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Алексей Михайлович

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Aoi?ie oea?ue a aeeianoee ?iiaiiauo ?iaeeeny a 1629 a., anooiee ia
i?anoie, eae e ioaoe, a oanoiaaeoeaoeeaoiai aic?anoa. Aio aeaee oi?ioaa
aeiiaoiaa ia?aciaaiea, a oii /enea iocueaeueiia. Ii iieo/ee
i?aaenoaaeaiea i caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a, oaea a aeaonoaa
?aniieaaae ee/iie aeaeeioaeie.

Yoi aue aeia?aeoee, iaaiaeiue /aeiaae. Aeia?iniaanoii niaethaeae iinou,
iiiai iieeeny. I eaeie-eeai oe?aiee n aai noi?iiu ia iiaei auoue e ?a/e.
«Eo/oa neacaie, ona?aeeai e iecinoueth (nie?aieai) ia?aae aiaii i?iiunae
/eieoue, /ai neeie e neaaie (iaaeiaiiinoueth)», — aiai?ee ii. Aeaenae
oaeeaeye naiae e?ioinoueth eiino?aioeaa, iineieueeo, iaeaaeay
iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoueth, ieeiai ia eaciee, ia eeoee eiouanoaa, /oi
i?ioeai?a/eei ?onneie o?aaeeoeee. Niioa/anoaaiieee ca e?ioinoue,
aeia?ioo aeaee aio i?icaeua «oeoaeoee». Oioy ai a?aiy aniuoae aiaaa
Aeaenae iia iicaieeoue naaa naiua ?aciocaeaiiua ?oaaoaeuenoaa e
?oeii?eeeaaenoai. Ii ii aue ianeieueei aniueue/ea, ianoieueei e
iooiae/ea, ia?aui oae ia i?eie?aiea, i?inee i?iuaiey. Ii i/aiue
ia?aaeeaae, eiaaea eoi-ieaoaeue aue ei iaaeiaieai, oae ia onooiee a
i?inueaao, /oi, auaaei, a?aaeeei aio. Oaeia iiaaaeaiea auei iaaeaeaiiui
aeey ?onneiai oea?y.

Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ iinea nia?oe iooea noaiiaeeny oea?ai ii i?aao
i?anoieiianeaaeey, e oai ia iaiaa aue nicaai ana?inneeneee niai?,
eca?aaoee aai ia oea?noai. Yoiai o?aaiaaee aeaa o?aaeeoeee, neiaeeaoeany
ia iniiaa i?aoeaaeaioia. Ai-ia?auo, i?aaeuaeouea oea?e — Oaaei?
Eiaiiiae/, Ai?en Aiaeoiia e Ieoaee ?iiaiia ecae?aeenue ia oea?noai
niai?aie. Ai-aoi?uo, i?e Ieoaeea ana aaaeiaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiua ?aoaiey
i?eieiaeenue niai?iui i?eaiai?ii.

Iaeiaei Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ aiineaaenoaee ia?ooee niai?ioth o?aaeeoeeth
auai?a oea?ae, iauyaea i?e aeecie (1674 a.) i?anoieiianeaaeieeii naiaai
noa?oaai nuia Oaaei?a.

E oioy oea?ue i?icaai «oeoaeoei», aai oea?noaiaaiea ioithaeue oaeiaui ia
auei. Iii iciaiaiiaaeinue niauoeyie /?acau/aeiie aaaeiinoe, iiiaeie
?aoi?iaie, aioo?aiieie aieiaieyie e aieueoeie aieiaie. Anei?a iinea
anooieaiey ia i?anoie, a 1648 a. neo/eeny nieyiie aoio, aniuoioaoee a
nayce n iiauoaieai oeai ia nieue e ioe?iaaiiuie ceioiio?aaeaieyie
aeeceeo e iieiaeiio oea?th aiy?. A 1650a. aoioiaaee Iiaai?iae e Ineia. A
1662a. auee e?oiiua aanii?yaeee a Iineaa («iaaeiue aoio»). A eiioea
1660-o aa. aniuoioee aiciouaiey ia ?aeeaeiciie ii/aa, aeanoiei
iiaeaaeaiiua. I eo na?ueaciinoe aiai?eo oaeo aeeeoaeueiie (n 1662 ii
1676a.) inaaeu i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aieneaie iiiaoia Nieiaaoeeiai
iiianou?y. Oieueei a 1671 a. auei iieii/aii n e?anoueyineei aoioii iiae
aiaeeoaeuenoaii Noaiaia ?aceia, ia/aaoeiny a 1667 a.

Aeoeaiinoue aiaoiae iieeoeee iaoneaaeeaaeanue i?aaeaea anaai aeeth/aieai
a ninoaa ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa Oe?aeiu, ainnoaaoae i?ioea Iieueoe iiae
aiaeeoaeuenoaii Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeeiai. Ia/aaoayny a 1654 a. ec-ca
Oe?aeiu aieia n Iieueoae i?iaeieaeaeanue n ia?a?uaaie aei 1667 a. e
caeii/eeanue auaiaeiui aeey ?innee Aiae?onianeei ie?ii. Ii ie?iiio
aeiaiai?o ?innee iooiaeeea eaaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia n Eeaaii e Niieaineii.
I?aaiaa?aaeiay inoaaaeanue iieueneie. Ii aua aeieaia a?aiy aieiaiea e
neeu ?innee auee i?eeiaaiu e Oe?aeia. Iaaeeaiii i?eaueaea iia e naiaio
iieiaeaieth a ninoaaa ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, a oii /enea ii aeia /anouo
eciai oe?aeineeo aaoiaiia. Iaiaa oniaoiie auea aieia ?innee ni Oaaoeeae
(1656—1658), caeii/eaoayny caeeth/aieai a 1661 a. ie?a a Ea?aeena aac
?aoaiey aeaaiiai aii?ina — auoiaea e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th. I?eoeinue
aiaaaoue e n o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeey ?innee a?aaii ia thaa — e?uineei oaiii,
a oaeaea aai iie?iaeoaeai ~ oo?aoeeei noeoaiii. Oei inaiaiea Neae?e e
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea; iaeaaeeaaeenue aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n Eeoaai,
ia?aiaaeathueany aiaiiuie noieeiiaaieyie; o?aaeeoeeiiii ae?oaeanoaaiiua
nayce n Ia?neae iiaeaa?aaeenue eniuoaieyi ec-ca ia?auaiey A?ocee iiii/ue
ae a ai?ueaa n oaoii. A oeaeii aiaoiaiieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa i?e Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a cia/eoaeueii oi?i/eeinue.

Aieueoea ia?aiaiu i?iecioee a aai oea?noaiaaiea e ai aioo?aiiae aeecie
no?aiu.

