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Анархизм в России и его роль в 1917 г

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Aeiiacey eiaie Na?aaioana.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa.

AIA?OECI A ?INNEE

E AAI ?IEUe A NIAUOEssO 1917 A.

Aaoi?: Aeia?iiuneia Eiinoaioei Ieoaeeiae/

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Eoeaaei Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/,

eaiaeeaeao enoi?e/aneeo iaoe,

nio?oaeiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai iocay Iieeoe/aneie Enoi?ee ?innee.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

2000 a.

IAEAAEAIEA.

TOC \o “1-1” \t “Caaieiaie 2;1;Caaieiaie 3;1;Caaieiaie 4;1;Caaieiaie
5;1;Caaieiaie 6;1;Caaieiaie 7;1” Iaeaaeaiea 2

Aaaaeaiea 3

Aeaaa I. E?aoeee i/a?e enoi?ee aia?oecia a ?innee (1840-1917).
PAGEREF _Toc477496010 \h 5

Aeaaa II. Aia?oeci a ?innee a 1917 a. PAGEREF _Toc477496012 \h 15

caeeth/aiea 28 TOC \o “1-2”

I?eia/aiea 29

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u 32

AAAAeAIEA.

Ia?o
Aia?oenoia.

Niiaioa-aea ianith iiae a?iiu oaea?ia,

Iiae ac?uau e ioee, iiae ieaiy iiaea?ia,

Iiae ciaiaiai /a?iui aeaaioneie ai?ueau,

Iiae caoee iaaaoa i?ecuaiie o?oau.

?ac?ooeioa, a?aouey, aeai?oeu e eoie?u,

Naeaaeoa ieiau, n?uaaeoa ii?oe?u,

Aeiaieueii iiei?iie e ?aaneie ethaae

Iu ai?a ia?iaea caoiiei a e?iae.

I?inioeanue, ainnoaea ia?iaeiay aiey

Ia noiiu Eiiioiu, ia cia ?iaaoiey,

Ia e?eee i ianoe iiaeaoeo ethaeae,

Iiae aiaoii ao?aeoy, a iaoea iaea/ae.

Eo iiiai, aac /aoa ioaeaeith ?acaeouo,

Iiaeaoeo a ino?iaa, ia ieaoa oaeouo,

Eo iiiai, i i?aaaea, neoaeeaoeo oaaa,

E iaaoeo a aa?ieneie, ia?aaiie ai?ueaa.

Eo noiiu aeoatho iiae iaaii ?innee,

Eo noiiu, i?ecuau, eae ?ieio noeoee

Cao/ao iiae Ia?eaeai, Neae?ueth aeooie,

E ian i?ecuaatho ia aeiaeanoiue aie.*

N yoie i?ecuaiie ianiae oee ethaee n /a?iuie oeaaaie ii oeeoeai
Iao?ia?aaea e Iineau a 1917 a. Iia eae iaeuecy eo/oa io?aaeaao
iano?iaiea ia oieueei iaeneiaeenoia, ii e anae ?innee oie yiioe. I
aeaenoaeyo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaeioi?uo iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe XX aaea iai ecaanoii iaiiiai, e oaeei oa/aieyi iiaeii ioianoe e
aia?oeci. Aea, ienaeenue ?aaiou e a niaaoneia a?aiy, ii ia ieo
iie?aoueny iiaeii eeoue a aii?inao oaeoo?u, nia?aiaiiuo aea ecaeaiee
iinayuaiiuo yoie oaia ia oae oae iiiai.

A naiae ?aaioa y noa?aeny iie?aoueny ia enoi/ieee oiai a?aiaie,
eeai a i?eaeiaea, eeai ia?aecaeaiiua a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, a
eaeie-eeai ae?oaie eeoa?aoo?a. I/aiue iiiiaee iaoa?eaeu
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai iocay Iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee ?innee. Yoo ?aaioo iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue eae ia o?ieao enoi?ee XIX e XX aaeia (i?e eco/aiee
iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee oiai a?aiaie eee niauoee 1917 a.), oae e ia o?ieao
oeeinioee (i?e eco/aiee oai?aoeeia aia?oecia a ?innee: I. A. Aaeoieia e
I. A. E?iiioeeia).

Naie auai? aeaiiie oaiu y n/eoath aiieia iainiiaaiiui. Iaiy
anaaaea eioa?aniaaee eaeae aia?oecia, eae aieoaay ia/oa i ainoaea?noaa
aac aeanoe, ainoaea?noaa iaia?aie/aiiie naiaiaeu /aeiaaea. Ia iiao
neacaoue, /oi y ai anai ?acaeaeyth ie?iaicc?aiea aia?oecia, a a
iniaaiiinoe eo iaoiaeu ai?ueau, ii, enneaaeiaaoue aeoaaea enoi?eth yoiai
iieeoe/aneiai oa/aiey iia iieacaeinue i/aiue caiai/eaie eaeaae.

Oeaeue naiae ?aaiou y au ii?aaeaeee oae: aeaoue aeinoiaa?ioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aia?oe/aneiio aeaeaeaieth a ?innee a ia?eiae n 1940 ii
1917 aa., aeoeaioe?oy iniaia aieiaiea ia niauoeyo 1917 a.; iieacaoue
?ieue aeaenoaee aia?oenoia a niauoeyo 1917 aiaea. Aeey ?ane?uoey oeaee
iaiaoiaeeii auei ?aoeoue neaaeothuea caaea/e: aeaoue e?aoeoth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aia?oe/aneiio aeaeaeaieth a ia?eiae n 1940 ii 1916 aa.,
?ane?uoue acaeyaeu iniiaiuo iineaaeiaaoaeae e oai?aoeeia aia?oecia a
?innee; aeaoue iieioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaenoaeyi aia?oenoia a 1917 a. e
iieacaoue ?aaeoeeth ia ieo ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo nee; i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiey aia?oecia a ?innee a eo ai?ueaa ca aeanoue.

A naiae ?aaioa y eniieueciaae oaeea iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey eae
eiaeoeoeey, aiaeec e neioac. N?aaee eniieueciaaiiie a ?aaioa eeoa?aoo?u
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue ?aaiou Eaiaaa N. I., ecaeaiiua a niaaoneoth yiioo. A
iniiaiii aea a naiae ?aaioa y iie?aeny ia enoi/ieee ec iocay
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee ?innee: ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue
(aeo?iaeu, eenoiaee, a?ioth?u), iiiia?aoee nuacaeia, ainiiieiaiey.

ss aeoiath, /oi yoa oaia aeinoaoi/ii aeooaeueia e nae/an. Ia
oeeoeao iaoaai ai?iaea iu iiaeai aeaeaoue iacia/eoaeueiua, iaeeea a?oiiu
iieiaeaaee – noi?iiieeia aia?oecia. Eae e oiaaea iie ?ac?iciaiu e ia
i?aaenoaaeytho ieeaeie ?aaeueii na?ueaciie iieeoe/aneie neeie. Ii, eae e
a 1917 a. ana aia?oenou ia/oatho iauaaeeieoueny iiae iauei /a?iui
ciaiaiai e nicaeaoue nianoaaiiia ainoaea?noai aaniethoiie naiaiaeu e
?aaainoaa.

Aeaaa I. E?aoeee i/a?e enoi?ee aia?oecia a ?innee (1840-1917).

Aia?oeci (io a?a/. anarchia – aacia/aeea, aacaeanoea) –
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia o/aiea, iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie eioi?iai
yaeythony io?eoeaiea ainoaea?noaa e anyeie aeanoe, a oaeaea i?ia?aiiiia
o?aaiaaiea inaiaiaeaeaiey ee/iinoe io anao oi?i iieeoe/aneie,
yeiiiie/aneie e aeooiaiie caaeneiinoe.

A Aa?iia aia?oeci, eae iieeoe/aneia oa/aiea ieii/aoaeueii
ioi?ieeny a 40-50-a aa. XIX aaea. O enoieia aia?oecia a ?innee noiyee
I.-AE. I?oaeii, Iaen Ooe?ia? e I. A. Aaeoiei. Eo o/aiea ?acaeaaee Iao?
E?iiioeei, Eiaaii Iino, AEai A?aa, AEi?ae Ni?aeue e ae?.

Aicieeiiaaiea aia?oenoneeo eaeae a ?innee a 40-50-a aa. XIX a.

A 40-50-a aa XIX a. a ?innee iai?a?uaii ia?anoae e?ecen
e?aiinoie/aneiai no?iy, io?aceaoeeny ia anao noi?iiao iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. A neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee ii anae ?innee noaee aicieeaoue e?oaeee
?aaiethoeeiiii iano?iaiiie iieiaeaaee. Ia iineaaeiaa ianoi n?aaee
caiaaeiuo oai?aoeeia, eiaaoeo iaiaeia aeeyiea ia ?inneeneeo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia, caieiaee I?oaeii (1809-1865) e Ooe?ia? (1806-1856),
oai?ee eioi?uo ia/eiatho iiyaeyoueny a ?innee a 40-a aiaeu.

Ia?aie aia?oe/anee iano?iaiiie ?aaioie, iiyaeaoaeny a ?innee, auea
eieaa I?oaeiia “*oi oaeia nianoaaiiinoue?” I?oaeii cayaeye, /oi
nianoaaiiinoue aea/ao ca niaie ia?aaainoai, “aaaeao e yenieoaoaoeee
neaaiai neeueiui”. Ii o?aaiaae, /oiau “iia auea oie/oiaeaia aeey anao”.
?aaioa I?oaeiia i?iecaaea oo?i? a ?inneeneie iauanoaaiiinoe.

Ia/aei ?ani?ino?aiaiea aia?oe/aneeo eaeae a ?innee naycaii oae aea
n eiaiai Iaena Ooe?ia?a e aai ?aaioie “Aaeeinoaaiiue e aai
nianoaaiiinoue” (ecaeaia a 1844 a.). A iai i?iiiaaaeiaaeanue oai?ey,
iacaaiiay iicaea eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneei aia?oeciii. Enoiaeiui ioieoii
naiaai aia?oenoneiai o/aiey Ooe?ia? aa?ao “ss” (ee/iinoue). Ee/iinoue,
niaeanii aai oai?ee, aeieaeia noaoue yaienoii: yaienoe/anee c?aeue
/aeiaae noaaeo nianoaaiiue eioa?an i?aauoa anaai. “Iao ie/aai auoa
iaiy”. A ?innee ?aaioa Ooe?ia?a aini?eiyeanue iaiaeiicia/ii. Ii aai
eaeae auee ?acaeou a naieo ?aaioao A. A. Aaeeineei, A. E. Aa?oeaiii, I.
A. *a?iuoaaneei.

?acoiaaony, i?iieeiiaaiea a ?inneth i?iecaaaeaiee I?oaeiia e
Ooe?ia?a, i?iiaaaiaee?iaaaoeo aia?oeci, iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae
ia/aei enoi?ee ?inneeneiai aia?oecia. Yoe aiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho eeoue
i?aaeunoi?eth aicieeiiaaiey aia?oe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee ia ?onneie ii/aa.
Aia?oeci eae eaeaeiia oa/aiea a iauanoaaiiie iunee ioi?ieeny a ?innee
iicaea, a neaaeothuai aeanyoeeaoee.

Aia?oeci a ?innee a ia?eiae 1859-61 aa. Ieaeeenoneia aeaeaeaiea.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 50-o – ia/aea 60-o aa iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay
neooaoeey a ?innee iaino?eeanue. A yoeo oneiaeyo ia?aciauaaeenue
ii?aaeaeaiiua iieeoe/aneea iai?aaeaiey, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo auaeaeaaei
nianoaaiioth i?ia?aiio ?aoaiey iac?aaoeo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai. Iniiaiie aeaeaeouae neeie aieueoeinoaa aeaeaeaiee
60-70-o aa. auee ?acii/eioeu. Naiei eaeaieiaii ?acii/eioeu n/eoaee A. A.
*a?iuoaaneiai. N eiioea 50-o aa. a ?innee neeaaeuaaaony ieaeeeci, aioo?e
eioi?iai aicieeatho ia?aua ca?iaeuoe aia?oenoneiai aeaeaeaiey. A iniiaa
ieaeeenoneiai aeaeaeaiey “eaaeae aaconeiaiue eiaeeaeaeoaeeci”.

