?aainoiaenoai a
a?oeeea?ee.

Oaea a naiii ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a oaeaeyeinue iiiai aieiaiey
iiaeaioiaea a?oeeea?enoia. A 1698 aiaeo i?e I?aia?aaeaineii iieeo auea
o/?aaeaeaia ia?aay a?oeeea?eeneay oeiea ?innee, eioi?oth aicaeaaee
«eaieoai io aiiaa?aee?a» Nei?iyeia-Iena?aa. I?aiiaeaaaoaeyie auee
ioeoea?u oiai aea iieea. Oai eco/aee a?eoiaoeeo, aaiiao?eth,
oi?oeoeeaoeeth e a?oeeea?eth. Ieii/eaoea oeieo i?iecaiaeeeenue a
oioa?-ioeoea?u e iai?aaeyeenue a aienea. I?e iae auea oaeaea nicaeaia
oeiea aeey nieaeaoneeo aeaoae, a eioi?ie iao/aee a?aiioa, n/aoo e
aiiaa?aee?neiio aeaeo.

Aua iaeia a?oeeea?eeneay ioeoea?neay oeiea auea ioe?uoa a 1698 aiaeo,
i?e iooa/iii aeai?a. I?aaaea, iia i?inouanoaiaaea anaai aiae.

A 1701 — 1721 aiaeao iineaaeiaaei ioe?uoea ia iaiaa o?ao a?oeeea?eeneeo
oeie. Auioneieeai eo ii oea?neiio oeaco auei aaeaii «a eiie /ei, e?iia
a?oeeea?ee, ia ioeo/aoueny».

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie aiiaa?aee?ia e eaiiie?ia auee aaiieee, i?eaieieee,
iuaeia-ieee, iaeueieee, oooeu e i?io?aaieee. Ia?aua neoaeeee aeey
i/enoee eaiaea noaiea io ii?ioiaiai iaaa?a iinea eaaeaeiai auno?aea —
ia/eiioth uaoeo aaiieea i?eoiaeeeinue nia/eaaoue aiaeie, /oiau niyoue
aai oienoue neie. A i?oaeeeiue eiiieaeo aoiaeeei aeaa aaiieea ia
aea?aayiiii ae?aaea, i?ee?aieyaiuo i?e ia?aaicea e eaoaoo. I?eaieiee
/anoi auiieiyee ia ia?aoiie noi?iia ae?aaea, a i?aaeiacia/aeny ii aeey
caaeaaiey nia?yaea e ca?yaea a noaie. Iuaeiaiee, iioiaeee ia ooiii? ia
aeeeiiie ?o/ea, i?eiaiyeny aeey ecaea/aiey ec eaiaea inoaoeia iuaeae e
ea?oocia. Iaeueieeii n i?ee?aieaiiui e iaio oeoeeai i?iecaiaeeee
iiaeaeeaaiea (caiaeeaaiea) ca?yaea. Oooeie — aeeeiiie aea?aayiiie
eiiaoeie — aeeaaeuaaee a noaie oieuiaua ea?oocu n ii?ioii, a eiiaaea e
yae?a. Io, a i?io?aaiee — aeeeiiay ia?iay eaea aeey i?ioueaiey ea?ooca —
aa?aaeii o?aieeanue aiiaa?aee?ii a niaoeeaeueiie noia.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee i?e i?iecaiaenoaa auno?aea iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue ii «?oeiaiaenoao aeey oiio?aaeaiey a?oeeea?ee». Noaie
i/euaeny aaiieeii io iaaa?a, caoai i?e iiiiue oooeu a iaai iiiauaeenue
ea?ooc, eueiaua eee o?aayiua iuaee, ia?aiaaeaaiua aea?aayiiie i?iaeie, e
yae?i. Niaea?aeeiia oieioiyeinue (ia i/aiue neeueii, /oiau ii?io ia
ia?aaeeiaeny!) i?iaieieeii, i?io?aaieeii i?ieaeuaaeny ea?ooc. A
caiaeueiia ioaa?noea nuiaee cao?aai/iue ii?io. Cae?aieaiiue ia iaeueieea
oeoeeue iiaeiineee e caiaeo, e … Iooea ni no?aoiui a?ioioii,
ieooaaoenue eeoaaie neaaeeiaaoiai neciai aeuia, ioeaouaaeanue iacaae.

