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Академик Рудницкий Степан Львович

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?oaeieoeeee Noaiai Eueaiae/ (1877, Ia?aiuoeue, iuia Iieueoa – 1937,
?anno?aeyi) — oe?aeineee aaia?ao, ieii/ee oeeinioneee oaeoeueoao
Eueaianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, aeieoi? oeeinioee (1901), aeaaeaiee
Anaoe?aeineie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe (1929). A 1918 a. niaaoiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Caiaaeii-oe?aeineie ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee ii iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneei
aii?inai. A aeaeueiaeoai i?ioanni? Aeaaeaiee oi?aiaee (Aaia) e
Oe?aeineiai aieueiiai oieaa?neoaoa (I?aaa). A 1926 a. ia?aacaeaao a
niaaoneoth Oe?aeio, ?aaioaao a Oa?ueeiaa, i?aaiecaoi? e aee?aeoi?
Oe?aeineiai Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa aaia?aoee e
ea?oia?aoee. A 1933 a. ?ai?anne?iaai. Iaienae ianeieueei o?oaeia ii
iieeoe/aneie aaia?aoee: “Oe?aeia e aaeeeea aea?aeaau”(1920, ia iaiaoeeii
ycuea), “Oe?aeineia aeaei n oi/ee c?aiey iieeoe/aneie aaia?aoee”(1923) e
ae?. A 1994 a. ai Eueaiaa ecaeai nai?iee o?oaeia o/aiiai “Ii/aio iu
oioei naiinoiyoaeueioth Oe?aeio?”

Eiy yoiai /aeiaaea naaiaeiy ecaanoii, e niaeaeaieth, oieueei iaiiiaei
oe?aeioeai. Noaiai Eueaiae/ ?oaeieoeeee (1877—1937) i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
iiiai/eneaiiie eiai?oa oao auaeathueony ee/iinoae, /uee eiaia
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii auo?aaeeaaee ec iaiyoe oe?aeineie iaoeee a oa/aiea
niaaoneeo aeanyoeeaoee — a aai aeia?aoee e aeaaea a iuneyo e aeaeaieyo,
n oi/ee c?aiey aeanoe, ana auei “ia oae”. E ?iaeeeny “ia oai” — a
Ia?aiuoea, ia oa??eoi?ee auaoae Aano?i-Aaia?ee, e caieiaeny “ia oai”,
eco/ay ai Eueaianeii, Aaineii eee Aa?eeineii oieaa?neoaoao aa?iaienoeeo,
oe?aeineoth enoi?eth, aaia?aoeth. Iaeiiaoe, aieueoeinoai aai o?oaeia,
iiyaeythueony a ?acoeueoaoa e?iiioeeaiai iao/iiai iienea a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo aeanyoeeaoee, oiaea auee aaniethoii “ia i oii” e ioia?aaeaee
eeoue aaeeinoaaiiia oii?iia aeaeaiea o/aiiai — neoaeeoue Oe?aeia.

Niaaoneee oeaici? /aoei ciae, /oi ie oe?aeiiycu/iua noaouee ?oaeieoeeiai
(iinayuaiiua eeai eacaoeei-iieueneie aieia 1625 a. eee eco/aieth
iniaaiiinoae aaia?aoee Oe?aeiu), ie, oai aieaa, iaienaiiua e
iioaeeeiaaiiua ia iaiaoeeii ycuea (eae Ukraina und die Ukrainier, Die
Verbreitung der Ukrainier, Ukraina. Land und Volk) eee ia?aaaaeaiiua ia
aiaeeeneee eee o?aioeocneie ycuee, ia i?aaenoaaeytho aeey niaaoneie
aeanoe e aa aaeaioia ieeaeie oeaiiinoe. Eae e naia ee/iinoue o/aiiai.
Ianiio?y ia oi /oi N. ?oaeieoeeee eae neiiaoee “?aaeyiio?euenoaa” a 1926
a. inoaaee Aa?iio (aaea a Aaia noae iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae Oe?aeineiai
naiaiaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa, caoai ?aaioae a *aoee a Ea?eiaii, I?aaeneii,
Iaiaoeeii oieaa?neoaoao, a Oe?aeineie oicyenoaaiiie aeaaeaiee a
Iiaeaa?aaeao) e ia?aaoae a aieueoaaenoneoth Oe?aeio, aaea iiiai
oece/aneeo nee, ciaiee, aeooaaiie yia?aee ioaeae nicaeaieth Oe?aeineiai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa aaia?aoee e ea?oia?aoee. Ianiio?y
ia oi /oi a 1929 a. aai eca?aee aeaaeaieeii AI ONN?…