Eaeaeiui aiaeaeai ieaeeenoneiai aeaeaeaiey a 60-a aiaeu n/eoaeny
Ae. E. Iena?aa (1840-1868). O?eaoiie ieaeeenoneiio aeaeaeaieth
neoaeee aeo?iae “?onneia neiai”. Aunooieaiey Iena?aaa a ?onneii neiaa”
i?eaeaeaee aieiaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo /eoaoaeae. A naiai oai?/anoaa
Iena?aa au?aaeae e?oa eaeae e iano?iaiee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ieaeeecia. Ii
iie?aeny ia oai?eth “?acoiiiai yaiecia” eae ia i?oaeea ai?ueau i?ioea
“aiaoiaai i?eioaeaeaiey e n?aaenoai i?aiaeieaiey naiiia?aie/aiey
/aeiaaea”.

Ieaeeeci, ia eiaaoee /aoeie i?ia?aiiu e iauaaeeiyaoee ethaeae n
?aaeeeaeueiui io?eoeaieai, iai?eyoeai nouanoaothuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ia iia auoue i?eiyo noi?iiieeaie *a?iuoaaneiai, ii iinea iiiai/eneaiiuo
a?anoia iineaaeiaaoaeae *a?iuoaaneiai, ieaeeeci a ?innee ?anoe?ee naia
aeeyiea. Ieaeeenoneia aeaeaeaiea ia i?aaenoaaeyei niaie iaeii?iaeiie
iannu. Caeanue eiaeenue ethaee ?acee/iuo acaeyaeia. Oeie/iui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai ieaeeenoneiai aeaeaeaiey Iena?aa n/eoae aa?iy ?iiaia E.
N. Oo?aaiaaa “Iooeu e aeaoe” – Aaca?iaa.

Eiie oei ieaeeenoa i?aaenoaaeye Ieeieae Aiae?aaae/ Eoooei
(1840-1878), aieueiineooaoaeue Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, eaeaieia
iiaeiieueiiai oaeiiai iauanoaa “I?aaiecaoeey”, ?oeiaiaenoaiaaaoaeny
i?eioeeiii “oeaeue ii?aaaeuaaao n?aaenoaa”. Yoi iauanoai i?iaicaeaneei
oeaeueth iiaeaioiaeo e?anoueyineie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e
i?eiyei oaeoeeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oa??i?a. Iauanoai auei /anoe/ii
?ane?uoi oea?neie aeaiaea?ia?eae a 1866 a. iinea iieooaiey Ea?aeiciaa ia
eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a II.

E ieaeeenoneei eee aia?oenoneei i?aaiecaoeeyi oiai ia?eiaea iiaeii
oae aea ioianoe e?oaeie Eiceiaa “aa?oaiieee”; aeaoa?eiineaaneee e?oaeie
I. I. Aaeeia “Iauanoai naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiey”; e?oaeie Iineianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa.

E 60-i aiaeai a ?innee ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieeny
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneee aia?oeci. E aai i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iiaeii ioianoe I.
A. Nieieiaa, Ae. I. Iiaeeia, I. E. Ieoaeeianeiai, ioaeeeiaaaoeony a
?onneie ia/aoe, e ia?aianoeo oai?ee I?oaeiia e Ooe?ia?a ia ?inneeneoth
ii/ao.

A 60-a aiaeu eaeaieiae ?aaiethoeeiiii-aia?oe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee
oneeaiii ?aaioaee iaae oai?eae ?aaiethoeee, ii iiyaeeanue iia eeoue a
70-o e naycaia n eiaiai I. A. Aaeoieia.

?aaiethoeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey 70-o aa XIX a. I. A. Aaeoiei.

A i?aaeuaeouea aeaa aeanyoeeaoey aia?oeci eeoue nouanoaiaae a
?innee, ii ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieeny eae ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea e
ia/ae ea?aoue ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue oieueei a nenoaia
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia ia?iaeieeia a 70-o aa. XIX aaea iiae
aeeyieai auaeathuaainy iuneeoaey e ?aaiethoeeiia?a I. A. Aaeoieia
(1814-1876).

Ieoaee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Aaeoiei ?iaeeeny a Oaa?neie aoaa?iee, a
aeai?yineie naiuea. A 14 eao ii iinooiaao a A?oeeea?eeneia o/eeeua,
iinea aai ieii/aiey a /eia i?aii?ueea ii neoaeee a aieineie /anoe, ii a
1835-ii a. auoiaeeo a ionoaaeo e a 1840-ii oacaeaao a Aa?iaieth. Oai
Aaeoiei iinooiaao a Aa?eeineee oieaa?neoao e anooiaao a iaeioi?ua
e?oaeee. Caoai, iieeioa oieaa?neoao, ii ioi?aaeyaony ai O?aioeeth, aaea
aeeaao iaeioi?ia a?aiy a Ia?eaea. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneia
ie?iaicc?aiea Aaeoieia ieacaee o?aioeocneea nioeeaeenou-ooiienou. Iinea
o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee 1848-49 aa. Aaeoiei aue a?anoiaai, aeaaaeaeu
i?eaiai?ai e nia?oiie eacie, ii i?eaiai? aue caiaiai iiaeeciaiiui
caeeth/aieai. Aaeoiei neaeae a Ieueithoea, caoai a Iao?iiaaeianeie
e?aiinoe, a a 1857 a. ii aue ioi?aaeai ia iinaeaiea a Ainoi/ioth
Neae?ue, ioeoaea aaaeae a Eiiaeii a 61 a. Caoai Aaeoiei o/anoaiaae a
Iieueneii ainnoaiee 63-ai a., aeee a Eoaeee, iiauaae e a NOA. Oia?
Aaeoiei 1 ethey 1876 a. a Aa?eeia, aaea e aue iioi?iiai.

Aaeoiei no?aieeny inouanoaeoue a ?innee nioeeaeueioth
?aaiethoeeth, ia ia?aia ianoi ii auaeaeaae ai?ueao n
ainoaea?noaaiiinoueth, eai ainoaea?noaaiiinoue auea aeey iaai enoi/ieeii
anyeiai nioeeaeueiiai ia?aaainoaa. “Iu iauyaeyai naay a?aaaie anyeie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie, ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a?aaaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa aiiaua, e aeoiaai, /oi ia?iae iiaeao auoue oieueei oiaaea
n/anoeea, naiaiaeai, eiaaea … ii nai nicaeano naith aeeciue”.*

Aaeoiei ciae oieueei aaeeinoaaiioth oi?io ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueaa
– iaiaaeeaiiia anaia?iaeiia ainnoaiea ?aai/eo iann aeey ?ac?ooaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ao?aeoaciiai no?iy e i?aaiecaoeeth ia aai ?acaaeeiao
nieco aaa?o “a?aoneiai nithca aieueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo annioeeaoeee,
iaueo e iaeanoiuo oaaea?aoeee, iaieiathueo aaca?aie/ii ethaeae anao
ycueia e ia?iaeiinoae”. Ii oeacuaae – aeiea eaaeaeiai /anoiiai
?aaiethoeeiia?a iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a ia?iaea einoeieoeaiue aeoo i?ioanoa,
aai iinoiyiioth aioiaiinoue e ?aaiethoeee.

Ii iiaieth Aaeoieia, aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii, ia?aeecothuei e
aeaeathuei iaaiciiaeiui anaiauaa ia?iaeiia ainnoaiea a no?aia, auee
caieiooinoue iauei, oaaeeiaiea e ?acuaaeeiaiea e?anoueyineeo ianoiuo
ie?ia. Iiyoiio, i?aaeeaaae ii, iaaei ?acaeoue yoo caieiooinoue e
i?iaanoe iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie “aeeaie oie ?aaiethoeeiiiie iunee,
aiee e aeaea”. Yoi iiaeii auei naeaeaoue eeoue iin?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey
nayce iaaeaeo ai?iaeneeie oaa?e/iuie ?aai/eie e e?anoueyinoaii. Ec
eo/oeo Aaeoiei i?aaeeaaae naeaeaoue ianie?ooeioth neeo, eioi?ay e
aeieaeia auea iauei iaoeneii i?iaanoe a ?innee nioeeaeueioth
?aaiethoeeth.

Iiae aeeyieai yoeo aaeoienonoeeo eaeae n?aaee ?inneeneie iieiaeaaee ec
ia?auo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo e?oaeeia ca?iaeaeaaony eaeay “oiaeaeaiey a
ia?iae” n oeaeueth iiaeaioiaee e?anoueyineeo aunooieaiee.

A 70-o aiaeao ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny aia?oe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea
eiycy I. A. E?iiioeeia. E?iiioeei a 70_o aue aeaenoaeoaeueiui /eaiii
e?oaeea “/aeeiaoeaa”. Ii aia?aua auaeaeaaao eaeath ia iauaaeeiaiiii
ainnoaiee n?aaee e?anoueyinoaa e n?aaee ai?iaeneeo ?aai/eo – “oieueei
oiaaea ?aaiethoeey iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia oniao”. Naia aeaeueiae oaa
?acaeoea aia?oenoneea eaeae a ?innee iieo/eee aeaaiaea?y E?iiioeeio a
70-80-o aiaeao.

Aia?oi-eiiioienoe/aneay oai?ey ?aaiethoeee I. A. E?iiioeeia.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aia?oe/aneeo eaeae a ?innee naycaii n
?aaioaie I. A. E?iiioeeia (1842-1876). Iao? Aeaenaaae/ E?iiioeei aue
auoiaeoeai ec eiyaeaneie naiuee, ?iaeineiaiay eioi?ie ainoiaeeea e
?th?eeiae/ai. Iinea ieii/aiey Iaaeaneiai ei?iona E?iiioeei aeeaao a
Iineaa, a a 1872 a. ioi?aaeyaony a Oaaeoea?eth, aaea aeeaao a Oeth?eoa.
Ec Oeth?eoa ii ioi?aaeyaony a AEaiaao. A ?inneth a 1873 a. E?iiioeei
aica?auaaony oaea oaaaeaeaiiui aia?oenoii. A ?innee E?iiioeei aoiaeeo a
e?oaeie /aeeiaoeaa, ii iinea aai aunooieaiee a 1874 a. ii aue a?anoiaai
e caeeth/ai a Iao?iiaaeianeoth e?aiinoue, ioeoaea aaaeae a ethia 76 a.
E?iiioeei nia/aea yiea?e?oao a Aiaeeth, a caoai a Oaaeoea?eth, aaea n
1879 a. ecaeaao aacaoo “Le Revolte” (“Aoioiauee”). Oae eae E?iiioeei
i?eieiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a niauoeyo iienaiiuo ieaea, oi e
aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a iu aua aoaeai aica?auaoueny ia
?ac.

A naieo ?aaioao 70-90-o aiaeia (“?a/e aoioiaueea”, “Caaiaaaiea
oeaaa”, “Aia?oey, aa oeeinioey, aa eaeaae”, “Ainoaea?noai e aai ?ieue a
enoi?ee” e ae?.) E?iiioeei auaae nianoaaiioth oai?eth aia?oecia,
iieiaeeaooth ia/aei oaeiio oa/aieth eae aia?oi-eiiioieci. Oaeea acaeyaeu
i?eaeaeee aieiaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiie iieiaeaaee oiai a?aiaie iiiuoeaie
ioaaoeoue ana noi?iiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a oae aea i?iyaeaieai
aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeae. Iiae aia?oeae E?iiioeei iiieiae “ie?inica?oeaiea,
iniiaaiiia ia iaoaie/aneii iiieiaiee yaeaiee”.

