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Александр Степанович Попов

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Eae ecaanoii, Aa?oe ia i?aaeaeaeae aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei a oaoieea. A naiii aeaea, auei o?oaeii oaeaeaoue a
neaauo enei?eao, eioi?ua Aa?oe ?anniao?eaae a eoio, aoaeouaa n?aaenoai
nayce, ia?ae?uaathuea iuia einie/aneea ?annoiyiey aei Aaia?u e Ia?na e
iicaieythuaa oi?aaeyoue naiioiaeiui aiia?aoii ia Eoia. Aeaaea /aeiaaeo n
iaenoiueiie oaioaceae, ciaiaieoiio ienaoaeth AEtheth Aa?io ia oaeaeinue
i?aaeaeaeaoue ?aaeeinaycue, e aa?ie aai ?iiaia “Ieaao/ee ino?ia”,
iaienaiiiai iinea iiuoia Aa?oea, ia ciatho niiniaia aani?iaiei/iie
nayce.

Aiiaua iaaeaeo i?eioeeieaeueiui ioe?uoeai e aai oaoie/aneii i?eeiaeaiee
eaaeeo ia?iiiia ?annoiyiea. Yeiooaei ia i?aaeaeaeae a iaic?eiii aoaeouai
aiciiaeiie ?aaeecaoeee niioiioaiey E=mc2, ?aca?oi?ae n/eoae oeia?ie
eniieueciaaiea aoiiiie yia?aee. Oieueei ethaee n iniauie niiniaiinoyie
iiaoo iaeoe ?acoiiia oaoie/aneia aiieiuaiea iao/iie eaeae. Eiaiii oaeeie
niiniaiinoyie iaeaaeae caia/aoaeueiue ?onneee oecee Aeaenaiae?
Noaiaiiae/ Iiiia, i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaaoee i?eia?ii /a?ac aiae iinea nia?oe
Aa?oea ia?aue ?aaeeii?eaiiee, ioe?uaoee aiciiaeiinoue i?aeoe/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei aeey oeaeae aani?iaiei/iie nayce.

Aeaenaiae? Noaiaiiae/ Iiiia ?iaeeeny 16 ia?oa 1859 aiaea ia O?aea
(iinaeie Oo?ueeineee ?oaeiee) a naiuea nayuaiieea. Iinea ieii/aiey a
1877 aiaeo iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo eeannia Ia?ineie aeooiaiie naieia?ee ii
ia noae i?iaeieaeaoue aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea, a iinooiee ia
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. A
oieaa?neoaoa aai oaeaeaea yeaeo?ioaoieea. Ii ?aaioae iiioa?ii a
oiaa?euanoaa “Yeaeo?ioaoiee”, e aia?aua aai o?oaeu a 1882 aiaeo auee
iinayuaiu aeeiaii-yeaeo?e/aneei iaoeiai.

Oioy Iiiia aue inoaaeai i?e oieaa?neoaoa aeey iiaeaioiaee e
i?ioanni?neiio caaieth, ii aeieai ia i?iaue a anie?aioo?a, eae au
neacaee nae/an, e n 1883 aiaeo noae i?aiiaeaaaoaeai Ieineiai
ioeoea?neiai eeanna a E?iiooaaeoa, niaiauay yoo aeieaeiinoue n
iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioie a Oaoie/aneii o/eeeua Ii?neiai aaaeiinoaa a
E?iiooaaeoa. A Ieiiii ioeoea?neii eeanna Iiiia i?i?aaioae aei 1901
aiaea, eiaaea ii aue eca?ai i?ioanni?ii eaoaae?u oeceee
Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai einoeoooa a Iaoa?ao?aa. A 1905 aiaeo ii aue eca?ai
aee?aeoi?ii einoeoooa e a yoie aeieaeiinoe neii/aeny io e?iaieceeyiey a
iica 13 yiaa?y 1906 aiaea.

Ii ?iaeo naiae neoaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe A.N.Iiiia aue oanii naycai n
aiaiii-ii?neei oeioii, e eiaiii ai oeioa i?iecioei ?iaeaeaiea aaeeeiai
ioe?uoey. Enoi?e/aneea oneiaey aeey ioe?uoey nic?aee, e iaio ?aciuie
iooyie a ?aciuo no?aiao ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii oee ianeieueei ethaeae:
Iiiia, ?aca?oi?ae, Ia?eiie e ae?oaea. Ia?aui aeiaeeny oniaoa A.N.Iiiia.
a 1889 aiaeo A.N.Iiiia i?i/eoae a nia?aiee ieiiuo ioeoea?ia oeeee
eaeoeee “Iiaaeoea enneaaeiaaiey i niioiioaiee iaaeaeo naaoiauie e
yeaeo?e/aneeie yaeaieyie” ii neaaeothuae i?ia?aiia:

“1. Oneiaey i?ienoiaeaeaiey eieaaaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?e/anoaa e
?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee a i?iaiaeieeao.

