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Антигитлеровская коалиция

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Aioeaeoea?ianeay eiaeeoeey ? iauaaeeiaiea ainoaea?noa e ia?iaeia,
ai?iaoeony ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia 1939-45 i?ioea aa?anneaiiai aeiea
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee, oaoenoneie Eoaeee, ieeeoa?enoneie ssiiiee e eo
naoaeeeoia. Ia/aei aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee enoi?e/anee naycuaaaony n
cayaeaieyie i?aaeoaeuenoa NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee i iiaeaea?aeea Niaaoneiai
Nithca iinea iaiaaeaiey ia iaai oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee, aeeeoaeueiuie
ia?aaiai?aie i?aaeoaeuenoa o?ao aea?aeaa i acaeiiie iiaeaea?aeea e
niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo. Iaeaieaa cia/eiua niauoey a oiaea aeaenoaey
eiaeeoeee — Iineianeia niaauaiea (1941), Aeaeea?aoeey aeaaaeoeaoe oanoe
(1942) Oaaa?aineay eiioa?aioeey (1943), sseoeineay eiioa?aioeey (1945).

Eaiae-eec ? i?ia?aiia, i?aaenoaaeyaoay niaie nenoaio, ii eioi?ie
Niaaeei?iiua Ooaou Aia?eee, a iniiaiii ia aacaiciacaeiie iniiaa,
ia?aaeaaaee naiei nithcieeai ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia aiai?eianu,
oaoieeo, i?iaeiaieuenoaea e no?aoaae/aneia nu?ue?, aeeth/ay
iaooai?iaeoeou. Eiioeaioeey yoie i?ia?aiiu aeaaaea i?aceaeaioo aeanoue
iiiiaaoue ethaie no?aia, /uey iai?iia i?eciaaaeanue aeeciaiii aaaeiie
aeey NOA. Caeii i eaiae-eeca, i?eiyoue Eiia?annii NOA 11 ia?oa 1941
aiaea, i?aaeoniao?eaae /oi:

iinoaaeaiiua iaoa?eaeu (iaoeiu, ?acee/iay aiaiiay oaoieea, i?oaeea,
nu?ue?, ae?oaea i?aaeiaou), oie/oiaeaiiua, oo?a/aiiua e eniieueciaaiiua
ai a?aiy aieiu, ia iiaeeaaeao iieaoa (noaouey 5);

ia?aaeaiiia a ?aieao eaiae-eeca eiouanoai, inoaaoaany iinea ieii/aiey
aieiu e i?eaiaeiia aeey a?aaeaeaineeo oeaeae, aoaeao iiea/aii
iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ia iniiaa i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo Niaaeei?iiuie
Ooaoaie aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia (a iniiaiii aani?ioeaioiuo caeiia).

Iieiaeaiey eaiae-eeca i?aaeoniao?eaaee, /oi iinea aieiu a neo/aa
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe aia?eeaineie noi?iiu ia?ac?ooaiiua e ia oo?a/aiiua
oaoieea e iai?oaeiaaiea aeieaeiu auoue aica?auaiu a NOA.

Ia ia?aaiai?ao 1948 a. niaaoneea i?aaenoaaeoaee niaeaneeenue auieaoeoue
eeoue iacia/eoaeueioth noiio e ano?aoeee i?iaiice?oaiue ioeac
aia?eeaineie noi?iiu. Ia?aaiai?u 1949 a. oiaea ie e /aio ia i?eaaee. A
1951 a. aia?eeaioeu aeaaaeaeu nieaeaee noiio ieaoaaea, eioi?ay noaea
?aaiyoueny $800 iei, iaeiaei niaaoneay noi?iia niaeaoaeanue oieaoeoue
oieueei $300 iei. Ii iiaieth niaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?an/?o aeieaeai
aue aanoenue ia a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiie caaeieaeaiiinoueth, a ia
iniiaa i?aoeaaeaioa.

Yoei i?aoeaaeaioii aeieaeiu auee noaoue i?iii?oeee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
aeieaa iaaeaeo NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaieae, eioi?ua aue cae?aieaiu au? a ia?oa
1946 a.

Niaeaoaiea n NNN? i ii?yaeea iiaaoaiey aeieaia ii eaiae-eeco auei
caeeth/aii eeoue a 1972 aiaeo. Ii yoiio niaeaoaieth NNN? iaycaeny aei
2001 a. caieaoeoue $722 iei, aeeth/ay i?ioeaiou. E etheth 1973 a. auee
inouanoaeaiu o?e ieaoaaea ia iauoth noiio $48 iei, iinea /aai auieaou
auee i?ae?auaiu a nayce n aaiaeii aia?eeaineie noi?iiie
aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo ia? a oi?aiaea n NNN? (—Iii?aaea Aeaeaeniia —
Ayieea). A ethia 1990 a. a oiaea ia?aaiai?ia i?aceaeaioia NOA e NNN?
noi?iiu aa?ioeenue e ianoaeaeaieth aeieaa. Aue onoaiiaeai iiaue n?ie
ieii/aoaeueiiai iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe — 2030 a., e noiia — $674 iei.

Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? aeiea ca iiiiuue aue ia?aioi?ieai ia ?inneth
(Aeueoeei, Eicu?aa), ii ninoiyieth ia 2003-e aiae ?inney aeieaeia
i?eia?ii 100 iei. aia?eeaineeo aeieea?ia.

Ia?oae A. E. AEoeia a iineaaiaiiuo aanaaeao n ienaoaeai E. I. Neiiiiaui
cayaee: «Aiai?y i iaoae iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e aieia n oi/ee c?aiey
oicyenoaa, yeiiiieee, iaeuecy caiae/eaaoue e oaeie oaeoi?, eae
iineaaeothuay iiiiuue ni noi?iiu nithcieeia. I?aaeaea anaai, eiia/ii, ni
noi?iiu aia?eeaioeaa, iioiio /oi aiaee/aia a yoii niunea iiiiaaee iai
ieieiaeueii. I?e aiaeeca anao noi?ii aieiu yoi iaeuecy na?anuaaoue ni
n/aoia. Iu auee au a oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee aac aia?eeaineeo ii?ioia, iu ia
iiaee au auioneaoue oaeia eiee/anoai aiai?eiania, eioi?ia iai auei
iaiaoiaeeii. Aac aia?eeaineeo «nooaeaaaeea?ia» iai ia ia /ai auei au
oaneaoue iaoo a?oeeea?eth. Aea iie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aiiaua
iaania/eaaee iao o?iioiaie o?ainii?o. Auione niaoeeaeueiuo noaeae,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey naiuo ?aciuo ioaeae aieiu, aue oiaea naycai n ?yaeii
aia?eeaineeo iinoaaie». I?e yoii AEoeia iiae/a?eeaae, /oi «iu anooieee a
aieio, aua i?iaeieaeay auoue ionoaeie a i?iiuoeaiiii ioiioaiee no?aiie
ii n?aaiaieth n Aa?iaieae»

