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Анри Бергсон

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Ai?e Aa?anii aue aaaeouei o?aioeocneei oeeinioii iaoaai aaea. Ii
ieacae aeeyiea ia Oeeueyia Aeaeaina e Oaeooaaea e cia/eoaeueii
aicaeaenoaiaae ia o?aioeocneoth iuneue. A iniiaiii aicaeaenoaea
oeeinioee Aa?aniia auei eiina?aaoeaiui, iii eaaei niaeaniauaaeinue n
aeaeaeaieai, aeinoeaoei eoeueieiaoeee a Aeoe.

Oeeinioey Aa?aniia a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa nenoai i?ioeiai
aeoaeenoe/ia. Ie? aeey iaai ?acaeaeai ia aeaa a ei?ia ?acee/iua /anoe: n
iaeiie noi?iiu- aeeciue, n ae?oaie iaoa?ey, eee aa?iaa, oi eia?oiia
“/oi-oi”, eioi?ia eioaeeaeo ?anniao?eaaao eae iaoa?eth. Any anaeaiiay
anoue noieeiiaaiea e eiioeeeo aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo aeaeaeaiee: aeecie,
eioi?ay no?aieony aaa?o, e iaoa?ee, eioi?ay iaaeaao aiec. AEeciue anoue
aaeeinoaaiiay aaeeeay neea, aaeeinoaaiiue ia?iiiue aeeciaiiue ii?ua,
aeaiiue aaeeiiaeaeu, a ia/aea ie?a; ano?a/athuee nii?ioeaeaiea iaoa?ee;
ai?thueeny /oiau i?iaeoueny /a?ac iaoa?eth; iinoaiaiii ociathuee, eae
eniieueciaaoue iaoa?eth, n iiiiuueth i?aaiecaoeee; ?acaeaeaiiue
i?aiyonoaeyie ia eioi?ua ii iaoaeeeaaaony, ia ?acee/iua oa/aiey, eae
aaoa? ia oaeo oeeoeu; /anoe/ii iiaeaaeyaiue iaoa?eae aneaaenoaea oao
eciaiaiee, eioi?ui iaoa?ey aai iiaeaa?aaao: ana aea anaaaea-
nio?aiythuee naith niiniaiinoue e naiaiaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe, anaaaea
ai?thueeny, /oiau iaeoe iiaue auoiae; anaaaea euouee aieueoae naiaiaeu
aeaeaeaiey iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaaiuie noaieaie iaoa?ee.

Yaiethoeeth iaeuecy iauynieoue, n/eoay aeaaiie i?e/eiie
i?eeiniiaaiea e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Iaoaieci e oaeaieiaey no?aaeatho
iaeiei e oai aea iaaeinoaoeii: iaa o/aiey iieaaatho, /oi a ie?a iao
nouanoaaiiuo iiaoanoa. Iaoaieci ?anniao?eaaao aoaeouaa eae
niaea?aeauaany a ia?iiiii, e oaeaieiaey, iineieueeo iia aa?eo, /oi
eiiaoe, eioi?iai iaaei aeinoe/ue, iiaeao auoue iiciai ca?aiaa,
io?eoeaao, /oi ?acoeueoao niaea?aeeo /oi- eeai nouanoaaiii iiaia.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaiei yoei acaeyaeai, oioy e aieueoa
ni/oanoaoy oaeaieiaee, /ai iaoaiecio, Aa?anii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
yaiethoeey yaeyaony iienoeia oai?/aneie, eae ?aaioa ooaeiaeieea.
Iiaoaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth, iaii?aaeaeaiiia aeaeaiea nouanoaoao ca?aiaa,
ii eiaaea aeaeaiea ia oaeiaeaoai?aii, iaaiciiaeii ciaoue i?e?iaeo oiai,
/oi oaeiaeaoai?eo yoi aeaeaiea. Iai?eia?, iu iiaeai i?aaeiieaaaoue
iaee/ea o eeoaiiuo c?aiey aeeaioiuo iaeioi?iai niooiiai aeaeaiey, /oiau
auoue inaaaeiieaiiui ia iauaeoao aei nii?eeiniiaaiey n yoeie iauaeoaie.
Ionthaea auoaeaee oneeey; eioi?ua a eiioea eiioeia i?eaaee e nicaeaieth
aeac. C?aiea oaeiaeaoai?eei yoi aeaeaiea, ii ca?aiaa c?aiea iaeuecy auei
i?aaenoaaeoue. Ia yoii iniiaaiee yaiethoeeth iaeuecy i?aaeneacaoue, e
aeaoa?ieieci ia iiaeao neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii ii?iaa?aeaiey caueoieeia
naiaiaeu aiee.

