.

Альбрехт Дюрер

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1130
Скачать документ

Iineianeee i?aeaia Ae?oaeau ia?iaeia

Ainoaea?noaaiiue Eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a ie?iaie eoeueoo?u

Aeuea?aoo Aeth?a?

?aoa?ao ii eoeueoo?ieiaee

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

ae.o.i., aeioe.

Oaieei Aeeoi? Aeaenaiae?iae/

Iineaa 1996

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-1” Iauee iaci? oai?/anoaa Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a GOTOBUTTON
_Toc357329353 PAGEREF _Toc357329353 3

Enneaaeiaaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeey i?iecaaaeaiee Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a
GOTOBUTTON _Toc357329354 PAGEREF _Toc357329354 17

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc357329355 PAGEREF _Toc357329355 21

Iauee iaci? oai?/anoaa Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a

AEeaiienaoe, ?eniaaeueuee, a?aaa?, aoiaieno, o/aiue, Aeth?a? aue ia?aui
ooaeiaeieeii a Aa?iaiee, eioi?ue noae eco/aoue iaoaiaoeeo e iaoaieeo,
no?ieoaeueiia e oi?oeoeeaoeeiiiia aeaei; ii ia?aue a Aa?iaiee iuoaeny
i?eiaieoue a eneonnoaa naie iao/iua ciaiey a iaeanoe ia?niaeoeau e
i?iii?oeee; ii aue aaeeinoaaiiui iaiaoeeei ooaeiaeieeii 16 aaea,
inoaaeaoei iinea naay eeoa?aoo?iia ianeaaeea. Iaiau/aeiay
ooaeiaeanoaaiiinoue, oe?ioa eioa?ania, ?aciinoi?iiiinoue ciaiee
iicaieytho iinoaaeoue Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a a iaeei ?yae n oaeeie
i?ineaaeaiiuie ianoa?aie Aic?iaeaeaiey, eae Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, ?aoayeue.

I?ineaaeaiiue aoiaieno e nia?aiaiiee Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a Y?aci
?iooa?aeaineee (1466-1536) ienae a 1528 aiaeo, ioeaieaay oai?/anoai
ooaeiaeieea: “*aai oieueei ia iiaeao ii au?aceoue a iaeiii oeaaoa, oi
anoue /a?iuie oo?eoaie! Oaiue, naao, aeane, aunooiu e oaeoaeaiey,
aeaaiaea?y /aio eaaeaeay aauue i?aaenoaao ia?aae aci?ii c?eoaey ia
iaeiie oieueei naiath a?aiueth. Ino?i noaaouaaao ii i?aaeeueiua
i?iii?oeee e eo acaeiiia niioaaonoaea. *aai oieueei ie ecia?aaeaao ii,
aeaaea oi, /oi iaaiciiaeii ecia?aceoue – iaiiue, eo/e, a?ii, ca?ieoeu,
iieiee, iaeaio ooiaia, ana iuouaiey, /oanoaa, iaeiiaoe, anth aeooo
/aeiaaea, i?iyaeythuothny a oaeiaeaeaeaieyo, aaeaa ee ia naiue aiein.
Ana yoi ii n oaeei eneonnoaii ia?aaeaao oi/iaeoeie oo?eoaie e i?eoii
oieueei /a?iuie, /oi ou inei?aee au i?iecaaaeaiea, anee au iiaeaeae
aianoe a iaai e?anee…”

Oai?/aneia ?acaeoea e aeayoaeueiinoue Aeth?a?a i?ioaeaee a iniauo
oneiaeyo naaa?iiai Aic?iaeaeaiey, a oa aiaeu, eiaaea Aa?iaieth nio?ynaee
ao?iua nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea niauoey. Iie auee i?iyaeaieai
?acee/iuo oi?i aioeoaiaeaeueiie ai?ueau, ai?ueau ca iaiiaeaiea oea?eae e
?aeeaee, ca nicaeaiea aaeeiiai iaiaoeeiai ainoaea?noaa, ca
inaiaiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io oaiaeaeueiiai aiaoa e ioo n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
iuoeaiey. Yoi oe?ieia aeaeaeaiea iieo/eei iacaaiea ?aoi?iaoeee.
?aoi?iaoeey niinianoaiaaea iiaeuaio anao i?ia?anneaiuo nee a no?aia e
iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei – y?eiio ?anoeaaoo eneonnoaa.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u a Aa?iaiee ieacaea Eoaeey e, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, eoaeueyineee aoiaieci. I?iieeaaoea n thaa
i?iecaaaeaiey aioe/iuo, ?eineeo aaoi?ia, o?oaeu eoaeueyineeo o/aiuo
iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. E ia/aeo 16 aaea a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao
Aa?iaiee nouanoaiaaee aoiaienoe/aneea e?oaeee, i?iiaaaiaee?iaaaoea
eeanne/aneoth eeoa?aoo?o e eneonnoai. Iiae eo aeeyieai ia?aaeiaua
iaiaoeeea ooaeiaeieee, a oai?/anoaa eioi?uo ana aua auee neeueiu
o?aaeeoeee aioeee, ia/eiaee inaaeaaoue aeinoeaeaiey eoaeueyineeo
ianoa?ia yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. Iniiaiia aieiaiea nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue ia
eco/aiee caeiiia ia?niaeoeau e i?iii?oeee /aeiaa/aneiai oaea.

Iieo/ea ia?aua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iaauee a naiuea iooea – cieiouo e
na?aa?yiuo aeae ianoa?a, iiciaa oaeiu aeeaiieniiai ianoa?noaa e
eneonnoaa eneeia?aoee o e?oiiaeoaai ith?aiaa?aneiai ooaeiaeieea Ieoayey
Aieueaaiooa, Aeth?a? nio?aiee ia anth aeeciue i?eaycaiiinoue e ?aciui
aeaeai eneonnoaa.

Ae?aiaoe/aneea niauoey yiioe, naeaeaoaeai eioi?uo ii yaeyeny, iaoee
io?aaeaiea a aai a?aath?ao ia aea?aaa. Aianoa n oai a a?aath?ao ia iaaee
ooaeiaeiee ?aaioae iaae nicaeaieai aa?iiie/iiai ia?aca, aeeceiai
eoaeueyineei aoiaienoe/aneei eaeaaeai. Yoe aeaa a?aie oai?/anoaa
nouanoaiaaee ia?aeeaeueii, ieacuaay ae?oa ia ae?oaa acaeiiia aeeyiea.
Naia aiieiuaiea iie iaoee a ?aciuo oaoieeao e i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey
?aciiai c?eoaey. A?aath?a ia aea?aaa, aeeceay ia?iaeiui ea?oeieai e
eeethno?aoeeyi, auea iiiyoiaa ia?iaeo e auioneaeanue aeey iaai.
?acoeiaay a?aath?a ia iaaee, aicieeoay a i?ioanneiiaeueiie n?aaea
thaaee?ia, iicaieyea ?aoaoue niaoeeoe/anee ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iaeaiu e
auea ?ann/eoaia ia c?eoaeae, aieaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo e aini?eyoeth
eneonnoaa.

Anth aeeciue ooaeiaeiee iaeiia?aiaiii caieiaeny a?aath?ie a aeaoo ?aciuo
oaoieeao. Ii ia/ae ii n eneeia?aoee. I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi, aua
iooaoanoaoy ii no?aia, iieiaeie Aeth?a? i?eiye o/anoea a nicaeaiee
?enoieia aeey a?aath? e ecaanoiui ecaeaieyi 15 aaea, a oii /enea, e
“Ei?aaeth aeo?aeia” Naaanoueyia A?aioa, iaiaoeeiai naoe?eea (1458-1521).
(A eiioea 15 – ia/aea 16 aaea a ?aaioa iaae eneeia?aoeae i?eieiaee
o/anoea e ooaeiaeiee, nicaeaaoee ?enoiie aeey a?aath?u, e ?ac/ee ii
aea?aao. A nayce n yoei ea/anoai a?aath?u caaenaei io oaeaioa e
ianoa?noaa iaieo. Aeth?a? aue ia?aui, eoi niaea?aeae a naiae ianoa?neie
?ac/eeia, ei aea iao/aiiuo, eioi?ua no?iai auiieiyee o?aaiaaiey
ianoa?a.)