2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee a aicaeooa – eo/e
yeaeo?e/aneie neeu. Io?aaeaiea, i?aeiieaiea e iiey?ecaoeey yeaeo?e/aneeo
eo/ae.

3. Aeoeiiyeaeo?e/aneea yaeaiey – aeaenoaea naaoa aieueoiaie aeoae ia
yeaeo?e/aneea ca?yaeu.”

Yoe eaeoeee nii?iaiaeaeaeenue aeaiiino?aoeeyie iiuoia Aa?oea. Iie eiaee
aieueoie oniao, e Ii?neie oaoie/aneee eiieoao i?aaeeiaeee ii?neiio
ieienoa?noao iiaoi?eoue eaeoeee n aeaiiino?aoeeyie a Iaoa?ao?aa, a
Ii?neii iocaa aeey iaoa?ao?aneeo ioeoea?ia. “Iiuou, i?iecaaaeaiiua
aa?iaineei i?ioanni?ii Aa?oeai a aeieacaoaeuenoai oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe
yeaeo?e/aneeo e naaoiauo yaeaiee, – aiai?eeinue a yoii i?aaeeiaeaiee, –
i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoie eioa?an ia oieueei a no?iai iao/iii niunea, ii
oaeaea e aeey oyniaiey aii?inia yeaeo?ioaoieee.”

I/aaeaeii, /oi A.N.Iiiia oaea aiai?ee a naieo eaeoeeyo i aiciiaeiinoe
i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey aiei Aa?oea, e ?oeiaiaeyuea eeoea ?onneiai
aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa caeioa?aniaaeenue yoei. Ii?neia ieienoa?noai
niaeaneeinue ia iiaoi?aiea eaeoeee Iiiiaa a Iaoa?ao?aa e auaeaeeei
iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa ia ia?aaiceo i?eai?ia. Eaeoeey “Ia yeaeo?e/aneeo
eieaaaieyo n iiaoi?aieai iiuoia Aa?oa” ninoiyeanue a Ii?neii iocaa 3
ai?aey 1890 a. Iiaeii n aieueoei iniiaaieai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi A.N.Iiiia
aue ia oieueei iaeiei ec ia?auo a ?innee “i?iiaaaoi?ii aa?oeieiaee”
(oa?iei Noieaoiaa), ii e oai, eoi n?aco ioeaiee i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
ioe?uoee Aa?oea e ia/ae ?aoaoue caaea/o eo oaoie/aneiai eniieueciaaiey.
7 iay 1895 aiaea A.N.Iiiia ia canaaeaiee oece/aneiai ioaeaeaiey ?onneiai
oeceei-oeie/aneiai iauanoaa aeaiiino?e?iaae neiino?oe?iaaiiue ei
?aaeeii?eaiiee. Yoio aeaiue a iaoae no?aia aaeaaiaeii ioia/aaony eae
aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey ?aaeei.

Aeaoaeoi?ii yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee a i?eaiieea Iiiiaa aue ecia?aoaiiue
a 1890 A?aiee (1844-1940) i?eai?, iacaaiiue aiaeeeneei o/aiui Ieeaa?ii
Eiaeaeai (1851-1940) eiaa?a?ii. Yoi aue naiaia?aciue iieoi?iaiaeiee.
Noaeeyiiay o?oaea, caiieiaiiay iaoaeee/aneeie iieeeaie, auea ieioei
i?iaiaeieeii yeaeo?e/anoaa. Iaeiaei iiae aicaeaenoaeai yeaeo?e/aneeo
eieaaaiee aa yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ?acei aic?anoaea. A iiuoao A?aiee iia
iaiyeanue io ieeeeiiia aei nioai e aeanyoeia ii. Yoi oiaiueoaiea
nii?ioeaeaiey nio?aiyaony e iinea i?ae?auaiey aicaeaenoaey eieaaaiee
“eiiaaea aieaa 24 /ania” ii iaaethaeaieth A?aiee. O?oaeo iiaeii aa?iooue
a ninoiyiea ieioie yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe “neaauie io?uaenouie oaea?aie ii
aeiua/ea, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaao o?oaeo”.