A ia/aea 30-o aiaeia aieath aeanoae N.?oaeieoeeee ec aeaaeaie/aneiai
eaaeiaoa iiiaaeaao a “Nae?eaa”. Caoai — Aaeiii?nei-Aaeoeeneee eaaa?ue. A
aeaeueoa auee Nieiaee.

Iaia?aei? noaeueaa o/aiue, /aeiaae n neeueiui oa?aeoa?ii, e a eaaa?yo
i?iaeieaeae iao/ioth ?aaioo. Aa eoiaii, a /anoiinoe, noaei iiyaeaiea
aieaa 1200 ?oeiieniuo no?aieoe o?oaea iiae iacaaieai “Yiaeiaaiiay
aeeiaieea caiiie ei?u”. Oau, yoa ?aaioa en/acea a aoeaaianeeo aeaa?yo,
oae e ia aeiaeaeaaoenue ioaeeeaoeee. 3 iiya?y 1937 a. ii iinoaiiaeaieth
iniaie o?ieee OIEAAe Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe aa aaoi?a ?anno?aeyee…

Oeao?a Noaiaia ?oaeieoeeiai i?eaeaeaoaeueia ia oieueei a nayce n aai
iiuiui eioaeeaeoii o/aiiai, /ae e?oa iao/iuo eioa?ania ioaaouaae
ano?iiiieth e aaioeceeo, aaieiaeth e aaiiieeoeeo, aaia?aoeth e enoi?eth
Oe?aeiu. Ianiiiaiiue eioa?an aucuaaao e naia aai ee/iinoue a eiioaenoa
oe?aeineeo ?aaeee ia/aea OO a. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ia oiia
niciaoaeueiiai aeoaeecia eee, eae aiai?eee nia?aiaiieee, “oe?aeineiai
aa?iao?iaeeoecia”, eioi?ue aue oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth iiiaeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oiaaeaoieo oe?aeineeo eioaeeaeooaeia oiai a?aiaie,
N.?oaeieoeeee auaeaeyeny oai, /oi, ioa?inea niiiaiey e iaoaiey,
aeaeea?e?iaae naith oe?aeineinoue (a i?ioeaiaan iaei?inneeneinoe,
iieueneinoe eee ?inneeneinoe). Aieaa oiai, o/aiue ia ia?aie/eeny oieueei
/aoeie eaeaioeoeeaoeeae naay eae oe?aeioea, ii iioae aeaeaa,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi oe?aeioeu — aaeeiay iaoeey, iacaaeneii io oiai,
i?iaeeaatho ee iie “i?ae ?in?enueeith aea?aeaaith, /e i?ae
Aano??enueeith /e i?ae Oai?ueiith”. Oaeei ia?acii, N.?oaeieoeeee iiieiae
i?iaeaio ?acuaaeeiaiey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, ?aneieioiai iaaeaeo aeaoiy
eiia?neeie i?aaieciaie.