Yoio iauee eiioo? iaiieiyaony iienaieai aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey
aeecie ia Caiea. Nia/aea iioie ?acaeaeyaony ia aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiey;
?anoaiey i?aaeiacia/aiu /oiau ioeeaaeuaaoue yia?aeth a ?aca?aoa?,
aeeaioiua- /oiau eniieueciaaoue yia?aeth aeey aiacaiiuo e auno?uo
aeaeaeaiee. Ii iicaea n?aaee aeeaioiuo iiyaeyaony iiaia ?acaaoaeaiea:
aieaa eee iaiaa ?acaeaeeeenue eioaeeaeo e einoeieo. Iie ieeiaaea
iieiinoueth ia auaatho ae?oa aac ae?oaa, ii a iniiaiii eioaeeaeo anoue
ian/anouea /aeiaaea, oiaaea eae einoeieo a naiai eo/oai i?iyaeaiee
aeaeai o io?aaueaa, i/ae e o Aa?aniia. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eioaeeaeoii e
einoeieoii yaeyaony iniiaiui a oeeinioee Aa?aniia.

Einoeieo a naiai eo/oai i?iyaeaiee iacuaaaony eiooeoeeae. Eioaeeaeo
?acaeaeythuee aaue, niaeanii Aa?aniio- yoi ?iae nia: ii ia aeoeaai eae
aeieaeia auoue any iaoa aeeciue, ii /enoi nica?oeaoaeai. Eiaaea iu niei,
aiai?eo Aa?anii, oi iaoa “y” ?annayii, iaoa i?ioeia ?acaeoi ia eonee;
aaue eioi?ua a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe acaeiii?iieeatho ae?oa a ae?oaa,
eaaeoony ioaeaeueiuie oaa?aeuie oaeaie.

Eae eioaeeaeo naycai n i?ino?ainoaii, oae einoeieo eee eiooeoeey
naycaiu n a?aiaiai. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa i?eia/aoaeueiuo /a?o oeeinioee
Aa?aniia yaeyaony oi, /oi a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa iuneeoaeae ii
?anniao?eaaao a?aiy e i?ino?ainoai eae aeoaiei ?acee/iua aaue.
I?ino?ainoai oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa?ee- aicieeaao i?e ?anna/aiee iioiea;
iii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeethci?ii, iieacii a iaeioi?ie noaiaie ia
i?aeoeea, ii /?acau/aeii aaiaeeo a caaeoaeaeaiea a oai?ee. A?aiy,
iaiai?io, anoue nouanoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeecie eee ?acoia. Ii a?aiy,
i eioi?ii aiai?eony ia iaoaiaoe/aneia a?aiy, ia iaeii?iaeiia nia?aiea
acaeiii aiaoieo iiiaioia. Iaoaiaoe/aneia a?aiy niaeanii Aa?aniio, anoue
a naiii aeaea oi?ia i?ino?ainoaa; a?aiy, yaeythuaany nouiinoueth aeecie,
ii iacuaaao aeeeoaeueiinoueth. Iiiyoea aeeeoaeueiinoe- iaeii ec iniiaiuo
a aai oeeinioee, iii iiyaeyaony oaea a naiie ?aiiae aai eieaa “A?aiy e
naiaiaea aiee”.