Eiaeae a 1894 aiaeo i?i/eoae a Eiiaeiineii Ei?ieaaneii iauanoaa eaeoeeth
iaiyoe Aa?oea iiae iacaaieai “Oai?aiea Aa?oea”. Caeanue ii aiai?ee e i
o?oaea A?aiee: “Yoio i?eai?, eioi?ue y iacuaath eiaa?a?ii ,
oaeeaeoaeueii /oanoaeoaeai eae aeaoaeoi? aa?oeaaneeo aiei”.

A iiuoao Eiaeaea eiaa?a? /oanoaiaae aeeyiea ene?u ia ?annoiyiee ni?iea
y?aeia ( ieiei 40 i). Eiaeae i?eiaiye ?acee/iua niiniau i?eaaaeaiey
eiaa?a?a a ?aai/aa ninoiyiea, a oii /enea e n iiiiuueth aea?aoeee
yeaeo?e/aneiai caiiea, niiioe?iaaiiiai ia iaeiie aeinea n eiaa?a?ii.
Iaeiaei Eiaeae ia aeiaeoiaeny aei eniieueciaaiey caiiea e eae
?aaeno?aoi?a iinooieaoaai neaiaea e eae aaoiiaoa aeey i?eaaaeaiey
eiaa?a?a a ?aai/aa ninoiyiea. Yoi naeaeae A.N.Iiiia. Iiiia aea i?eiaiee
aioaiio aeey oeaaeeaaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei. Ni/aoaa caiiie, eiaa?a?,
aioaiio, A.N.Iiiia iino?iee i?eai?, eioi?ue iicaea ( a ethea 1895 aiaea)
aue iacaai Ae. A. Ea/eiiaui “a?iciioiao/eeii”, eiay aaeaeo aai
i?eiaiaiea eae ?aaeno?aoi?a a?iciauo ?ac?yaeia. Iaeiaei Iiiia naiei
i?eaiieeii iieueciaaeny e aeey i?eaia aiei, nicaeaaaaiuo ia?aaeao/eeii.
A naiae noaouea “I?eai? aeey iaia?oaeaiey e ?aaeno?e?iaaiey
yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee”, iioaeeeiaaiiie a aeo?iaea ?onneiai
oeceei-oeie/aneiai iauanoaa a 1896 a., A.N.Iiiia ienae: “ A niaaeeiaiee
n aa?oeeaeueiie i?iaieieie aeeeiith 2,5 iao?a i?eai? ioaa/ae ia ioe?uoii
aicaeooa eieaaaieyi, i?iecaaaeaiiui aieueoei aa?oeaaui aea?aoi?ii (
eaaae?aoiua eenou 40 naioeiao?ia a noi?iia) n ene?ie a ianea, ia
?annoiyiee 30 naaeai”.

Yoe no?iee ienaeenue a aeaeaa?a 1895 a. Oaeei ia?acii, A.N.Iiiia a 1895
a. i?iaiaeee iiuou ii ia?aaea/a e i?eaio yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei ia
?annoiyiee aei 60 i. Eaoii oiai aea aiaea aai i?eai? eniieueciaaeny aeey
?aaeno?aoeee yeaeo?e/aneeo aiciouaiee a aoiinoa?a eae i?e iaee/ee
a?iciauo ?ac?yaeia, oae e i?e ionoonoaee a?ic. A.N.Iiiia caeai/eaae
naith noaoueth neiaaie, /oi “i?eai? i?e aeaeueiaeoai oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
aai iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai e ia?aaea/a neaiaeia ia ?annoiyiee i?e iiiiue
auno?uo yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee”. I?e yoii ii oeacuaae ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii iiuiiai aaia?aoi?a oaeeo
eieaaaiee.

20 yiaa?y 1897 a. A.N.Iiiia aunooiee ia no?aieoeao aacaou “Eioeei” ni
noaoueae “Oaeaa?aoe?iaaiea aac i?iaiaeia”. Caaeaaea noaouee ynii
oeacuaaao, /oi a iae eaeao ?a/ue ia i ia?aaea/a e i?eaia iniuneaiiiai
oaenoa oneiaiui eiaeii. Noaouey iiyaeeanue a nayce n niiauaieai ia
iiuoao Ia?eiie. Iiiia iaiiieiaao, /oi i?eai?, aiaeiae/iue iienaiiiio a
niiauaiee, aue ei iino?iai a 1895 a. e aeaiino?e?iaaeny ia canaaeaiee
oece/aneiai ioaeaeaiey ?onneiai oeceei-oeie/aneiai iauanoaa a ai?aea. Ii
oeacuaae, /oi aai i?eai? “i?eniiniaeai aeey iiuoia n yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie
aieiaie” e aeaiino?e?iaaeny ia iao/iuo canaaeaieyo e eaeoeeyo.