Ia?aue oea?ue iiaie aeeianoee — Ieoaee ?iiaiia, oioy e eiaiiaaeny
naiiaea?aeoeai, yaeyeny oaeiaui eeoue io/anoe, /oi iauyniyaony ia
noieueei aai oa?aeoa?ii, neieueei oaeoii eca?aiey oea?ai, a ia
iieo/aieai o?iia ii ianeaaenoao. Oioy e iao aeieoiaioa, aiai?yuaai ia
ia?aie/aiee aai i?aaa i?e eca?aiee, ecaanoii, eaeia cia/aiea iieo/eee
i?e iai Aiy?neay aeoia e Caineee niai?, ?aoaaoee aaaeiaeoea aii?inu.
Niai? i?e Ieoaeea nicuaaeny aei aeanyoe ?ac. Iiaay aeeianoey eae au
aeaiiino?e?iaaea ioe?uoinoue naieo aeaenoaee, aioiaiinoue iiaeaeeoueny
aeanoueth n a?aaeaeaiaie.

?iaeiia/aeueiee aeeianoee ?iiaiiauo ia noaaee e?oiiuo caaea/ ii
?aoi?ie?iaaieth aioo?aiiae aeecie ainoaea?noaa e aai aiaoiae iieeoeee.
Aieaa oiai, noa?aeny nio?aieoue noa?ua ii?yaeee, oniieieoue ianaeaiea,
oiaiueoeoue ceioiio?aaeaiey aeanoae, oeo/oeoue aeeciue ethaeae. Ii
aeeoue ii noa?eia oaea ia iieo/aeinue. Iiaay aeeianoey ia?a/aia auea ia
?aoi?ie?iaaiea ecia/aeueii, oae eae eia/a iaeuecy auei i?eaanoe e
oniieiaieth iauanoai, aaa?aiooia a oain niooie, eeeaeaee?iaaoue
i?aaeiinueee, aa aucaaaoea, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue iiaie. Iiyoiio aanue
XVII a. — nieioiua iiaaoeee, ?aoi?iu ia oiia iinoiyiiuo ia?iaeiuo
aiciouaiee. Ii oa?aeoa? eo, ii e?aeiae ia?a ii caiuneai, ia niaea?aeae
?aaeeeaeueiie eiiee neiaeeaoeony onoiaa e ii?yaeeia. Ii au?aaeaieth
Eeth/aaneiai, «i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?iecaanoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia
ia?aniio? aac ia?aai?ioa, /anoe/ioth ii/eieo aac ia?ano?ieee oeaeiai».

Ia?aiaiu cao?aaeaaee aaaeiaeoea noi?iiu aeecie iauanoaa. Nai oaeo
aeeth/aiey Caineeo niai?ia a nenoaio aeanoe oaea yaeyeny ?aoi?iie. Aeaei
auei ia oieueei a ?aaoey?iinoe eo i?iaaaeaiey, ii e a nioeeaeueiii
ninoaaa o/anoieeia (i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eeinue) e
e?oaa ianoaeaeaaiuo aii?inia. Aua i?e Ieoaeea noaee iacia/aoueny
aiaaiaeu aeey oi?aaeaiey oacaeaie. Oei aeaeueiaeoaa cae?aiiuaiea
e?anoueyi. Ia/aee oi?ie?iaaoueny ?aaoey?iua aieineea /anoe.

E oea?noaiaaieth Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a iio?aaiinoue a ?aoi?iao aua aieaa
aic?inea, a iaeiieaoeany eciaiaiey ioaeii auei i?eaanoe a nenoaio.
Iniaaiii aaeeeie yaeyeanue ioaeaea a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii naiaea caeiiia
aeey ioi?aaeaiey i?aainoaeey. Iiyoiio aaaeiaeoei ec e?oiiuo
?aoi?iaoi?neeo ia/eiaiee Aeaenay neaaeoao n/eoaoue i?eiyoea Oeiaeaiey.

Ca aiaeu i?aaeaiey Ieoaeea auoei iiiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia /anoiiai
ii?yaeea, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii auei i?eaanoe a nenoaio. Ionthaea —
iio?aaiinoue a iauai naiaea caeiiia acaiai nouanoaiaaaoaio oaea oeaeia
noieaoea Noaeaaieeo Eaaia A?iciiai. Onei?ee ?ac?aaioeo iiaiai Oeiaeaiey
iyoaae 1648 a., a eioi?ii au?aceeinue ia?iaeiia iaaeiaieuenoai iiaie
aeeianoeae. Ia aoaeo/e ianeaaenoaaiiie e iioiio a ia?iaeiii iiieiaiee
iaaeinoaoi/ii caeiiiie, eaaeoeiiie, iia oai ia iaiaa i?aaeea a ooaeoeo
o?aaeeoeeyo iineianeeo naiiaea?aeoeaa. Ii iinea nioou iauanoai noaei
oaea eiui. *oi oa?iae ia?iae io ?th?eeiae/ae, oi ia iia e ia oioae
ia?aiineoue io ?iiaiiauo. Oai aieaa /oi eiaee ianoi i?iecaie e oe?aiey
ia noieueei io oea?ae, neieueei io aiy?neiai ie?oaeaiey, io a?aiaiueeia
e oaai?eoia, aanniaanoii yenieoaoe?iaaaoeo naith aeecinoue e o?iio. A
/anoiinoe, e aoio 1648 a. aue ni?iaioee?iaai a ecaanoiie ia?a
?iaenoaaiieeaie oea?y — Eeueae Ieeineaaneei, iooeii oea?neie aeaiu, e
aiy?eiii Ii?iciaui, auaoei aeyaeueeie-ainieoaoaeai Aeaenay, ae?oaeie
aaeueiiaeaie. A iniiaa auei eo /?acia?iia ei?unoiethaea, ceioiio?aaeaiea
aeecinoueth e oea?th.

Ainnoaaoay a Iineaa /a?iue, aiciouaiiay i?eoaniaieyie aiy?,
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeueyeia, aeai?yi, a?iieea e aeaea eo aeai?oeu,
oaeaaea iaiaaenoioth ciaoue. Aoio ia?aeeioeny ec noieeoeu a i?iaeioeeth.
Aia?aua a enoi?ee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa aeanoue aianoi oiai, /oiau iaiai
e ia/ii iiea?aoue /a?iue, noaea oniieaeaaoue iaaeiaieueiuo, iaauay
i?eaea/ue e ioaaoo iaeaieaa iaiaaenoiuo i?aaeoaeae.

Aoio, iacaaiiue nieyiui, anee e ia yaeeny i?e/eiie nicuaa niai?a aeey
?ac?aaioee Oeiaeaiey, oi ii e?aeiae ia?a onei?ee yoio nicua e
?aoeoaeueii iiaeeye ia niaea?aeaiea aai ?aoaiee. Ii e?aeiae ia?a
iao?ea?o Ieeii aiai?ee, /oi niai? nicuaaeny aiycie ?aaee e iaaeaeioniaey
io anao /a?iuo ethaeae, a ia enoeiiuy i?aaaeu ?aaee».