I?iaeaia ioe?uoey aoi?iai o?iioa

Iinea iaiaaeaiey oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee ia NNN? iaeiie ec aeaaiuo caaea/
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa noaei
nicaeaiea aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee. O/eouaay i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo NNN?
e eaieoaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie, ?aoeoue yoo caaea/o auei iai?inoi. A
oa/aiea aiaea oee aeeieiiaoe/aneea ia?aaiai?u, ia?aienea iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaie NNN?, NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee ii aii?ino nicaeaiey
aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee. Iiaeienaieai 26 iay 1942 a. a Eiiaeiia
niaaonei-aiaeeeneiai aeiaiai?a i nithca a aieia i?ioea aeoea?ianeie
Aa?iaiee e 11 ethiy a Aaoeiaoiia niaaonei-aia?eeaineiai niaeaoaiey i
i?eioeeiao, i?eiaieiuo e acaeiiie iiiiue a aaaeaiee aieiu i?ioea
aa?annee, aioeaeoea?ianeay eiaeeoeey neiaeeeanue. Neaaeothuae caaea/ae
aiaoiae iieeoeee NNN? noaei ioe?uoea nithcieeaie aoi?iai o?iioa a
Aa?iia. Ionoonoaea aoi?iai o?iioa iicaieyei eiiaiaeiaaieth aa?iaooa
aea?aeaoue ia Ainoiea iniiaiua neeu, ia iianaynue ca naie Caiaaeiue
o?iio. Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, enoiaey ec oyaeaeaeoae ianoaiiaee ia
niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa a 1941-1942 aa., aeiaeaaeinue io Aiaeee e NOA
ioe?uoey aoi?iai o?iioa a 1942 a. ni anae ianoie/eainoueth. A oiaea
niaaonei-aia?eeaineeo ia?aaiai?ia a ethia 1942 a., eioi?ua n niaaoneie
noi?iiu aae a Aaoeiaoiia ia?eii eiino?aiiuo aeae NNN? A.I. Iieioia,
iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaie NNN? e NOA auea aeinoeaiooa aeiaiai?aiiinoue ia
ioe?uoee aoi?iai o?iioa a Aa?iia a 1942 a. Oaeiai aea niaeaney A.I.
Iieioia aeiaeeny e io aiaeeeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eiaaea ii ii iooe ec
Aaoeiaoiia a Iineao inoaiiaeeny a Eiiaeiia. Ia aeaea Aiaeey ia
niae?aeanue auiieiyoue acyoua ia naay iaycaoaeuenoaa e auaeaeaaea
anaaiciiaeiua iaiai?ee, /oiau ioe?uoea aoi?iai o?iioa ia?aianoe ia 1943
a. E?iia oiai i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaeeeia?eoaiee O. *a?/eeeue aeaeae ana
aiciiaeiia, /oiau neeiieoue i?aceaeaioa NOA O. ?ocaaeueoa e ioeaco io
acyoiai iaycaoaeuenoaa e nin?aaeioi/eoue oneeey ia inouanoaeaiee
aunaaeee aiaei-aia?eeaineeo aiene a Naaa?iie Ao?eea. A ethea 1942 a.
i?aceaeaio NOA i?eiye oi/eo c?aiey O. *a?/eeey. A ienueia E.A. Noaeeio
18 ethey, a caoai a oiaea ia?aaiai?ia n aeaaie Niaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a Iineaa a aaaonoa 1942 a. O. *a?/eeeue cayaee ia ioeaca Aiaeee ioe?uoue
aoi?ie o?iio a Aa?iia a 1942 a. Yoi aea iiaeoaa?aeee io eiaie
i?aceaeaioa NOA O. ?ocaaeueoa e iinie NOA a Iineaa A. Aa??eiai,
i?enoonoaiaaaoee ia ia?aaiai?ao O. *a?/eeey e E.A. Noaeeia. Iaauaiea
nithcieeia ia ioe?uoee aoi?iai o?iioa ia auei auiieiaii e a 1943 a.
Caoyaeaaiea ioe?uoey aoi?iai o?iioa auei naycaii n oai, /oi
aiaei-aia?eeaineay eiaeeoeey ?ann/eouaaea ia ineaaeaiea NNN?, ia oi, /oi
iinea ecio?eoaeueiie aieiu NNN? iioa?yao cia/aiea aaeeeie aea?aeaau.
Aoi?ie o?iio aue ioe?uo oieueei 6 ethiy 1944 a. n aunaaeee aiaei –
aia?eeaineeo aiene a Ii?iaiaeee (Naaa?iay O?aioeey) e aia?eeaineeo aiene
a thaeiie O?aioeee 15 aaaonoa. E yoiio a?aiaie iaioeu eiaee ai O?aioeee,
Aaeueaee, Aieeaiaeee a?oiio a?iee “Caiaae” a ninoaaa 50 aeeaecee, i?ioea
NNN? iaoiaeeeinue aieaa 200 aeeaecee e iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai oaieia
e aaeaoeee i?ioeaieea. Ioe?uoea aoi?iai o?iioa iaei neacaeinue ia
iieiaeaiee Ainoi/iiai o?iioa, oae eae nithcieee n?aco aea ia?aoee e
caoyaeiiio oa?aeoa?o aaaeaiey aiaauo iia?aoeee. Aeoeaiinoue aiaei –
aia?eeaioeaa aic?inea oieueei iinea oiai, eae iie iiiyee, /oi NNN? a
nei?ii a?aiaie naiinoiyoaeueii ?aca?iieo oaoenoneoth Aa?iaieth, aicueiao
Aa?eei e inaiaiaeeo no?aiu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Aiaei – aia?eeaioeu ia/aee
n?i/ii ieeoie?iaaoue Aano?eth, Caiaaeioth e THaeioth Aa?iaieth, ii e
ia/aeo Aa?eeineie iia?aoeee niaaoneeo aiene iie aeaaea ia aeioee aei ?.
?aei.

I?iaeaia iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa ie?a

Oaaa?aineay eiioa?aioeey ninoiyeanue 28 iiya?y — 1 aeaeaa?y 1943 a. a
Oaaa?aia. Ia iae aia?aua nia?aeanue «Aieueoay O?ieea» — O. Ae.
?ocaaeueo, O. *a?/eeeue, E. A. Noaeei. Yoi auea ia?aay eiioa?aioeey
«Aieueoie O?ieee» (NNN?, NOA, Aiaeey) ca a?aiy Aoi?ie Ie?iaie aieiu

sseoeineay (E?uineay) eiioa?aioeey nithciuo aea?aeaa (4 — 11 oaa?aey
1945) — aoi?ay ec o??o ano?a/ eeaea?ia no?ai aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee
— Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NNN? e NOA, iinayu?iiuo onoaiiaeaieth iineaaiaiiiai
ie?iaiai ii?yaeea. Eiioa?aioeey i?ioiaeeea a Eeaaaeeeneii aeai?oea
a.sseoa, E?ui.

Iionaeaineay eiioa?aioeey ninoiyeanue a Aa?iaiee – a.Iionaeai (aeai?aoe
Oeaoeeeeaioio) n 17 ethey ii 2 aaaonoa 1945 n o/anoeai ?oeiaiaenoaa o??o
e?oiiaeoeo aea?aeaa aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue aeaeueiaeoea oaae ii iineaaiaiiiio ono?ienoao
Aa?iiu.