A.N.Iiiia oeacuaaao, /oi n iiiiuueth yoiai i?eai?a ii ioia/ae a?iciaua
?ac?yaeu ia ?annoiyiee “aieaa 25 aa?no”. Ii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi
neaiaeecaoeey yeaeo?e/aneeie aieiaie “e nae/an aiciiaeia”, ii
aa?oeaaneea aea?aoi?u eae enoi/iee yeaeo?e/aneeo eo/ae ”i/aiue neaau”.
Oeacaa , /oi aeaenoaea ooiaia ia yeaeo?e/aneea aieiu “ia auei
iaaethaeaaii”, Iiiia iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi “iiaeii iaeeaeaoue nouanoaaiiie
iieuecu io i?eiaiaiey yoeo yaeaiee a ii?neii aeaea…”. E a aeaeueiaeoai
A.N.Iiiia iaonoaiii ?aaioaao iaae ?ac?aaioeie ?aaeeioaeaa?aoiie nayce
aeey oeioa.

?aaioay aeey oeioa e io/aoeeai iiieiay anth aaaeiinoue yoie ?aaiou aeey
naiae ?iaeeiu, A.N.Iiiia ia niaoee n ia/aoiuie ioaeeeaoeeyie, no?aiynue
eioi?iaoe?iaaoue eeoue niaoeeaeueioth aoaeeoi?eth: ii?neeo ioeoea?ia e
o/aiuo. Ii n iiiaioa iiyaeaiey a ia/aoe naaaeaiee i ?aaioa Ia?eiie
A.N.Iiiia aue auioaeaeai aunooieoue a caueoo naiaai i?ei?eoaoa. Noaouey
a aacaoa “Eioeei” io 20 yiaa?y 1897 a. auea ia?aui oaeei aunooieaieai
A.N.Iiiiaa.

Aoeueaeueii Ia?eiie (1874-1937) a ethia 1896 a. naeaeae cayaeo ia iaoaio
aeey naiaai ecia?aoaiey. Iaoaio ia “oniaa?oainoaiaaiey a ia?aaea/a
yeaeo?e/aneeo eiioeuenia e neaiaeia e a aiia?aoo?a aeey yoiai” aue
auaeai Ia?eiie 2 ethey 1897 a., o.a. nionoy aieaa aeaoo eao iinea
aeaiiino?aoeee A.N.Iiiiaui naiaai i?eaiieea. Iaoaio Ia?eiie aue
aiaeeeneei e cae?aieye aai i?ei?eoao a Aiaeee. A.N.Iiiia ia?aie/eeny
niiauaieai 7 iay 1895 a. e ia/aoiie ioaeeeaoeeae 1896 a. e naiaai
ecia?aoaiey ie a ?innee, ie aaea au oi ie auei ia iaoaioiaae.

Enoi?e/anee i?ei?eoao A.N.Iiiiaa aannii?ai, ii aannii?ai n oi/ee c?aiey
iao/iiai i?ei?eoaoa. Ii th?eaee/anee iaoaio Ia?eiie, oioy e yaeyaony
oieueei aiaeeeneei, aue i?aaiaui aeoii, cae?aieythuei aaoi?noai
ecia?aoaoaey. Ia?eiie aue eaieoaeenoe/aneei aeaeueoeii, ii ie/aai ia
ioaeeeiaae e ia niiauae aei iiaea/e ia iaoaio, ii no?aieeny cae?aieoue
ia iao/iue, ia enoi?e/aneee i?ei?eoao, a th?eaee/aneee. E oioy enoi?ee
iaoee iao ieeaeiai aeaea aei th?eaee/aneie noi?iiu, iia ?aoaao aii?in n
oi/ee c?aiey enoi?e/aneie i?aaaeu, iaoiaeyony enoi?eee iaoee, eioi?ua
caueuatho i?ei?eoao Ia?eiie.

Caneoaa Ia?eiie a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee ?aaeei aannii?ia, a ?acaeoee, ii
ia a ioe?uoee. Enoi?e/anee oi/ii onoaiiaeaiiui oaeoii yaeyaony oio oaeo,
/oi ioe?uoea ?aaeei auei naeaeaii A.N.Iiiiaui e aeaoa ia?aiai ioaee/iiai
niiauaiey ia yoii ioe?uoee 25 ai?aey noa?iai noeey, 7 iay iiaiai noeey
1895 a. yaeythony aeaoie iaeiiai ec aaee/aeoeo ecia?aoaiee a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u.