EIIIIA?AIAAeA?U.

A aiaeu O?eaeoeaoeeaoiae aieiu a ?acee/iuo a?ieyo i?e inaaea e iai?iia
e?aiinoae iaae?aee ia a?aiy ec iau/iuo iieeia e?aieeo e ?ineuo nieaeao e
iao/aee eo iaoaieth ?o/iuo a?aiao. Oaeeo aieiia e iacuaaee a?aiaaea?aie,
oi anoue, aeineiaii, «iaoathueie a?aiaaeo (a?aiaoo)». Eniieiea
ii?o/aiea, iie aica?auaeenue a naie iooeaoa?neea eee eaaaea?eeneea
iieee. Nouanoaaiiuo ?acee/ee a eo iaioiaee?iaaiee ia eiaeinue. Eeoue ia
i?aaii aieo, a iao?iiiie noia, oe?aoaiiie ei?ieaaneei aa?aii, eaaeaea
ia?a e?oaeuo a?aiao. I?aaoth noi?iio oe?ieiiieie oeyiu eeoi caai?a/eaaee
eaa?oo, /oiau ia iaoaea i?e iaoaiee.

A ?inneeneie a?iee a?aiaaea?neea ?iou iiyaeeenue i?e Iao?a I, i?aaeaea
anaai a aaa?aeaeneeo, a caoai e a a?iaeneeo iieeao. Oea Naaa?iay aieia.
I?e niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo ?onneeo aiene n a?ieae iieueneiai ei?iey e
naeniineiai eo?oth?noa Aaaonoa II a I?eaaeoeea e Iieueoa i?eia?
nithcieeia aue ia?aae aeacaie iaoeo nieaeao. *oiau ia ionoaaaoue io
«iaioeaa», iao?ianeea ioeoea?u naiinoiyoaeueii i?aaieciauaaee ec
iaeaieaa iiuoiuo ae?aaoi naie eiiiia?aiaaea?neea /anoe. A iaeaioia
?aoathueo noieeiiaaiee ni oaaaeneeie aieneaie Ea?ea XII a a?iee Iao?a
auee nicaeaiu o?e eiiiia?aiaaea?neeo iieea ia iaia? naeniineeo. E?iia
oiai, a eaaeaeii ae?aaoineii iieeo noi?ie?iaaee e ii ioaeaeueiie
a?aiaaea?neie ?ioa.

Auea ?ac?aaioaia oeaeay nenoaia iiaeaioiaee eiiiia?aiaaea?ia. Eiay
ioee/iuo (i?aeiouanoaaiii – o?ioaeiuo) eioaaeae, iie ea?aee ?ieue naiaai
?iaea oaea?iuo niaoeiiae?acaeaeaiee. Aieueoia oiaiea, neea e nii?iaea
o?aaiaaeanue aeey iaoaiey oyaeaeie (ieiei 1 ea) a?aiaou. Iaeaeoea
iieioiinoue eee caiaoaoaeuenoai iiaee noieoue aeecie. Iaiaei
iiaia?aioeaa, iaa?aiiuo ec e?anoueyi, neiaeeee naie aieiau ec-ca
nianoaaiiie ia?anoi?iiiinoe e ianiaa?oainoaa oiaaeaoiae ac?uaiie
oaoieee. Aieiu oi?aaeiyeenue a acaea aa?oii: aaaeue iaaeaeaeea ?ac?uau
a?aiao, iaeueaa iaae naiui ooii iiaee enioaaoue eioaaeae. Iiyoiio
no?iaaua aea?aaoeu-«aieooeioeu» i?ioiaeeee iinoiyiiue o?aiaae a
oneiaeyo, i?eaeeaeaiiuo e aiaaui,— ac?uau, auno?aeu, ano?a/iay noeaea.