A ioee/ea io “na?oeeo oe?a?ioe?a” (ii ii?aaeaeaieth Eaaia O?aiei),
eioi?ua, caaioynue i nioeeaeenoe/aneeo, eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo eaeayo,
ioaeaeyeenue io oe?aeinoaa, ii aue n?aaee aaeioiiaeoaeae
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ioa?inea nioeeaeenoe/aneee
“oieaa?naeeci”, o/aiue aeieacuaae, /oi naiinoiyoaeueiue “ia??ae-iaoe?y”
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae i?e?iaeiie aaeeieoeae /aeiaa/anoaa, eo/oei
i?iaeoeoii yaiethoeee i?e?iaeu, a iaoeeiiaeueiinoue — naiui aaaeiui
eaeaioeoeoee?othuei i?eciaeii ee/iinoe (a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
eeanniaiio, ?aeeaeiciiio eee eaeiio-eeai ae?oaiio). N o/aoii
auoaeceiaeaiiiai, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iaoeeiiaeeci noae iaeiie ec
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo aeiieiaio o/aiiai. Aaaeouae aea eaeaae iieeoe/aneeo
acaeyaeia N.?oaeieoeeiai noaea eaeay iacaaeneiiai oe?aeineiai
ainoaea?noaa.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi oiaaeaoiaa oe?aeineia iauanoai, eae
aiineaaenoaee caiaoee Ay/aneaa Eeieineee, ia?aaeeaaei oyaeaeoth
“aieaciue aacainoaea?noaaiiinoe”. Aeaaea eo/oea i?aaenoaaeoaee
oe?aeineie eioaeeaeooaeueiie yeeou ?anniao?eaaee ethaua ia/ou ia
oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie iacaaeneiinoe eae “aeaei iaaiciiaeiia”
(I.Ae?aaiiaiia), eae oi, /oi eaaeeo “aia a?aieoe aiciiaeiiai” (E.
O?aiei), eae “niaoiia aeiieeoionoai” (A.A?ei/aiei) eee eae “aeaoneoth
ia/oo” (O.Ceiueeeaneee). Aieueoeinoai oe?aeioeaa aiceaaaee iaaeaaeaeu ia
ia?aciaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a oi?ia aaoiiiiee a ninoaaa oaaea?aoeaiie
?innee. E oieueei a eiioea 1917 — a ia/aea 1918 aa. iiae aeaaeaieai
ianoiyoaeuenoa, iinea aieueoaaenoneiai “i/euaiey iaiai”, eae ienae
I.A?ooaaneee, oaaea?aeenou i?eniaaeeieeenue e naiinoeeieoeeei eicoiaai.
Iiceoeey aea N.?oaeieoeeiai n naiiai ia/aea auea ii?aaeaeaiii
naiinoeeieoeeie.

Ii?aaeaeyy ianoi N.?oaeieoeeiai a aeeceie aio n?aaea, oeaaeai, /oi
naiinoeeieee “iacaaeneiinoue”, “iieeoe/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue”
iiieiaee iaiaeiicia/ii, a iiyoiio iaeie ec ieo i?aaeiieaaaee
“naiinoiyoaeueiinoue” a nithca n ?inneae, eae, iai?eia?, ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia E.O?aiei. Ae?oaea ia/oaee i “iacaaeneiie”,
“naiaiaeiie” Oe?aeia “a nithca n Aano?eae”. Aeey ae?oaeo aea nouiinoue
iieeoe/aneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ninoiyea a “iieiie iacaaeneiinoe”
Oe?aeiu. N.?oaeieoeeee aue, oae neacaoue, aacaeueoa?iaoeaiui
naiinoeeieeii.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi eaaeaeue ?aoeaeoe?othuee iaae i?iaeaiie oe?aeineie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a oie eee eiie noaiaie no?aieeny ioaaoeoue eae
ieieioi ia o?e aeeciaiii aaaeiuo aeey iaoeee aii?ina: ii/aio oe?aeioeu,
a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, inoaaaeenue aacainoaea?noaaiiuie; ca/ai
ei iaiaoiaeeia ainoaea?noaaiiinoue; eaeei aeieaeii auoue aoaeouaa
oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa? Ii yoie eiae/aneie noaca iioae oaeoe/anee e
Noaiai Eueaiae/. Ii n/eoae, /oi oe?aeineoth aacainoaea?noaaiiinoue
iaoneiaeeaaei acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaoo iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia — aaia?aoe/aneiai
e enoi?e/aneiai.