“Aii?inu, eanathueany noauaeoa e iauaeoa, eo ?acee/ey e eo
aaeeinoaa aeieaeiu noaaeony nei?aa eae ooieoeey a?aiaie, iaaeaee eae
ooieoeey i?ino?ainoaa”. A aeeeoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie iu ?anniao?eaaai
iaoe aeaenoaey, eiathony ?acaeaeaiiua yeaiaiou, ii a aeeeoaeueiinoe, a
eioi?ie iu oaeoe/anee aeaenoaoai, iaoe ninoiyiey ?anoai?ythony a ae?oa
ae?oaa. Aeeeoaeueiinoue anoue oio naiue iaoa?eae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a aa/iii noaiiaeaiee, ieeiaaea ia yaeyynue /ai- oi
caeii/aiiui.

I?aaeaea anaai, aeeeoaeueiinoue iaia?oaeeaaao naay a iaiyoe, oae
eae eiaiii a iaiyoe i?ioeia i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue a ianoiyuai.
Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey iaiyoe i?eia?aoaao aieueoia cia/aiea a oeeinioee
Aa?aniia.

Aa?anii aiai?eo, /oi iiiyoeai “iaiyoue” iau/ii iauaaeeiytho aeaa
?aaeeeaeueii ioee/iua aaue, yoiio ?acee/eth Aa?anii oaeaeyao iniaia
aieiaiea. “I?ioeia ia?aaeeaaao naay,- ieoao ii,- a aeaoo ?acee/iuo
oi?iao: ai- ia?auo, a aeaea aeaeaaoaeueiuo iaoaieciia, ai- aoi?uo, a
aeaea iacaaeneiuo ainiiieiaiee”. Iai?eia?, i /aeiaaea aiai?yo, /oi ii
iiiieo noeoioai?aiea, anee iiaeao iiaoi?eoue aai iaeconoue, oi anoue,
anee ii i?eia?ae iaeioi?oth i?eau/eo eee iaoaieci, iicaieythuea aio
iiaoi?eoue ?aiaa i?iaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea. Ii ii iia au, ii e?aeiae ia?a
oai?aoe/anee, auoue niiniaiui iiaoi?eoue noeoioai?aiea, e ia iiiiy oao
i?aaeuaeoueo neo/aaa, eiaaea ii /eoae aai ?aiueoa. Oaeei ia?acii yoio
aeae iaiyoe ia aeeth/aao iniciaiey i?ioaaeoeo niauoee. Aoi?ie aeae,
eioi?ue oieueei iaeei e caneoaeeaaao iacaaiey “iaiyoe”, i?aaenoaaeai
ainiiieiaieyie, oao ioaeaeueiuo neo/aaa, eiaaea /aeiaae /eoae
noeoioai?aiea, i?e/ai eaaeaeue neo/ae ia iioiae ia ae?oaea neo/ae e
naycai n ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaoie. Yoi ia aii?in i?eau/ee oae eae eaaeaeia
niauoea i?ienoiaeeei oieueei iaeiaaeaeu e i?iecaaei aia/aoeaiea n?aco.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaeei- oi ia?acii ana, /oi eiaaea- ieaoaeue n iaie
neo/aeinue, iiiieoueny, ii, eae i?aaeei, aeioiaeeo aei niciaiey oieueei
oi, /oi iieacii. Eaaeoueany i?iaaeu a iaiyoe, eae aeieacuaaao Aa?anii,
yaeythony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?iaaeaie ia ineoeao?e/aneie iaiyoe, a
iioi?iiai iaoaiecia, aaiaeyuaai iaiyoue a aeaenoaea. Yoio acaeyae
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ?anniio?aieai oeceieiaee iicaa e yaeaieyie iioa?e
iaiyoe, ec eioi?uo, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Aa?anii, neaaeoao, /oi enoeiiay
iaiyoue ia yaeyaony ooieoeeae iicaa.