Ia anaaiciiaeiuo yeca?oeeoeeyo iiae ia/aeii iiuoiuo ?oaae iooa/eaaeenue
i?eaiu aaaeaiey aiy. Caeanue e aoaee ?aciuie aeeth?aie, oiaiea ia iieiii
neaeo iaeiia?aiaiii a?inaoue i?aaie ?oeie a?aiaoo e no?aeyoue n eaaie,
a?inaoue eaaie a?aiaoo, eiaaea a i?aaie – iaeao, aaaeaiea ?oeiiaoiie a
iaoai no?ith, aeaaeaiea ooueii e o.i. Iiiaea eiiiia?aiaaea?u
aii?oaeaeenue ?o/iuie ii?oe?aie -i?iia?acaie iuiaoiaai a?aiaoiiaoa. Ii
ioaea/a i?e auno?aeao ec ieo auea ianoieueei aaeeea, /oi ?ineuo aiye
ia?aaeei aua?anuaaei ec naaeea. Iiyoiio aeey oii?a eniieueciaaee
a?aiaaea?neoth noio, iiaeoyioooth e eoea naaeea. Iaeioi?ua, n
aeinoaoi/ii e?aieeie ?oeaie, iiaee no?aeyoue e ia ienoieaoiue iaia?,
iaeiaei oaeay eeoinoue a?iceea auaeoii i?aaeiea/uey. *aua anaai
ii?oe?ee, ca?yaeaiiua ia oieueei a?aiaoaie, ii e ea?oa/ueth, a?aiaee a
aeeaeiai aith, i?eaiaey i?ioeaieea a iaieeo e caiaoaoaeuenoai.

A?aiaaea? iinee a?aiaoioth noio ia i?aaii aieo, ia eiaeaiie ia?aayce
eioi?ie eee ia iaioaea?a (niaoeeaeueiie ae?aaoineie ii?ooiaa) e?aieeanue
iaoaeee/aneay o?oaea n oeoeeai. O caiaeueiiai ioaa?noey ia?aae ia/aeii
n?aaeaiey oeoeeue iiaeaeeaaeny e iinoiyiii iaaeoaaeny oicyeiii, /oiau ia
iiooo. Ai a?aiy noaaoee a?aiaoa iiaeiineeanue caiaeii e iaiiueeo, e…
Aeaeueoa ana caaenaei io neeu, o?aie?iaaiiinoe e eiaeinoe aieia. A
iaoioa /aua i?eiaiyeny «?o/iie» niinia caiaeeaaiey io eaaie ?oee. A
eaaaea?ee ii ia i?eaeeeny ec-ca o?ynee a naaeea.

Aieiu oea?y-?aoi?iaoi?a aii?oaeaeenue aeaoiy a?aiaoaie, oocaae,
ienoieaoaie, oi?yoaiiuie a naaeaeueiua eiao?u – ieueno?u, a oaeaea
iaeaoii e ooueii, iiaeaaoeaaaiuie e iiyniie ii?ooiaa. Iaioiaee?iaaieai
iie iaei /ai ioee/aeenue io iaoioiuo a?aiaaea?ia, ca eneeth/aieai ?acaa
/oi ae?aaoineeo aiooi?oia ni oii?aie, iaioaea?a e noiee-eyaeoiee n
ii?ooiaae /a?ac i?aaia iea/i. Iiyniay iaoioiay eyaeoiea ia
eniieueciaaeanue ec-ca iaoaeianoaa i?e iinaaeea a naaeei.

Iaeeoia caiaoeoue, /oi Ea?e XII, aieueoie i?eaa?aeaiaoe oieiaeiiai
i?oaeey, eiiiia?aiaaea? ia aea?aeae, a a ?iee oyaeaeie eaaaea?ee
eniieueciaae ?aeoa?neea iieee. ?inneeneea «eiiiaiaein», iiieii naieo
i?yiuo ooieoeee – aceiia oi?ioi oe?aieaiiuo iiceoeee i?ioeaieea e
oaea?aeaiey a?aoae aeey i?ioiaea iniiaiuo nee, auiieiyee e ae?oaea,
aeiaieueii ?aciiia?aciua caaea/e: io ii?neiai aeanaioe?iaaiey aei
oi?oeoeeaoeeiiiuo ?aaio. Oaeiaa auea yiioa! E, i?eiya aiaaia e?auaiea a
aeoaa ni oaaaeaie o aea?aaie Eaniie a 1708 aiaeo, eiiiia?aiaaea?u n?aco
aeieacaee naith iieaciinoue.