Iiiuoea N.?oaeieoeeiai i?ineaaeeoue aeeyiea aaioaeoi?a ia
yoiinioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu, a /anoiinoe ia i?ioeann iino?iaiey
ainoaea?noaa, auea naiaai ?iaea yoaiiie a ?acaeoee, nic?aaaiee
iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey oe?aeioeaa. Aaaeue a naia a?aiy oe?aeineea
eioaeeaeooaeu ia?auaeenue i?aaeaea anaai e eeiaaenoe/aneei,
yoiia?aoe/aneei, enoi?e/aneei ciaieyi, /oiau aeieacaoue ycueiaoth,
yoie/aneoth e o.i. iainiaeaiiinoue oe?aeioeaa. N.?oaeieoeeee iiiuoaeny
i?eaea/ue iiaia ciaiea — ec iaeanoe aaia?aoee, /oiau oaea /a?ac aai
i?ecio iniuneeoue e iauynieoue enoi?e/aneea, iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu ia
oe?aeineeo i?inoi?ao.

Naiaia?aciinoue aaiiieiaeaiey iaoae caiee o/aiue aeaeae a aa
“ie?aeiiinoe”. Ii aue neeiiai i?ineaaeeaaoue oaiiiai “ie?aeiiinoe” a
oii, /oi Oe?aeia eaaeeo ia ?oaaaea Aa?iiu e Acee, ia ?oaaaea aa?iiaeneie
iieinu neeaae/aouo ai? e ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneiai ieaoi, ia
aaiii?oieiae/aneie e eeeiaoe/aneie a?aieoea. E?iia oiai, — a?aie/eo
?anoeoaeueiia e aeeaioiia oea?noaa. “…Ooo noeeathoueny, — ienae o/aiue,
— c? niaith ?ane, eoeueoo?i? eiea, ia?iaee. Oe?a?ia — oea ia o?eueee
a?aie/ia e?a?ia, oea oaeiae e?a?ia a?aieoeue”. N aeaaieo a?aiai
oe?aeineea caiee auee a?aieoeae aeey oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ie?a io
iaoeeaeeeciaaiiuo “ia?iaeia i?e?iaeu”, i?iaeeaathueo ia naaa?a Aa?iiu.
Oe?aeia auea a?aieoeae yeeeienoe/aneiai ie?a, a n ia/aeii
N?aaeiaaaeiauey noaea a?aieoeae, ?acaeaeeaoae n?aaeecaiiiii?neee ie? e
ia?aaeiaaceaoneee io naaa?a, a aua — ie?aeiiie caieae inaaeeuo
oeaai?ianeeo ia?iaeia i?ioea ei/aaieeia-aceaoia. Ii iiaieth
N.?oaeieoeeiai, a oa/aiea aeieaeo noieaoee — n OV ii OV??? — Oe?aeia
noiyea ia a?aieoea o?ao ie?ia: caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai,
i?eaioaeueii-ionoeueiaineiai e ei/aaiai aceaoneiai. Aio yoi “no?aoiia
iia?aie/uea” oae eee eia/a e iaoneiaeei oe?aeineoth
aacainoaea?noaaiiinoue. (Caia/o, /oi “eaeay iia?aie/uey” ia inoaeanue
eaeaae a?aiaie”, ia caoa?yeanue a oe?aeineie “ae?aia eaeae” — e a eiioea
OO a. o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a eaeath “Aaeeeie a?aieoeu”, iieo/ea ?acaeoea
a o?oaeao nia?aiaiiuo oe?aeineeo enneaaeiaaoaeae.)

Iiiyoii, /oi o/aiue ia aaniethoece?iaae aaioaeoi?, ia iuoaeny iauynieoue
aacainoaea?noaaiiinoue oieueei aai aeeyieai. Oe?aeineay
aacainoaea?noaaiiinoue, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, auea neaaenoaeai e iieeoeee
yeniainee ninaaeie — ?innee e Iieueoe.

?acaeoiuaay iaae oi?aeaie nia?aiaiieeia i oii, /oi naith ?ieue a
aacainoaea?noaaiiinoe nua?aei e ionooiie/anoai eee, eiuie neiaaie,
i?aaeaoaeuenoai eioaeeeaaioeee, N.?oaeieoeeee noa?aeny aieaa ianooaaii
iiniio?aoue ia neooaoeeth. Iiyoiio e caaiai?ee i iaeiia?aciaaiiinoe e
aaceoeueoo?uea eioaeeeaaioeee, aa ieceii iaoeeiiaeueiii niciaiee a
ie?oaeaiee oaiiuo ia?iaeiuo iann, cia/eoaeueiii aeeyiee ?onneie e
iieueneie eoeueoo?u, aeeyiee nioeeaeenoe/aneeo, eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo
eaeae, /oi e i?aeueuaei iieiaeaaeue a oneiaeyo ionoonoaey oe?aeineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaieiaee, e i?.