Oaea ia?aua eneeia?aoee a?aaa?a, auiieiaiiua a Ith?iaa?aa, ea/anoaaiii e
noeeenoe/anee ioee/aeenue io anaai, /oi auei nicaeaii aei iaai. Ii, oai
ia iaiaa, i/aaeaeiu e aeeyiey, eioi?ua eniuouaae ia/eiathuee ianoa?.
Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, aicaeaenoaea iaiaoeeie eneeia?aoee 15 aaea n aa
y?ei au?aaeaiiui aeaei?aoeaiui ia/aeii, a oaeaea eneonnoaa eoaeueyineeo
a?aaa?ia, i?iecaaaeaiey eioi?uo a oi a?aiy /anoi iiiaaeaee a Ith?iaa?a e
a ianoa?neoth Aieueaaiooa.

Oa naaaeaiey ia Eoaeee, eioi?ua iieo/ae ooaeiaeiee io ie?oaeathueo aai
ethaeae, niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth o iaai iniaiai eioa?ana e yoie no?aia.
Eiaiii iiyoiio, aaeaa noaa naiinoiyoaeueiui ooaeiaeieeii, a 1494 aiaeo
ii aaeao a Eoaeeth, aaea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiie?oao iiioiaioaeueiua
?aaiou e a?aath?u Iaioaiuee – iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo ianoa?ia a
eoaeueyineii Aic?iaeaeaiee. Iiae aai aeeyieai a ?aiieo eneeia?aoeyo
Aeth?a?a i?iyaeyaony oyaa e iiioiaioaeueiinoe e aa?ie/iinoe.

Oaea a ia/aea oai?/aneiai iooe ooaeiaeiee i?iyaeyao aieueoie eioa?an e
iaiaaeaiiiio /aeiaa/aneiio oaeo. Ii anee a ?acoeiaie a?aath?a ii
ia/eiaao ieaiiia?ii eco/aoue no?iaiea e i?iii?oeee /aeiaaea, no?aieony
iinoe/ue e ia?aaeaoue ieanoeeo oaea, oi a eneeia?aoee “Ioaeneay
eoiaeueiy” ia ia?aue ieai aunooiaao aeaeaeaiea, aeeiaieea eeiee, eioi?ua
a iineaaeothueo a?aath?ao, oaeeo eae “Aa?eoean”, “Nainii”, aoaeoo
ia?aaeaaaoue iai?yaeaiiinoue noaaoee, no?anoue ai?ueau.

Ii n?aaiaieth n oi?iuaiiuie aeaei?aoeaiuie a?aath?aie 15 aeaea, a
i?iecaaaeaieyo Aeth?a?a oneiaeiyaony ia oieueei niaea?aeaiea, ii e
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythony au?aceoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe oaoieee
eneeia?aoee. Aanue aa ecia?aceoaeueiue no?ie ia?ac?uaii naycuaaaony
oaia?ue n oa?aeoa?ii eiiiiceoeee. Oae, neiaeiue oci? caaeaathueony a
ooaea eieueoea eeiee a a?aath?a “Nainii” niioaaonoaoao cae?o/aiiie a
eeoaie eiiiiceoeee, a eioi?ie nieaeenue oaei /aeiaaea e eueaa. Eeiey
noaiiaeony iineoaeai yiioeeiiaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe e yeni?anneaiinoe
ia?aca. Aeth?a?, aeaeeii nai i?iaiaae ?acaoue. Oieueei yoei iiaeii
iauynieoue oaeia oi/iia iuouaiea oi?oainoe, /aoeinoe e iai?yaeaiiinoe
eaaeaeiai oo?eoa, eioi?ua i?iyaeeenue oaea a ?aiieo a?aath?ao ianoa?a.

A 1498 aiaeo ooaeiaeiee caeii/ee naith ia?aoth aieueooth na?eth a?aath?
“Aiieaeeinen”, noaaooth cia/eoaeueiui yaeaieai ai anai eneonnoaa
iaiaoeeiai Aic?iaeaeaiey. Nthaeaou ia aeaeaeneea e aaaiaaeueneea oaiu
inoaaaeenue a 15 – 16 aa. iniiaiuie a ecia?aceoaeueiii eneonnoaa. Ii o
Aeth?a?a iie iieo/eee i?eioeeieaeueii eiia oieeiaaiea. O?aaeeoeeiiiiio
aaaiaaeueneiio nthaeaoo ooaeiaeiee i?eaeae ino?ue nia?aiaiiue niune.
Oaia “Aiieaeeinena” nicao/ia iano?iaieyi, oea?eaoei a Aa?iaiee a eiioea
15 aaea. Iinoiyiiua iaaeaeioniaiua aieiu, aieiae, yieaeaiee, neooe i
i?aaenoiyuai eiioea naaoa e No?aoiii noaea, eioi?ue a?iceo /aeiaa/anoao
a 1500 aiaeo, – ana yoi iaoei io?aaeaiea a “Aiieaeeinena”.

Na?ey, iacaaiiay ii ia?acoeo ia?iaeiuo ecaeaiee “Aiieaeeinen a eeoeao”,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey naiiai oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Iia ninoiyea ec
iyoiaaeoeaoe aieueoeo eenoia, oaeno e eioi?ui aue ecaeai ia aeaoo
ycueao: ia oieueei ia eaoeineii, ii e ia iaiaoeeii. Oaeno
nii?iaiaeaeaeny a?aath?aie, a eioi?uo ?aeeaeiciia i?i?i/anoai ia?aaeei
i?eia?aoaei /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai niauoey.

Io eenoa e eenoo ?acaeaaaony aeaenoaea “Aiieaeeinena”, iaeiei ec
eoeueieiaoeeiiiuo iiiaioia eioi?iai noaea noeaia, ecia?aaeathuay
“*aou?ao anaaeieeia”. Ii?, Aieia, Aieiae e Nia?oue aeo?ai i?iiinyony
iaae Caieae, niaoay ana ia naiai iooe. Iiae eiiuoaie eo eioaaeae aeaioo
e eiia?aoi?, e aieneii, e ai?iaeaiea, e e?anoueyiei, ieeoeaoai?ythuea
niaie ana /aeiaa/anoai. Ana ?aaiu ia?aae ea?ie iaaaniie, ia oieueei
?ac?ooathuae, ii e i/euathuae, – oaeiaa iaeia ec iniiaiuo eaeae
Aeth?a?a, i?ioiaeyuay /a?ac anth na?eth.

Oaiia?aiaio iieiaeiai ooaeiaeieea i?iyaeyaony a eaaeaeii eenoa. Aeth?a?
eae au nai noaiiaeony aeoeaiui o/anoieeii ecia?aaeaiiuo niauoee. Ii
aaiaeeo a naie a?aath?u ia?iiiua iannu ia?iaea, ?acaeaeyao eo ia
i?aaaaeieeia e a?aoieeia, iaaeaeyao e oao e ae?oaeo no?anoiinoueth. Ii,
eae aa?oiaiue noaeuey, a?icai, iiao/ e aaniiuaaeai, ii e ?acoiai. Eiaaea
ia i/euaiioth caieth aiiaue nioneathony ie? e oeoeia, ii eeeoao e
i?ineaaeyao aianoa n eca?aiiuie iaiiaeaiiue ie?.