AEECIUe E AUO NIEAeAO.

Iaaeeoeeineia aeaei a a?iee auei iinoaaeaii ieioi, yoi neacuaaeinue ia
ea/aiee ?aiaiuo e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee, a oi
a?aiy eae eiioeaio?aoeey aiene i?eaiaeeea e ?acaeoeth yieaeaiee.
Eaea?yie, eae i?aaeei, yaeyeenue eiino?aioeu, a ?onneea iau/ii eniieiyee
aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue o/aieeia. A iieaauo oneiaeyo i?iaiaeeeenue
oe?o?ae/aneea iia?aoeee ii oaeaeaieth ioeue e ineieeia, aiiooaoeee
eiia/iinoae e ia?aaioee ?ai, iaianaiiuo oieiaeiui i?oaeeai. Iao?
anaia?ii niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth iaaeeoeeiu e oe?o?aee. Aoaeo/e a
caa?aie/iie iiacaeea, ii nai iao/eeny iaeioi?ui oe?o?ae/aneei i?eaiai.
Aianoa n oai ainoaea?ue ia?aoee aieiaiea ia /?acia?iia oaea/aiea
oe?o?aaie-eiicaioeaie i?iecaiaenoaii aiiooaoeee a iieaauo oneiaeyo iinea
iaiano?aeueiuo iia?aaeaeaiee eiia/iinoae. A aieineii Onoaaa Iao?a I ii
yoiio iiaiaeo neacaii neaaeothuaa: «Iona/aiea ?oee eee iiae, eee eaeie
oyaeaeie iia?aoeee, aac aeieoi?a eee ooaa-eaea?y ionaeaoue ia aeieaeii,
a aeieaeii n eo niaaoo eae aieyuaai eo/oa ea/eoue. Anee neo/eony oi aea
ia a i?enoonoaee aeieoi?a eee ooaa-eaea?y, oi iaaeeaaeeo aio niaaoiaaoue
i oii ni naiath a?aoeath — iieeiauie eaea?yie. Ii ?acaa aaea e iieeiauo
eaea?ae ia neo/eony, oi ii ioaeaea ea/eoue e ionaeaoue naiiio». Aiaiiua
a?a/e a iieeao iao?ianeie a?iee eiaee niaoeeaeueiua noiee-«iiianou?ee»,
a eioi?uo iaoiaeeeenue ?acee/iua iiaee, ieeee, aeaoou, eoaee, ieoee
iaaiuaiiua, eaeu, oi?eoeu-«i?uneaea», ei?iey («ioo, iane?aaiue io
/enoiai ieaoa»), «caeey», e?iaiinoaiaaeeaathuea e ia?eioe/aneea
n?aaenoaa (iaiae?aai?a, iiee), aoouee ni nie?oii e aiaeeie —
aaeeinoaaiiuie e iacaiaieiuie n?aaenoaaie aeaceioaeoeee e ia?eica. *anoi
e eaea?neei oo?aiiai a iioiaea i?eaycuaaeenue ncaaee niaaee, oae eae
o?aieaoeany caianu nie?oiiai i?eaeaeaee iaeaieaa «oaeaeuo» aiye. N
iiey aiy ?aiaiua aeinoaaeyeenue e noaio, a eioi?ii ?acaa?ouaaeenue
eaea?neea iaeaoee aaeaee io aiy e aeecei e aiaea. Ia eino?ao eeiyoeeanue
aiaea a eioeao, ninoaaeyeenue ?acai?iua iia?aoeeiiiua noieu aeey aunoeo
/eiia. Ieaaeoea ioeoea?u e nieaeaou iau/ii iia?e?iaaeenue ia eiaeaiuo
«iaeayeao», i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie auaeoaeaiiua au/uee oeo?u, iiuaaaiua
aiaeie io e?iae iinea i/a?aaeiiai ?aiaiiai (aeaaeaiee AII A. A. Eiaaiia.
Ec noaouee «Oe?o?aey aac /oaean»).