Nicao/iua iunee auneacuaaee A.A?ei/aiei, N.Ao?aiia, a ai a?aiaia
Oe?aeineie ?aaiethoeee 1917—1921 aa. e I.A?ooaaneee. Ii oieueei
N.?oaeieoeeee oeacae, /oi eioaeeeaaioeey ia i?aaeaea ia?iae, a auea io
iaai io/oaeaeaia. Aio oaeay, ianouanoaaiiay caiaia iaeiiai oa?ieia
ae?oaei, a ii nooe — ae?oaay o?aeoiaea i?iaeaiu.

?aoeaenee iaae i?e/eiaie oe?aeineie aacainoaea?noaaiiinoe iiaeoieeioee
N.?oaeieoeeiai e aaaeiiio auaiaeo: aacainoaea?noaaiiinoue ie a eiai
neo/aa ia auea neaaenoaeai ianiiniaiinoe oe?aeioeaa e ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeecie, a /ai ia ia?anoaaaee oaaaeaeaoue iaae?oae, a oieueei neaaenoaeai
acaeiiaeaenoaey e acaeiiaeeyiey ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia.

A aeaeaa Noaiai Eueaiae/ acyeny iaooiieii aeieacuaaoue, /oi oieueei
oe?aeineiio ianaeaieth (a ia eaeiio-eeai ae?oaiio) n aai “ie?aeiiie
eoeueoo?ie”, “ie?aeiiie ineoieiaeae” aeieaeia i?eiaaeeaaeaoue yoa
“ie?aeiiay” oa??eoi?ey a naiae aaia?aoe/aneie oieeaeueiinoe e
naiiaeinoaoi/iinoe. Aaaeue naia i?e?iaea, aeieacuaae o/aiue, auae?aea
oao, eoi aeieaeai aue ia yoie oa??eoi?ee i?eoiiiaeaoueny e aeeoue. Anai
i?eoaeueoeai — aioai ee, aoiai ee eee eaeei-oi ae?oaei — a oa/aiea
noieaoee ieeae ia oaeaaaeinue nicaeaoue naia ainoaea?noai ia oe?aeineeo
caieyo. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae N.?oaeieoeeee iauyniye aeiaieueii
iaiaeeaeaiii: ae?oaea ia?iaeu ia aei?inee aei oiai, /oiau auoue ia
ie?aeiiii iieiaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, ie?aeiiinoue o?aeoiaaeanue ia eae
iaiieiioeaiiay /a?oa ia?iaea e aai caiee, a iaiai?io, iiae/a?eeaaeanue
eaeay-oi iniaaiiay eo naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue. Auaiae: oe?aeineay iaoeey e
caiey, ia eioi?ie iia aeeaao, yaeythony acaeiiaeiiieiythueie
i?aaieciaie. Eiaiii oe?aeioeu, oaaaeaeae o/aiue, e niiniaiu, eae yoi
iieacae ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa,
naiii?aaieciauaaoueny ia yoeo i?inoi?ao ia o?iaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaiecia e a aoaeouai.