Ii a naiae oai?ee E?iiioeei ia io?eoeae ?aaiethoeeth, iaeiaei
n/eoae, /oi ?inney aua ia aioiaa e “iaiaaeeaiiiio ?aaiethoeeiiiiio
aunooieaieth”. Ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaeaea nicaeaoue aia?oenoneea
a?oiiu, eioi?ua aoaeoo aanoe “oeooth iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth eaeaeioth
?aaioo”. Nioeeaeueiay ?aaiethoeey, ii aai iiaieth, anoue caeiiiia?iia
yaeaiea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. A aoaeouai iia aeieaeia i?eaanoe
?inneth e iieiiio oie/oiaeaieth ana ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia e
o/?aaeaeaiee. Aia?oi-eiiioieci, n/eoae E?iiioeei, iiaeii aaiaeeoue n?aco
iinea ?ac?ooaiey noa?uo ii?yaeeia a oiaea ?aaiethoeee. A ioee/ea io
i?aaeuaeoueo eaeaieiaia aia?oecia E?iiioeei ioiinee e aeaeaeouae ianna
nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee ia oieueei e?anoueyinoai e ?aai/eo, ii e
“o?oaeiaua yeaiaiou ec eioaeeeaaioeee”. I?e yoii ii aeiioneae
aiciiaeiinoue eae ie?iie, oae e “e?iaaaie” ?aaiethoeee.

Ii oae aea io?eoeae iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia i?eciaaae ieeaeie ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeeeoaoo?u, oae
eae i?e aeeeoaoo?a, ii aai iiaieth, “?aaiethoeey iaecaaaeii
au?iaeaeaaony a i?iecaie e aeaniioeci”.

Iaeiaei a iieiie ia?a eaeaieiaey E?iiioeeia ?ane?ueanue ai a?aiy
o/anoey aai a aeaenoaeyo aia?oi-eiiioienoia, /ueei iniiaiui eaeaieiaii
ii yaeyeny.

Oa/aiey a ?onneii aia?oecia ia ?oaaaea aaeia.(XIX-XX)

E a?aiaie 1-ie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee a aia?oecia yanoaaiii
ii?aaeaeeeenue o?e iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey (aia?oi-eiiioieci,
aia?oi-neiaeeeaeeci e aia?oi-eiaeeaeaeoaeeci) n iaee/eai o eaaeaeiai ec
ieo aieaa iaeeeo o?aeoeee. Yoe oa/aiey iiieii ?acee/iuo i?ia?aii eiaee
nianoaaiiua ia/aoiua i?aaiu, ii?aaeaeaiiua noa?u nioeeaeueiiai aeeyiey,
?aaeiiu aeaenoaee.

Iaeaioia ?aaiethoeee 1905 a. aieueoeinoai aia?oenoia auee
i?eaa?aeaioeaie eaeae aia?oi-eiiioienoia (oeaaiaieueoeaa). Naie caaea/e
oeaaiaieueoeu ooaa?aeeee ia eo 1-ii nuacaea a Eiiaeiia (aeaeaa?ue 1904
a.). Aeaaiui naiei eaeaieiaii oeaaiaieueoeu n/eoaee I. A. E?iiioeeia. A
eo i?ia?aiia auaeaeyeenue neaaeothuea ioieou:

Oeaeueth aeaenoaey aia?oenoia iauyaeyeanue “nioeeaeueiay ?aaiethoeey”,
o. a. Iieiia oie/oiaeaiea eaieoaeecia e ainoaea?noaa e caiaia eo
aia?oe/aneei eiiioieciii.

Ia/aeii ?aaiethoeee aeieaeia auea yaeoueny “anaiauay noa/ea
iaacaeieaiiuo eae a ai?iaeao, oae e a aea?aaiyo”.

Aeaaiuie iaoiaeaie ai?ueau a ?innee i?iaicaeaoaeenue “ainnoaiea e i?yiia
iaiaaeaiea eae ianniaia, oae e ee/iia, ia oaiaoaoaeae e yenieoaoaoi?ia”.
Aii?in i i?eiaiaiee ee/iuo oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia aeieaeai aue ?aoaoueny
oieueei ianoiuie aeeoaeyie, a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee.

Oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee aia?oenoia aeieaeii auei auoue “aeia?iaieueiia
niaeaoaiea ee/iinoae a a?oiiu e a?oii iaaeaeo niaith”.

Aia?oenou ioaa?aaee aiciiaeiinoue aoiaeaeaiey eo a eaeea-eeai i?aaiu
oi?aaeaiea (Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia eee O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea), a oae
aea aiciiaeiinoue nio?oaeie/anoaa aia?oenoia n ae?oaeie iieeoe/aneeie
ia?oeyie eee oa/aieyie.

Ia 2-ii nuacaea a Eiiaeiia (17-18 naioya?y 1906 a.) E?iiioeeiui
auea i?aaenoaaeaia ?aciethoeey ia yeiiiie/aneii e iieeoe/aneii iiiaioa
?aaiethoeee, a eioi?ie ii caia/ae, /oi iaeeoei “ia?iaeiay ?aaiethoeey,
eioi?ay i?iaeeeony ianeieueei eao, iecaa?aiao noa?ue ii?yaeie aiiaua e
aeoaiei eciaieo ana yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey aianoa n iieeoe/aneei
no?iai”. A aii?inao i?aaiecaoeee E?iiioeei any/anee iiiu?ye
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue aia?oe/aneeo a?oii.

Nouanoaaiiui aeey oeaaiaieueoeaa aue aii?in i aoaeouai iauanoaa,
nicaeaiiii ii iiaeaee aia?oi-eiiioiecia. Noi?iiieee E?iiioeeia
i?aaenoaaeyee aoaeouaa iauanoai eae nithc eee oaaea?aoeeth aieueiuo
iauei, iauaaeeiaiiuo naiaiaeiui aeiaiai?ii, aaea ee/iinoue, ecaaaeaiiay
io iiaee ainoaea?noaa, iieo/eo iaia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
?acaeoey. Aeey ieaiiia?iiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee E?iiioeei i?aaeeaaae
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A aa?a?iii aii?ina E?iiioeei e aai
ni?aoieee n/eoaee iaiaoiaeeiui ia?aaeaoue anth caieth, caoaa/aiioth a
?acoeueoaoa ainnoaiey, ia?iaeo, oai, eoi nai aa ia?aaaouaaao, ii ia a
ee/iia aeaaeaiea, a iaueia.

A oneiaeyo ?aaiethoeee 1905-07 aa. a ?inneeneii aia?oi-eiiioiecia
ia?aciaaeinue aua ianeieueei oa/aiee:

Aacia/aeueoeu, aicaeaaeyaiua N. I. ?iiaiiaui (Aeaeaae) e
I. A. Aeeaiiai?neei (Iao? Oienoie). A iniiao yoiai oa/aiey auee
iieiaeaiu i?iiiaaaeue oa??i?a e a?aaaaeae eae niiniaia ai?ueau n
naiiaea?aeaaeai e io?eoeaiea anyeeo i?aanoaaiiuo onoiaa iauanoaa.
Oie/oiaeeoue naiiaea?aeaaea iie oioaee iooai “e?iaaaie ia?iaeiie
?ani?aau” n aeanoue eioueie.

Inaiueth 1905 a. ioi?ieeenue /a?iiciaiaioeu. I?aaiecaoi?ii e eaeaieiaii
/a?iiciaiaioeaa a ?innee aue E. N. A?inniai (?iuei). A ?aaiethoeee
1905-07 aa. yoi oa/aiea ea?aei iaeio ec aaaeoueo ?ieae. Nioeeaeueioth
aaco /a?iiciaiaioeaa ninoaaeyee ioaeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaee
eioaeeeaaioeee, /anoue i?ieaoa?eaoa e
?aai/ea-?aianeaiieee. Naiae aeaaiie caaea/ae iie n/eoaee nicaeaiea
oe?ieiai ianniaiai aia?oe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiea nayce ni anaie
iai?aaeaieyie aia?oecia. A oiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee eiioea 1905 a.
/a?iiciaiaioeu ?aneieieenue ia aaciioeaiuo oa??i?enoia ai aeaaa n A.
Eaieaeonii (No?eaie) e aia?oenoia-eiiioienoia. Ia?aua n/eoaee iniiaiie
oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeeth “aaciioeaiiai aioeao?aeoaciiai oa??i?a”, a
aia?oenou-eiiioienou auneacuaaeenue ca ni/aoaiea aioeao?aeoaciie aieiu n
na?eae /anoe/iuo ainnoaiee.

E?oiiuie eaeaieiaaie e i?aaiecaoi?aie neaaeothuaai oa/aiey
(aia?oi-neiaeeeaeecia) a ?innee yaeyeenue sseia Enaaae/ Ee?eeeianeee
(Ae. E. Iiaiie?neee), Ai?en Iaoiiae/ E?e/aaneee, Aeaaeeie?
Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iinna. Iniiaiie oeaeueth naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
neiaeeeaeenou n/eoaee iieiia, ananoi?iiiaa inaiaiaeaeaiea o?oaea io anao
oi?i yenieoaoaoeee e nicaeaiea naiaiaeiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauaaeeiaiee
o?oaeyueony eae aeaaiie e aunoae oi?iu eo i?aaiecaoeee.

Ec anao aeaeia ai?ueau neiaeeeaeenou i?eciaaaee oieueei
iaiin?aaenoaaiii-i?yioth ai?ueao ?aai/eo n eaieoaeii, a oae aea aieeio,
noa/ee, oie/oiaeaiea eiouanoaa (naaioaae) e ianeeea iaae eaieoaeenoaie.

Neaaeiaaiea yoei eaeaaeai i?eaaei neiaeeeaeenoia e eaeaa
“aania?oeeiiai ?aai/aai nuacaea”, a oae aea e aaeoaoeee ca nicaeaiea
iaua?inneeneie ?aai/ae ia?oee ec “i?ieaoa?eaa iacaaeneii io
nouanoaothueo ia?oeeiuo aeaeaiee e acaeyaeia”. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eaeae
ia?aiyee o neiaeeeaeenoia iaiueoaaeee.

A 1-ia aeanyoeeaoea XX aaea a aeeciue auee aiieiuaiu iaeioi?ua
eaeae A. A. Iinna, aunooiaaoaai ca nicaeaiea iniauo eiiia?aoeaia aeey
ai?ueau ?aai/aai eeanna ca naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua, yeiiiie/aneea
eioa?anu, ieioy iieeoe/aneea e aii?oaeaiiua iaoiaeu ai?ueau n
naiiaea?aeaaeai.

Ae. E. Iiaiie?neee aicaeaaeye a aiaeu 1-ie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee
i?aaiecaoeeth neiaeeeaeenoia a Iaeanna, aaea ecaeaaae i?ia?aiiiua
a?ioth?u neiaeeeaeenoia. Iaeanna n/eoaeanue oeaio?ii neiaeeeaeecia a
?innee.

A ?innee e iiiaioo ia?aie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee oae aea
ca?iaeaeaaony oaeia oa/aiea eae aia?oi-eiaeeaeaeoaeeci
(eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneee aia?oeci). Aai iniiaiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iiaeii
n/eoaoue A. A. Ai?iaiai, I. Aeeiioa, I. A?iineiai, eioi?ua a?aee ca
iniiao aaniethoioth naiaiaeo ee/iinoe “eae enoiaeioth oi/eo e eiia/iue
eaeaae”.

A ?innee a?aiai 1-ie ?aaiethoeee oae aea ioi?ieeenue oaeea
?aciiaeaeiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneiai aia?oecia:

Ienoe/aneee aia?oeci, iniiaiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?iai auee
eioaeeeaaioeey: iiyou e ienaoaee – N. I. Ai?aeaoeeee, A. E. Eaaiia, A.
E. *oeeia, E. Oanoia, E. Y?aa?a e ae?.

Annioeeaoeeiiiue aia?oeci. Aue i?aaenoaaeai a ?innee a eeoea Eueaa
*a?iiaa (inaaaeiiei I. Ae. Oo?/aieiiaa), acyaoaai ca iniiao o?oaeu
Ooe?ia?a, I?oaeiia e aia?eeaineiai aia?oenoa A. ?. Oyeea?a. Oo?/aieiia
aunooiae ca nicaeaiea iieeoe/aneie annioeeaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae.
Iniiaiui iaoiaeii ai?ueau n/eoae nenoaiaoe/aneee oa??i?.

Iaoaaaoeu (iaoaaaenou). Iaoaaaoeu auneacuaaee a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea e
eioaeeeaaioeee, aeanoe e eaieoaeo. Nicaeaoaeai e oai?aoeeii oa/aiey aue
iieueneee ?aaiethoeeiia? ss. A. Iaoaeneee.

Aeayoaeueiinoue ?onneeo aia?oenoia a ia?eiae ?aaiethoeee 1905-07.