A aiaeu Naaa?iie aieiu ?yaeiaiio a?iee Iao?a iieaaaeinue a aiae 21 ioae
30 ooioia ioee (350 ea), 10 ioaeia a?a/iaaie eee ianyiie e?oiu (160 ea),
24 ooioa niee (11 ea). Iyniay ii?ia au?aaeaeanue aeaiueaaie — 75 eiiaae
a aiae (ii oai a?aiaiai ia neoaeii, ii e ia aiaaoi). A iioiaea
aaeaaeiaaii nieaeaoii iio?aaeyeinue ieiei 800 a ?aeaiiai oeaaa, i?eia?ii
noieueei aea aiayaeeiu eee aa?aieiu, 2 /a?ee (oo?ii e aa/a?ii) aeia eee
aiaeee, aa?iaoe (ieiei 0,3 e) ieaa, a oaeaea e?oia e nieue. Ieoaiea
eioaaeae ii aa?iiaeneei ia?eai auei i/aiue neoaeiui. Eaoii e inaiueth
iai?eoioeeaua noaiiua eiie aiiaua nieiaeenue n ainaeiaieuenoaey. A yoio
ia?eiae ei?ieoue eo iaycaiu auee ec athaeaeaoa oacaea eee aieinoe, aaea
eaa?oe?iaae iiee. Ceiie e aaniie eacia auaeaeyea 15 ioaeia naia e 8,5
ioaea iana ia eioaaeue. E?iia oiai, aa aeaaeaeueoeo ia/eneyee aaeaaiaeii
15 eiiaae — ia 5 iiaeeia. Naaeei n aooiaoii, noieiinoueth 4 ?oaey,
iieaaaeinue ia 3 aiaea neoaeau. Ca oi?iooth iao/aiioth ae?aaoineoth
eioaaeue ieaoeee aei 20 ?oaeae. Neoaeeoue iia aeieaeia auea eao 15, ii
?aaeeea yecaiiey?u aeiaeeaaee aei ii/aoiiai «iaineiiiiai» aic?anoa…

Ii n?aaiaieth n aieneii aeiiao?ianeie ?innee aeenoeeieeia a iiaie a?iee
iiaea au iieacaoueny i/aiue no?iaie. Ii iia ii/oe ia ioee/aeanue io
ii?yaeeia, caaaaeaiiuo a a?ieyo Oaaoeee, Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aano?ee.
Oaeaniua iaeacaiey auee iianaaeiaaiui yaeaieai, ii i?e yoii ia
ioee/aeenue ie ecoaa?noaii, ie aeeeoaeueiinoueth. Aanueia
?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii yaeyeny a?ano, iiae eioi?ue naaeaee a ieiaao. N
1706 aiaea a a?iee aaaee iaeacaiea oieoe?ooaiaie. E iaio i?eaiaa?eaaee
oieueei ii ?aoaieth noaea, ii aea ii?aaeaeye eo eiee/anoai. Aieaa iyaeia
(e ecaanoiia aua io aeaaeia e i?aaeaaeia) iaeacaiea — ii?ea ?icaaie eee
aaoiaaie — iiaei iacia/aoueny ii i?eeaco noa?oaai eiiaiaee?a. I/aiue
iai?eie?eii ioiineeenue Iao? e aai niiaeaeaeieee e aeaca?oe?noao e
a?aaaaeo n?aaee naieo. Ca iiaeiaiua i?inooiee ea?aee eeaeiaieai. O
i?ioina ia yoio neo/ae eiaeny oeaeue iaai? eeaei — aoeaaiiuo iao?eoe. N
eo iiiiuueth ia eao e uaeao aeiiaiiai iaiineeenue iici?iua iaaeiene:
«AI?», «A» («aaaeaoe») e o.i. Eneeth/eoaeueiay ia?a — eaciue —
i?eiaiyeanue ii ioiioaieth e oaeeoeai e ?aoeeaeeaenoai (aieiai,
niaa?oeaoei iiaoi?iia oyaeeia i?anooieaiea). Ca o?oninoue e
aeaca?oe?noai aaoaee ca oath, a iniai oyaeaeuo neo/ayo — ca ?aa?i.
Iineaaeiee — /?acau/aeii io/eoaeueiue niinia eacie — aue aeiaieueii
?aaeie. Ca ooeo ia ainoaea?y e eiiaiaee?ia, eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey,
aeanoieinoue ii ioiioaieth e ie?iiio ianaeaieth iiaee iaacaeaaeoue, a oi
e iiaeaa?aiooue /aoaa?oiaaieth — iii/a?aaeiiio io?oaaieth ?oe, iia e
aieiau. I/aiue oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeinue ?acaeaeiaaiea ioeoea?ia (a ?yaea
neo/aaa aeaaea n «oaeueiiaaieai» e aac i?aaa auneoae). Oi?ioi ecaanoai
neo/ae, eiaaea ciaiaieoue aaia?ae A.E.?aiiei iinea iaoaea/iiai aiy iiae
Aieia/eiii aue ?acaeaeiaai aae a nieaeaou e caneoaeee i?iuaiea eeoue
ee/iui ioaeanoaii a oiaea aeaeueiaeoeo n?aaeaiee e iioiaeia. ?yaeiauo
aea «ienaee a ecaic/eee» (oi anoue a iaic). Eieeaeoeaiui iaeacaieyi
iiaeaa?aaeenue iieee e ?iou. «Anee iaeaeaony, /oi ia/aeueieee oiio
(aaanoao n iiey aiy) i?e/eiie, oi eo oaeueiiaaoue e, i?aeiiea iaae ieie
/?ac iaea/a oiaao, iiaaneoue. Anee aeiiaiua ioeoea?u e ?yaeiaua, oi
ia?auo eacieoue, eae neacaii, a ec iineaaeieo, ii ae?aaeth aeanyoiai,
eee eae iiaaeaii aoaeao, oaeaea iiaaneoue — i?i/eo aea iaeacaoue
oieoe?ooaiaie e naa?o oiai aac ciaiai noiyoue ei aia iaica, iiea
o?aa?uie aeayieyie caaeaaeyo i?anooieaiea. Eoi aea aeieaaeao naith
iaaeiiaiinoue, oiai iiuaaeeoue». Oae aeanee Onoaa.