Aeieacuaay, /oi oe?aeioeai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue “naia” ainoaea?noai,
N.?oaeieoeeee iioae oaeoe/anee a ?onea eaeae O.Aiaana, oeacuaay, /oi
ainoaea?noai ioaeii, i?aaeaea anaai, eae einoeooo caueou, eae
naiaia?aciue ea?ean aaciianiinoe. Oi anoue ainoaea?noai aini?eieiaeinue
o/aiui ia oieueei eae aunoay oi?ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey “naay” — “/oaeei”:
i?aaeaea anaai ii oeaiee aai ooieoeeiiaeueioth cia/eiinoue, eioi?oth
e?aoei, ii io oiai ia iaiaa aaniii, iaicia/ee I.Ae?aaiiaiia —
ainoaea?noai iiiiaaei iaaciianeoue “naay” io “/oaeeo” n eo niaa?oaiii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eioa?anaie, i?ioeaiiieiaeiui “iaoei” eae iaoeee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiinoue iaiaoiaeeia aeey nio?aiaiey oie caiee, eioi?ay aeey
oe?aeioeaa auea ?iaeeiie, a aeey ii?aaioeoaeae — oieueei oa??eoi?eae,
yenieoaoe?oy eioi?oth iiaeii auei iieo/aoue ii?aaeaeaiiia iaoa?eaeueiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Iiieiay aanue o?aaeci neooaoeee, N.?oaeieoeeee n
ai?a/ueth aiai?ee i “caaiaaaiiii ia?iaea” e i “caaiaaaiiie i?e?iaea”.
Oaeie acaeyae o/aiiai ia aue aaciniiaaoaeueiui. A 1915 a. a Iineaa auoea
a naao eieaa “Ianooieaiea ia noaiue” Ethaaaneiai. A iae aaoi? ioia/ae,
/oi “oieueei canaeaiea aeaaaei ?inneeneiio ia?iaeo ieii/aoaeueioth
iiaaaeo” iaae iiaaaeaeaiiuie e cae?aieyei ca ?inneyiaie iaanaaaea oo eee
eioth oa??eoi?eth. ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai “canaeaiey” auei i?aeoe/aneia
oie/oiaeaiea oe?aeineie noaie. Ii aeaiiui nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae,
ia eiiaoe O?O a. ?aniaoaiiinoue oe?aeineie noaie i?aauneea 90%, auee
au?oaeaiu iniiaiua eaniua ianneau, iaoiaeeaoeany ia aa i?inoi?ao. A
oeaeii n eiioea OV??? a. aei 1914 a. auei oie/oiaeaii 3,3 iei. aa
oe?aeineeo eania. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, “caaiaaaiiay” i?e?iaea e
“caaiaaaiiue” ia?iae o N.?oaeieoeeiai io?aaeaee naio nouiinoue i?iaeaiu
ii?aaiuaiey oe?aeioeaa.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey OO a. aiaeiae/iua eaeae
auneacuaaee E.Aoieeaa e TH.Ai?iaeae. E.Aoieeaa, a /anoiinoe, ionoaeaay
oacen i nayce ia?iaea e oa??eoi?ee, oeacuaae, /oi a neo/aa caaiaaaiey
iineaaeiae ia?aciauaaaony naiaia?aciue “oeia?iue yoiin”. TH.Ai?iaeae aea
aeieacuaae, /oi a oaeii neo/aa ia/eiae i?iyaeyoueny aaiaeaeeci,
iaeeiaeiai aeaoi?ie?iaaaoee e oao, eiai aoaeee, e oao, eoi aoaee.
Aicieeae ianniaue ineoieiae/aneee neiae?ii, iaoiaeeaoee au?aaeaiea a
iio?aaiinoe iaycaoaeueii “ia?a?aaioaoue” i?e?iaeo e eoeueoo?o, eioi?ua
ia ono?aeaaee caoaao/eeia. Oaeay “ia?a?aaioea”, eae i?aaeei,
iai?a/eaaeanue ?ac?ooaieai. E yoiio iiaeii aeiaaaeoue oieueei oi, /oi
iaaa?iia oaeei “oeia?iui yoiinii” ia oe?aeineie caiea noaee nia/aea
“iaei?innu”, eioi?uo ona?aeii eaeayea ?inneeneay eiia?ey (ei, ii
ii?aaeaeaieth I.A?ooaaneiai, auea aac?acee/ia e Oe?aeia, e oe?aeineay
aeeciue), a caoai — cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey niaaoneie Oe?aeiu,
i?iieeiooay eaeayie eiiioienoe/aneie ooiiee.

ss ioneaaeeaath yoi eaeaeioth ia?aeee/eo iaaeaeo N.?oaeieoeeei e
E.Aoieeaaui eee TH.Ai?iaeaai ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue
ia?aainoai oe?aeineiai o/aiiai a ii?aaeaeaiee i?iaeaiu (oioy e aeey
yoiai oaeaea), a, i?aaeaea anaai, aeey oiai, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue neeo
eioaeeaeoa auaeathuaainy oe?aeioea, niiniaiiai i?iaeooee?iaaoue eaeae,
ieacaaoeany, oae neacaoue, ei a?aiaie, ia oo?aoeaoea naiae cia/eiinoe e
aei iaoeo aeiae.