A yoie na?ee ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ycue a?aath?u noaiiaeony eiie?aoiaa,
aeeiaie/iaa e niaeaa. Eaaeaeia ecia?aaeaiea eiaao naie yiioeeiiaeueiue
eeth/ e no?ieony ia auaeaeaiee iniiaiiai aeaenoaey. Oae,
no?aieoaeueiinoue aeaeaeaiey noaea aeaaiui eaeoiioeaii a “*aou?ao
anaaeieeao”. ?acaaaathueany iaeaaeaeu, neeueiua aeanou, oa?iaeathua
iiaeiyoia i?oaeea, oaaaathuea e iaaeathuea a iaieea ethaee – eaaeaeay
aeaoaeue oneeeaaao aia/aoeaiea onei?ythuaainy oaiia. Ia?ae?aueaaiea
aeeaaiiaeueiuo inae, ia eioi?uo iniiaaia any eiiiiceoeey, iiae/a?eeaaao
aa yeni?anneaiinoue.

Eia/a ?aoaia eiiiiceoeey “Aeoaa a?oaiaaea Ieoaeea”, iaoin eioi?ie a
noieeiiaaiee, ai?ueaa aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/ae, aeia?a e cea, naaoa
e oueiu. Eeno aeaeeony ii ai?eciioaee ia aeaa ia?aaiua /anoe. Aeaenoaea,
i?ienoiaeyuaa aaa?oo, ia iaaa, caieiaao iniiaiia ianoi; ecia?aaeaiea
caiee – eeoue iaaieueooth /anoue eenoa. O?oieia oaei Ieoaeea
i?ioeainoieo ia?iiiie aanoi?iaiiie ianna ae?aeiia. Eiio?anoii y?inoiie
aeoaa ia iaaa yaeyaony ie?iia niieienoaea, oea?yuaa ia caiea.
Caiooaiiiio aioe/aneiio ?enoieo eeiee iaaa?oo i?ioeaiiinoaaeai niieieiue
e yniue ?enoiie, ecia?aaeathuee oeoee iaecaae, a ieaeiae /anoe a?aath?u.
E, iaeiiaoe, iniiaiay eaeay a?aath?u iaoiaeeo eiie?aoiia au?aaeaiea a
aeaoo/anoiie eiiiiceoeee n oueiith iaaa?oo e naaoii aieco.

Ianiio?y ia ioaeaeueiua aioe/aneea /a?ou (iiiaioeao?iua ia?aa?oaeaiiua
eiiiiceoeee, oaeeeiaiiua i?iii?oeee, aeoeaaaoua, eiieea eeiee),
“Aiieaeeinen” noae i?iecaaaeaieai iiaiai a?aiaie. Yoi i?iyaeeinue
i?aaeaea anaai a aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n niauoeyie e iano?iaieyie
Aa?iaiee eiioea 15 aaea, a oaeaea a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie o?aeoiaea
nthaeaoa, a oie aeoeaiinoe, eioi?ie Aeth?a? iaaeaeyao naieo aa?iaa; a eo
no?anoiie ?aoeoaeueiinoe, aeaeno-aaiiinoe, aa?iecia. Ii oe?ioa ioaaoa
niauoee, ii yiioeeiiaeueiie neea, ii oeaeueiinoe e iiioiaioaeueiinoe
“Aiieaeeinen” Aeth?a?a yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei i?iecaaaeaieai a eneonnoaa
Naaa?iiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ““Aiieaeeinenii” ooaeiaeiee ia/ae nicaeaaaoue ia?aua
eenou na?ee “Aieueoeo no?anoae”, auae?ay iaeaieaa ae?aiaoe/aneea noeaiu
ec eaaaiaeu i O?enoa (“Io/aiea O?enoa”, “Acyoea iiae no?aaeo”). A yoeo
aieueoiai oi?iaoa a?aath?ao ia aea?aaa O?enoin i?aaenoaao ia eae
no?aaeathuee /aeiaae, a eae ioaeanoaaiiue e i?ae?aniue aa?ie,
n?aaeathueeny ni ceii.

A 1500 – 1511 aiaeao Aeth?a? ia/ae ?aaioaoue iaae iniiaiuie eenoaie e
na?ee “AEeciue Ia?ee”, ieii/ee na?ee “Aieueoeo” e “Iaeuo no?anoae”,
ecaeaa eo a 1511 aiaeo.

Aeaaaeoeaoue a?aath? e enoi?ee “AEecie Ia?ee”, a ioee/ea io
“Aiieaeeinena”, aiieiuaee ie?iue, naaoneee eaeaae ooaeiaeieea.
Ooaeiaeiee iaaeaeee eo /a?oaie naieo nia?aiaiieeia e ia?aian aeaenoaea
?yaea a?aath? a ?aaeueioth ianoaiiaeo Aa?iaiee 16 aaea. N iiaie
aeai?iaie eioa?i?aoaoeeae aeaeaeneeo niauoee i?eoei e iiaia
eiiiiceoeeiiiia ?aoaiea noeai, e iiaue a?aoe/aneee noeeue.

“Ano?a/a Eiaeeia o Cieiouo ai?io” – yoi ano?a/a aeaoo iiaeeeuo ethaeae,
i?ienoiaeyuay ia ieiuaaee iaiaoeeiai ai?iaea. Ooaeiaeiee auaeaeyao
aa?iaa, neeueii auaeaeioa eo aia?aae e aienaa a a?eo. Oa?aeoa?o yoie
noeaiu, niieieiie e iiyoe/iie, niioaaonoaoao aanue ia?aciue no?ie
a?aath?u – ieaaiua eeiee neeaaeie iaeaaeae, iyaeea neeoyou, aoi?yuea
?eoio a?ie. A?oeoaeoo?a, iaecaae, auoiaay n?aaea yoie na?ee noaiiayony
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth a?aath? Aeth?a?a. Oae, noeaia “?iaeaeanoaa Ia?ee”
i?ienoiaeeo a ath?aa?neii aeiia, ana aeaoaee ianoaiiaee eioi?iai
ia?aaeaiu n aieueoie aeinoiaa?iinoueth. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi aeaaiay aa?ieiy
– Aiia ioiaeaeiooa aaeoaue, a ia ia?aaeiai ieaia ecia?aaeaiu ai?iaeaiee
a ?aciiia?aciuo e naiuo iai?eioaeaeaiiuo iicao e a einothiao 16 aaea. E
oieueei aiaae ia iaeaea iaiiieiaao, /oi noeaia yoa eiaao ioiioaiea e
?aeeaeiciie eaaaiaea.

A eenoa “Aaanoai a Aaeiao” iniaoth yiioeeiiaeueioth ?ieue ea?aao
iaecaae. Yoi iaeii ec ?aiieo ecia?aaeaiee i?e?iaeu a iaiaoeeii
eneonnoaa. Oaeinoaaiiue ean, aaea oaioanoe/aneea aea?aauey ninaaenoaotho
n ?anoaieyie n?aaeiae iieinu Aa?iaiee, i?eaeaao noeaia neaci/iue
oa?aeoa?.

Niieieiue, iiaanoaiaaoaeueiue ?anneac iaoiaeeony a iieiie aa?iiiee n
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie i?eaiaie ianoa?a. Aeth?a? ia iieuecoaony aieueoa
eiio?anoaie /a?iiai e aaeiai, ii i?aaeii/eoaao ?aaioaoue oo?eoii,
aeiaeaaynue iyaeinoe ia?aoiaeia. “AEeciue Ia?ee” noaiiaeony iiyoe/aneei
?anneacii, iieiui ethaae, ?aaeinoe, a?onoe, a eioi?ii ?aaeueiinoue
ia?aieaoaaony n eaaaiaeie, auoiaua yeaiaiou ni neaci/iuie.