A eiioa?aioeee o/anoaiaaee aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoa o??o ainoaea?noa —
i?aceaeaio NOA Aa??e O?oiyi (i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia anao
canaaeaieyo), i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa ia?iaeiuo eiienna?ia NNN? E. A.
Noaeei e i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaeeeia?eoaiee Oeinoii *a?/eeeue (ai a?aiy
eiioa?aioeee iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea ia auai?ao, e a Iionaeai i?eaue aai
i?aaiiee Eeaiaio Yooee).

Ioe?uoea aoi?iai o?iioa

Iniiaiuie auee aiaiiua aii?inu, a iniaaiiinoe aii?in i aoi?ii o?iioa a
Aa?iia, e-?ue aii?aee iaycaoaeuenoaai NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia aue ioe?uo
eie ie a 1942, ie a 1943. A iiaie ianoaiiaea, neiaeeaoaeny a ?acoeueoaoa
iiaaae Nia. A?iee, aiaei-aia?. nithcieee noaee iianaoueny, /oi Nia.
Aii?oae. Neeu inaiaiaeyo Cai. Aa?iio aac o/anoey aii?oae. nee NOA e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Aianoa n oai a oiaea ia?aaiai?ia iaia?oaeeeinue ?acee/ea
oi/ae c?aiey aeaa i?-a NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee i ianoa, ianooaaao e a?aiaie
aoi?aeaiey nithcieeia a Aa?iio. Ii ianoiyieth nia. aeaeaaaoeee O. e.
i?eiyea ?aoaiea ia ioe?uoee aoi?iai o?iioa ai O?aioeee a oa/aiea iay
1944 (ni. «Iaa?ei?ae»). O. e. i?eiyea oaeaea e naaaeaieth cayaeaiea E.
A. Noaeeia, /oi niaaoneea aienea i?aaei?eioo ianooieaiea i?eia?ii a yoi
aea a?aiy n oeaeueth i?aaeioa?aoeoue ia?aa?ineo aa?iaineeo nee n
Ainoi/iiai ia Caiaaeiue o?iio. A Oaaa- ?aia nia. aeaeaaaoeey, eaey
iaano?a/o i?inueaai i?-a NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee, a oaeaea o/eouaay
iaiaeiie?aoiua ia?ooaiey ssiiieae nia.- yiii. aeiaiai?a 1941 i
iaeo?aeeoaoa e a oeaeyo nie?auaiey n?ieia aieiu ia Ae. Ainoiea, cayaeea
i aioiaiinoe NNN? anooieoue a aieio i?ioea ssiiiee ii caaa?oaiee aiai.
aeaenoaee a Aa?iia.

Aa?iaineee aii?in (oa??eoi?eaeueii e iieeoeea ii ioiioaieth e iae

Ia eiioa?aioeee ianoaeaeaeny aii?in i aoaeouai Aa?iaiee. ?ocaaeueo e
Noaeei auneacaeenue a iieueco ?acae?iaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia iaeeea
ainoaea?noaa n oai, /oiau eneeth/eoue aic?iaeaeaiea aa?iaineiai
yeniaineiiecia. ?ocaaeueo i?aaeeiaeee ?an/eaieoue Aa?iaieth ia iyoue
/anoae e ia?aaeaoue Eeeue, Aaiao?a, ?o? e Naa? iiae eiio?ieue
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee. Noaeei naeaeae iniaue oii? ia oii, /oi
iauaaeeiaiea Aa?iaiee aeieaeii auoue i?aaeioa?auaii ethaie oeaiie.
Ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey ii yoiio aii?ino, iaeiaei, i?eiyoi ia auei.

A sseoa, eae e a 1943 ia Oaaa?aineie eiioa?aioeee, aiiaue ?anniao?eaaeny
aii?in i noaeueaa Aa?iaiee. *a?/eeeue i?aaeeiaeee ioaeaeeoue io Aa?iaiee
I?onneth e ia?aciaaoue thaeii-aa?iaineia ainoaea?noai ni noieeoeae a
Aaia. Noaeei e ?ocaaeueo niaeaneeenue n oai, /oi Aa?iaiey aeieaeia auoue
?an/eaiaia. Iaeiaei, i?eiya yoi ?aoaiea, nithcieee ia onoaiiaeee ie
i?eia?iua oa??eoi?eaeueiua eiioo?u, ie i?ioeaaeo?o ?an/eaiaiey.