Aeaaiue neiaie aii?oaeaiiuo nee — aiaaia ciaiy. Iiae eaeei aea noyaii
n?aaeaeenue aieoeu a?iee Iao?a?

Aio /oi ienae ii yoiio aii?ino eiycue Aeaenaiae? Iooyoei a noaouea «I
?onneii iaoeeiiaeueiii oeaaa»:

«A na?aaeeia XVII aaea oea?ue Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ auienae ec Aieeaiaeee
eiaeaia?a eaieoaia Aioiaia aeey iino?ieee aiaiiiai ei?aaey, iiaouaai
ioaaoeoue nia?aiaiiui oo?aoeeei neeai…. Eiaaea ?aaiou iiaeoiaeeee e
eiioeo, Aioiai ia?aoeeny e aiy?neie aeoia n i?inueaie eni?ineoue o aai
Oea?neiai Aaee/anoaa iiaaeaiea: eaeie, eae oiio anoue iau/ae o ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noa, iiaeiyoue ia ei?aaea oeaa? Aeai?oeiaue i?eeac ia yoi
ioaaoee, /oi a i?aeoeea oaeiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia neo/aeinue, /oi
I?oaeaeiay iaeaoa no?ieo ciaiaia, oi?oaae e i?aii?u aeey aieneiauo
/anoae e aiaaiae… Oea?ue i?eeacae ni?ineoue Aioiaia, eaeia iau/ae a
aai no?aia. Oio ioaaoee, /oi aa?oo iaoa?eth eeaeiye — aeoth, aaeoth e
neithth — e noeaatho iieinaie. Oaeie oeaa neoaeeo aeey iaicia/aiey
aieeaiaeneie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe… Iiniaaoiaaaoenue n aiy?neie aeoiie,
oea?ue i?eeacae iiaeiyoue aaei-neia-e?aniue oeaa n iaoeoui ia iai
aeaoaeaaui i?eii».