Na?ey “Iaeuo no?anoae” ninoieo ec o?eaeoeaoe oanoe a?aath? iaaieueoiai
oi?iaoa. Iia auea nicaeaia ca ei?ioeia a?aiy, auiouaia cia/eoaeueiui
oe?aaeii n ?an/aoii ia oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Yoa naiay aieueoay /anoue ec anao na?ee Aeth?a?a ia/eiaeanue
ecia?aaeaieai “A?aoiiaaeaiey” e eii/aeanue noeaiie “No?aoiiai noaea”.
Eenou, eacaeinue au nthaeaoii ia naycaiiua n aeaaiie oaiie, aaaaeaiu
ooaeiaeieeii, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue iniiaiie niune “Iaeuo no?anoae” –
eneoieoaeueioth aea?oao O?enoa: ecaaaeaiea /aeiaaea io ia?ai?iaeiiai
a?aoa. Na?ey iiae/eiaia yoie eaeaa e i?iecaiaeeo oeaeueiia aia/aoeaiea.

Eiiiiceoeee eeoaiu oao auoiauo aeaoaeae, eioi?ua iaiieiyee a?aath?u
”AEecie Ia?ee”. Ana aieiaiea nin?aaeioi/eaaaony ia aeaaiii aeaenoaee. Ii
e caeanue, eae a na?ee “AEeciue Ia?ee”, n?aaea i?iaeieaeaao ea?aoue
aeoeaioth ?ieue.

Iiieii na?ee naieo iniiaiuo a?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee, Aeth?a? ?aaioae
oaeaea iaae ioaeaeueiuie eenoaie ia ?aeeaeiciua oaiu, iaae
ecia?aaeaieyie nayouo e aiinoieia. I?e yoii ii i?eaioe?iaaeny ia naioth
oe?ieoth aoaeeoi?eth, e oaeei ia?acii iia?aaeee iiiuoee ?aoi?iaoi?ia
naeaeaoue nayuaiiia ienaiea aeinooiiui aeey ia?iaea. Aua aei oiai, eae
Ethoa?, e?oiiaeoee aeayoaeue ?aoi?iaoeee, caiiai ia?aaae Aeaeeth ia
iaiaoeeee ycue, Aeth?a? ia?aeiaeee aa ioaeaeueiua eaaaiaeu ia
iauaaeinooiiue ycue ea?oeiie. A yoii iaeia ec i?e/ei iiioey?iinoe aai
a?aath? n?aaee nia?aiaiieeia.

A?aath?a ia aea?aaa auea eaeaaeueiie oaoieeie aeey ooaeiaeieea oiaaea,
eiaaea ii au?aaeae eeai aa?ie/aneee iaoin ai?ueau, eniieuecoy ae?aiaoeci
eiio?anoia /a?iiai e aaeiai, eeai ia?auaeny e niauoeyi iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie. A yoii iineaaeiai neo/aa eeiee – aaeeinoaaiiue oi?iiia?acothuee
yeaiaio eneeia?aoee – noaiiaeeenue iya/a, ieaaii ia?eniauaaee oi?io
i?aaeiaoia, auee yeaeaaeaioiu niieieiiio ?anneaco. Iaeiaei niaoeeoeea
ia?aciie a?aath?u ia aea?aaa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia nio?aiyao
oneiaiinoue e aeaei?aoeaiinoue ycuea, aeaaea anee ooaeiaeiee aaiaeeo a
aeiiieiaiea e eeiee oo?eoiaeo. Iiyoiio a oaoieea eneeia?aoee Aeth?a? ia
iia nicaeaoue iauaiii-ieanoe/aneiai ia?aca, e eioi?iio no?aieeny aeieaea
aieu. Ii aeiaeeny yoiai a ?acoeiaie a?aath?a ia iaaee. Iineaaeiyy,
aianoa n ?enoieii, noaea aeey iaai a thiua aiaeu oeieie iaeaaeaiey
i?iii?oeeyie e ia?niaeoeaie, a iicaeiaa iiiiaea ia?aaeaoue aanue
eiiieaen i?aaenoaaeaiee ooaeiaeieea i oece/aneii e aeooiaiii eaeaaea
/aeiaaea.

Aua a aeaonoaa Aeth?a? iiciaeiieeny n iniaaiiinoyie oaoieee a?aath?u ia
iaaee e n eo/oeie aa ia?acoeaie. Caoai ooaeiaeiee iiauaae a Eieueia?a e,
oioy ia canoae a aeeauo e?oiiaeoaai a?aaa?a 15 aaea Ia?oeia Oiiaaoy?a,
niia oaeaeaoue iaa?aae?iaaiiua ei aeinee. Oaea ?aiiea i?iecaaaeaiey
Aeth?a?a a yoie oaoieea, oaeea eae “Aeoaeiue nui” 1496 aiaea, iicaieytho
aiai?eoue i iai eae i aieueoii ianoa?a ?acoea. Iiaay o?aeoiaea nthaeaoa
“Aeoaeiiai nuia” n iaiau/aeiie neeie iieacaaoay aeoaeio /aeiaa/aneeo
no?aaeaiee, e oaoie/aneia niaa?oainoai i?eianee yoie a?aath?a
iiioey?iinoue eae a Aa?iaiee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie.

Ia/eiay n 1500-o aiaeia, ooaeiaeiee noaaeo ia?aae niaie caaea/o
iaeaaeaoue caeiiaie iao/iie ia?niaeoeau e eco/eoue i?iii?oeee /aeiaaea e
aeeaioiuo. Ia oaeiaeaoai?eaoenue yiie?e/aneei iaoiaeii, ii ia?auaaony e
o?oaeai ae?aaia?eineeo aaoi?ia e naieo eoaeueyineeo nia?aiaiieeia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii a ?acoeiaie a?aath?a Aeth?a? ia/eiaao au?aaaouaaoue naie
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eaeaaeueiuo i?iii?oeeyo oaea, i ieanoe/aneie aai
oeaeueiinoe, i aa?iiie/aneie nayce /aeiaaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. Yoe
iienee ieacaee aeeyiea e ia eneeia?aoeth yoiai ia?eiaea; a /anoiinoe,
io?aceeenue a na?ee “AEeciue Ia?ee”.

A a?aath?u Aeth?a? /anoi aaiaeee ecia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae ?acoeueoao aai oooaeeeiie ?aaiou. I?eia?ii neoaeeo
a?aath?a “Na. Aanoaoee” 1501 aiaea. Noeaia ioiou aeaea ooaeiaeieeo
iiaiae i?aaenoaaeoue caeanue ?acee/iuo aeeaioiuo: niaae, eioaaeue,
ieaiy. N aieueoie iaaethaeaoaeueiinoueth Aeth?a? ia?aaeaao eo
oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe, aiaoiie/aneia no?iaiea, i?iii?oeee. A oi aea
a?aiy ooaeiaeiee oiaei ni/aoaao yenia?eiaiou n ia?aciie
au?aceoaeueiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiey, aeiaeaaaony oaeeaeoaeueiie aai
oeaeueiinoe e anoanoaaiiinoe, ioaiaey iaecaaeo ?ieue iauaaeeiythuaai
ia/aea. Aiaaonoai iooaieia na?aa?enoiai oiia oneeeaaao e?anioo eenoa.
I/aiue iiiai Aeth?a? ?aaioae iaae eco/aieai i?iii?oeee /aeiaaea.
E?ueaoay aiaeiy aiciacaeey Iaiaceaea (1500-1503), noiy ia oa?a,
i?ieaoaao iaae ie?ii. Aa oeao?a i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo ia?auo,
neiino?oe?iaaiiuo ooaeiaeieeii a niioaaonoaee n oai?eae i?iii?oeee
Aeo?oaey. Ii aeeciaiiua iaaethaeaiey ianoa?a acyee aa?o iaae
oai?aoe/aneeie ?an/aoaie: Iaiaceaea aeaeaea io eeanne/aneiai eaeaaea.
Iia nei?aa iioiaeeo ia iuoiioaeuo iaiaoeeeo aeaiuei, /ai ia aioe/iua
ia?acu. Oaoie/aneia ianoa?noai aeinoeaaao caeanue niaa?oainoaa.
Ooaeiaeiee ia/eiaao oaea ia ?eniaaoue, a eae au eaieoue oi?iu: iie
iauaiiu e iaoa?eaeueiu.