?ocaaeueo e *a?/eeeue i?aaeeiaeeee i?aaeinoaaeoue O?aioeee ciio
ieeoiaoeee a Aa?iaiee, i?e/ai ?ocaaeueo iiae/a?eioe, /oi aia?eeaineea
aienea ia inoaioony a Aa?iia aeieueoa aeaoo eao. Ii Noaeei ia oioae
i?aaeinoaaeyoue yoi i?aai O?aioeee. ?ocaaeueo iiia/aeo n iei niaeaneeny.
Iaeiaei caoai ?ocaaeueo cayaee, /oi anee aaanoe O?aioeeth a
Eiio?ieueioth Eiienneth, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea oi?aaeyoue ieeoie?iaaiiie
Aa?iaieae, yoi canoaaeo o?aioeocia iieoe ia onooiee. Noaeei, eioi?iio
iioee iaano?a/o a ae?oaeo aii?inao, niaeaneeny ia oaeia ?aoaiea.

Auea aeinoeaiooa aeiaiai?aiiinoue i ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey eiio?iey iaae
Aa?iaieae. I?iaicaeaoaeenue oeaee ?aci?oaeaiey, aeaieeeoa?ecaoeee e
aeaiaoeeoeeaoeee Aa?iaiee. Ana aiaiiua e iieoaiaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey
iiaeeaaeaee eeeaeaeaoeee. Iaoeenoneea caeiiu ioiaiyeenue.
Iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeenoe/aneay ia?oey Aa?iaiee e ana iaoeenoneea einoeooou
eeeaeaee?iaaeenue. Aiaiiua i?anooiieee i?aaeaaaeenue noaeo. Aeoeaiua
/eaiu iaoeenoneie ia?oee oaeaeyeenue ni anao cia/eiuo iinoia. Aa?iaineay
nenoaia ia?aciaaiey noaaeeanue iiae eiio?ieue n oai, /oiau oie/oiaeeoue
iaoeenoneea e ieeeoa?enoneea aeieo?eiu e iaania/eoue ?acaeoea
aeaiie?aoee. Ia aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?eioeeiao o/?aaeaeaeenue i?aaiu
naiioi?aaeaiey ii anae Aa?iaiee. Iiiu?yeanue aeayoaeueiinoue
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee. Auei ?aoaii ia nicaeaaaoue iiea oeaio?aeueiiai
aa?iaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aa?iaineay yeiiiieea iiaeeaaeaea
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, i?iecaiaenoai – iinoaiiaea iiae eiio?ieue
nithcieeia, /oiau eneeth/eoue aic?iaeaeaiea aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia
ia?eiae nithciie ieeoiaoeee Aa?iaiey aeieaeia auea ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
aaeeiue yeiiiie/aneee i?aaieci, a oii /enea a ioiioaiee aaethou e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

?aia?aoeee

Niaaoneay noi?iia iiaeiyea aii?in i ?aia?aoeeyo (auaic iai?oaeiaaiey e
aaeaaiaeiua ieaoaaee), eioi?ua aeieaeia caieaoeoue Aa?iaiey ca
i?e/eiaiiue oua?a. Iaeiaei noiia ?aia?aoeee onoaiiaeaia ia auea, o.e.
yoiio aini?ioeaeeanue a?eoaineay noi?iia. Aia?eeaioeu aea
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii aini?eiyee niaaoneia i?aaeeiaeaiea ii?aaeaeeoue iauoth
noiio ?aia?aoeee a 20 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia, ec eioi?uo 50 i?ioeaioia
aeieaeiu auee auoue auiea/aiu NNN?.

A?eoaineay e aia?eeaineay noi?iiu ioeacaeenue ?anniao?eaaoue aii?in i
?aia?aoeeyo a io?uaa io aii?ina i iiiiue iaioeai. I?iaeiaieuenoaea aea a
Aa?iaiee i?iecaiaeeeinue a aieueoie ia?a a oao ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao,
eioi?ua Iineaa oaea ia?aaeaea iiae iieueneoth th?enaeeeoeeth.Ii aii?ino
i ?aia?aoeeyo eiii?iienn ana aea aue aeinoeaioo. NNN? (iaycoynue
ia?aaeaoue /anoue ?aia?aoeee Iieueoa) aeieaeai aue iieo/eoue eo ec naiae
ciiu ieeoiaoeee, a oaeaea /anoe/ii ec caiaaeiuo cii a oie ia?a, a
eioi?ie yoi ia iiae?uaaei ie?ioth aa?iaineoth yeiiiieeo.