Eiienney iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eiycy Iaeiaaneiai ca iieaiaea iiaeaioiaeea
oaeno Oeiaeaiey, eioi?ue aue auianai ia ianoaeaeaiea niai?a a yiaa?a
1649 a. e iaeia?ai ei. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Oeiaeaiea aioiaeeinue a
niaoea, e iioiio ioaeaeueiua aeaau e noaouee i?i?aaioaiu iaaeinoaoi/ii,
/ai iauyniyaony e aieueoia /enei aeiiieiaiee, anei?a iineaaeiaaaoeo. E
oai ia iaiaa aio noaeaeaia auea eoaea aieaa aeieaay aeeciue (ii/oe
aeaanoe eao), /ai aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeai iiaeiaiiai ?iaea— Noaeaaieeai
Eaaia III e Eaaia IV. Eeoue a 1833 a. Oeiaeaiea auei caiaiaii iiaui
naiaeii caeiiia.

N Oeiaeaieai niaoeee, oae eae ?ann/eouaaee n aai iiiiuueth, aeaa iiaua
caeiiu, oniieieoue aieiiaaaoeeny ia?iae. Aeieoiaio niaea?aeae 25 aeaa
(967 noaoae). A aai iniiao auee iieiaeaiu noa?ua noaeaaieee,
aecaioeeneea caeiiu, ?aciaua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou oea?ae noa?ie e
iiaie aeeianoee, oeaciua eieae i?eeacia, ca?oaaaeiua eiaeaenu caeiiia (a
/anoiinoe Eeoianeee noaooo) e ae?oaea enoi/ieee.

Aeoeaiia o/anoea a ?aaioa iaae Oeiaeaieai i?eieiaee aeaiooaou niai?a,
eaeiauo ian/eouaaeinue aei 290 /aeiaae io 130 ai?iaeia. N?aaee ieo auei
150 neoaeeeuo ethaeae, 100 iinaaeneeo, /eaiu aiy?neie aeoiu, a iaeii
/enea — nayuaiieee. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue noaoae (aei iieiaeiu) iinayuaia
caueoa eioa?ania aeai?yinoaa, neoaeeeiai nineiaey.

Aia?aua a Oeiaeaiee aiai?eony i ?aaainoaa anao ia?aae caeiiii, i
iiaenoaeiinoe aeaaea naiuo ciaoiuo ethaeae e eiino?aioeaa. Noaeueyi
i?aaeienuaaeinue «ia nouaeyny eeoea neeueiuo, e ecaaaeyoe iaeaeyuaai
(iaeaeeiiai) io ?oee iai?aaaaeiiai». Oioy, aeaeea?e?oy ?aaainoai anao
ia?aae caeiiii, Oeiaeaiea onoaiaaeeaaei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua iaeacaiey
ca i?anooieaiey aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo nineiaee. Oae, oo?aou ca
«aan/anoea» acuiaeenue; ca e?anoueyieia— 2 ?oaey, ca aoeyuaai /aeiaaea —
1 ?oaeue, ca ciaoiiai a?aaeaeaieia — 70—100 ?oaeae. Auei ii?aaeaeaii
iiiyoea «ainoaea?noaaiiia i?anooieaiea», iyoaae i?ioea oea?y, aiaaiae,
aiy? e i?eeaciuo ethaeae, ca eioi?ia neaaeiaaei iaeii iaeacaiea —
«nia?oue aaci anyeie iiuaaeu».

I?eiyoeai Oeiaeaiey caaa?oeeny ?anoyioaoeeny ia noieaoey i?ioeann
ieii/aoaeueiiai cae?aiiuaiey e?anoueyi. Ia yoii aii?ina inoaiiaeiny
iiae?iaiaa, aa?ioaoenue iaiiiai e aai enoi?ee.

E eiioeo XVI a. ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey e oea?noaiaaiey Ai?ena Aiaeoiiaa
e?anoueyia oaea i?i/ii auee i?ee?aieaiu e caiea eaaaeueiuie a?aiioaie e
aeiaiai?aie n eo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. Aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aoiaea io
iaeiiai caieaaeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio, ia ioiaiaiiie.th?eaee/anee, iiaee
ainiieueciaaoueny e iieueciaaeenue eeoue i/aiue iaiiiaea. Aue onoaiiaeai
iyoeeaoiee n?ie iienea aaaeuo e?anoueyi.

Ca aiaeu nioou i?iecioee aieueoea eciaiaiey a naeueneii oeeaaea, ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo e?anoueyi e oicyaa caiee, Caiee iaacethaeaee e iioa?yee
naith oeaiiinoue, i /ai iiaeii noaeeoue ii eciaieaoaiony oaeaeueiiio
aano n?aaee e?anoueyi oae iacuaaaiuo aiaueae. Eie n/eoaeenue eeoea,
ia?aaaouaaaoea eeoue iaaieueoea o/anoee caiee, eee aiiaua ia eiaaoea
oaeiauo. Aiaueae, yoeo iionoeaoeony, iecoeo a e?anoueyineie n?aaea
yeaiaioia, anaaaea auei iaiiiai. Iinea nioou _ ianoaiiaea ?aaeeeaeueii
eciaieeanue. Ii ia?aiene, i?iaaaeaiiie a 1622 a. a Aaeaaneii, Ioeaineii
e Aeaoeeii oacaeao, onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia caieyo neoaeeeuo ethaeae auei
anaai eeoue 1187 e?anoueyi, a aiaueae — 2563. Ii yoei oeeo?ai iiaeii
noaeeoue i ianooaaao inoaaeaiey iaoie.

A oao aea oacaeao ia eaaeaeiai oyaeiaiai e?anoueyieia i?eoiaeeeinue ii
60 aeanyoei caiee, ec eioi?uo ia?aaaouaaeanue eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay
/anoue.

Iiiaea ec iiiaueeia, neoaeeeuo ethaeae ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe ni?aaeoue
ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey neoaeau. Iai?eia?, a Aeaoeeii oacaea ec 878
iiiaueeia 133 yaeyeenue aaccaiaeueiuie, a 296— iaeiiaeai?oeaie e
ionoiiiianoiuie (aac e?anoueyi). Iineieueeo neoaeeeue /aeiaae ia iia
iaania/eoue naay aeioiaeii n caiee, aio ioaeii auei aeaoue aeaiaaeiia
niaea?aeaiea. A iniiaiui i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui ianaeaieai, ieaoyuei
iiaeaoe, yaeyeenue e?anoueyia. Aeaiueae ia niaea?aeaiea neoaeeeuo
ethaeae iiaee auoue acyou oieueei n ieo, ca n/ao oaaee/aiey yoeo
iiaeaoae.

A eieue nei?i ?acia?u iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ia e?anoueyi iiaeaoae caaenaee io
ieiuaaeae ia?aaaouaaaiie eie iaoie, oi iinaau nie?auaeenue. Oau, ie/oi
ia iiai a yoii ie?a. Oi/ii oae aea aoaeoo iinooiaoue e?anoueyia iinea
nioou XX a. (?aaiethoeee e A?aaeaeaineie aieiu) — /oiau ia ioaeaaaoue
i?iaeoeoeeth (eceeoee) ii i?iae?acaa?noea, iie ia?aie/ao iinaau oieueei
iio?aaiinoyie naiae naiuee.

Iinea nioou iaaethaeaeinue yaeaiea, eiaaea ca iaaeinoaoeii ?aai/eo ?oe
oieiiu — neoae iiiaueeia noaee ia?aaiaeeoueny eie a caieaiaooeaa,
e?anoueyi. Ii yoi nouanoaaiii ia iaiyei iieiaeaiey. Caiey
iaanoeaieeanue, oeaia e?anoueyineiai o?oaea, ?aai/eo ?oe aic?inea.