“Iaiyoue” a i?eioeeia aeieaeia auoue neeie, aaniethoii iacaaeneiie
io iaoa?ee. E anee aeoo anoue ?aaeueiinoue, oi eiaiii caeanue a yaeaiee
iaiyoe, iu iiaeai yenia?eiaioaeueii aieoe n iei a nii?eeiniiaaiea”.

*enoay iaiyoue aeey Aa?aniia i?ioeaiiieiaeia /enoiio aini?eyoeth,
ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ii caieiaao oeueo?a?aaeenoe/aneoth iiceoeeth.
*enoia aini?eyoea ia?acoaony iiaoaeaeathuei aeaenoaeai, aai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eaaeeo a aai aeoeaiinoe. Eiaiii oaeei iooai iica
ieacuaaaony naycaiiui n aini?eyoeai, oae eae ii ia yaeyaony eino?oiaioii
aeaenoaey. Iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi anee au ia iica, iu iiaee au
aini?eieiaoue ana, ii ia naiii aeaea iu aini?eieiaai oieueei oi, /oi ian
eioa?anoao.

Oaia?ue aica?aoeiny e einoeieoo eee eiooeoeee eioi?ua
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony eioaeeaeoo. Aa?anii oi/ao canoaaeoue eioaeeaeo
ia?aoeoueny ia naiiai naay, e i?iaoaeeoue iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
eiooeoeee, eioi?ua a iai ana aua ae?aietho. Ioiioaiea einoeieoa e
eioaeeaeoo n?aaieaaaony n ioiioaieai c?aiey e inycaieth.

Nouanoaaiiay iniaaiiinoue eiooeoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia ia
?acaeaeyao ie? ia ioaeaeueiua aaue, eae yoi aeaeaao eioaeeaeo. Eiooeoeey
ioaaouaaao iiiaiia?acea, ii yoi iiiaiia?acea acaeiii?iieeathueo
i?ioeannia, a ia i?ino?ainoaaiii aiaoieo oae. Ia naiii aeaea aauae ia
nouanoaoao. Oaeie acaeyae ia ie? eaaeaony eioaeeaeoo o?oaeiui e
iaanoanoaaiiui, i?ino e anoanoaaiai aeey eiooeoeee. Iaiyoue ia aeaao
i?eia?ia oiai, /oi eiaaony a aeaeo, a iaiyoe i?ioeia i?iaeieaeaao aeeoue
a ianoiyuai e i?iiecuaaao aai. Ie aoaeue ?acoia ie? aue au aa/ii
oie?athuei e niiaa ?iaeaeathueiny, o i?ioeiai ia auei au ?aaeueiinoe, e
iiyoiio ia auei au i?ioeiai. Eiaiii iaiyoue, ni naiei aeaeaieai ana
niioiineoue, aeaeaao i?ioaaeoaa e aoaeouaa ?aaeueiui, e oai naiui
nicaeaao enoeiioth aeeeoaeueiinoue e a?aiy. Oieueei eiooeoeey iiaeao
iinoe/ue yoi niaoaiea i?ioeiai e aoaeouaai; aeey eioaeeaeoa iie
inoathony aiaoieie.

O/aiea Aa?aniia i naiaiaea e aai ainoaaeaiea aeaenoaey oanii
naycaiu n aeinoieinoaaie eiooeoeee. A?aoiaiou i?ioea naiaiaeu aiee
iniiauaathony /anoe/ii ia aeiiouaiee /oi eioaineaiinoue ineoe/aneeo
ninoiyiee anoue eiee/anoai, eioi?ia iiaeii ecia?eoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a a
oai?ee. Ii?iaa?aeaiea yoiai acaeyaea Aa?anii i?aaei?eiye a ia?aie aeaaa
naiae eieae “A?aiy e naiaiaea aiee”. Ii aeaeaao auaiae, /oi enoeiiay
naiaiaea aiciiaeia. “Iu naiaiaeiu, eiaaea iaoe iinooiee auoaeatho ec
iaoae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe eiaaea iie aa au?aaeatho, eiaaea iie eiatho n
iae oaeia aea iaii?aaeaeaiiia noiaenoai, eaeia eiiaaea auaaao iaaeaeo
ooaeiaeieeii e aai oai?aieai”.