N.?oaeieoeeiai ia oaeiaeaoai?yea oe?aeineay aaoiiiiey a ninoaaa
oaaea?aeece?iaaiiie ?innee, iineieueeo, eae ii ooaa?aeaeae, ?inneyiei
“niieiia?eo iieeiiy?oueny aaniethoeciia? oea?y /e aeieo?eie”. Ia iiaa?ee
N.?oaeieoeeee a “iinoaiaiioth” ?inneth e iinea ?inneeneiai
aieueoaaenoneiai ia?aai?ioa, aaaeue, eae ii iiae/a?eeaae, ?inney “eaaeaa
/e ciiaea aooe ?ioa, ye oeaio?ae?noe/ia”. A iioii i?i?i/anee aeiaaaee:
“Oi/ ia i?noe? aeaai?o eee/?a “aaeeiiaea?aeaaey, i?aaineaaey e
ia?iaeiinoe” noaee ae?aiao?aeueii ?io? (nia?onueeee ono??e, eiioi?ci,
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?ci), oa nooue ?in?enueei? iie?oe/ii-aea?aeaaii? aeoiee ia
ci?ieeanue”, e iiyoiio ia?niaeoeaa aeey ?inneeneiai ia?iaea — eaeoe
“niieiia?/ieie oeyoaie o?aaeeoe??: yeiaeneeuei?oiai ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaae
? anei?eyoe?? an?o non?aei?o ia?iae?a”.

Eaeei aea aeaeaeinue o/aiiio aoaeouaa Oe?aeineia ainoaea?noai? O iaai ia
auei ie iaeaeoaai niiiaiey, /oi oaeia ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny
eneeth/eoaeueii a yoiia?aoe/aneeo a?aieoeao. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue yoe
a?aieoeu, N.?oaeieoeeee eco/aao o?oaeu e ea?ou Oaoa?eea, I.Eaiiaia,
Eeia?oa, ?.A?ea?oa, I.Oa?aaaiaaa, A.?eooeoa, E.Aeaeyia?a, Y.Aa?aaia, e
ae?. A caoai aeaeaao auaiae, /oi oe?aeineea caiee — yoi caiee ia
Caea?iaouea, a Aaee/eia, Aoeiaeia, Oieiueia e ia Iiaeeyouea, a e?iia
yoiai, a Aanna?aaee, Eo?ueia, Ai?iiaae/eia, Aeiiueia, Iiaeeaaeacuea e
iaae Eanieai, eioi?ua iinea caionoaiey a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo nioai eao
auee caiiai canaeaiu ia eai eiui, eae oe?aeioeaie.

Oaeie auaiae aeaao iniiaaiey o/aiiio aeey e?eoeee Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu,
eioi?ay “iinoaaeea Aanna?aa?th ? E?ei, Iaaeaei?no?yinueeo Oe?a?io,
Aeiieio, Eoaaiueio e ona I?aeeaaeaccy iica aeoaeeaie nai?o
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueieo aeiiaaaiue”. Ia i?iecioei eciaiaiee e ai
a?aiaia aaoiaiaoa Nei?iiaaeneiai, eae e ai a?aiaia Aee?aeoi?ee.
?acaeoiuaay iaae oai, ii/aio aea oe?aeioeu ieacuaaeenue oaeeie
iai?eoycaoaeueiuie a naieo no?aieaieyo, N.?oaeieoeeee naeaeae auaiae:
iie aiyeenue aunooiaoue n oa??eoi?eaeueiuie i?aoaiceyie ai eiy
yeiiiie/aneeo eee no?aoaae/aneeo eioa?ania, “uia eeoaiue ia iiianoe a
i?aeic??iiy ?iia??ae?cio”. I?aanoaaiiinoue iaoeee iaa?ioeanue
iaiaeeaeaiii o?aae/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie.