Ii iiaieth enoi?eea Ieoaeea Ai?aeaiaaa, ia noieo a yoii oaeoa
oniao?eaaoue i?inoia caeinoaiaaiea oeaaoia. Iineianeee aa?a ecia?aaeaao
aaeiai anaaeieea ia e?aniii iiea, ia iea/a o iaai neiee ieau. Iiyoiio,
iiaeia?aiiue a oii noa?eiiiio aa?aeueaee/aneiio neiaieo e aeiiieiaiiue e
oiio aea i?eii, noya au?aaeae iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? aieineeo
oi?ie?iaaiee. Ia neo/aeii eiaiii ii aue aua?ai a ea/anoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai (ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aaoi?eoaoiie eiiennee iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii aaeie?aea E.I.Iinueaoa) a 1881 aiaeo.

NEAAIUA AeAEA IAO?A.

Iinea i?i/oaiey yoeo no?aieoe i Iao?a I iiaeao neiaeeoueny aia/aoeaiea
eae i i?aaeoaea, iaiaeathuai aieio e a?ieth. Aea, Iao? ethaee a?iaeneia
aeaei, ii i?eia/aoaeueiay /a?oa aai eae i?aaeoaey, aaniethoiiai iiia?oa
– ia?iiiue ee/iue aeeaae a oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii, aai
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea, aiaiiua aeoeee, i?eaea/aiea e aeaeai iaea?aiiuo,
oaeaioeeauo, niiniaiuo ethaeae – aaeieieno?aoi?ia, iieeiaiaeoeaa,
aeeieiiaoia, i?aaiecaoi?ia ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaenoa, ianoa?ia naiaai
aeaea. Ii aac onoaee auyaeye eo, ainieouaae, iai?aaeye. Ii eciaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea, i?iaae aeaeaiea no?aiu ia aoaa?iee, nicaeae
oeaeua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiiu?ye iaoee e ia?aciaaiea. Aaeaa
cae?aieaoenue ia aa?aaao Oeineiai caeeaa, ii a 1703 aiaeo iniiaae iiaoth
noieeoeo e aeiaeeny iiaaaeu a caoyaeiie aieia ni Oaaoeeae.

Eae e Eaai A?iciue, Iao? aue aacaeaeinoai a aeinoeaeaiee naieo oeaeae.
?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeeenue oeaiie e?aeiaai iai?yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e
ethaeneeo nee, oaiaoaiey i?inoiai ethaea, /oi aeaeei ca niaie iiaua
ainnoaiey, aaniiuaaeii iiaeaaeyaiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ie?oaeaiea Iao?a I
oaeaea aeeei a iinoiyiiii no?aoa ca naith aeeciue. Ii aeeaae yoiai oea?y
a enoi?eth ian?aaiei. Nicaeaa iiaouanoaaiiia aaniethoenoneia
ainoaea?noai, Iao? inoaaee naiei i?aaiieeai i?eia? niceaeaoaeueiiai
i?aaeaiey, aeiaeeny i?eciaiey ca ?inneae no?aiaie Caiaaea noaoona
aaeeeie aa?iiaeneie aea?aeaau e ii?aaeaeee aa ?acaeoea ia aeaa aaea
aia?aae.

A iaiyoue i aaeeeii eiia?aoi?a a noieeoea ?innee inoaeenue a?oeoaeoo?iua
iaiyoieee, iaiiieiathuea i neaaiii i?aaeaiaeeoaea. Yoi o?ai Iie?iaa a
Oeeyo (aeec E?aniii?aniaineiai iinoa) – iino?iai a 1693 aiaeo ia
n?aaenoaa E. Ia?uoeeia (aeyaee Iao?a I) a noeea iineianeiai aa?ieei. Yoi
?anienaiiue o?aneaie a 1707 aiaeo niai? N?aoaineiai iiianou?y (auoiaeeo
ia oeeoeo Aeca?aeeineiai aeec N?aoaineeo ai?io). Yoi oieeue
Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe, aicaaaeaiiie ii i?eeaco Iao?a ii iiaeiaeth
Iaioeeiaie aaoie. A 1712 aiaeo noieeoeo ia?aiinyo a Iaoa?ao?a, e
a?oeoaeoo?iua oaaeaa?u i?iaeieaeatho au?anoaoue a iiaie noieeoea.

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