Iniiaie oeeinioee Aa?aniia, iineieueeo iia i?aaenoaaeyao ia/oi
aieueoaa, /ai i?inoi iiyoe/aneee e ia?aciue acaeyae ia ie? yaeyaony aai
o/aiea i i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. O/aiea i i?ino?ainoaa o?aaoaony aio
aeey oiai, /oiau inoaeeoue eioaeeaeo. Anee aea aio ia oaeanony inoaeeoue
eioaeeaeo, oi eioaeeaeoo oaeanony inoaeeoue aai, oae eae iaaeaeo ieie
aieia.

O/aiea i a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii Aa?aniio aeey caueou naiaiaeu, aeey
aai o/aiey i “aa/iii iioiea” e aeey anaai aai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
ioiioaieyo aeooa e iaoa?ee.

Oai?ey i?ino?ainoaa Aa?aniia iieii e /aoei eceiaeaia a aai eieaa
“A?aiy e naiaiaea aiee” e i?eiaaeeaaeeo e iaeaieaa ?aiiei /anoyi aai
oeeinioee. Aa?anii a iae ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iiiyoey “aieueoa” e “iaiueoa”
aeeth/atho a naay i?ino?ainoai, /oi aieueoaa niaea?aeeo a naaa iaiueoaa.
Ii aeaao yniia i?aaenoaaeaiea “Eae aoaeoi iiaeii aiai?eoue i aaee/eia
oai, aaea iao ie iiiaeanoaaiiinoe, ie i?ino?ainoaa”. A neaaeothuae
aeaaa ii auaeaeioe oio aea oacen, ii ioiineoaeueii /enae. “Eae oieueei
iu oioei i?aaenoaaeoue /enei a ia i?inoi oeeo?u eee neiaa iu
auioaeaeaiu ia?aoeoueny e i?ino?ainoaaiiiio ia?aco.” A ooaa?aeaeaiee
i?eaaaeaiiii auoa Aa?anii iooaao o?e ?aciuo aaue, a eiaiii:

1. *enei eae iauaa iiiyoea i?eiaieiia e ?acee/iui /eneai.

2. Nianoaaiii ?acee/iua /enea.

3. ?acee/iua niaieoiiinoe, e eioi?ui i?eiaieiu ?acee/iua /enea.

A ?aaioao Aa?aniia /anoi oiiieiaaony iaoaiaoeea e iaoea, e
iaaaeoi/eaiio /eoaoaeth iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi yoe oiiieiaiey neeueii
oe?aieytho iiceoeeth Aa?aniia. A oii, /oi eanaaony iaoaiaoeee, Aa?anii
oiuoeaiii i?aaeii/eoaao o?aaeeoeeiiiua ioeaee a eioa?i?aoaoeee aieaa
nia?aiaiiui acaeyaeai, i?aiaeaaeathuei n?aaee iaoaiaoeeia a iineaaeiea
80 eao. E?iia oaea ?anniio?aiiiai iaie iiiyoey i /enea, aeaaiue ioieo, a
eioi?ii Aa?anii cao?aaeaaao iaoaiaoeeo – yoi aai io?eoeaiea oiai, /oi ii
iacuaaao “eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneei” i?aaenoaaeaieai i ie?a. Niaeanii aio
iaoaiaoeea oieeoao eciaiaiey, aeaaea iai?a?uaiua eciaiaiey eae
ia?acoaiua na?ee ninoiyiee; Aa?anii, iaiai?io, ooaa?aeaeaao /oi ieeaeay
na?ey ninoiyiee ia iiaeao aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi iai?a?uaii, e
/oi eciaiythuayny aauue ieeiaaea ia iaoiaeeony ie a eaeii ninoiyiee.
Enoeiiia eciaiaiea iiaeao auoue iauyniaii oieueei n iiiiuueth enoeiiie
aeeeoaeueiinoe , eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay acaeiiia i?iieeiiaaiea
i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai. Oaeei ia?acii, aeiaiae Aa?aniia i?ioea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai acaeyaea ia aeaeaeaiea naiaeeony i?inoi e ea?a neia.