Ii naiaio nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio e iieeoe/aneiio oa?aeoa?o
1-ay ?onneay ?aaiethoeey auea ao?aeoaciie e aeieaeia auea ono?aieoue
i?aiyonoaey aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia.

A ia?aue aea aeaiue ?aaiethoeee iaoa?ao?aneea ?aai/ea noaee
no?ieoue aa??eeaaeu ia oeeoeao ai?iaea. A eo ?yaeao aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaee
aieueoaaeee, ii auei aeiaieueii iaei i?aaenoaaeoaeae aia?oecia.
?ac?aaioaiiay E?iiioeeiui aia?oenoneay oai?ey “nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee”
a 1905 a. auea ecaanoia oceiio e?oao iaiiiai/eneaiiuo aai i?eaa?aeaioeaa
a ?innee. A ?innee auei iioaeeeiaaii 27 ecaeaiee, a oae aea ieiei 85
a?ioth? e noaoae. A i?iecaaaeaieyo 1905-07 aa. E?iiioeei i?iaeieaeaao
?acaeaaoue naith oai?eth ?aaiethoeee, ?aaae?oy ia oaeouea niauoey. Ii
n/eoae, /oi ?onneiio ia?iaeo neaaeoao i?iecaanoe “aaeeeoth ?aaiethoeeth”
e “aeoaieee yeiiiie/aneee ia?aai?io”. Aia?oenou niaoeaaee
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth n nioeeaeenoe/aneie e
au?aaeaee no?aieaiea ia?anei/eoue /a?ac aeaiie?aoe/aneee yoai.

Ia aieia iiaeieiathuaeny ?aaiethoeee aia?oenou noaee i?eieiaoue
aieaa aeoeaiua aeaenoaey. N 1904-ai ii 1905-ie eiee/anoai ai?iaeia, a
eioi?uo aeaenoaiaaee aia?oenoneea i?aaiecaoeee, aic?inei n 15-e aei
73-ao. Iie ioaaoeee a naaa anth ?inneth – io Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa aei
Caeaaeacuey e Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. Ii i?e yoii aaeeioth aia?oenoneoth
ia?oeth nicaeaoue oae e ia oaeaeinue.

Aeiaeaaynue ?anoe?aiey naiaai aeeyiey ia iannu, aia?oenou
i?aaieciauaaee oeiia?aoee (ia iaiueoa 16-oe), ioaeeeiaaee a?ioth?u e
eenoiaee. A yiea?aoeee e a ?innee iie ecaeaaaee ia iaiaa 25-oe iacaaiee
aacao e aeo?iaeia. No?aiynue ioi?aaoue ?aai/ee eeann io ia?enenoia,
aia?oenou aunooiaee n anyeeie iaiaaeeaie ia aieueoaaeeia. Io?eoeay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eaeie-eeai aeanoe aiiaua, aia?oenou aunooiaee i?ioea
o?aaiaaiee aieueoaaeeia i nicaeaiee a?aiaiiiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ia no?aieoeao aia?oenoneie i?annu oaeoeea aia?oecia
oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue eae iinoiyiiue aoio, iai?a?uaiia ainnoaiea i?ioea
nouanoaothuaai iauanoaaiiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Aia?oenou
ia?aaeei i?ecuaaee ia?iae aioiaeoueny e aii?oaeaiiiio ainnoaieth.
Aia?oenoneea aiaaua ae?oaeeiu inouanoaeyee oae iacuaaaiue “aaciioeaiue”
oa??i?. 17 aeaeaa?y 1905 a., aia?oenou a Iaeanna a?ineee 5 aiia a eaoa
Eeaiaia. Oa??i?enoe/aneea aeou niaa?oaeenue aia?oenoaie a Iineaa, ia
O?aea, a N?aaeiae Acee. Iniaaiii aeoeaii aaee naay aeaoa?eiineaaneea
aia?oenou (ieiei 70_oe aeoia). A aiaeu 1-ie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee oaeoeea
iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai oa??i?a o aia?oenoia ia?aaeei aueeaaeanue
a a?aaaaee. Ca n/ao ieo iaeioi?ua aia?oenoneea a?oiiu nicaeaaaee oae
iacuaaaiua “oiiaeu aiaaie eannu”, ec eioi?uo /anoue aeaiaa ioaeaaaeanue
?aai/ei. A 1905-07 aa. e aia?oecio i?eieioei iaiaei i?anooiiuo
yeaiaioia, iuoaynue oae i?ee?uoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue.

?anoe?aiea naoe aia?oenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee a 1905-07 aa. aucaaei
iaaeaaeaeo o eaeaieiaia aia?oecia, /oi ei oaeanony aiaae?eoue a niciaiea
iann (e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?aai/aai eeanna) eaeae aia?oecia, naith
i?ia?aiio e oaeoeeo.

Aia?oeci iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?aaiethoeeyie (1907-17 aa.).

Aia?oenou aiaeece?iaaee o?iee ia?aie ?aaiethoeee. “Aea, ii?a
eeethcee caaa?oeeanue. Ia?aue ooo?i ioaeo – e iaaei aioiaeoue aoi?ie”.

E 1914-iio aiaeo, ii iiaieth E?iiioeeia, “ianooieei oi?ioaa
a?aiy”. Ii e yoiio a?aiaie i?iecioae ?aneie e n?aaee aia?oenoia ia
nioeeae-iao?eioia (ai aeaaa n E?iiioeeiui) e eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoia.
E?iiioeei ioioae io naieo acaeyaeia e iniiaae a?oiio
“aia?oi-o?aioaeieeia”. Aia?oenou ia niaeaniua n ieie ia?aciaaee
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiia oa/aiea, ii iie auee neeoeii iaei/eneaiiu, /oi au
ana?ueac aeeyoue ia iannu. A aiaeu iaae aeaoo ?aaiethoeee
aeoeaece?iaaeenue neiaeeeaeenou, ecaeaaay eenoiaee e neiaanii i?ecuaay
a?aaeaeai e ioe?uoie ai?ueaa.

A oeaeii aia?oenoai a yoio ia?eiae oae e ia oaeaeinue
aeoeaece?iaaoueny. A oeaeii /enei aia?oenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee a ?innee
oiaei. Iaeiaei iinea Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee 1917 a. aia?oenou aiiaue
?acei aeoeaece?iaaee naith aeayoaeueiinoue. E yoio ia?eiae n/eoaaony
?anoeaaoii aia?oecia a ?innee.

Aeaaa II. Aia?oeci a ?innee a 1917 a.

I?aaiecaoeee aia?oenoia a ?innee ia 1917-e aiae.

Neooaoeey a eaaa?a aia?oenoia e 1917-iio a. eciaieeanue iaei. Ia
a?aia iaaeia?oeeiie ai?ueau ii-i?aaeiaio eeaee?iaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee
aia?oi-eiiioiecia, aia?oi-neiaeeeaeecia e eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneiai
aia?oecia (Aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea caieiaee aia?oi-eiiioienou).

N?aaee eeaea?ia aia?oi-eiiioiecia auaeaeyeenue A. I. Aoaaaeyi, E.
O. O. Aeaeoiai, A. TH. Aa, A. A. Ea?aeei, E. Eiaaeaae/, Ae. E.
Iiaiie?neee. Naiei aeaaiui oai?aoeeii ana iie n/eoaee I. A. E?iiioeeia.
Iineaaeiee, aa?ioaoenue a ?inneth a iaa 1917 a., caiyeny ?ac?aaioeie
oai?ee aia?oecia.

A ia?eiae 1905-1917 aa. aia?oi-eiiioienou ia?aaeeee ianeieueei
?aneieia. Io i?oiaeienaeueiuo noi?iiieeia aia?oi-eiiioiecia ioaeaeeeenue
oae iacuaaaiua aia?oi-eiiia?aoi?u, iniiaaaoea a?oiio “Ii/ei”,
iaeiieiaiiia ecaeaoaeuenoai e aeo?iae. Iie n/eoaee aiciiaeiui ia?aoiae
io eaieoaeecia e eiiioiecio n?aco, ieioy eaeea-eeai ia?aoiaeiua yoaiu.

Oeaio?ii niae?aiey nee aia?oi-eiiioienoia, aeaenoaiaaaoeo a 59
ianaeaiiuo ioieoao no?aiu, noaea Iineianeay oaaea?aoeey aia?oe/aneeo
a?oii. Aaaeiaeoei aeaeii a ia?eiae ?aaiethoeee noae I nuacae
aia?oi-eiiioienoia.

Aieaa yia?ae/ii, /ai ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey, aeaenoaiaaee
aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenou. Aaaeoueie eeaea?aie yoiai aeaeaeaiey a ia?eiae
?aaiethoeee noaee A. I. Aieei, A. I. Aieeno, O. C. ss?/oe, A. I.
Iaeneiia, A. N. Oaoia. A ioee/ea io aia?oi-eiiioienoia, neiaeeeaeenou
iinoiyiii a?auaeenue a ?aai/ae n?aaea (i?ionithcao, oaacaieiiao,
eiiia?aoeaiuo iauaaeeiaieyo), eo/oa ciaee cai?inu e ioaeaeu o?oaeyueony.
Ii eo iiaieth, ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iinea nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiay e iieeoe/aneay aeanoue aeieaeiu auoue oie/oiaeaiu e
nicaeaii iiaia iauanoai iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii oaaea?aoeee neiaeeeaoia,
ioaa/athuaa ca i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

A 1918 a. io neiaeeeaeenoia ioaeaeeeenue oae iacuaaaiua
aia?oi-oaaea?aeenou. Eo eeaea?aie noaee I. E. I?ioa?ainia e I. E.
Eaaaaeaa. Iie n/eoaee naay i?eaa?aeaioeaie “/enoiai neiaeeeaeecia” e, ii
eo iiaieth, iauanoaaiiay aeeciue iinea nioeeaeueiiai ia?aai?ioa aeieaeia
auoue ono?iaia iooai iauaaeeiaiey ee/iinoae ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a eee
niaeaoaiey a eiiioiu.

E?oiiui iauaaeeiaieai aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenoia aue “Nithc
aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenoneie i?iiaaaiaeu “Aiein O?oaea””, eiaaoee naie
ioaeaeaiey a Iao?ia?aaea e Iineaa. Ca 1918 a. neiaeeeaeenou i?iaaee aeaa
nuacaea (25 aaaonoa e 1 aeaeaa?y).

E 1917 a. a no?aia aeoeaii cayaeee i naaa aia?oi-eiaeeaeaeoaeenou.
Yoi oa/aiea auei iaeaieaa ?aciieeeei e a iai auaeaeyeinue iiiaeanoai
iaeeeo a?oii e iauaaeeiaiee.

Ec ieo aeoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?iaiaeeee:

Iaia?oeci e eae aai ?aciiaeaeiinoue aia?oi-oieaa?naeeci n eo eaeayie
anaiauae e iaiaaeeaiiie aia?oee. Iniiaiuie eaeaieiaaie yoiai oa/aiey
auee a?aouey Ai?aeeiu Aaaa e Aeaaeeie?. Iniiaiui ooiaeaiaioii yoiai
oa/aiey neoaeeee ieuea e /anoue i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Aia?oi-aeieinieci. Oa/aiea aeaeaaoaa eaeaae a iieiie naiaiaea ee/iinoe,
eioi?oth aeieaeii aeinoeaiooue /aeiaa/anoai a aeaeaeii aoaeouai.

Aia?oi-aoiaieci. Eaeaieia – A. A. Ai?iaie. Nicaeae nianoaaiiue
“Iineianeee Nithc eaeaeiie i?iiaaaiaeu aia?oecia”. Ca iniiao naieo eaeae
Ai?iaie a?ae naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea. Ii n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae anaaaea
aeieaeai no?aieoueny e naiaiaea, e inaiaiaeaeaieth io aiaoa
o/?aaeaeaiee, aiaoa caeiiia.

E?aeieie oi?iaie aia?oi-eiaeeaeaeoaeecia auee iaiieaeeeci e iaoaaaueia.
Eaeaieiaaie yoeo oa/aiee auee niioaaonoaaiii A. I.
Aiae?aaaa-Aiaaeaiiaa e ss. A. Iaoaeneee.