Yoe aea no?aieaiey e ieanoe/iinoe iu aeaeei e a a?aath?a “Aaeai e Aaa”
(1504), eioi?ay caaa?oaao ?aaioo Aeth?a?a a aeaiiii iai?aaeaiee. Nai
ooaeiaeiee, i/aaeaeii, i/aiue oeaiee eeno, iioiio /oi iinoaaee ia iai
iieioth iaaeienue a ioee/ea io naieo ae?oaeo a?aath?, ioia/aiiuo eeoue
iiiia?aiiie.

Ia?acoeaie aeey oeao? Aaeaia e Aau iineoaeeee, eae i?aaeiieaaatho,
aioe/iua noaooe Aiieeiia Aaeueaaaea?neiai e Aaia?u Iaaeeoeaeneie, eee
nei?aa – ?enoiee n ieo. A yoie a?aath?a ooaeiaeiee aeiaeaaaony aua
aieueoae ieanoe/iinoe oi?i. A?aaa? “eaieo” oo?eoii, aeiaeaaaony iieiie
eeethci?iie iauaiiinoe oeao?, inaauaiiuo iyaeei ?iaiui naaoii, eioi?ue
aeeeaie ea?aao ia iaiaaeaiiuo oaeao. ?acoeiaua a?aath?u Aeth?a?a
iieueciaaeenue aieueoei oniaoii a n?aaea aoiaienoia, ooaeiaeieeia e
aiiaua ethaeoaeae eneonnoaa ?aciuo no?ai. Ei iiae?aaeaee, eiie?iaaee
aeaaea a Eoaeee. E iaeiie ec aaaeiuo i?e/ei, iiaoaeeaoeo ooaeiaeieea
niaa?oeoue aoi?oth iiacaeeo a Aaiaoeeth, auea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iaaeaeiaaoue aeaenoaey eoaeueyineeo a?aaa?ia, eioi?ua eiie?iaaee aai
i?iecaaaeaiey e i?iaeaaaee yoe eiiee.

Yoa iiacaeea ninoiyeanue a 1505-1507 aiaeao e ieacaea cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?/anoaa ooaeiaeieea. Aoaeo/e oaea
c?aeui e ecaanoiui ianoa?ii, Aeth?a? iaonoaiii i?iaeieaeae
niaa?oainoaiaaoueny. I?aaaea, oaia?ue, a Eoaeee, aeey iaai
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea i?eia?aee aeeaiieniua i?iaeaiu. Ii no?aieeny
iinoe/ue eiei?enoe/aneea i?eaiu aaeeeeo aaiaoeeaioeaa, ciaeiieeny oaeaea
n oai?aoe/aneeie ?oeiaiaenoaaie e iino?iaieth ia?niaeoeau a Aieiiuea.

Iaeiiaoe, oaea aa?ioaoenue ec Eoaeee, ooaeiaeiee niiaa ia?aoeeny e
a?aath?a. Na?ey “No?anoae” a a?aath?ao ia iaaee ninoieo ec oanoiaaeoeaoe
eenoia. Eo eniieiaiea ioee/aeinue oiieinoueth e ouaoaeueiinoueth.
Aeaaiia aieiaiea ooaeiaeieea a yoie na?ee, eae ie a eaeie ae?oaie, auei
iai?aaeaii ia ?ane?uoea aioo?aiieo /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa. Aai aa?ie,
iaaeaeaiiue aeaai?iaenoaii e /oanoaii aeinoieinoaa, i?ioeainoieo ae/iie,
aeanoieie e ceiaiie oieia. A?aaa? eniieueciaae yooaeou inaauaiey aeey
ia?aaea/e iai?yaeaiiinoe e ae?aiaoecia aeaenoaey. A eaaeaeie a?aath?a
naao naiei y?eei eo/ii au?uaaao ec iauaai i?aea oeao?o aa?iy – O?enoa.

A 1513-1514 aa. Aeth?a? nicaeae o?e naie naiua ciaiaieoua a?aath?u ia
iaaee – “eeanne/aneea”, eee “ianoa?neea”, eae eo iacuaaee oaea
nia?aiaiieee – “?uoea?ue, Nia?oue e Aeueyaie”, “Nayoie Ea?iiei a
eaeuea”, “Iaeaioieey”. Eaaeaeay ec ieo aiieiuaea i?aaenoaaeaiey
ooaeiaeieea i ?aciuo noi?iiao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, yaeyeanue
naiaia?aciui neiaieii iaeiiai ec o?ao aeeciaiiuo iooae, eioi?ui, ii
i?aaenoaaeaieyi oiai a?aiaie, iia neaaeiaaoue /aeiaae.

Aeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, noieeinoue e oaa?aeinoue, ii/oe oaiaoe/aneay
oaaaeaeaiiinoue a i?aaioa – iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua ea/anoaa, i?enouea
oaeei aeayoaeyi ?aoi?iaoeee, eae Ethoa?, Oeue?eo oii Aoooai, Ithioea?,
Iaeaiooii e ae?oaea – iaoee naia aiieiuaiea a ia?aca ?uoea?y (“?uoea?ue,
Nia?oue e Aeueyaie”).

Oii?iue, naiioaeoaeaiiue o?oae o/aiiai-aoiaienoa, /oaeaeiai aeeoaeneie
noaou e ao?iuo no?anoae, i?aaenoaaeai a a?aath?a “Na. Ea?iiei a eaeuea”.
E, iaeiiaoe, ae?aiaoeci oai?/aneiai aea?caiey – a “Iaeaioieee”, eioi?ay,
ii au?aaeaieth Y. Iaiioneiai, iaeiiai ec nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae
oai?/anoaa Aeth?a?a, yaeyaony aai aeooiaiui aaoiii?o?aoii.

Eeno “Na. Ea?iiei a eaeuea”, iaeii ec naiuo niaa?oaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
ianoa?a, aiieioee iiaia ?aiannainiia ie?iaicc?aiea, io?aceaoaany ai anai
no?ia a?aath?u. Ecia?aaeai eaaeiao o/aiiai: aieueoay naaoeay eiiiaoa, a
aeoaeia aa, iaae eiioi?eie, niieieii neeiieeny noa?aoe. A a?aath?a ana
ianoieueei aa?iiie/ii, /oi /aeiaae, i?ino?ainoai e i?aaeiaou, aai
ie?oaeathuea, iuouathony eae iaeia aaeeiia oeaeia. Iaeeea auoiauo
aeaoaeae ieneieueei ia caneiiyao cia/eoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeyuaai.
Iaiai?io, oaeea ao?eaoou, eae /a?ai, iani/iua /anu – neiaieu a?aiiinoe e
auno?ioa/iinoe, niiauatho anae noeaia oeeinioneee niune. Aea e naia
eiiiaoa, i?e anae eiie?aoiinoe aa ianoaiiaee, eaaeaony i?aia?aaeaiiie
iioieii nieia/iiai naaoa, aeeaathuaainy /a?ac noaeea ieii.