I?aaeoaeuenoai oea?y Ieoaeea a 1627a. i?iaaei ia?aienue ianaeaiey,
icia/aaooth oaa e ieii/aoaeueiiio cae?aiiuaieth e?anoueyi. E yoiio
a?aiaie aeiaiai?u iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie ia/aee
ioi?ieyoueny aac eaeeo-eeai oneiaee e n?ieia, a ?aiaa caeeth/aiiua
ia?aienuaaeenue a oaeii aea aeooa. A iaeioi?uo ec ieo i?aaeiaoii
aeiaiai?aiiinoe yaeyeinue oaea ia oneiaea iieueciaaiey caieae e nnoaeie,
a i?inoi neoaeaiea ainiiaeeio, iieiia e iiaeeciaiiia aio iiae/eiaiea.

Iaeiaei ieii/aoaeueiia cae?aiiuaiea e?anoueyi neaaeoao naycuaaoue n
eiaiai oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a, eiay a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai —
eeeaeaeaoeeth n?iea aeaaiinoe aeey ?icunea e aica?auaiey e?anoueyi e
caieaaeaaeaeueoeai.

Oaea a ienoeiaii iaeaca oea?y Aeaenay, i?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?aiene 1646 a.,
aiai?eeinue: «Eae e?anoueyi e aiaueae e aeai?u eo ia?aieooo, e ii oai
ia?aieniui eieaai e?anoueyia, e aiauee, e eo aeaoe, e a?aouey, e
ieaiyiieee aoaeoo e?aiee e aac o?i/iuo eao». Oeiaeaieai yoa ii?ia auea
ooaa?aeaeaia, e e?anoueyia iaaa/ii ieacaeenue i?ee?aieaiiuie ia oieueei
e caiea, ii e e aa aeaaeaeueoeo.

Iaeiaei, i?aaeinoaaeyy iiiaueeo i?aai aeaaeaoue e?anoueyiaie,
ainoaea?noai aiceaaaei ia iaai e iaycaiiinoue — iaania/eaaoue nai?
iiaeaoae n e?aiinoiuo e auoue ioaaonoaaiiui ca eo niiniaiinoue ieaoeoue
iiaeaoue, iiiiaaoue ei, ioaa/aoue ca ieo, i?aaenoaaeyoue eo eioa?anu a
noaeao ii eiouanoaaiiui nii?ai. Aianoa n oai iiiaueeai cai?auaeinue
i?eieiaoue o naay aaaeuo e?anoueyi, i?aaeoniao?eaaeanue eo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoi.

Ia oiia anaai neacaiiiai eaaeaony aeenniie?othuae noaouey Oeiaeaiey,
cai?auathuay naiaiaeiiio /aeiaaeo i?iaeaaaoue naay a oieiiu. Ai?i/ai,
yoi auea iiiuoea oiaiueoeoue nieaeaiea /enea oyaeiauo ethaeae.
Cai?auaeinue iiiaueeai ia?aaiaeeoue oyaeiauo e?anoueyi a oieiiu. Ii yoa
ii?ia, e ?aiaa ano?a/aaoayny, yaeyeanue ia aieaa, eae aeaeea?aoeeae, oae
eae aa o?oaeii auei eiio?iee?iaaoue. E ana-oaee aaniethoiiai e?aiinoiiai
i?aaa n i?eiyoeai Oeiaeaiey aua ia ianooieei. Aio /oi ii yoiio iiaiaeo
iaienaii o A.I. Eeth/aaneiai: «A oie ia?aie oi?iaoeee e?anoueyineie
e?aiinoe, eaeoth cae?aieei Oeiaeaiea 1649 a., iia aua ia n?aaiyeanue n
oieiiueae, ii ii?iai eioi?ie no?ieeanue. Caeii e i?aeoeea i?iaiaeeee aua
oioy e aeaaeiua /a?ou, eo ?acaeaeyaoea: 1) e?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei
inoaaaeny eacaiiui oyaeaoeii, nio?aiyy iaeioi?ue iaeee a?aaeaeaineie
ee/iinoe; 2) eae oaeiaiai, aeaaeaeaoe iaycai aue iacaaanoe aai
caiaeueiui iaaeaeii e caieaaeaeue/aneei eiaaioa?ai; 3) ii ia iia auoue
iaaccaiaeai acyoeai ai aeai?, a iiianoiue e ioioneii ia aieth; 4) aai
aeeaiou, oioy e iaoiaeeaoeany oieueei a aai iiaeiaaieueiii iaeaaeaiee,
ia iiaee auoue o iaai ioiyou «ianeeuenoaii»…; 5) ii iia aeaeiaaoueny
ia ainiiaeneea iiai?u «/a?ac neeo e a?aaaaeii» e ii noaeo aica?aoeoue
naaa ianeeuenoaaiiue ia?aai?».

Ii ana yoi oaea ia eiaei aieueoiai cia/aiey. Ia iniiaa Oeiaeaiey i/aiue
nei?i iiiaueee aeiaaee e?anoueyi aei o?iaiy niaa?oaiii aani?aaiuo
oieiiia, noaaoeo eo iieiie nianoaaiiinoueth.

?ino /enea neoaeeeuo ethaeae, ia?aiauaiea eo a naeueneoth
ianoiinoue(iiianouey), iinoaiaiiia i?ee?aieaiea e iei e?anoueyi
naea?aeeaaee ?ino ai?iaeneeo iinaaeia. Ei iaioeoaea auei iiaeieouaaoueny
naaaeeie, iiauie ethaeueie. Anee e yoiio aeiaaaeoue, /oi eiae ianoi
iooie ethaeae ec iinaaeia ec-ca ana oaaee/eaathueony iiaeaoae, ia?aoiae
eo a caeeaae/eee e neeueiui ethaeyi, oi neaaeoao aiai?eoue ia ineoaeaiee
iinaaeneiai ianaeaiey, aai /eneaiiii oiaiueoaiee iinea nioou, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii — ia oooaeoaiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eonoa?iuo i?iiuneia e
oi?aiaee a no?aia. Caeeaae/eee iiaee caieiaoueny oai aea ?aianeii, /oi e
?aiaa, aoaeo/e a iinaaea, oieueei ia yaeyynue aieaa iinaaeneeie
ethaeueie, iie ia auee oyaeiauie, ia ieaoeee iiaeaoae. Ii neiaai
Eeth/aaneiai, i?iecioei neaaeothuaa: «Caeeaaeie/anoai auei i?yiui
ceioiio?aaeaieai: ia aoaeo/e e?aiinoiui oieiinoaii, inaiaiaeaeaaoei io
oyaea, iii niaaeeiyei auaiaeu e?aiinoiie iaaiee n auaiaeaie oyaeiaiai
iinaaeneiai i?iiunea, ia iany oyaea, iieueciaaeinue i?aaaie aac
iaycaiiinoae».