Oaeei ia?acii, e 1917 a. aia?oe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie iiiaeanoai iano?uo, ?ac?iciaiiuo a?oii, ioee/aaoeony
naiae iano?ioie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ia?acaa?eoie.

Ia/aei aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aia?oenoia a 1917 a.

?onneea aia?oenou a aeie Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee ia aaee aeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaeeyaoae ia oiae ?aaiethoeee. Naiui aaaeiui aeey
aia?oenoia niauoeai oiaaea noae caoaao aea/e Aeo?iiai. Oiaaea a oaa?aea
ana yoi ia i?eaeaeei aieiaiey. Aia?oenou oieueei ia/eiaee naith
aeayoaeueiinoue: ?aaiethoeey inaiaiaeeea ec oth?ai I. A?oeiiaa e I.
Iaoii; aica?auaeenue ec neae?neie nnueee E. Aeaeoiai a Iao?ia?aae e Eaa
*a?iue a Iineao. Oaea a ia/aea ethiy a Iao?ia?aae ec Eiiaeiia i?eauaaao
I. E?iiioeei, iaoiaeeaoeeny a yiea?aoeee 40 eao. Oiaaea aea ec NOA
aa?ioeenue a ?inneth aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenou A. Aieei e A. ss?/oe.

N?aco aea iinea Oaa?aeueneeo niauoee (1 ia?oa 1917 a.) aia?oenou
auionoeee ?yae eenoiaie, a eioi?uo auneacuaaee naia iiaiea e
i?iecioaaeoei niauoeyi. Ieaea y i?eaaaeo auaea?aeee ec oaenoa eenoiaee
Iauaaeeiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee Iao?ia?aaeneeo aia?oenoia:

“Aa?ieneeie oneeeyie nieaeao e ia?iaea naa?aiooa aeanoue oea?y
Ieeieay ?iiaiiaa e aai ii?e/ieeia. Iiiaiaaeiaua ieiau, oa?caaoea aeooo e
oaei ia?iaea, — ii?aaiu.

Ia?aae iaie, oiaa?eue, anoaao aaeeeay caaea/a: nicaeaoue iiaoth
i?ae?anioth aeeciue ia ia/aeao naiaiaeu e ?aaainoaa…

… Iu, aia?oenou e iaeneiaeenou, aiai?ei, /oi ia?iaeiua iannu,
i?aaiecoynue a nithcu, noiatho acyoue a naie ?oee aeaei i?iecaiaenoaa e
?ani?aaeaeaiey e onoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie, iaania/eaathuee aeaenoaeoaeueioth
naiaiaeo, /oi ?aaioieeai ia ioaeia ieeaeay aeanoue, ia ioaeiu noaeu,
oth?ueiu, iieeoeey.

Ii, oeacuaay iaoe oeaee, iu, aia?oenou, aaeaeo eneeth/eoaeueiuo
oneiaee iiiaioa, … iieaeai niaianoii n ?aaiethoeeiiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii a
aai ai?ueaa ni noa?ie aeanoueth, iiea iao a?aa ia aoaeao nie?ooai…

Aea cae?aanoaoao nioeeaeueiay ?aaiethoeey”.*

A iineaaenoaee, eiaaea “a?aa aue nie?ooai” aia?oenou noaee ?acei
e?eoeeiaaoue A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai e ae?oaea i?aaiu aeanoe.

Iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue aia?oenoia iaaeaeo Oaa?aeueneie e
Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeeyie a iniiaiii naiaeeeanue e iiiuoea “onei?eoue”
oiae niauoee – inouanoaeoue iaiaaeeaiioth nioeeaeueioth ?aaiethoeeth.
Yoi iie a iniiaiii e i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee i?ia?aiiai ae?oaeo
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee.

Naith i?iiaaaiaeo aia?oenou ?acaa?ioee a Iao?ia?aaea, Iineaa,
Oa?ueeiaa, Iaeanna, Eeaaa, ?inoiaa, Aeaoa?eiineaaea, Ieeieaaaa,
Na?aoiaa, Naia?a e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao, eiaaea aei 17 a. aia?oenou
aeaenoaiaaee ia aieaa /ai a 7 ai?iaeao ?innee. Nicaeaaaeenue eeoau,
noaiiaeaoeany oeaio?aie i?iiaaaiaeu. Aia?oenoneea aeayoaee aunooiaee n
eaeoeeyie ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a aieineeo /anoyo e ia
ei?aaeyo, aa?aoy iao?inia e nieaeao a /eaiu naieo i?aaiecaoeee.
Aia?oenou ono?aeaaee ieoeiae ia oeeoeao ai?iaeia. Yoe a?oiiu a
aieueoeinoaa naiai auee iaei/eneaiiu, ii caiaoiu. Aic?iaeaeaiiua
aia?oenoneea a?oiiu n iiauie neeaie i?aaieciauaaee ecaeaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, auioneay a?ioth?u, eenoiaee, aacaou e aeo?iaeu,
ia?aecaeaaay ?aaiou Aaeoieia, E?iiioeeia e ae?oaeo oai?aoeeia aia?oecia.
Ca 1917 a. auei ia?aecaeaii aieaa 20 iacaaiee ?aaio E?iiioeeia. A
ia?eiae iaaeaeo Oaa?aeai e Ieoya?ai a ?innee ecaeaaaeinue aieaa 20
aeo?iaeia. A eaaeaeii ai?iaea aia?oenou ecaeaaaee naie nianoaaiiue
aeo?iae. A Iao?ia?aaea oaeei aeo?iaeii auea “Eiiioia”, ecaeaaaaiue n
ia?oa 1917 a.

A ia?oa 1917 a. aia?oenou Iao?ia?aaea i?iaaee 3 nia?aiey. Ia
ia?aii i?enoonoaiaaei eeoue 13 /aeiaae. Auei ?aoaii aanoe aeoeaioth
i?iiaaaiaeo, ii ia i?aaei?eieiaoue ieeaeeo aeaenoaee.

Aoi?ia nia?aiea Iao?ia?aaeneeo aia?oenoia ninoiyeinue 2 ia?oa. Ia
iai auee i?eiyou neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey.

“Aia?oenou cayaeytho:

Ana i?eaa?aeaioeu noa?ie aeanoe aeieaeiu auoue iaiaaeeaiii oaeaeaiu ni
naieo iano.

Ana ?anii?yaeaiey iiaiai ?aaeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aaenoaaeythuea
iianiinoue aeey naiaiaeu – ioiaieoue.

Iaiaaeeaiiay ?ani?aaa n ieieno?aie noa?iai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Inouanoaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiua naiaiaeu neiaa e ia/aoe.

Auaea/a i?oaeey e iao?iiia anai aiaaui a?oiiai e i?aaiecaoeeyi.

Iaoa?eaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea iaoei oiaa?euai, auoaaeoei ec oth?ueiu”.*

Ia o?aoueai nia?aiee i?enoonoaiaaei 73 /aeiaaea. Nia?aiea
ninoiyeinue 4-ai ia?oa. Auee auneooaiu aeieeaaeu i aeayoaeueiinoe
aia?oe/aneeo a?oii a Iao?ia?aaea. Ioei??aeoe?iaaiu e ooaa?aeaeaiu
o?aaiaaiey:

“I?aai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa io i?aaiecaoeee aia?oenoia a Iao?ia?aaea a
Niaaoa ?aai/eo e Nieaeaoneii Aeaiooaoa.

Naiaiaea ia/aoe anao aia?oe/aneeo ecaeaiee.

Iaiaaeeaiiay iiaeaea?aeea inaiaiaeaeaiiuo ec oth?ueiu.

I?aai iineoue e aiiaua eiaoue i?e naaa anyeiai ?iaea i?oaeea”.**

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee aia?oeci
a ?innee ?aniaaeaeny ia iiiaeanoai oa/aiee. E a yoeo oa/aieyo
ionoonoaiaaei aaeeinoai, a i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee a?oiiu auee
?aciauaiu. Eo eeaea?u i?aaei?eieiaee iiiuoee i?aiaeieaoue yoi e
ioi?ieoue aaeeioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iinea Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee i?ioee
iaeanoiua eiioa?aioeee aia?oe/aneeo a?oii. THaeii?onneay eiioa?aioeey
(Oa?ueeia, 18-22 ethey) ia?aciaaea A?aiaiiia inaaaeiieoaeueiia iauanoai,
ii aai iiiuoee nicaaoue anaiauee nuacae inoaeenue aac ?acoeueoaoa. Oae
aea a ai?aea 17 a. i?aaiecaoeey Iao?ia?aaeneeo aia?oenoia iiiuoaeanue
iauaaeeieoueny n Iineianeie i?aaiecaoeeae aeey au?aaioee iauae
i?ia?aiiu. Ii yoa iiiuoea oae aea auea i?iaaeaia.

Ii oaeoe/aneei aii?inai aia?oenou iinea Oaa?aey ?acaeaeeeenue ia
aeaa eaaa?y – aia?oi-aoioa?e (aieueoeinoai aia?oenoia) e “ie?iua”
aia?oenou. Aoioa?e i?aaeeaaaee iinea oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee
iaiaaeeaiii iiaeiyoue aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea, naa?aiooue A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai e n?aco aea onoaiiaeoue “aacaeanoiia iauanoai”. Yoa
oaeoeea aia?oenoia iineea aaaioth?iue oa?aeoa?, oae eae ainnoaiea auei
au ia?a/aii ia i?iaae. Ia?iae oiaaea aua aa?ee a?aiaiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao. “Ie?iua” aia?oenou oaiaa?eaaee o?oaeyueony ia a?aoueny
ca i?oaeea, i?aaeeaaaee iiea inoaaeoue nouanoaothuee ii?yaeie. E iei
i?eieioe e I. E?iiioeei.

Eioa?anii, /oi, anee aoioa?ae ia iiaeaea?aeeaaee i?aeoe/anee
ieeaeea ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea neea, oi acaeyaeu “ie?iuo” aia?oenoia
?acaeaeyee e ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e oa/aiey. Iai?eia?, a naieo
eenoiaeao iaeioi?ua ec?a/aiey I. A. E?iiioeeia i?eaiaeeea aeaaea ia?oey
eaaeaoia:

““… Ioae/eiu, aeaiueiu, aeaoe ?innee, nianeoa iaoo no?aio e
oeeaeeecaoeeth io /a?iuo nioai oeaio?aeueiuo eiia?ee! Iaeuecy oa?youe ie
iaeiiai /ana. I?ioeaiiinoaaueoa ei aa?ie/anee iauaaeeiaiiue o?iio.

Oaia?ue, eiaaea au oae aeiaeanoii ni?aaeeenue n aioo?aiieie
a?aaaie, eaaeaeia oneeea, eioi?ia au naeaeaaoa aeey ecaiaiey aoi?aoeony
a?aaia, iineoaeeo e ooaa?aeaeaieth e aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth iaoae
naiaiaeu e e i?i/iiio ie?o” ”*

Yoa eenoiaea auea auiouaia a ia?oa 1917 a. ia?oeae eaaeaoia, eae
?aaeoeey ia oaa?aeueneea niauoey e iineaaeiea niauoey ia o?iioa.