Ia ia?ooay niaoeeoeee ?acoeiaie a?aath?u, Aeth?a? ecaeaeaao ec iaa iiaua
e iaaeaeaiiua yooaeou. Oi aeoaiei a?acay eeieth, oi aeaeay aa nianai
oiieie, eiiaaea i?aa?auay a i?a?uaenoue ioieoe?, naouay eee ?ac?yaeay
oo?eoiaeo, eniieuecoy ia?ae?aueaathueany oo?eoe, ooaeiaeiee ia oieueei
nicaeaao eeethceth oi?i e iauaiia, ii e ia?aaeaao oaeoo?o ?aciuo
iaoa?eaeia: aeanoyuee oaee oeaie, oa?noue aeeaioiuo, oaenoo?o aea?aaa,
aeaaeeoth iiaa?oiinoue eaaee. N iiiiuueth ei?ioeeo ia?aeeaeueiuo
/a?oi/ae ii ecia?aaeaao ea?o naaoa, nieia/iua aeeee, aea?e?othuea ia
iiaa?oiinoe neaiuee, noiea, iiea. A yoii ethaiaaiee i?aaeiaoaie,
ie?oaeathueie /aeiaaea, Aeth?a? aunooiaao eae oeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
naaa?iiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Inaauaiea ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue ai anao o?ao a?aath?ao. A “Na.
Ea?iieia” iii nicaeaao iano?iaiea e eiaao niuneiaia cia/aiea. A
“?uoea?a, Nia?oe e Aeueyaiea” ea?aao neiaiee/aneoth e eiiiiceoeeiiioth
?ieue. Eeno aeaeeony ia aeaa ieaia. Ia?aue – oaiiue. Neaicue i?a/iia
ouaeuea ioaeanoaaiii aeaeaeaony ?uoea?ue, iaoiaeynue iaaeaeo nia?oueth e
aeueyaieii. Aoi?ie ieai caeeo naaoii. Yoa aeaa ?aciuo ie?a, ii /oiau
iiianoue ai aoi?ie, iaaei i?aiaeieaoue i?ae e oaeanu ia?aiai.

E, iaeiiaoe, ?aaeoaa e naao iaaeathuae eiiaou, ica?eaoae iaai, a
a?aath?a “Iaeaioieey”, iiae/a?eeaatho iniaoth anaeaineoth cia/eiinoue
i?ienoiaeyuaai. Iiaenoaoue yoiio iaiau/iiio aeaeaieth e iaiau/iia
oaioe/aneia iaa?iiiaeaeaiea i?aaeiaoia, e e?ueuey ca nieiie aeaiueiu.
Iia aini?eieiaaony eae nouanoai iacaiiia, ii oa?caaiia /aeiaa/aneeie
niiiaieyie e aieueth.

A a?aath?ao i?aaeaeueii neiioeaio?e?iaaiu iniiaiua eaeae: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, aa?ieci a i?aiaeieaiee aiaoieo o?oaeiinoae e naiioe?iuaiea,
au?aaeaiiua n oie no?anoueth, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ia aeey Aa?iaiee yiioe
?aoi?iaoeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – naiioaeoaeaiea,
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, ii/oe oaonoianeay iaeaioieey. Ii?aaeaeaiiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiay naycue o?ao a?aath?, ec eioi?uo ““Iaeaioieey”
yaeyaony iineaaeiae, iicaieyao n/eoaoue aa oeiaeueiie /anoueth
“O?eioeoa”. A yoii oeiaea iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue aunooiaao eae ?acoeueoao
iai?yaeaiiie oece/aneie e aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. O?e
ianoa?neea a?aath?u, nthaeaoii ia naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie, aianoa acyoua
caeeth/aee aeoaieee niune. A ieo aue, ii neiaai Oiiana Iaiia, “oeaeue
eiiieaen noaeueau” a eioi?ie “aa?ie” aue iaeiia?aiaiii e “aea?oaie”, ii
eioi?ay noaea “i?aaeaanoieeii iiaie aieaa aunieie /aeiaa/iinoe”. Eiaiii
caeanue oyiaony ieoue, naycuaathuay eneonnoai Aeth?a?a n eneonnoaii
?aia?aiaeoa.

Naiiaaeoeaoue aae n aai eioa?anii e neiaeiiio, iinoiyiii iaiythuaiony
ie?o /aeiaaea ia?aoeeny e iiaie oaoieea a?aath?u – ioi?oo. Ii aai
aicieeiiaaiea ioiineony e ia/aeo noieaoey e, ia?aua iiiuoee inaieoue
niaoeeoeeo yoie oaoieee i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aeth?a?o – i?aaaea ioi?o n aai
eiioeueneaiie eeieae, ?aceeie naaoiauie eiio?anoaie, ae?aiaoeciii e
iaeiia?aiaiii yneeciie eaaeinoueth, ia iia n aeinoaoi/iie neeie e
oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth au?aceoue ooaeiaeanoaaiiua eaeae 16 aaea. E?iia
oiai, oaoie/aneia ianiaa?oainoai iiaie oaoieee (aeaeaci iinea o?aaeaiey
auno?i ieeneyeinue e aeinea iiaeaaea) oaeaea i?aiyonoaiaaei auno?iio
?acaeoeth ioi?oa.

Aeth?a? auiieiee anaai oanoue ioi?oia e inoaaee yoo oaoieeo, oae eae aa
aiciiaeiinoe oee a?ac?ac n aai no?aieaieai nicaeaoue ?aoeeiiaeueii
iino?iaiiue, eeanne/anee aa?iiie/iue ia?ac. Yoiio no?aieaieth aieueoa
anaai ioaa/aee eneeia?aoey e ?acoeiaay a?aath?a.

A a?aath?a ia aea?aaa Aeth?a? aia?aua i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae aiaaoua
aiciiaeiinoe yoie oaoieee, iieacaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aa aeaei?aoeaiua
naienoaa, a n ae?oaie – ae?aiaoe/aneee, yeni?anneaiue oa?aeoa?. E oi e
ae?oaia i?enoua eneeia?aoee 15 aaea, ii a aieaa oi?iuaiiuo, oneiaiuo
oi?iao. Aeth?a? oneiaeiee ycue eeiee, naeaeae oi?iu aieaa ?aaeenoe/iuie,
aaae a a?aath?u i?ino?ainoai, iiiaeanoai eiie?aoiuo aeaoaeae, i?eaeae ei
oa?aeoa? iiae?iaiiai ?anneaca e oaeei ia?acii naeecee ecia?aaeaaiua
noeaiu n aeeciaiii ?aaeueiuie. I?e yoii niaoeeoeea eneeia?aoee ia
oieueei ia ionooieea ia caaeiee ieai, a, iaiai?io, i?eia?aea
iaeneiaeueioth au?aceoaeueiinoue.

Anee a?aath?u ia aea?aaa Aeth?a?a niinianoaiaaee ?aceiio ea/anoaaiiiio
nea/eo a ?acaeoee eneeia?aoee, oi a?aath?u ia iaaee i?iaeieaeaee
iinoaiaiioth yaiethoeeth yoie oaoieee, aa?oeiie eioi?ie noaee “?uoea?ue,
Nia?oue e Aeueyaie”, “Nayoie Ea?iiei a eaeuea” e “Iaeaioieey”.

A eiioea 15 aaea ia niaio ia?aui eiioo?iui ?acoeiaui a?aath?ai i?eoee
a?aath?u n ieanoe/aneei ?aoaieai. Oae, e?oiiaeoee i?aaeoanoaaiiee
Aeth?a?a a yoie iaeanoe Ia?oei Oiiaaoy? eniieueciaae a naieo ?aaioao
naaoioaiaaoth eaieo. Ii, auyaeyy iauaiu, ianoa? ia noaaee i?iaeaiu
naaoa; aai ii/oe neoeueioo?iua oeao?u, iino?iaiiua ia /aoeii eiioo?a, ia
auee naycaiu n i?ino?ainoaii. Aia?aua i?iaeaio acaeiiioiioaiey
i?aaeiaoia n i?ino?ainoaii e ?aciauaiey eo a i?ino?ainoaa iinoaaee e
?aoee a a?aath?a ia iaaee Aeth?a?. Ii ?ac?aaioae neiaeiaeooth nenoaio
oo?eoiaee, eioi?ay iicaieeea aio aaanoe a a?aath?u naao e no?ieoue ana
ecia?aaeaiea ia oiiaeueiuo a?aaeaoeeyo. Oae /oi aanue iooue ?acaeoey
?acoeiaie a?aath?u oae a noi?iio i?eaeeaeaiey e aeeaiieniinoe,
o?aoia?iinoe e i?ino?ainoaaiiinoe. E oai?/anoai Aeth?a?a auei aa?oeiie
ia yoii iooe. Aeth?a? ia?aue iiaeiye a?aath?o aei o?iaiy aunieiai
eneonnoaa, e eioi?iio ?aiueoa ioiineee oieueei aeeaiienue e neoeueioo?o.