Oeiaeaieai 1649 aiaea caeeaaeie/anoai auei cai?auaii, aeiaiai?a ia nae
n/ao aiioee?iaaiu, ?aianeaiiua e oi?aiaua ethaee auee ecuyou o /anoiuo
aeaaeaeueoeaa e i?eienaiu e iinaaeai aac i?aaa eo iieeaeaoue. Oeac io 8
oaa?aey 1658 aiaea oneeee yoi iieiaeaiea, cai?aoea ia?aoiae iinaaeneeo
ethaeae ec iaeiiai iinaaea a ae?oaie. Ethaee iaycuaaeenue caieiaoueny
oieueei iaeiei, ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeii. «Oae iinaaeneia oyaei n oi?aia e
i?iiuneia noaei nineiaiie iiaeiiinoueth iinaaeneiai ianaeaiey, a i?aai
ai?iaeneiai oi?aa e i?iiunea — aai nineiaiie i?eaeeaaeae».

I?aaaea, oi?aiaui ethaeyi i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou.
Aa?iaa— eeoaeenue oaeiauo iiiaea ca?oaaaeiua eoioeu, io/aai
ioa/anoaaiiay oi?aiaey auea?uaaea. Oaeei ia?acii, cae?aiinoea e?anoueyi
e ia?aie/ea naiaiaeo iinaaeneei ethaeyi, i?aaeoaeuenoai oea?y Aeaenay
Ieoaeeiae/a ii?aaeaeeei niaoeeoe/aneee iooue ?acaeoey ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa. Iauanoai iaoiaeeeinue a ninoiyiee iai?ae?auathuaeny
ai?ueau iaaeaeo aeai?yiaie e e?aiinoiuie, ia eioi?oth ?ano?a/eaaeenue
neeu oao e ae?oaeo. Ieceay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, yaeaoayny ?acoeueoaoii
iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoe e?anoueyi a o?oaea, ia?aeea no?aio ia ionoaaaiea io
ia?aaeiauo no?ai. Iniiaiay ianna i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai ianaeaiey
eneeth/aeanue ec iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie (e?anoueyia ia
o/anoaiaaee a niai?ao). Aue iaianai oaea? ia/aaoaio ?acaeaaoueny
cainoao. Ii eca?auaiiiio iooe iioei ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u, iineieueeo aa
iineoaee, aunoea eeannu, noaiiaeeenue ii nooe ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaie.

Aeooiaainoai yaii i?iea?aei a nayce n i?eiyoeai Oeiaeaiey, /ai e
iauyniyaony aai ?acei .iaaaoeaiay ioeaiea ni noi?iiu aoaeouaai iao?ea?oa
Ieeiia, oiaaeaoiaai ieo?iiieeoa Iiaai?iaeneiai. O/?aaeaeaeny
Iiianou?neee i?eeac, aaaeaaoee aeooiaiui nineiaeai, eioi?ia eeoaeinue
iiiaeo eueaio. A /anoiinoe, iii noaiiaeeinue iiaenoaeiui naaoneie
aeanoe. *?acau/aeii aeene?eieiaoeeiiiie ii ioiioaieth e aeooiaainoao
yaeyeanue noaouey, cai?auaaoay aio i?eia?aoaoue caiee e iiianouey. Oaeei
ia?acii, aue naeaeai na?ueaciue oaa e aoaeouae naeoey?ecaoeee oea?eiaiuo
e iiianou?neeo caiaeue, oioy, eae oaeaeei, Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ auioaeaeai
aue naeaeaoue onooieo iao?ea?oo Ieeiio a yoii aii?ina.

N.O- Ieaoiiia, aeaaay ioeaieo niai?o e i?eiyoiio ia iai Oeiaeaieth,
ienae: «…auea iiaaaea n?aaeieo eeannia ia niai?a 1648 aiaea. Io iiaiai
niai?a iie auea?uaaee, a i?iea?uaaee eo aeeoaeneea niia?ieee, noiyaoea
iaaa?oo e aieco oiaaeaoiae nioeeaeueiie eanoieoeu». Iiae n?aaeieie
eeannaie neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiiaueeia, eoioeia, aa?oooeo iinaaeneeo
ethaeae. I?iea?aee aiy?a e aeooiaainoai, eeoeaoenue eueaio e ieacaaoenue
iiaenoaeiuie ia?aaia ni anaie. E, eiia/ii, oa?yee e?anoueyia, noaiiaynue
ieii/aoaeueii e?aiinoiuie. A ?acoeueoaoa «…iaia?oaeeaaaony, /oi,
nicaaiiue aeey oie?aiey no?aiu, niai? 1648 aiaea iiaae e ?aceaaeo e
iaoaeiaieuenoaeyi a iineianeii iauanoaa. Aeinoeaoea naiae oeaee niai?iua
i?aaenoaaeoaee i?iaeioeeaeueiiai iauanoaa ainnoaiiaeee i?ioea naay
neeueiuo ethaeae e e?aiinoioth ianno. Anee iineaaeiyy, ia ie?ynue n
i?ee?aieaieai e oyaeo e e iiiaueeo, noaea i?ioanoiaaoue «aeeai» (o.a.
aanii?yaeeaie) e auoiaeii ia Aeii, iiaeaioiaeyy oai ?aceiiaueio, — oi
iauanoaaiiay aa?oeia eca?aea eaaaeueiue iooue aeaenoaee e i?eaaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai e iieiiio i?ae?auaieth Caineeo niai?ia»**. Iineaaeiee
niai? aue nicaai a 1653 a. ii aii?ino i i?eniaaeeiaiee Oe?aeiu. Aeaeaa
oea?ue e i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaeenue oieueei nicuaii niaauaiee n
oceei e?oaii eeoe.

Ii caeiiioai?/aneay, ?aoi?iaoi?neay aeayoaeueiinoue a oea?noaiaaiea
Aeaenay ia ia?aie/eaaaony i?eiyoeai Oeiaeaiey. Ca iei iineaaeiaae ?yae
ae?oaeo ocaeiiaiee. Iaciaai iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

1653 a. Oaiiaeaiiue oeac »0 aceiaiee oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei n oiaa?ia a
Iineaa e ai?iaeao n iieacaieyie ianeieueei acyoue e n eaeeo oiaa?ia» aue
i?ecaai ono?aieoue aaeoaiaeeth e i?iecaie /eiiaieeia i?e aceiaiee
iioeei, aeaeia eioi?uo auei iiiaeanoai.

1654 a, «Onoaaiay A?aiioa» inoaeaeaea ceioiio?aaeaiey a oaiiaeaiiii
aeaea e yaeyeanue iiiuoeie oieoeoee?iaaoue iioeeiu, onoaiiaeoue aaeeiue
nai? n ?oaey oiaa?a.

1667a. «Iiaioi?aiaue onoaa» ioaaouaae oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?acaeoea oi?aiaee, nicaeaiea i?ei?eoaoia ?onneei eoioeai
ia?aae eiino?aiiuie, caueoo eoioeia io i?iecaiea /eiiaieeia,
iai?aaaaeiuo noaeae, aieieeo/eeia.