Iieueneee aii?in

Aieaciaiiui ia eiioa?aioeee e nii?iui aeey niaaonei-a?eoaineeo ioiioaiee
aue aii?in i Iieueoa. E yoiio a?aiaie Noaeei ii?aae ioiioaiey n
?aciauaaoeiny a Eiiaeiia iieueneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii a ecaiaiee.
Auaeaeaaaiue i?e iiaeaea?aeea aiaee/ai aii?in i ?anno?aeao iieueneeo
aiaiiineoaeaueo a Eaouineii eano iiae Niieaineii E?aieue ?anniao?eaae
eae oaioaae n oeaeueth canoaaeoue Iineao iieoe ia oa??eoi?eaeueiua
onooiee. A Oaaa?aia Noaeei iiaeoaa?aeee, /oi ainoi/iay
niaaonei-iieueneay a?aieoea aeieaeia i?ioiaeeoue ii eeiee, onoaiiaeaiiie
a naioya?a 1939, e i?aaeeiaeee ia?aaeaeiooue caiaaeioth iieueneoth
a?aieoeo e Iaea?o. Iiieiay, /oi Iineaa a yoii aii?ina aoaeao noiyoue
iania?oue, *a?/eeeue niaeaneeny n yoei i?aaeeiaeaieai, caiaoea, /oi
caiee, iieo/aaiua Iieueoae, ai?acaei eo/oa caiaeue, eioi?ua iia ioaeaao.
Noaeei cayaee oaeaea, /oi NNN? ?ann/eouaaao iieo/eoue Eaieanaa?a e
ia?aaeaeiooue a?aieoeo n Oeieyiaeeae aeaeueoa io Eaieia?aaea.

Aac anyeiai yiooceacia o/anoieee eiioa?aioeee acyeenue ianoaeaeaoue
iieueneee aii?in. E yoiio a?aiaie any oa??eoi?ey Iieueoe
eiio?iee?iaaeanue niaaoneeie aieneaie; a yoie no?aia auei ia?aciaaii
i?ieiiioienoe/aneia i?aaeoaeuenoai.

?ocaaeueo, iiaeaea?aeaiiue *a?/eeeai, i?aaeeiaeee, /oiau NNN? aa?ioe
Iieueoa Eueaia. Iaeiaei yoi auea oeiaea, oaea ianoaeaeaiiua a Oaaa?aia
iieueneea a?aieoeu caiaaeiuo eeaea?ia ia caieiaee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
ia iiaanoea aeiy noiye ae?oaie aii?in – iineaaiaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai
ono?ienoaa Iieueoe. Noaeei iiaoi?ee ?aiaa niaeaniaaiioth iiceoeeth:
caiaaeiay a?aieoea Iieueoe aeieaeia auoue ia?aaeaeiooa, ainoi/iay –
i?ioiaeeoue ii eeiee Ea?ciia. *oi aea eanaaony i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iieueoe,
oi aa?oaaneia n eiiaeiineei ieeaeeo eiioaeoia eiaoue ia aoaeao.
*a?/eeeue cayaee, /oi ii aai naaaeaieyi i?iniaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?aaenoaaeyao acaeyaeu ia aieaa /ai o?aoe iieyeia, neooaoeey iiaeao
i?eaanoe e e?iaii?ieeoeth, a?anoai e aeaii?oaoeeyi. Noaeei a ioaao
iiiaauae aeeth/eoue ai a?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaeioi?uo
«aeaiie?aoe/aneeo» eeaea?ia ec iieueneeo yiea?aioneeo e?oaia.

?ocaaeueo i?aaeeiaeee nicaeaoue i?aceaeaioneee niaao a Iieueoa,
ninoiyuee ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo nee, eioi?ue au noi?ie?iaae
iieueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iaeiaei anei?a niye naia i?aaeeiaeaiea.
Iineaaeiaaee aeieaea aeeneonnee. A eoiaa auei ?aoaii ?ai?aaieciaaoue
a?aiaiiia iieueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia «oe?ieie aeaiie?aoe/aneie iniiaa»
e i?iaanoe eae iiaeii nei?aa naiaiaeiua auai?u. Ana o?e aea?aeaau
iaycaeenue onoaiiaeoue aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n ?ai?aaieciaaiiui
i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ainoi/iay a?aieoea Iieueoe ii?aaeaeyeanue ii eeiee
Ea?ciia; oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?e?auaiey ca n/ao Aa?iaiee auee oiiiyioou
?anieua/aoi. Ieii/aoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea caiaaeiie a?aieoeu Iieueoe
ioeeaaeuaaeinue aei neaaeothuae eiioa?aioeee.

Oaeoe/anee ?aoaieyie ii iieueneiio aii?ino, i ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao
Aa?iiu a sseoa auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi Ainoi/iay Aa?iia inoaaony a
niaaoneie, a Caiaaeiay Aa?iia e N?aaeecaiiiii?uea – a aiaei-aia?eeaineie
noa?a aeeyiey.