Aia?oenou o/anoaiaaee ai anao e?oiiuo ieoeiaao, a /anoi e neoaeeee
eo eieoeeaoi?aie. 20 ai?aey ?aai/ea Iao?ia?aaea noeoeeii auoee ia
oeeoeu, i?ioanooy i?ioea eiia?eaeenoe/aneie iieeoeee A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ia anao ieiuaaeyo ai?iaea i?ioiaeeee ieoeiae. Ia
Oaao?aeueiie ieiuaaee iaoiaeeeanue o?eaoia aia?oenoia, ?acoe?aoaiiay
/a?iuie oeaaaie. Aia?oenou o?aaiaaee iaiaaeeaiiiai naa?aeaiey A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aua a ia?oa 17 a. aia?oenou noaee aanoe aeoeaiua aeaenoaey ii
inaiaiaeaeaieth naieo nia?aoueaa ec oth?ai. Ii aianoa n iieeoe/aneeie
caeeth/aiiuie ec oth?ai auoiaeeee oae aea e oaieiaiua i?anooiieee.
Ia/aoiua i?aaiu aia?oenoia ia inoaaeee yoi aac naiaai aieiaiey:

“Iu aeaeei, /oi nia?oiay eaciue ioiaiaia aeey ei?iiiaaiiuo e
oeooeiaaiiuo i?anooiieeia: oea?y ieieno?ia, aaia?aeia, a n oaieiaieeaie
iiaeii ?ani?aaeyoueny eae n aaoaiuie niaaeaie aac anyeie oea?aiiiee,
eiaioaiie noaeii. … Ianoiyuea i?anooiieee, oieiiu noa?ie aeanoe,
iieo/atho aiienoee, ainnoaiaaeeaathony a i?aaao, i?eiinyo i?enyao iiaiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao e iieo/atho iacia/aiey. …

… Naiue caei?aiaeue ceiaeae e oaieiaiue i?anooiiee ia naeaeae e
nioie aeiee oiai a?aaea, eioi?ue i?eianee auaoea aa?oeoaee noaeaa ?innee

… Iu aeieaeiu i?eaeoe ia iiiiuue e oaieiaieeai e a?aonee
i?ioyiooue ei ?oeo, eae aea?oaai nioeeaeueiie iani?aaaaeeeainoe …”*

A ai?aea aea a Iineaa auea i?eiyoa aeaeea?aoeey aia?oe/aneeo
a?oii, eioi?ay auea iioaeeeiaaia ia oieueei a Iineaa, ii e a ia/aoiuo
ecaeaieyo iiiaeo ai?iaeia ?innee.

“Aia?oe/aneee nioeeaeeci aaaeao ai?ueao ca caiaio aeanoe eeanniaiai
ainiiaenoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiui nithcii naiaiaeiuo e ?aaiuo ?aaioieeia, n
oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeee ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oeaeyo oe?aieaiey aia?oe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee e ?acaeoey
aia?oi-nioeeaeenoe/aneie iunee, i?iaeieaeaoue ai?ueao ca iieeoe/aneea
naiaiaeu.

Aaaeaiea aia?oe/aneie i?iiaaaiaeu e i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iann.

?anniao?eaaoue ie?iaoth aieio eae eiia?eaeenoe/aneoth, aia?oe/aneee
nioeeaeeci no?aieony e i?ae?auaieth aa o?oaeaie i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Aia?oe/aneee nioeeaeeci i?ecuaaao iannu e aicaea?aeeaaieth io o/anoey a
iai?ieaoa?neeo i?aaiecaoeeyo – i?ioanneiiaeueiuo nithcao, niaaoao
?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoao.

Iieaaaynue oieueei ia ?aaiethoeeiiioth naiiaeayoaeueiinoue iann,
aia?oe/aneee nioeeaeeci auaeaeaaao anaiauoth noa/eo ?aai/eo e anaiauoth
noa/eo nieaeao a ea/anoaa ia?aoiaeiie nooiaie e i?yiiio caoaaoo
i?aaieciaaiiui i?ieaoa?eaoii i?oaeee e n?aaenoa i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aia?oe/aneee nioeeaeeci i?ecuaaao iannu e i?aaiecaoeee aia?oe/aneeo
a?oii ii i?iiuoeaiiui e o?ainii?oiui i?aaei?eyoeyi a oeaeyo ia?aciaaiey
aia?oe/aneiai eioa?iaoeeiiaea.

Aae?an aeey ienai e ia?auaiee: Iineaa, 3-e Ia?aaaaeaiiue ia?aoeie,
aeii16, ea. 40, Ath?i Oaaea?aoeee”*

A iaa aia?oenou ono?ieee aeaa aii?oaeaiiua aeaiiino?aoeee. Eo
i?aoi?u i?ecuaaee e oa??i?o e aia?oee. Eniieuecoy iaaeiaieuenoai
o?oaeyueony iieeoeeie A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aia?oenoneea
i?aaeaiaeeoaee ia?aoee e aiaaui aeaenoaeyi, /oi au ni?iaioee?iaaoue
aii?oaeaiiua aunooieaiey.

Ethiue 1917 a. Caoaao oeiia?aoee “?onneie aiee”. Niauoey
aie?oa aea/e Aeo?iiai.

5 ethiy aia?oenoneee io?yae a 50 /aeiaae ai aeaaa n E. N.
Aeaeoiaiii caoaaoee ?aaeaeoeeth, eiioi?o e oeiia?aoeth ao?aeoaciie
aacaou “?onneay aiey”. Ca a?aiy naiaai iaoiaeaeaiey a oeiia?aoee
aia?oenou ecaeaee eenoiaeo:

“E ?aai/ei e nieaeaoai. A?aaeaeaia, noa?ue ?aaeei caiyoiae naay
i?anooieaieai e i?aaeaoaeuenoaii. Anee iu oioei, /oiau naiaiaea,
caaiaaaiiay ia?iaeii, ia auea eaeaoeaie e oth?aiueeaie, iu aeieaeiu
eeeaeaee?iaaoue noa?ue ?aaeei, eia/a, ii iiyoue iiaeieiao naith aieiao.
… aacaoa “?onneay aiey” (I?ioieiiia) niciaoaeueii naao niooo e
iaaeaeioniaeoeu …

… iu, ?aai/ea e nieaeaou, … oioei aica?aoeoue ia?iaeo aai
aeinoiyiea e iioiio eiioeneoai oeiia?aoeth “?onneie aiee” aeey ioaeae
aia?oecia. I?aaeaoaeueneay aacaoa ia aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue.

Ii ionoue ieeoi ia oniio?eo a iaoai aeoa oa?ico aeey naay,
naiaiaea i?aaeaea anaai. Eaaeaeue iiaeao ienaoue, /oi aio
caaeaai?annoaeeony. Eiioeneoy “?onneoth aieth”, iu ai?ainy ia n ia/aoiui
neiaii, a oieueei eeeaeaee?oai ianeaaeea noa?iai ?aaeeia, i /ai e
aeiaiaeei aei iauaai naaaeaiey.

Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao ii eeeaeaeaoeee aacaou “?onneay aiey””**

A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ioaaoeei iineaieai a oeiia?aoeth io?yaea
aiene. Iinea aeieaeo ia?aaiai?ia aia?oenou ?acoiii naeaeenue, auee
a?anoiaaiu e aeinoaaeaiu iiae eiiaiai ia nuacae Niaaoia. Iinea aeieaiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa ii yoiio aeaeo aieueoeinoai ec ieo auei ioiouaii.

7 ethiy a ioaao ia caoaao oeiia?aoee ieieno? thnoeoeee A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa I. I. Ia?aaa?caa ioaeae i?eeac i/enoeoue aea/o Aeo?iiai,
aaea e?iia aia?oenoia ?aciauaeenue ?aai/ee eeoa “I?inaao” e i?aaeaiea
i?ionithcia Auai?aneie noi?iiu. Iiaeiyeanue aieia aiciouaiey e i?ioanoa.
A yoio aea aeaiue ia/aee caaanoiaee /aou?a i?aaei?eyoey Auai?aneie
noi?iiu, a e 8-iio ethiy eo eiee/anoai aic?inei aei 28-ie caaiaeia.
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ionooieei.

9 ethiy ia aea/a Aeo?iiai aia?oenou nicaaee eiioa?aioeeth, ia
eioi?ie i?enoonoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee 95 caaiaeia e aieineeo /anoae
Iao?ia?aaea. Ii eieoeeaoeaa i?aaiecaoi?ia aue nicaeai “A?aiaiiue
?aaiethoeeiiiue eiieoao”, eoaea aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeioi?uo caaiaeia
e aieineeo /anoae. Aia?oenou ?aoeee 10 ethiy caoaaoeoue ianeieueei
oeiia?aoee e iiiauaiee. Eo iiaeaea?aeaee ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu ?aai/eo. Ii
ioiaia aieueoaaeeaie aeaiiino?aoeee, iacia/aiiie ia yoio aeaiue, ni?aaee
eo ieaiu.

Ii a iaieoanoaoeee, ninoiyaoaeny 18 ethiy, aia?oenou ana aea
i?eiyee o/anoea. Aioiaynue e yoiio ieoeiao, aia?oenou i?iaiaeeee
i?iiaaaiaeo a E?iiooaaeoa, ae?oaeo aiaiiuo /anoyo. Nia/aea auei ?aoaii
ia i?eieiaoue o/anoey a aeaiiino?aoeee (aia?oenou ia aea/a Aeo?iiai
cayaeee, /oi “i?ioanootho i?ioea aeaiiino?aoeee n ao?aeoaciuie
nioeeaeenoaie”), ii iioii ?aoaiea auei eciaiaii, e e /ano aeiy aia?oenou
iiaeioee ia Ia?niai iiea, iany ianeieueei /a?iuo ciaiai n aia?oenoneeie
eicoiaaie. Ai a?aiy aeaiiino?aoeee aia?oenou ono?ieee iaaaa ia oth?ueio
“E?anou”, aaea a caeeth/aiea iaoiaeeeenue eo aaeeiiiuoeaiieee. Ia
“E?anou” niaa?oeea iaaaa a?oiia ethaeae ec 50-75 /aeiaae. Iaeao/eee
inaiaiaeeee 7 /aeiaae: aia?oenou Oaonoia (auaoee ?aaeaeoi? aacaou
“Ieiiiay i?aaaea”), Itheea?, Aonaa, No?aeue/aiei e ianeieueei
oaieiaieeia. Iaeaoii aia?oenoia ainiieueciaaeenue ?aaeoeeiia?u,
i?aaieciaaa iiaaa 400 /aeiaae. A iaeaoa ia “E?anou” ia?yaeo n
aia?oenoaie oae aea auea iaaeiaia ia?oey aieueoaaeeia.

Ianoaiiaea aie?oa aea/e Aeo?iiai iiyoue ?acei iaino?eeanue.
19 ethiy eaca/uey nioiy e aaoaeueii iaoiou n a?iiaiaoeiie ai aeaaa n
ieieno?ii thnoeoeee I. Ia?aaa?caaui, i?ieo?i?ii ?. Ea?eineei e aaia?aeii
I. Iieiaoeaaui iai?aaeeenue ia aea/o, o?aaoy auaea/o inaiaiaeaeaiiuo ec
oth?ueiu. Aia?oenou ia aea/a iiiuoaeenue ieacaoue nii?ioeaeaiea. A?ineee
a?aiaoo, ii iia ia aci?aaeanue. A ?acoeueoaoa noieeiiaaiey n aieneaie
aue oaeo (aiciiaeii, iieii/ee n niaie) aia?oeno Anei, auei a?anoiaaii 59
/aeiaae. E aaee/aeoaio niaeaeaieth aeanoae, aieueoaaeeia iie oai ia
iaia?oaeeee, aaaeue eo iniiaiie oeaeueth auei ia noieueei ?aca?iieoue
aia?oenoia, neieue aueoe ia i?ieaoa?neea ?aai/ea neeu. Aanoue i iia?iia
ia aea/a Aeo?iiai iiaeiyei ia iiae anth Auai?aneoth noi?iio. A oio aea
aeaiue caaanoiaaee ?aai/ea /aou?ao caaiaeia. Nia?aiey iineee aeinoaoi/ii
ao?iue oa?aeoa?, ii anei?a ?aai/ea oniieieeenue.

A ciae i?ioanoa i?ioea iia?iia, aia?oenou iiiuoaeenue auaanoe ia
oeeoeu 1-ue ioeaiaoiue iiee. Ii nieaeaou ioaaoeee aia?oenoai ioeacii:
“Iu ia ?acaeaeyai ie acaeyaeia, ie aeaenoaee aia?oenoia e ia neeiiiu eo
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue, ii aianoa n oai iu ia iaeia?yai e ?ani?aau aeanoae
iaae aia?oenoaie e aioiau aunooieoue ia caueoo naiaiaeu io aioo?aiiaai
a?aaa”*

Etheue – aaaono 1917 a. Iiiuoee iiaeiyoue ainnoaiea.

A ethea 1917 a. iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea a Iao?ia?aaea neeueii
iaino?eeanue. A Iao?ia?aae i?eoee niiauaiey i i?iaaea ianooieaiey
?onneie a?iee ia o?iioa. Yoi aucaaei i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue e?ecen. Ana
eaaeaoneea ieieno?u A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeaee a ionoaaeo.