1669a. «Iiaioeaciua noaouee i oaoaaiuo, ?acaieiuo, oaeanoaaiiuo aeaeao».

1650 e 1653 aa. «Ei?i/ay eieaa» — nai?iee iinoaiiaeaiee aecaioeeneeo
eiia?aoi?ia, eanathueony naaoneiai noaea, — ecaeaaia eiaaoay ia ?one
neeo i?aaiaiai aeieoiaioa.

Niooa aeeeoiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe ia
ianoao, nin?aaeioi/aiey aa a iaeieo ?oeao. Iiyaeaiea aiaaiae eae
aaeeiiaeanoiuo oi?aaeaioeaa oacaeaie e ae?oaeie oa??eoi?eaeueiuie
aaeeieoeaie eae ?ac e auei aucaaii yoie iio?aaiinoueth. I?e Ieoaeea oaea
ia?aoiaeeee ia yoo oi?io oi?aaeaiey. A iaaeaeo oai aua
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Eaaia A?iciiai auei aaaaeaii caineia oi?aaeaiea. I?e
?iiaiiauo aiaaiaeu noaee iacia/aoueny aianoi caineeo auai?iuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Ii nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ia auea oieoeoee?iaaia, e cainoaa
ia ieacaeenue eeeaeaee?iaaiiuie iieiinoueth. A iaeieo ianoao i?aaeee
aiaaiaeu, a ae?oaeo auai?iua caineea i?aaenoaaeoaee, a o?aoueeo e oa, e
ae?oaea aianoa. Auaaei, aiaaiaea iiae/eiyeny caineiio noa?inoa, auaaei —
iaiai?io. A oi aianoi oao e ae?oaeo oeaio?aeueiie oeao?ie aeanoe oacaea
noaiiaeeny aoaiie noa?inoa. Iieo/aeenue eiiaeiaoeee, eiaaea iaeie
aeanoiua ooieoeee (iai?eia?, nai? iaeiaia, n?aaenoa aeey niaea?aeaiey
aiaaiae e ae?.) inoaaaeenue ca caineeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie, a
noaeii?iecaiaenoai aaee aiaaiaeu.

Ia?aoiae iiiaeo iieiiii/ee io cainoa e aiaaiaeai icia/ae oaa iacaae, e
oi?acaeiaiiui Eaaiii A?iciui iaianoieeai-ei?ieaiueeai. Enoi?eee aiai?yo,
/oi aiaaiaenoai noaei ooaeoei aa?eaioii iaianoie/anoaa. Ionoonoaea /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieiiii/ee e iaycaiiinoae aaei e iianaianoiui
ceioiio?aaeaieyi ni noi?iiu aiaaiae, aoeaaeueii iae?aaoeo aeeoaeae.
Ioaeii ioaeaoue aeieaeiia oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe — ia aiaaiae ?ac?aoaeinue
iiaeaaaoue /aeiaeoiua, ii eioi?ui eo iiaeii auei nianoeoue, a oi e
noaeeoue. Eioa?anii ?aoaiea, i?eiyoia i?e Aeaenaa, — cai?auaeinue
iacia/aoue aiaaiaeaie eeoe a ai?iaea, aaea iie eiaee naie iiianouey.
ssnii ii/aio — /oiau aiaaiaeu ia oiio?aaeyee aeanoue a naith iieueco. A
aaaeue oaeie iiaeoiae aanueia aeooaeai e aeey iaoaai a?aiaie.
I?aaenoaaueoa naaa, aoaa?iaoi?ii iaeanoe noaiiaeony aeaaeaeaoe iiuiie
eiiia?/aneie no?oeoo?u. Ioaeii auoue io i/aiue ii?yaei/iui /aeiaaeii,
/oiau ia nicaeaoue oneiaey iaeneiaeueiiai aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey naiaio
ee/iiio aeciano, oioy ia ia?eiae aoaa?iaoi?noaa ii aoaeao ia?aaeai
ae?oaei oi?aaeaioeai.

Iaeiaei oi?aaeyaiua aiaaiaeaie oacaeu e ai?iaea yaeyeenue iaeeeie
oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaiuie aaeeieoeaie, eaeiauo ian/eouaaeenue
nioie a auno?i ?anoouai ?onneii ainoaea?noaa. Auoiaey iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia Oeaio?aeueioth aeanoue, aiaaiaeu i?aaeee, inoaaaynue ii nouanoao ae
iaiiaeeiio?ieueiuie. Oiaaea e iiyaeeanue, iineiaeoea — «aei Aiaa auniei,
aei oea?y aeaeaei». A ?ac oae, oai?e, /oi oi/aoue. Iio?aaiinoue ai
aeanoiuo no?oeoo?ao, ioaaouaathueo aieueoea /anoe oa??eoi?ee
ainoaea?noaa, noaiiaeeanue i/aaeaeiie.

Oaea i?e Eaaia III iaicia/eeenue ia?aua i?eciaee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
aeaeaiey ainoaea?noaa aeey oaeianoaa oi?aaeaiey. I?e iai iii aeaeeeinue
ia o?aoe, i?e Eaaia A?iciii – ia /aoaa?oe. Ii ana yoi iineei aii?oiue
oa?aeoa?, A ia/aea XVII a. iu aeaeei oaea oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth iieeoeeo a
/anoe iioeiecaoeee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ii ia/aoua ?iiaiiauie
i?aia?aciaaiey ia iineee oa?aeoa?a aaeeiia?aiaiiie ?aoi?iu. A oeaeyo
iiaeeecaoeee anao nee iia?aie/iuo oa??eoi?ee aeey ioii?a aiaoiaio a?aao
a?oiiu oacaeia noaee iauaaeeiyoueny iiae aeanoueth aaeeiiai
aiaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Oaeea iauaaeeiaiiua oa??eoi?ee,
iaiiieiathuea aiaiiua ie?oaa, iieo/eee iacaaiea ?ac?yaeia. Anee i?e
ia?aii ?iiaiiaa eo auei ia?aciaaii oieueei aeaa — ?ycaineee e Oe?aeiiue,
oi a oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a iiyaeeenue Iiaai?iaeneee,
Naaa?neee, Aaeai?iaeneee, Oaiaianeee, Eacaineee. Iie iiiynaee oeaio?
?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. Nui Aeaenay Oaaei? i?iaeieaeee yoo iieeoeeo,
?ani?ino?aiea ?ac?yaeu ia aioo?aiiea oa??eoi?ee. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie Iao?a I auea i?iaaaeaia aieueoay iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay
?aaioa aeey inouanoaeaiey ei aoaa?ineie ?aoi?iu.

Oeaio?aeueiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aaaeiinoaaie yaeyeenue i?eeacu,
caieiaaoeany ioaeaeueiuie iai?aaeaieyie oicyenoaaiiie, iieeoe/aneie,
aaeieieno?aoeaiie e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aua i?eeacu iiyaeeenue aua
i?e Eaaia III, a e iienuaaaiiio ia?eiaeo eo ian/eouaaeinue oaea aieaa
iyoeaeanyoe. Ia auei /aoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee, ?aca?aie/aiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo ieie. Anee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa cao?oaeiyeenue
ii?aaeaeeoue, a eaeie i?eeac iai?aaeoue iiaia aeaei, oi nicaeaaaee
niaoeeaeueiue i?eeac, eee iniaoth eiioi?o. Oaeei a?acii, ana
caioouaaeinue.