A.N.Iiiia A.Ia?eiie oee io iaeiie noaiu ?aaeeii?eaiieea, eniieuecoy
i?eioeei eiaa?aaa. Ae?oaei iooai i?iaeaio ia?aaea/e neaiaeia ia
?annoiyiea iuoaeny ?aoeoue Y?iano ?aca?oi?ae (1871-1937). Aua iaoiaeynue
a Iiaie Caeaiaeee, ii eco/ae iaiaaie/eaaiea aeaeaca auniei/anoioiuie
?ac?yaeaie. ?acoeueoaou naieo enneaaeiaaiee ii iioaeeeiaae a “O?oaeao
Iiai-Caeaiaeneiai einoeoooa” ca 1894 a. Ia?aaoaa a Eaia?eaeae, ii
i?iaeieaeae caieiaoueny yoei aii?inii e, onoaiiaea oiaiueoaiea
iaiaaie/eaaiey noaeueiiai noa?aeiy iiae aeeyieai yeaeo?e/aneeo
eieaaaiee, i?aaeeiaeee ainiieueciaaoueny yoei yooaeoii aeey
aeaoaeoe?iaaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo eieaaaiee. Noaouey ?aca?oi?aea “Iaaieoiue
aeaoaeoi? yeaeo?e/aneeo aiei e iaeioi?ua aai i?eiaiaiey” auea
iioaeeeiaaia a 1897 a., a aiae auaea/e iaoaioa Ia?eiie. A yoie noaouea
?aca?oi?ae niiauee, a /anoiinoe, ia eniieueciaaiee aeaoaeoi?a a iiuoao
ii iaia?oaeaieth yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei ia aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo. Ii
ienae: “Iu ?aaioaee n aea?aoi?ii Aa?oea, eiathuei ieanoeiu ieiuaaeueth
40 ni2 e ei?ioeee ?ac?yaeiue eiioo?; iu iieo/eee aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia
ioeeiiaiea iaaieoiiao?a ia ?annoiyiee 40 y?aeia, i?e/ai aieiu i?ioiaeeee
/a?ac ianeieueei oienouo noaiie, ?aniieiaeaiiuo iaaeaeo aea?aoi?ii e
i?eaiieeii”. “A aeaeueiaeoeo iiuoao auea iinoaaeaia caaea/a –
ii?aaeaeeoue iaeneiaeueiia ?annoiyiea io aea?aoi?a, ia eioi?ii iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea…” “Ia?aua iiuou i?iaiaeeeenue
a eaai?aoi?eyo Eaia?eaeaea, i?e/ai i?eaiiee iaoiaeeeny a iaeiii ec
aeaeueieo caeaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie yooaeo aue iieo/ai ia ?annoiyiee
ieiei /aoaa?oe ieee io aea?aoi?a, e, noaey ii aaee/eia ioeeiiaiey,
yooaeo iiaeii auei au caiaoeoue ia ?annoiyiee, a ianeieueei ?ac
aieueoai…”

Ii a yoii aea, 1897 a., eiaaea auea iioaeeeiaaia yoa noaouey, ?aca?oi?ae
ociae i ?acoeueoaoao Ia?eiie e i?ae?aoee aeaeueiaeoea iiuou ni naiei
aeaoaeoi?ii. Aai aieiaiea i?eaeaeea iaeanoue, a eioi?ie aio auei
noaeaeaii iaannia?oeoue naia eiy, – ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue. I?iaiaey
enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe, ii i?eoae e ioe?uoeth aoiiiiai yae?a e
ia?auo yaea?iuo ?aaeoeee.

Enoi?ey ioe?uoey ?aaeei, a eioi?ie nieaeenue eiaia iiiaeo
enneaaeiaaoaeae ?aciuo no?ai, aua ?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aaaeiue caeii
enoi?ee iaoee, i eioi?ii ienae O. Yiaaeuen a 1894 a., ca aiae aei
ioe?uoey ?aaeei, aiai?y, /oi, anee a?aiy aeey ioe?uoey nic?aei, “yoi
ioe?uoea aeieaeii auei naeaeaii”.

Ioe?uoea ?aaeei iiaeoaa?aeeei ni?aaaaeeeainoue oai?ee Iaenaaeea aunoei
e?eoa?eai enoeiu – i?aeoeeie. Oai?ey Iaenaaeea auaeaeioea ia?aae oeceeie
?yae ino?uo e aeoaieeo aii?inia, ?aoaiea eioi?uo i?eaaei e iiaiio
?aaiethoeeiiiiio yoaio a enoi?ee oeceee.

Iaieine, 1998 aiae

Aeieeaae

Aoiueei Eeuee Aiaioeueaae/a

oeiea ?13 11”A” eeann

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