Aia?oenou, ioeaiea neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth, ?aoeee aeaenoaiaaoue.
2 ethey ia aea/a Aeo?iiai i?aaeaiaeeoaee Iao?ia?aaeneie oaaea?aoeee
aia?oenoia-eiiioienoia ono?ieee oaeiia niaauaiea, ia eioi?ii ?aoeee
iiaeeeciaaoue naie neeu e i?ecaaoue ia?iae e aii?oaeaiiiio ainnoaieth
iiae eicoiaaie: “Aeieie A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai!”, “Aacaeanoea e
naiiono?ienoai!”. Aia?oenou ia/aee ?acai?a/eaaoue i?iiaaaiaeo n?aaee
ianaeaiey.

Aeaaiie naiae iii?ie iie n/eoaee 1-ue ioeaiaoiue iiee,
acaieiiaaiiue neooaie i aai ?anoi?ie?iaaiee. Aaeoaoi?aie a iiee auee
iineaiu E. Aeaeoiai, I. Eieiaooeei, I. Iaaeia e A. Oaaei?ia. Eaca?iu
iieea iaoiaeeeenue iaaeaeaei ioaea/e Aeo?iiai, e aia?oenou oai eiaee
aieueoia aeeyiea. 2 ethey a Ia?iaeiii aeiia aue i?iaaaeai ieoeia iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii aieueoaaeea A. E. Iao?ianeiai. Aia?oenou no?aieeenue
neeiieoue nieaeao ia naith noi?iio. Aeiai 3-ai ethey ii eieoeeaoeaa
nieaeaoa Aieiaeia, eioi?ue aue noi?iiieeii aia?oenoia, aii?aee aiea
iieeiaiai eiieoaoa aue ioe?uo iieeiaie ieoeia. Io aia?oenoia ia ieoeiaa
aunooiae Aeaeoiai. Ii i?ecuaae “aunooieoue naaiaeiy aea, 3-ai ethey, ia
oeeoeo n i?oaeeai a ?oeao ia aeaiiino?aoeeth aeey naa?aeaiey aeanyoe
ieieno?ia-eaieoaeenoia”**. Aunooiaee e ae?oaea aia?oenou, auaeaaaaoea
naay ca i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aai/eo Iooeeianeiai caaiaea, e?iiooaaeoneeo
iao?inia e nieaeao n o?iioa. Ieeaeiai eiie?aoiiai ieaia o ieo ia auei.
“Oeaeue iieaaeao oeeoea”, — aiai?eee iie. Aia?oenou aiai?eee, /oi
ae?oaea caaiaeu oaea aioiau e aunooieaieth. Aieueoaaeee iuoaeenue
inoaiiaeoue oieio, ii aiciouaiiua nieaeaou eo ia neooaee. Ia ieoeiaa
auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea: iaiaaeeaiii aueoe ia oeeoeo n i?oaeeai a ?oeao.

Ioeaiao/eee ?aoeee aoyiooue a aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea iao?inia
E?iiooaaeoa e iineaee e iei aeaeaaaoeeth, a ninoaa eioi?ie aioae
aia?oeno Iaaeia. A e?aiinoe aeaeaaaoeey iiiaea ia canaaeaiea eniieeiia
Niaaoa e iii?ineea iiaeaea?aeee iao?inia a aii?oaeaiiii aunooieaiee, ii
iieo/eea ioeac. Oiaaea aeaeaaaou ?aoeee ia?aoeoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii e
iao?inai, aaea a yoi a?aiy aia?oeno A. ss?/oe ia?aae iaaieueoie
aoaeeoi?eae (ieiei 50 /aeiaae) i?iaiaeee eaeoeeth i aieia e ie?a.
ssaeaoenue ooaea, aia?oenou aunooiaee n i?ecuaaie iaiaaeeaiiiai
ainnoaiey. “Oai oaea eueaony e?iaue, a e?iiooaaeooeu neaeyo e
caieiathony /oaieai eaeoeee”, — aiai?eee iie. Yoe aunooieaiey aucaaee
aieiaiey n?aaee iao?inia. Anei?a ia ssei?iie ieiuaaee nia?aeinue 8-10
ouny/ /aeiaae. Aia?oenou niiaueee, /oi oeaeueth eo ainnoaiey yaeyaony
naa?aeaiea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Acaoaei?aaeaiiay oieia n
iaoa?iaieai aeaeaea aunooieaiey. Aieueoaaeee iuoaeenue inoaiiaeoue
ioieuoea iao?inia a Iao?ia?aae, ii ei oaeaeinue eeoue ion?i/eoue aai.

E aii?oaeaiiiio ainnoaieth i?ecuaaee ?aai/eo e nieaeao
aeaeaaaoeee ioeaiao/eeia, iineaiiua ai iiiaea caaiaeu e oaa?eee, a oae
aea a aieineea /anoe Iao?ia?aaea. Ioeaiaoiue iiee ia/eiae aicaiaeeoue
aa??eeaaeu. Ca ioeaiao/eeaie aunooieee A?aiaaea?neee, Iineianeee e
ae?oaea iieee. E 9 /anai aa/a?a 3 ethey oaea naiue iieeia aunooieei ec
eaca?i. Ana iie aeaeioeenue e iniaiyeo Eoaneineie, aaea ?aciauaeanue OeE
e IE aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee. Ooaea aea iioyioeenue e aeaeaaaoeee io
caaiaeia. Auoee iooeeiaoeu e ?aai/ea Auai?aneie noi?iiu. Aiineaaenoaee
yoio aoio ioeaieaaeny eae “aeaei” aia?oecia, e aia?oenou eeoue noaaeee
naaa yoi a caneoao.

Any aeaiiino?aoeey iai?aaeeanue e Oaa?e/aneiio aeai?oeo. N?aaee
eicoiaia aanoothueo auee eae aieueoaaenoneea eicoiae (“Any aeanoue
“Niaaoai ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia””) ia e?aniuo ciaiaiao, oae e
aia?oenoneea (“Aeieie A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai”, “Aea cae?aanoaoao
aia?oey!”). Iaaneee i?iniaeo iaiieieee ?aai/ea e ?aaiethoeeiiiua
nieaeaou. ?acaeaeanue no?aeueaa, aeeeaoayny ia aieaa 10 ieioo.

4 ethey ?aaiethoeeiia?u aiiaue auoee ia oeeoeu. A 12 /ania aeiy e
iei i?eniaaeeieeenue e?iiooaaeoneea iao?inu. Ia oeeoeu auoee ia iaiaa
500 ouny/ /aeiaae. Ana iie ono?aieeenue e Oaa?e/aneiio aeai?oeo.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aienea ia Iaaneii i?iniaeoa ioe?uee no?aeueao.
No?aeyee oae aea ia Eeoaeiii i?iniaeoa, o Oaa?e/aneiai aeai?oea e a
ae?oaeo ianoao. Noaee iiyaeyoueny oaeoua e ?aiaiua. Aeaiiino?aoeey iioea
ia oaueue.

Ainnoaiea 3-4 ethey 17 a. caeii/eeinue i?iaaeii. Aei ieoya?y 17 a.
aia?oenou caoeoee, i?iaeieaeay i?e yoii aanoe i?iiaaaiaeo n?aaee
ianaeaiey. Ii e ieoya?th i?aeiouanoai ieacaeinue ia noi?iia
aieueoaaeeia.

?ieue aia?oenoia a ieoya?ueneeo niauoeyo.

A ieoya?ueneii aii?oaeaiiii ainnoaiee aia?oenou i?eieiaee aeoeaiia
o/anoea, aeaenoaoy a iniiaiii a ea/anoaa nithcieeia aieueoaaeeia e eaauo
yna?ia. I?e yoii aieueoaaeee nio?aiyee iaeioi?oth aeaienoaaiiinoue ii
ioiioaieth e aia?oenoai. Iie aiai?eee, /oi “eaeoe aoaeai a?icue, a aeoue
aianoa”. Oi anoue aieueoaaeee iiaeaea?aeeaaee aia?oenoia a eo ai?ueaa
i?ioea aeanoe e eaieoaea, nio?aiyy i?e yoii iieioth eaeaeioth e
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth iacaaeneiinoue. A Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee o/anoaiaaee
iaeioi?ua iaeaieaa yia?ae/iua aia?oenou a a?oiiao aieueoaaeeia, a oae
aea ianeieueei iaeeeo ?ac?iciaiiuo a?oii. E. I. AEoe aicaeaaee io?yae
oeennaeueao?aneeo e?aniiaaa?aeaeoeaa (ieiei 200 /aeiaae). A. A.
AEaeaciyeia noiye ai aeaaa io?yaea iao?inia. A. A. Iie?ionia o/anoaiaae
a ooo?ia Ceiiaai aeai?oea. E. Aeaeoiai, A. Ai?aaoeeee, A. Oaoia e A.
ss?/oe aoiaeeee a ooaa ainnoaiey.

Iinea ieoya?ueneeo niauoee iaeioi?ua aia?oenou /anoe/ii iiiaiyee
naie i?aaeiea acaeyaeu, e ia?aoee ia noi?iio aieueoaaeeia. Iaeioi?ua
aia?oenou aoiaeeee a iniiaiua aieueoaaenoneea ?aaiethoeeiiiua
i?aaiecaoeee: Iao?ia?aaeneee Niaao, AOeEE Niaaoia (A /anoiinoe aia?oeno
A. TH. Aa, aa?ioaoenue a ?inneth a aeaeaa?a 1917 a., aue eca?ai /eaiii
AOeEE 3-ai e 4-ai nicuaa). Ii a aieueoeinoaa naiai ?onneea aia?oenou
auee i?ioea aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Aia?oeci a ?innee.

Io Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee e ?acaiio o/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey.

Ia caiaoea ei?aiiuo ia?aiai a ?inneeneie aeecie, aia?oenou
ii-i?aaeiaio aunooiaee ca i?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiethoeee. Aia?oenoia ia
oaeiaeaoai?eee ?acoeueoaou Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee, naa?aoae aeanoue
ao?aeoacee e ooaa?aeeaoee aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa?eaoa. Aeeeoaeueiay
aoaeie/iay ?aaioa ii no?ieoaeuenoao nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa eo ia
ono?aeaaea. A i?aaenoaaeaiee aia?oenoia, ia?aoiae io eaieoaeecia e
eiiioiecio, a caoai e e aacaeanoeth ia anoue aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, ii
o?aaoao anaai eeoue ianeieueeeo aeiae e aeieaeai i?iecieoe iin?aaenoaii
ac?uaa, iaeiiai “aieueoiai nea/ea”. Enoiaey ec yoiai naiaai
i?iaeoa, aia?oenou i?iaicaeaneee eo?n ia ia?aoiae e eiiioiecio. “Ai?ueaa
ca eiiioienoe/aneee no?ie aeieaeia ia/aoueny iaiaaeeaiii”, — ienae A.
Aa.

Enoiaey ec anaai yoiai aia?oenou auaeaeaatho eicoia “o?aoueae
?aaiethoeee”. Oi anoue, auoiaeeei neaaeothuaa: Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey
naa?aea naiiaea?aeaaea, aeanoue iiiaueeia, Ieoya?ueneay – A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, aeanoue ao?aeoacee, a iiaay, “o?aouey” aeieaeia
naa?aiooue Niaaoneoth aeanoue, aeanoue ?aai/aai eeanna e ono?aieoue
ainoaea?noai aiiaua, o. a. Eeeaeaee?iaaoue ainoaea?noai i?ieaoa?neie
aeeeoaoo?u.

Ii iaeeea ?ac?iciaiiua aia?oenoneea a?oiiu, aaaeoea aaeoaoeeth
iiae eicoiaii “o?aoueae ?aaiethoeee”, ia i?aaenoaaeyee ?aaeueiie
iianiinoe aeey aieueoaaeeia. Eia/a ianoiyei aeaei ni noeoeeiui
aia?oeciii, ioaaoeaoei /anoue nieaeao e iao?inia ?aceaaathuaeny noa?ie
a?iee. Eiiaaea iie i?aa?auaeenue a aaiaeeoneea a?oiiu, aeaenoaothuea
iiae oeaaii aia?oecia. Iaeiei ec i/aaia aia?oi-aaiaeeoecia a noieeoea
auea eaca?ia 2-ai aaeoeeneiai oeioneiai yeeiaaea. I?aaenaaeaoaeai o ieo
aue o/anoiee ooo?ia ceiiaai A. A. AEaeaciyeia, aaoi?eoao eioi?iai n?aaee
iao?inia oaea iioaoioeny. Eo aiaeaeii noaiiaeeny noa?oee a?ao
AEaeaciyeiaa. Ii aeieai yoa a?oiia ia i?inouanoaiaaea.
AEaeaciyeia-noa?oee, ii/oya iianiinoue, n iaaieueoie a?oiiie naieo
noi?iiieeia aaaeae ia THa. Iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii ?acaieie/ae ia Oe?aeia, ii
caoai aue oaeo ae?oaie aaiaeeoneie a?oiiie.