A?aoeea ooaeiaeieea iaiau/aeii aiaaoa e ?aciiia?acia e ii oaoieeai
(eneeia?aoey, a?aath?a ia iaaee, nooay eaea, ioi?o), e ii nthaeaoai, e
ii aeai?ai (eeethno?aoeey, ii?o?ao, auoiaay oaia, aeaei?aoeaiay
a?aath?a).

*anoi a ?acoeiauo a?aath?ao Aeth?a?a ano?a/athony ecia?aaeaiey i?inoiai
ia?iaea (“Oaioeothuea e?anoueyia”, “O?e e?anoueyieia”, “E?anoueyia,
eaeouea ia ?uiie” e o.ae.). Eae au i?aae/oanoaoy a?aiaeeiciua niauoey
E?anoueyineie aieiu 1525 aiaea, a?aaa? iaaeaeyao naieo aa?iaa a?oaie e
iiao/ae neeie, ?aoeoaeueiinoueth e aieinoaaiiinoueth. Oioy iaeciaiii a
aai ioiioaiee e iei neaiceo e?iiey e nienoiaeeoaeueiinoue ai?iaeaieia.

Ii?o?ao caieiae cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a oai?/anoaa Aeth?a?a-aeeaiienoea. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie ii e a a?aath?a ia?aoeeny e yoiio aeai?o. N?aaee
ii?o?aoia, eniieiaiiuo ?acoeii, auaeaeythony ecia?aaeaiey aeaeiuo
aoiaienoia 16 aaea Y?acia ?iooa?aeaineiai e Oeeeiia Iaeaiooiia, ae?oaa
ooaeiaeieea Aeeeaaeueaea Ie?eoaeia?a, e?oiiuo iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae
oiai a?aiaie O?eae?eoa Ioae?iai e Aeuea?aooa A?aiaeaiao?aneiai. Ia?yaeo
n oi/iie aiaoiae oa?aeoa?enoeeie ia?aca, ooaeiaeiee anaaaea
iiae/a?eeaaao cia/eoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe ii?o?aoe?oaiiai e a eaoeineie
iaaeiene ainoaaeyao aai aunieea ea/anoaa e caneoae. Eaaeaeue ii?o?ao,
auiieiaiiue Aeth?a?ii, – yoi naiaia?aciue iaiyoiee nia?aiaiieeo.

Aiaaonoai oaioacee, aeoaeia oai?/aneie iunee, ianoa?noai ooaeiaeieea
iaeaieaa iieii i?iyaeeenue a iaeanoe a?aath?u, iiyoiio ae ii i?aao
i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaaeouay ?ieue a oai?/anoaa Aeth?a?a.

Enneaaeiaaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeey i?iecaaaeaiee Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a

A?aoe/aneia ianeaaeea Aeth?a?a iaoe?ii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoiu 105
a?aath? ia iaaee, aeeth/ay ioi?ou e a?aath?u nooie eaeie, e 189 a?aath?
ia aea?aaa, aianoa n aieueoeie ?aaioaie aeey eiia?aoi?a Iaeneieeeaia.

Iiioey?iinoue a?aath? Aeth?a?a a 16 aaea auea ianoieueei aaeeea, e iie
iieueciaaeenue oaeei ni?inii, /oi aai ianoa?neay auioneaea ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ioia/aoeia. Ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea aeaaea a ionoonoaea
ooaeiaeieea aai iiiiuieee ia/aoaee a?aath?u. Ionthaea iaeeea iooeneia
aeth?a?ianeiai a?aiaie. Iau/ii aaoi?, naeaeaa i?iaiue ioia/aoie, a
aeaeueiaeoai aiinee iii?aaee e eciaiaiey a ecia?aaeaiea ia aeinea, a
caoai ia/aoae eni?aaeaiioth aeineo caiiai. Ea/anoai ioia/aoeia,
naeaeaiiuo n iaeiie aeinee, caaenaei io ouaoaeueiinoe iooenea,
aeia?ioiinoe e?anee e aoiaae, ninoiyiey aeinee e au?acaiiuo eeiee.
Ouaoaeueiue ioia/aoie n oi?ioae ?aaiiia?ii ca/a?/aiiie aeinee eiae
yniue, /enoue, /aoeee ?enoiie.

Iinoaiaiii io /anoiai oiio?aaeaiey aeinee ii?oeeenue. Ia aea?aayiiuo
auiaaeaee eeiee e iiyaeyeenue ionoiou, ia naiie iniiaa aicieeaee uaee,
o?aueiu. E ana aea aea?aayiiua aeinee eciaoeaaeenue ia oae auno?i, eae
iaaeiua. Iineaaeiea, n oiieei thaaee?iui ?enoieii, auno?aa i?eoiaeeee a
iaaiaeiinoue. ?enoiie noe?aeny, eeiee noaiiaeeenue iaaeoaieeie, iiyoiio
e?anee iaei aaeaaeenue, ioia/aoie iieo/aeny na?ui, ayeui. E?iia oiai, ia
iaaeiie aeinea, i?e /enoii ia/aoaiee n iaa, iiyaeyeenue oea?aieiu,
eiee/anoai eioi?uo oaaee/eaaeinue ni a?aiaiai.

Oai?/anoai Aeth?a?a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiae?iaiui ia?acii enneaaeiaaii e
eco/aii. AEeaiieniiio, a?aoe/aneiio e oai?aoe/aneiio ianeaaeeth
ooaeiaeieea iinayuaiu aeanyoee eiea e nioie noaoae. N?aaee ieo
iaiaeiaaaeiia ianoi caieiatho ?aaiou, naycaiiua n aeayoaeueiinoueth
Aeth?a?a-a?aaa?a.

Inaiaiea a?aoe/aneiai ianeaaeey ianoa?a ia/aeinue a 19 aaea ni
nenoaiaoecaoeee e eaoaeiaecaoeee aai a?aath?. Aa?/ ia?aui, a 1808 aiaeo,
auionoee iieiue eaoaeia a?aath? Aeth?a?a, eioi?ue aeaaae oaiaoe/aneee
iaci? i?iecaaaeaiee ooaeiaeieea; yoio eaoaeia nio?aiee aei iaoeo aeiae
naia cia/aiea. Aneaae ca oai aiaeeeneee ciaoie e ethaeoaeue a?aath?
Iooee a naiae eieaa, auoaaeoae a 1818 aiaeo, aia?aua iiiuoaeny
onoaiiaeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aicieeiiaaiey aeth?a?ianeeo a?aath?.
Neaaeothuee yoai enneaaeiaaiee ninoiye a aieaa aeineiiaeueiii eco/aiee
a?aath? ianoa?a, eo nenoaiaoecaoeee e auyaeaiee eiiee. Yoi aia?aua
i?iaeaeae Oaeea? a naiae iiiia?aoee 1827 aiaea, aaea iioaeeeiaai ia
onoa?aaoee aei neo ii? nienie eiieenoia Aeth?a?a.

Aii?inu ao?eaooeee e aeaoe?iaee, oae aea eae e auyaeaiea iiaeeeiiinoe
a?aath? Aeth?a?a, inoaeenue aeooaeueiuie aieioue aei iaoeo aeiae. N
na?aaeeiu 19 aaea oaeoe/aneea naaaeaiey, ia eioi?uo iniiauaaee naie
auaiaeu o/aiua, ?anoe?eeenue: iiieii enoi/ieeia, noaee eco/aoueny
iaaeiene, oa?aeoa? iiaeienae e iiiia?aii ia a?aath?ao. I?eia?ii a yoi
aea a?aiy aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe iooenea noaea
oaeaea aoiaaa, aa no?oeoo?a e aiaeyiua ciaee. Aia?aua Oaoniaii a eieaa,
iinayuaiiie a?aath?ai e ?enoieai ianoa?a, i?eaae oaaeeoeo aiaeyiuo
ciaeia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aoiaae, ia eioi?ie Aeth?a? ia/aoae naie
a?aath?u.