Oai?ey aeeeoaeueiinoe Aa?aniia naycaia n aai oai?eae iaiyoe.
Niaeanii yoie oai?ee , oi /oi iu iiiiei, i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue a
iaiyoe e iiyoiio i?iieeaao a ianoiyuaa; i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa ia yaeythony
acaeiii aiaiieiaeiuie, ii niaoaiu a aaeeinoaa iiciaiey. “I?ioeia anoue a
nouiinoe oi /oi oaea aieaa ia aeaenoaoao”. Oaeei ia?acii, aai
ii?aaeaeaiea ia?acoao ii?i/iue e?oa. Oaeoe/anee ii aiai?eo: “I?ioeia
anoue oi aeaenoaey /aai a i?ioeii”. “Oi /oi ninoaaeyao iaoa /enoia
aini?eyoea anoue iaoa ca?iaeaeathueany aeaenoaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iaoaai aini?eyoey caeeth/aaony a aai aeaenoaaiiinoe.
I?ioeia anoue oieueei eaeay, ianoiyuaa anoue eaeaiiioi?( 135 e.n).”

Any oai?ey aeeeoaeueiinoe e a?aiaie Aa?aniia iniiauaaaony ia
yeaiaioa?iii niaoaiee ianoiyueo yaeaiee, ainiiieiaiee n i?ioeuie
niauoeyie. Niaoaiea ianoiyuaai e aniiieiaaiuo i?ioeuo niauoee, ii-
aeaeeiiio eaaeaueo a iniiaa oai?ee a?aiaie yaeyaony i?eia?ii niaoaiey
aeoa iiciaiey e oiai /oi iiciaaony. Yoi niaoaiea aeoa iiciaiey n
iiciaaaaiui iauaeoii iaecaaaeii i?ioiaeeo /a?ac anth eieao “Iaoa?ey e
iaiyoue”. Caeanue Aa?anii ieoao “ss iacuaath iaoa?eae niaieoiiinoue
ia?acia, a aini?eyoeai iaoa?ee- oa aea naiua ia?acu a eo ioiioaiee e
aiciiaeiiio aeaenoaeth iaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?aca – iiaai oaea”.
Eiaaea Aa?anii aiai?eo, /oi ia?ac iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, e ia aoaeo/e
aini?eiyoui, ii iauyniyao, /oi aeey ia?acia auoue e auoue niciaoaeueii
aini?eiyoui – yoi ninoiyiey ?acee/athueany eeoue ii noaiaie. Oaenie?
iacaae aeeciue a?iaey/ae oaiueth. Oaeee neacae, /oi iia iiaeiaia eoiieo
ec ?aciioeaaoiiai noaeea. Aa?anii n?aaiee aa ni nia?yaeii,
?ac?uaathueiny ia /anoe, eioi?ua nooue oiaea nia?yaeu. Oi aeaai, eioi?ia
Aa?anii iaaeaaony oaeaeaoue ?aaeeciaaiiui a ie?a, – yoi aeaenoaea ?aaee
aeaenoaey.

ssiaa?ue 23, 1997

?aoa?ao

Ai?e Aa?anii

1859-1941

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