Ia ia?aii aea ieaia?iii canaaeaiee aiiaue (eae a Oaaa?aia e sseoa) anoae
aii?in i Iieueoa. Niaaoneay aeaeaaaoeey ionoaeaaea caiaaeioth iieueneoth
a?aieoeo ii ?aeai Iaea?o – Iaena. O?oiyi oi?aeioe Noaeeia ca oi, /oi ii
oaea ia?aaeae iieyeai yoe ?aeiiu, ia aeiaeaeaaoenue ie?iie eiioa?aioeee,
eae yoi auei aeiaiai?aii a sseoa. Ii ianoiyieth niaaoneie noi?iiu a
Iionaeai i?eauee iieueneea i?aaenoaaeoaee ai aeaaa n Aieaneaaii Aa?ooii.
Iieueneay aeaeaaaoeey o?aaiaaea iaiaoeeea caiee e iaauaea
aeaiie?aoe/anee auai?u. *a?/eeeue e O?oiyi i?aaeeaaaee ia niaoeoue, a
*a?/eeeue au?acee niiiaiea, /oi Iieueoa niiaeao oniaoii «ia?aaa?eoue»
oaeoth aieueooth oa??eoi?eth.

Iieueneee aii?in, noieaoee *a?/eeeth noieueei e?iae, aue iineaaeiei,
eioi?ue ii ianoaeaeae eae i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaeeeia?eoaiee. 25 ethey
*a?/eeeue aianoa n ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae A.Eaeaiii ioaue a Eiiaeii,
aaea ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iiaeae a ionoaaeo. A Iionaeai i?eauee iiaue
i?aiuea?-ieieno? E.Yooee e iiaue ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae Y.Aaaei.

Oaea a iiaii ninoaaa eiioa?aioeey i?eoea e niaeaoaieth ii aii?ino i
Iieueoa. Iieueoa aeieaeia auea i?iaanoe naiaiaeiua auai?u n o/anoeai
anao aeaiie?aoe/aneeo e aioeiaoeenoneeo ia?oee. Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea
aii?ina i caiaaeiie a?aieoea Iieueoe auei ioeiaeaii, iaeiaei oaea nae/an
Iieueoa ia?aaeaaaeenue ainoi/iiaa?iaineea caiee. Eiioa?aioeey
niaeaneeanue ia ia?aaea/o NNN? ai?iaea Eaieanaa?aa e i?eeaaathuae
oa??eoi?ee.

Ae?oaea aii?inu

I?eiyoa «Aeaeea?aoeey ia E?aia», a eioi?ie o/anoieee cayaeee «i naiai
aeaeaiee nio?aieoue iieioth iacaaeneiinoue, noaa?aieoao e
oa??eoi?eaeueioth iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue E?aia». Ia eiioa?aioeee
ianoaeaeaeenue oaeaea ae?. aii?inu, a o. /. eanathueany iineaaiai.
I?aaiecaoeee ie?a.

Niaaoneia i?aaeeiaeaiea i /eainoaa niaaoneeo ?anioaeee a aoaeouae III
auei i?eiyoi, iaeiaei eo /enei auei ia?aie/aii aeaoiy (Iieioia
i?aaeeaaae aeaa-o?e – Oe?aeio, Aaei?onneth e Eeoao, iioeae?oy yoi oai,
/oi A?eoaineia Niae?oaeanoai i?aaenoaaeaii a iieiii ninoaaa). Auei
?aoaii i?iaanoe o/?aaeeoaeueioth eiioa?aioeeth III a NOA a ai?aea 1945.
Niaaoneay noi?iia niaeaneeanue n aia?eeaineei i?aaeeiaeaieyi, niaeanii
eioi?iio iinoiyiiue /eai Niaaoa Aaciianiinoe ia iia i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
aieiniaaiee a oii neo/aa, anee aii?in eanaeny no?aiu-/eaia NA. ?ocaaeueo
aini?eiye niaaoneoth onooieo n aiiaeooaaeaieai.

?ocaaeueo na?ueacii ioiineeny e i?eioeeio iiaee III iaae eieiieaeueiuie
oa??eoi?eyie. Eiaaea aia?eeaineay noi?iia i?aaenoaaeea niioaaonoaothuee
aeieoiaio, *a?/eeeue cayaee, /oi ia aeiionoeo aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaea
A?eoaineie eiia?ee. Eae, aii?ioae *a?/eeeue, aiaeee?oy e NNN?, ioianny
au Noaeei e i?aaeeiaeaieth eioa?iaoeeiiaeece?iaaoue E?ui? Aia?eeaineay
noi?iia cayaeea, /oi eiaeenue a aeaeo oa??eoi?ee, ioaiaaaiiua o a?aaa,
iai?eia? ino?iaa a Oeoii ieaaia. Niaeaneeenue ia oii, /oi aia?eeaineia
i?aaeeiaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia iiaeiaiaeaoiua oa??eoi?ee Eeae iaoeee,
oa??eoi?ee, ioia?aiiua o i?ioeaieea, e oa??eoi?ee, eioi?ua aeia?iaieueii
niaeanyony ia iaaeci? ni noi?iiu III.