Eae eoia i?enoaeueiiai eco/aiey aai ianeaaeey a 90-a aiaeu a ?yaea no?ai
iiyaeeenue aunoaaee ?aaio ooaeiaeieea (Eaia?eaeae, 1893; Iueth-Ei?e,
1894). Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ia?aiai ia?eiaea eco/aiey oai?/anoaa
Aeth?a?a aue nai? iaoa?eaea, aai nenoaiaoecaoeey e onoaiiaeaiea
o?iiieiaee.

Neaaeothuee yoai eco/aiey eneonnoaa Aeth?a?a ianooiee ia ?oaaaea 19 e 20
aaeia. Ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeaathony aii?inu oaoie/aneie e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie yaiethoeee ianoa?a, nayce n ynoaoe/aneeie i?iaeaiaie
a?aiaie, iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo /a?o, a oaeaea aii?inu iao/iie,
oai?aoe/aneie e oeeinioneie iniiau oai?/anoaa, aicieeiiaaiea iiauo
aeai?ia e iiaie eeiiia?aoee. Cia/aiea a?aath?u a oai?/anoaa ianoa?a
?anniao?eaaaony a nayce n aai ?ieueth a enoi?ee aa?iiaeneie a?aath?u
aiiaua.

Iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeieaeaaony eaoaeiaecaoeey a?aath? Aeth?a?a, aaaeaony
aeaoaeueiia e iiae?iaiia eco/aiea ?acee/iuo eieeaeoeee ninoaaeythony
iiaua eaoaeiae. Oae, E. Iaaea? a 1932 aiaeo eniieuecoao ?aaiou
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, naie enneaaeiaaiey a aaineie Aeueaa?oeia e ecaeaao
naiaeiue aeaoaeueii i?i?aaioaiiue eaoaeia a?aath? ianoa?a. A iai
ioaeaeueii oeacuaaeenue ?aaiou Aeth?a?a e ecaeaieyi 15 aaea, a oaeaea
?aaiou aeey eiia?aoi?a Iaeneieeeaia. Iaaea? cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee
oaaeeoeo aiaeyiuo ciaeia Oaoniaiia e aeae e iae iiyniaiey. Aai eaoaeia
ia oieueei aeeth/aao ana i?eiaaeeaaeauea Aeth?a?o a?aath?u, ii e
niaea?aeeo iiae?iaioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ioaeaeueiuo ioia/aoeia ?aciuo
a?aiai, i?aa?auaynue oai naiui a aaaeiaeoaa e aaeeinoaaiiia a naiai
?iaea iiniaea i?e ia?aaioea eieeaeoeee. Eaoaeia Iaaea?a nio?aiee naia
iniiaiiieaaathuaa cia/aiea.

A ?onneii eneonnoaiaaaeaiee eioa?an e oai?/anoao Aeth?a?a aiciee a
ia/aea iaoaai noieaoey. Ia?aua ?aaiou A. Ie?iiiaa iineee iauee oa?aeoa?.
Ii oaea a 1910-a aiaeu A. A. Neaei?ia a naieo noaoueyo ia?auaaony e
nii?iui aii?inai e i?iaeaiai oai?/anoaa aaeeeiai ooaeiaeieea a naaoa
iauaaa?iiaeneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

A 1928 aiaeo, ii neo/ath 400-eaoey ni aeiy nia?oe Aeth?a?a, a Iineaa aue
auiouai eaoaeia, ninoaaeaiiue A. A. Neaei?iaui. Yoi aue ia?aue iao/iue
eaoaeia a?aath? Aeth?a?a ia ?onneii ycuea. Ii aeeth/ae eenou nia?aiey
iineianeiai Iocay ecyuiuo eneonnoa (iuia Iocay ecia?aceoaeueiuo eneonnoa
eiaie A. N. Iooeeia). A. A. Neaei?ia aia?aua aeae ioeaieo yoiio
nia?aieth a?aath? Aeth?a?a e ioiaoee oaeaea ea/anoai e aic?ano anao
ioia/aoeia, iniiauaaynue, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia aiaeyiuo ciaeao aoiaae.

Nionoy aeaa aiaea auoea noaouey oiai aea aaoi?a, iinayuaiiay iaeiiio ec
naiuo nii?iuo aii?inia a oai?/anoaa Aeth?a?a: aeaoe?iaea e o?iiieiaee
aai ?aiieo a?aath? ia iaaee. Ecaanoii, /oi ianoa? ia/ae aeaoe?iaaoue
naie a?aath?u ?aaoey?ii n 1503 aiaea. Aei yoiai eeoue iaeei eeno,
“*aou?a aeaiueiu”, aue ioia/ai aiaeii, ae?oaea aea – ia ?acee/iua
ieoieiae/aneea, aeeaai?e/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua nthaeaou – ia oieueei ia
aeaoe?iaaiu, ii /anoi e ia iiaeienaiu. Eiaiii iiyoiio yoe a?aath?u
yaeeenue i?e/eiie aeey ?aciiaeanee a o?oaeao iiiaeo o/aiuo. Ii oaea a
1910-o aiaeao Ae. Iaaeiae/ a eieaa, iinayuaiiie aeth?a?ianeiio
“Aiieaeeineno”, aeaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaao no?oeoo?o yoie na?ee, a A. A.
Neaei?ia, iiae?iaii eceiaeea oi/eo c?aiey e?oiiaeoeo enneaaeiaaoaeae,
aeae naith o?iiieiaeth ia iniiaaiee noeeenoe/aneie e oaoie/aneie
yaiethoeee ianoa?a.

E?iia oiai, aii?inu iauaai e i?iaeaiiiai ii?yaeea auee iinoaaeaiu a
?aaioao niaaoneeo eneonnoaiaaaeia Oe. A. Iannaeueoo?aon – a iiiia?aoee i
Aeth?a?a e a iiaeaioiaeaiiii ath ecaeaiee aeiaaieeia, ienai e o?aeoaoia
ooaeiaeieea – e I. ss. Eeaiaia – a eieaa i Aeth?a?a e a aeieoi?neie
aeenna?oaoeee, iinayuaiiie iaiaoeeiio eneonnoao aeth?a?ianeiai a?aiaie.

Nia?aiea a?aath? Aeth?a?a a Ainoaea?noaaiiii iocaa ecia?aceoaeueiuo
eneonnoa eiaie A. N. Iooeeia ian/eouaaao 215 a?aath? ianoa?a (121 ia
aea?aaa, 88 ?acoeiauo, 2 nooie eaeie), aieueoia eiee/anoai eiiee e
ioia/aoeia aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie. Nia?aiea iocay ninoaaeyeinue ia
i?ioyaeaiee aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 e ia/aea 20 aaea ec ?aciuo iaoa?ao?aneeo
e iineianeeo eieeaeoeee. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue a?aath? Aeth?a?a, aeaaiui
ia?acii a?aath?u ia aea?aaa, iinooieea ec ?oiyioeaaneiai iocay. A iniiaa
yoie eieeaeoeee eaoaei nia?aiea ?thieia, ia?aaeaiiia ooaea aua a 70-a
aiaeu 19 aaea. Aieueoay /anoue a?aath? ia iaaee auea iieo/aia a 1918
aiaeo io ianeaaeieeia ecaanoiiai iineianeiai niae?aoaey E. A. Aanieia, e
eioi?iio iie iiiaee ec nia?aiee iineae/a I. N. Iinieiaa e iaoa?ao?aeoea
I. E. Naainoueyiiaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Eeneuo A.N. Aeuea?aoo Aeth?a?. I., Niaaoneee ooaeiaeiee, 1972 a.

2. A?aath?u Aeuea?aooa Aeth?a?a. I., ?onneee ycue, 1984 a.

PAGE

PAGE 21

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019