I?e Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a auea i?iaaaeaia ?aaecey anao eniieieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia aeanoe. A ?acoeueoaoa aianoi iiiaeanoaa iaeeeo i?eeacia, eca,
eiioi?, eiiennee e o.ae. aue ia?aciaai ?yae e?oiiuo io?aneaauo
aaaeiinoa, noaaoeo i?iia?acii e aoaeoueo iao?ianeeo eieeaaee
(ieienoa?noa). Neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ia iaeiii niaoeeoe/aneii i?eeaca
(Oaeiii), ia?aciaaiiii ai a?aiy oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a.
Nicaeaiiue aia/aea aeey ianeoaeeaaiey ioioie/ueeo aeae oea?y, aei
eioi?uo oio aue aieueoie ethaeoaeue, ii iinoaiaiii i?aa?aoeeny a ee/ioth
oea?neoth eaioeaey?eth, aaaeiinoai ii iaaeci?o ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iinieuenoa, aiy?neie aeoiu, ioaeaeueiuo
aaeueiiae. I?e/ai iaaeci? yoio inouanoaeyeny oaeii. Eioioeoei, ?onneee
ienaoaeue, nia?aiaiiee Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a, ienae i Oaeiii i?eeaca, i
ooieoeeyo aai nio?oaeieeia (iiaeuey/eo): «Yoeo iiaeuey/eo oea?ue
i?e/eneye e iinieuenoaai, aoaaoei a eiino?aiiua ainoaea?noaa, e
aiaaiaeai, oaaeoei a iioiae, aeey iaaethaeaiey ca eo neiaaie e
iinooieaie: e oa iiaeuey/ea iaae iineu e iaae aiaaiaeaie iiaeniao?eaatho
e oea?th i?eaoaa neacuaatho… aeey oiai, /oiau aai oea?neay iuneue e
aeaea eniieiyeeny e ana ii aai oioaieth, a aiy?a a e aeoiiua ethaee i
oii ie i /ai ia aaaeaee».

Neieueei iiaiaeia oaeeaeyoueny aeaao iai ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey
iiaoi?yaiinoueth yaeaiee /a?ac iiiai noieaoee aeaaea a oaeeo
niaoeeoe/aneeo iiiaioao, eae i?aaiecaoeey neaaeee ca aunoeie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie /eiiaieeaie. Oae aoaeao i?e Iao?a I, i?e ae?oaeo
oea?yo e eiia?aoi?ao ana?inneeneeo, i?e aaia?aeueiuo nae?aoa?yo e
i?aceaeaioao.

Ca a?aiy nioou e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu a i?aaiu oeaio?aeueiiai e
ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey auaeaeioeinue iiiai iiauo ethaeae, iaeiia?aiaiii
nioee ia iao i?aaenoaaeoaee noa?uo ?iaeiaeouo oaieeee. A ?acoeueoaoa aue
iaianai na?ueaciue oaea? ii ianoie/anoao, yaeyaoaiony iniiaie i?e
iacia/aiee ethaeae ia aeieaeiinoe. Ii nenoaia ieacaeanue /?acau/aeii
aeeao/ae, e ieeaeea iiiyoey e o?aaiaaiey cae?aaiai niunea aeieai ia
iiaee na?ueacii iieieaaaoue aa iniiau. Eacaeinue au, iinea nioou
neaaeiaaei aicaeaoue aeieaeiia nianeoaeyi ioa/anoaa (eiycth Iiaea?neiio)
e iiea?aoue eee ii e?aeiae ia?a ioiaeaeiooue io ia?auo iano a oi?aaeaiee
ainoaea?noaii oao, eoi iaian aio o?ii. Ii ie/aai iiaeiaiiai i?e oea?a
Ieoaeea ia i?iecioei. Eeth/aaneee ?anneacuaaao i neo/aa, eiaaea Aeieo?ee
Iiaea?neee aue oieaeai ia?aae Naeoueiaui. I?e yoii aeoia ?annoaeaeaea
oae: «Iiaea?neee ?iaee/ e ?iaiy eiycth ?iiiaeaiianeiio — iaa ec eiycae
Noa?iaeoaneeo, a ?iiiaeaiianeee auaae iaiueoa I: Naeoueiaa. a A.
Naeoueia a naiai ?iaea iaiueoa I. Naeoueiaa— noaei auoue, eiycue
Iiaea?neee iaiueoa A. Naeoueiaa*. E ia aaaeii, /oi Iiaea?neee aicaeaaee
ai?ueao i?ioea iieyeia, noae iaoeeiiaeueiui aa?iai, a Naeoueiau
i?ineaaeeenue neoaeaie o Oooeineiai ai?a (Eaeaaeieo?ey II). Eiaaea
Iiaea?neee ia iineooaeny i?eaiai?a— auoue ieaea Naeoueiaa, «Naeoueia
a/eiee i?ioea iaai ene i aan/anouea, e nianeoaeue ioa/anoaa ioineai aue
aieiaith» e ie/oiaeiiio, ii ?iaeiaeoiio niia?ieeo, iiaeaa?any
oieceoaeueiiio ia?yaeo, aue i?iaaaeai n oi?aeanoaaiiui iici?ii iaoeii
iiae ?oee iiae eiiaiai io oea?neiai aeai?a aei e?ueueoea niia?ieea».

Yoio i?eia? naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, ianeieueei neeueiu auee o?aaeeoeee
ianoie/anoaa, ia eioi?ua ia niaee iinyaiooue aeaaea oaeea neeueiua
ainoaea?e, eae Eaai A?iciue e Ai?en Aiaeoiia, Niooa oieueei iieieaaaea
yoio enoi?e/aneee aiao?iieci.

N anooieaieai a neeo Oeiaeaiey, oi?ie?iaaieai iiauo no?oeoo? aeanoe
ianoie/anoai e eiioeo oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a oaea ia?anoaei
ea?aoue neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue. A i?e aai nuia Oaaei?a
oeacii io 1682 a. auei ioiaiaii nianai.

Iaoaea/iie ieacaeanue i?iaaaeaiiay i?e Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a naiaia?aciay
aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia, aucaaaoay ianoiyuee aoio. Ae i?aaeoanoaiaaea ii?/a
iiiaou — oaeei ia?acii i?aaeoaeuenoai oioaei iii?aaeoue oeiainiaia
iieiaeaiea. A ia?auaiee oiaaea oiaeeee iaiaoeeea oaea?u e aieeaiaeneea
/a?aiioeu. *a?aiiaoe i?e?aaieaaeny e ?oaeth, oaea? (aoeiie) e 42—50
eiiaeeai. Eniuouaay ia?iiioth ioaeaeo a n?aaenoaao, noaee «ii?oeoue»
aeaiueae, caieaeay niaea?aeaiea a ieo na?aa?a i?e ia?a/aeaiea oaea?ia a
?onneoth iiiaoo. Yoio i?eai noa? eae ie?, i /ai aiai?eo enoi?ey
ioieciaoeee, e e iaio i?eaaaatho iiiaea i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ieacuaaynue a
o?oaeiii oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee. Ii ana aeaei a ianooaaao e noaiaie
ii?/e.