Caeii/eoue aea y au oioae 5-ui yiaa?y 1918-ai a., aeiai nicuaa e
?acaiia O/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey. A iaai auei eca?aii 715 aeaiooaoia.
N?aaee ieo auei ieiei 370 yna?ia, 175 aieueoaaeeia, 40 eaauo yna?ia, 16
iaiueoaaeeia, 17 eaaeaoia, 86 i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?oee e
i?aaiecaoeee. Oo?ii ieiei Oaa?e/aneiai aeai?oea nia?aeenue aeaiooaou,
eca?aiiua a O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea. “I?eoee. Aicea Oaa?e/aneiai
aeai?oea iiiai nieaeao, io?aiu, ii ii/oe iao ia?iaea. Aeaaea ethaiiuoiuo
iaei. Caia/aaoue yoio oaeo, ii ia oi/aoue ia iai inoaiaaeeaaoueny.
Nei?aa, nei?aa ooaea, a cae, ia naie ianoa. Oaea aeaa /ana – a?aiy
ioe?uoey”.* E oanoe /anai canaaeaiea auei ioe?uoi. I?aaenaaeaoaeai aue
eca?ai yna? A. I. *a?iia. Canaaeaiea aeeeeinue 13 /ania. Auee
ianoaeaeaiu caeiiu i caiea.

“A yoio iiiaio *a?iia aioiaeeny i?enooieoue e aieiniaaieth
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee i caiea. Aae?oa e o?eaoia iiaeneaeeaatho o?e eee
/aou?a iao?ina n aeioiaeaie iaia?aaan. Oio, /oi aue aia?aaee, iaa?iiei
/oi-oi aiai?eo *a?iiao. Iineaaeiee ia?ani?aoeaaao. Iao?in AEaeaciye
ianoie/eai i?iaeieaeaao:

— Ii?a eii/aoue. Onoaee ana. Aoaeao ieoeiaiaaoue. Nae/an iioooei
naao”.* (Eee a ae?oaii enoi/ieea o?aca auea oaeay: “Ea?aoe onoae.
I?aaeeaaath cae?uoue canaaeaiea e ?acieoenue ii aeiiai”**.)

Yoa o?aca “ea?aoe onoae” (eioi?ay ana aea i?enoonoaoao a
aieueoeinoaa enoi/ieeia), iicaea noaea aeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiie.

Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi yna?ai oaeaeinue caaea?aeaoueny a caea aua
ieioo ia 10-15 e i?eiyoue aua ianeieueei iinoaiiaeaiee, iinea /aai
canaaeaiea auei ?aniouaii ia “ia?a?ua aei aeaaiaaeoeaoe /ania
caao?aoiaai aeiy”.

“Iao?in AEaeaciye” aue ia eoi eiie, eae A. A. AEaeaciyeia –
aia?oeno, iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee i?eieioaoee e ia?oee
aieueoaaeeia. Aiiaua iaeioi?ua aia?oenou, ia?aiaieaoea naia iieeoe/aneia
ie?iaicc?aiea iinea ieoya?ueneeo niauoee, e ia?aoaaeoea ia noi?iio
aieueoaaeeia ea?aee iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a iaeioi?uo yieciaeao ?onneie
enoi?ee. AEaeaciyeia, iai?eia?, aa?ienee iiaea ca niaaoneoth aeanoue e
aue iicaea aicaaaeai a noaoon iaoeeiiaeueiiai aa?iy.

A oeaeii aea aeaenoaey aia?oenoia a 1917-ii a. iiaeii ioeaieaaoue
ii-?aciiio. Aia?oenou n?aco aea iinea Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee noaee
i?aaei?eieiaoue ?acee/iua iiiuoee iiaeiyoue ?aaiethoeeth e naa?aiooue
oieueei /oi ioi?ieaoothny aeanoue A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Nia/aea eo
ia iiaeaea?aeeaae ia?iae aua ia oo?aoeaoee aeiaa?ey e iiaie aeanoe, a
caoai ei ia oaaoeei niei/aiiinoe, oaa?aiiinoe a naieo aeaenoaeyo. Oae
aea aieueoaaeee, ?aaeueii ioeaieaoea neeu aia?oenoia, any/anee
noa?aeenue i?eaea/ue eo ia naith noi?iio, /oi au iieo/eoue iiiiuue i?e
naa?aeaiee aeanoe. Caoai aea eo iooe ?acioeenue, aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey
noaea no?ieoue ainoaea?noai aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa, a aia?oenou noaee
eo a?aaaie. Aieioue aei eeeaeaeaoeee a ?innee aia?oenoneie ia?oee (a
1922 a.) aieueoaaeee y?inoii n?aaeaeenue n i/aaaie aia?oecia a no?aia.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Eoae, aei 1917 a. aeayoaeueiinoue aia?oenoia, eae iu oaeaeaee
auoa, naiaeeeanue e ai?ueaa n naiiaea?aeaaeai. Ia anaaaea ei oaeaaaeinue
aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae, iaeiaei e iaeuecy io?eoeaoue, /oi aia?oe/aneay
iuneue anaaaea auea aeecea ?inneeneie iauanoaaiiinoe, e aia?oenou
neeueii iiaeeyee ia oiae enoi?ee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa. A 17 aea aiaeo, a
ianoaiiaea oaina e iiiaiaeanoey (a oaeoe/anee aacaeanoey) aia?oenou
/oanoaiaaee naay eae ?uau a aiaea. A naiai no?aieaiee ieii/aoaeueii
oie/oiaeeoue aeanoue a ?innee iie /anoi aunooiaee eae nithcieee
aieueoaaeeia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue ieeiaaea ia eiaee
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e aia?oenoai, a eeoue eniieueciaaee eo eae
oaea?ioth neeo. A iinea oiai eae aieueoaaeee i?eoee e aeanoe, iie,
anoanoaaiii, caauee i naieo auaoeo nithcieeao e ia/aee i?aneaaeiaaoue
eo, ca eneeth/aieai oao aia?oenoia, eioi?ua i?eieioee e iiaie
aieueoaaenoneie aeanoe.

Ii ia yoii enoi?ey aia?oecia a ?innee ia caeai/eaaaony. Ii iinea
Ieoya?ueneiai ia?aai?ioa aeayoaeueiinoue aia?oenoia a ?innee naiaeeony e
ai?ueaa n oieueei /oi noi?ie?iaaaoaeny aieueoaaenoneie aeanoe. Aua iaeei
iee aeayoaeueiinoe aia?oecia ianooieo a aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu,
eiaaea iaeioi?ua ec ieo i?eieioo e aaeiaaa?aeaeneie a?iee, a ae?oaea
aoaeoo aeaenoaiaaoue iacaaeneii, ono?aeaay aaeeie/iua oa??i?enoe/aneea
aeou. Iaeiaei a 1922 a. aia?oenoneay ia?oey a NNN? aoaeao cai?auaia, e,
e oae iaiiiai/eneaiiua a?oiiu aia?oenoia aoaeoo oie/oiaeaiu.

A neaaeothuai aiaeo y iaaeathnue i?iaeieaeeoue naith ?aaioo e
i?ineaaeeoue iooue aia?oenoia a ?innee aei 1922 a., a oae aea,
aiciiaeii, i?iaanoe ?yae enneaaeiaaiee. Iai?eia?:

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea. ?aaeoeey ?acee/iuo iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee
ia aeaenoaey aia?oenoia (eaaeaou, aieueoaaeee, yna?u, iiia?oenou…).

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea. Ioeaiea aeaenoaee aia?oenoia a
nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a, a niaaoneoth yiioo e ii ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe
ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX aaea.

I?EIA*AIEA.

Eaiaa N. I. “?aaiethoeey e aia?oeci”. I., 1987 a. N. 103-143.

2 Ni. oai aea. N. 192-199.

3 Enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ?innee. I., 1994 a. N. 197-205.

4 Eaiaa N. I. “?aaiethoeey e aia?oeci”. I., 1987 a. N. 226-249.

5 Enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ?innee. I., 1994 a. N. 371-381.

6 Eaiaa N. I. “Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e e?ao aia?oecia”. I., 1974 a.
N. 68-78.

7 Ni. oai aea. N. 84-85.

8 Ciaiaineee I. I. “Ana?inneeneia O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea”. E., 1976 a.
N. 338-345.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA E
EEOA?AOO?U.

Eaiaa N. I. “?aaiethoeey e aia?oeci”. I., 1987 a.

Eaiaa N. I. “Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e e?ao aia?oecia”. I., 1974 a.

Enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ?innee. I., 1994 a.

Ciaiaineee I. I. “Ana?inneeneia O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea”. E., 1976 a.

I. Nayoeoeeee. “5-6 yiaa?y 1918 a.” // “Oo?i no?aiu niaaoia”, E.,1988 a.

O. O. ?aneieueieeia. “?anneac i iioa?yiiii aeia”. //“Oo?i no?aiu
niaaoia”, E., 1988 a.

“?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a iaa-ethia 1917 a.” I., 1959

Ia?aue ana?inneeneee nuacae niaaoia ?. e N. Ae., E., 1930 a. Oii I

AEo?iae “Eiiioia”. 1917 a. ?? 1-6.

Eoeaaei A. I. ““Iu ia?aaeeaaai naiue no?aoiue iiiaio, io eioi?iai
caaeneo iaoa noaeueaa, n/anouea e naiaiaea ia?iaea…” (Eenoiaee ec
1917-ai)” // “Iiaue aeo?iae” 4/96.

E?eaaiueeee A. A. “Aia?oenou. Aeieoiaiou e iaoa?eaeu”. Oii II
1917-1935., N.-Ia., 1998 a.

* AEo?iae “Eiiioia”. ? 3, Iae, 1917 a.

* I. A. Aaeoiei “?aaiethoeey e aia?oeci”.

* Eoeaaei A. I. ““Iu ia?aaeeaaai naiue no?aoiue iiiaio, io eioi?iai
caaeneo iaoa noaeueaa, n/anouea e naiaiaea ia?iaea…” (Eenoiaee ec
1917-ai)” // “Iiaue aeo?iae” 4/96, N. 176.

* “Io/aou i nia?aieyo ” // AEo?iae “Eiiioia”. 1917 a. ? 1, ia?o.

** Oai aea

* Eoeaaei A. I. ““Iu ia?aaeeaaai naiue no?aoiue iiiaio, io eioi?iai
caaeneo iaoa noaeueaa, n/anouea e naiaiaea ia?iaea…” (Eenoiaee ec
1917-ai)” // “Iiaue aeo?iae” 4/96, N. 177.

* “Aiienoey oaieiaiui” // AEo?iae “Eiiioia”. 1917 a. ? 2, Ai?aeue. ”

* Ni. oai aea, “Aeaeea?aoeey Iineianeie oaaea?aoeee aia?oe/aneeo a?oii”

** Ia?aue ana?inneeneee nuacae niaaoia ?. e N. Ae., I.-E. 1930 a. Oii I.
N. 157-158.

* “?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a iaa-ethia 1917 a.” I., 1959 a.
N. 576-577.

** Eaiaa N. I. “?aaiethoeey e aia?oeci”. I., 1987 a. N. 282.

* I. Nayoeoeeee. “5-6 yiaa?y 1918 a.”. // “Oo?i no?aiu niaaoia”, E.,
1988 a. N. 387.

* Oai aea. N. 392.

** O. O. ?aneieueieeia. “?anneac i iioa?yiiii aeia”. //“Oo?i no?aiu
niaaoia”, E., 1988 a.N. 321.

PAGE 30

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