Eiioa?aioeey ianoaeeea ?yae aii?inia, naycaiiuo n aa?iiaeneeie
ainoaea?noaaie. Noaeei ia inia?eaae a?eoaii-aia?eeaineiai eiio?iey iaae
Eoaeeae, a eioi?ie ana aua oee aie. A A?aoeee oea a?aaeaeaineay aieia, a
eioi?oth aiaoaeenue a?eoaineea aienea ia noi?iia, i?ioeainoiyuae
eiiioienoai. A sseoa Noaeei iiaeoaa?aeee aeiaiai?aiiinoue, aeinoeaioooth
n *a?/eeeai a ieoya?a 1944 a Iineaa, – ?anniao?eaaoue A?aoeeth eae
noaoai a?eoaineoth noa?o aeeyiey.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey e NNN?, iiyoue aea a niioaaonoaee n ieoya?ueneeie
aeiaiai?aiiinoyie, iiaeoaa?aeeee ia?eoao a THaineaaee, aaea
?oeiaiaeeoaeue thaineaaneeo eiiioienoia Einei A?ic Oeoi aeiaiaa?eaaeny n
i?icaiaaeiui thaineaaneei eeaea?ii Ooaaoe/ai i eiio?iea iaae no?aiie. Ii
i?aeoe/aneia o?aaoee?iaaiea neooaoeee a THaineaaee neeaaeuaaeinue ia
oae, eae yoiai oioaeinue *a?/eeeth. Aiaee/ai aaniieieee oaeaea aii?inu
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai o?aaoee?iaaiey iaaeaeo THaineaaeae, Aano?eae e
Eoaeeae. Auei ?aoaii, /oi yoe i?iaeaiu aoaeoo ianoaeaeaoueny ii iau/iui
aeeieiiaoe/aneei eaiaeai.

Aiaeiae/iia ?aoaiea auei i?eiyoi e ii i?aoaiceyi aia?eeaineie e
a?eoaineie noi?ii a nayce n oai, /oi NNN? ia eiinoeueoe?iaaeny n ieie a
?aoaiee i?iaeai iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?oiuiee e Aieaa?ee. Neooaoeey a
Aaia?ee, aaea niaaoneay noi?iia oaeaea eneeth/eea caiaaeiuo nithcieeia
ec i?ioeanna iieeoe/aneiai o?aaoee?iaaiey, iiae?iaii ia ianoaeaeaeanue.

Eoaeeth eae no?aio, ii?aaaooth n Aa?iaieae, auei ?aoaii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue
aeey /eainoaa a III. Niaaoo ieieno?ia eiino?aiiuo aeae ii?o/aeinue
iiaeaioiaeoue ie?iua aeiaiai?u n Eoaeeae, Aieaa?eae, Oeieyiaeeae,
Aaia?eae e ?oiuieae. Iiaeienaiea ie?iuo aeiaiai?ia aeaeaei aiciiaeiui
aeeth/aiea yoeo ainoaea?noa a III. Eniaiee a /eainoaa a III ioeacaee.
Auei ?aoaii «oeo/oeoue» ?aaioo eiio?ieueiuo eiiennee a ?oiuiee, Aieaa?ee
e Aaia?ee. Ia?anaeaiea aa?iaineiai ianaeaiey ec Iieueoe, *aoineiaaeee e
Aaia?ee i?aaeeaaaeinue inouanoaeyoue «oii?yaei/aiiui e aoiaiiui»
ia?acii. Aienea nithcieeia aeieaeiu auee auoue iaiaaeeaiii oaeaeaiu ec
Oaaa?aia, a Niaao ieieno?ia eiino?aiiuo aeae – ?aoeoue aii?in i
aeaeueiaeoai auaiaea aiene ec E?aia.

Eiioa?aioeey ia niaeaneeanue n niaaoneei i?aaeeiaeaieai ioiineoaeueii
Ainoi?a e Aea?aeaiaee. Noaeei o?aaiaae ioiaieoue eiiaaioeeth Iiio?a,
i?aaeinoaaeoue au?aaioeo ?aaeeia i?ieeaia Oo?oeee e NNN?, aeaoue NNN?
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaieciaaoue aiaiiua aacu a i?ieeaao ia?aaia n oo?eaie.
O?oiyi i?aaeeiaeee naiaiaeiue ?aaeei i?ieeaia i?e aa?aioeyo anao aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa. A eoiaa auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i oii, /oi eiiaaioeey Iiio?a
aeieaeia auoue ia?aniio?aia a oiaea eiioaeoia eaaeaeiai ec o?ao
i?aaeoaeuenoa n oo?aoeeei i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

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