Aia/aea /aeaieee ec oaea?a iaeeie ?onneie iiiaou ia 64 eiiaeee, eiay
aeioiae a eacio aei 20 eiiaae ia eaaeaeii oaea?a. Ii i?aaeoaeuenoao
yoiai iieacaeinue iaei. ?aoeee eeaeieoue eaaeaeue oaea? (aoeiie)
aeinoieinoaii a iaeei ?oaeue aianoi aai iyoeaeanyoeeiiaa/iie noieiinoe.
A ?acoeueoaoa eiaee oiaeaeaiea aeaa na?aa?yiua iiiaou iaeiiai aana, ii a
aeaa ?aca ?acee/athueany ii aeinoieinoao. E oioy eeaeiaiea iiiao auei
eneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaii ainoaea?noaa, iaoeenue e ae?oaea, e ia/aeenue
ianniaua iiaeaeaeee. Noaee ?acei ?anoe oeaiu ia oiaa?u.

A 1656a. ?oeuaa i?aaeeiaeee /aeaieoue iaaeiua iiiaou, ?aaiua ii ?acia?ai
na?aa?yiui e oie aea iaicia/aiiie noieiinoueth. Iie yaeyeenue naiaai
?iaea iaaeiuie anneaiaoeeyie. O?e aiaea auei ana ii?iaeueii, iaaeiua
aeaiueae oiaeeee ia?aaia n na?aa?yiuie ii i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaie
noieiinoe. Ii aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eaaee e e?eceno. I?aaeaea anaai,
naii i?aaeoaeuenoai neeoeii oaeaeeinue /aeaieie ie/ai ia iaania/aiiie
iaaeiie iiiaou (ca iyoue eao auionoeee aa ia 20 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae). E
e?iia oiai, ceioiio?aaeaiea aeanoueth a oea?neii ie?oaeaiee. Nai oanoue
Aeaenay, Eeuey Ieeineaaneee, ecaanoiue noyaeaoaeuenoaii e icaeieinoaii,
ia/aeaiee aei 100 ouny/ iaaeiuo ?oaeae. Eiathuea aeinooi e /aeaiea
aeaeaee oaeea aeaiueae naaa e, ca acyoee, ae?oaei. Iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai
oaeueoeaiiiiao/eeia, eioi?ua ianiio?y ia eacie ca yoi «?aianei»
caieiaeenue ei. A ?acoeueoaoa a 1662 a, ca 100 na?aa?yiuo ?oaeae aeaaaee
300 iaaeiuo, a 1663 a. — 1500. Oeaiu iiaenei/eee a ianeieueei ?ac, /oi
i?eaaei iiiaeo e ?aci?aieth, iaieuaieth, aieiaeiie nia?oe. Ia?iae,
iaaeiyaoee ai anai aiy?, acaoioiaaeny, o?aaoy io oea?y eo eacie. Aeaei
caeii/eeinue ioiaiie iaaeiuo aeaiaa. Eo i?eieiaee a iaiai ia na?aa?yiua
ii eo?no iaeei e aeaaaeoeaoe.

Neieueei aea ciaeiiiai aeaeei iu a iaieioeyoeeyo n aeaiueaaie,
ia/eiaaiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaie ai a?aiaia oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee e
caeai/eaathueony ?aci?aieai ianaeaiey. Ia anaai, eiia/ii, a aieueoeinoaa
ethaeae, i?e oii, /oi noiyuea aeecei e aeaaa ainoaea?noaa ia yoii
iaaeeaathony.

Auaeathueiny ec i?aia?aciaaoaeueiuo aeae Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a auea
oea?eiaiay ?aoi?ia, eaeaieiaii e i?iaiaeieeii eioi?ie noae iao?ea?o
Ieeii. Iineaaenoaey ?aoi?iu, i?eaaaeoae e ?aneieo oea?eae, ieacaeenue
cia/eoaeueiua e nouanoaaiii iiaeeyee ia aeooiaioth, e ia oieueei,
aeeciue ?onneiai iauanoaa.

Ia yoii iao ioaeaeueiue ?anneac.

?onneea ethaee, ii e?aeiae ia?a aunoea neie iauanoaa, i?e oea?a Aeaenaa
noaee ana aieaa eniuouaaoue ia naaa aeeyiea eoeueoo?u, ii?yaeeia,
iau/aaa eiicaiiuo ainoaea?noa. Caiaae ?aiaa ioaae eiina?aaoeaiia ?onneia
iauanoai, i?aiyonoaoy ia oieueei i?iieeiiaaieth ioooaea oea?eiaiie
a?ane, aanianeeo eaeae, i?aanoaaiiuo onoaiiaie, ii aeaaea iieaciui
oicyenoaaiiui e oaoie/aneei aeinoeaeaieyi. I?e Ieoaeea ?iiaiiaa, iinea
nioou, aucaaaoae iai?eyoea anaai eiino?aiiiai, yoa ecieyoeeiienoneay
iiceoeey aua aieaa oneeeeanue. Ii Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ oaea ii-ae?oaiio
niio?ae ia Caiae, iiieiay iaaoaiinoue aeey no?aiu ioai?aaeeaaiey io
i?ia?anneaiiai aeeyiey. Aianoa n oai e aeoeaiuo oaeiaeaeaeaiee a aai
noi?iio ia aeaeae. Eeth/aaneee iaeae naith ioeaieo ioiioaiey Aeaenay e
Caiaaeo a oaeea i?e/oaeeeaua, ia?aciua o?acu: «Ii aue ia i?i/ue n?uaaoue
oeaaoee eiicaiiie eoeueoo?u, ii ia oioae ia?aoue ?oe a /a?iie ?aaioa aa
iinaaa ia ?onneie ii/aa… Naieie /anoi aanii?yaei/iuie e
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiuie ii?uaaie e iiaiio e naiei oiaiueai ana
naeaaeeaaoue e oeaaeeaaoue ii i?e?o/ee ioaeeaoth ?onneoth iuneue e
aeeyieyi, oaaeoei n /oaeie noi?iiu».

Ii eae au oi ie auei, a aai i?aaeaiea ia/aeinue i?eiauaiea e caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?a e aue iiaeaioiaeai ieaoeaea?i aeey ?aoi?iaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a Aaeeeiai a yoii iai?aaeaiee. Iu aeaeei i?e
iineianeii aeai?a ianno eiino?aioeaa. ?onneay ciaoue i?eiauaaony e
oaao?o, aa?iiaeneie iaeaaeaea, ieua, ?ineioiui yeeiaaeai. Oaea eiathony
oeaeua iieee «eiicaiiiai aiy», aeaoe aaeueiiae iao/athony eiino?aiiui
ycueai, aaeoo ia o/aao ca a?aieoeo. E ana yoi aac iaae?uaa, no?annia,
?aaiethoeeiiiuo iio?ynaiee, eae au naii niaie.

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