Aoaeouaa ainoaea?noai aeaeaeinue N.?oaeieoeeiio eneeth/eoaeueii n
?anioaeeeaineie oi?iie i?aaeaiey. A aeeoue a yoie ?anioaeeea, eae n/eoae
Noaiai Eueaiae/, iiaee au ana, ii oieueei i?e oneiaee niaethaeaiey
caeiiia, onoaiiaeaiiuo aeey naay naieie oe?aeioeaie. Ii niaa?oaiii ia
aini?eieiae iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o ninaaeae-?inneyi ec-ca ionoonoaey a
iae aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iieeoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeee. E aeaaea ia aeiioneae
aiciiaeiinoe onoaiiaeaiey ?inneeneiai ii?yaeea a Oe?aeia. A?aiy io
a?aiaie a o?oaeao o/aiiai cao/aee /aoeea aioenaieoneea iioee. Cao/aee
oiaaea, eiaaea N.?oaeieoeeee aunooiae i?ioea “/oaeaeia”-yenieoaoaoi?ia,
oaiaoaoaeae.

Ianiio?y ia yoi, a aai aeooa e iuoeaiee iniiaiiieaaathueie auee aa?a e
eaeay “iaeaooiueiai caaaeueiiai ia’?aeiaiiy ethaenoaa a iaeio
iaeiinoaeio a?iiaaeo”. Iaoeeiiaeeno Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee, ?aciuoeyy iaae
ia?niaeoeaaie ie?iaiai ?acaeoey, i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi einiiiieeoeci —
“yoi iiuiue aeei?ae aaee/anoaaiiiai oi?a ia?iaeia”, a eioi?ii eaaeaeue
ec o/anoieeia nio?aieo naie aiein. A /oiau oe?aeioeai noaoue
“iiaiioe?iiei aieinii” e i?eiaueoueny e “aaee/iiio oi?o ia?iae?a”, ei
noieo ia?aiyoue eo/oee iiuo Aa?iiu e i?ieeaaeuaaoue naie nianoaaiiue
iooue, ia naeaaynue ia /oaeie.

Caiueaeanyo eao ieeeeiiu niaaoneeo nooaeaioia eco/aee aaia?aoeth Oe?aeiu
ii aai o/aaieeai e ea?oai. Ii “Oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea Aioeeeeiiaae?y”,
noaouee a eioi?oth o/aiue aioiaee, aeaaea no?ieie ia oiiiyioea aaia?aoa
n ie?iaui eiaiai e iinea aai ?aaaeeeoaoeee.

Noa?oay aei/ue Yieeey ?oaeieoeeay (ii ioaeo Aieoaianeay) aeieai
ne?uaaea, /oi ecaanoiue aaia?ao Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee — aa ioaoe. A 1933-i
ae niiaueee: ioaoe a?anoiaai, a ieaaeoea a?ao Eaa e nano?a E?eia (I?uny)
nineaiu a Ai?iiaae. Ia naiii aeaea aa a?aoa e nano?o auaacee a Neae?ue
aianoa n iooeii, ?anneacuaaea ni a?aiaiai iaie Yieeey i?ioanni?o
Aeeueiiai e I?yoaaneiai oieaa?neoaoia (Neiaaeey) Ieeieath Iooeiea. E
oieueei iaaeaaii, iinea ?annae?a/eaaiey a?oeaia niaoeneoaea,
aeiiiaeeeiii auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi auaeathuaainy enneaaeiaaoaey
?anno?aee 3 iiya?y 1937 aiaea aianoa n o?aiynoaie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee, n?aaee eioi?uo auee Eanue Eo?aan e Aaea?ueyi
Ieaeiiaeeueiue.

?iaeeeny Noaiai Eueaiae/ 3 aeaeaa?y 1877 aiaea a Ia?aiuoea. N yoei
ai?iaeii naycaia noaeueaa aaoi?a iocuee aeiia “Ua ia aia?ea Oe?a?ia”
Ieoaeea Aa?aeoeeiai, ooaeiaeieoeu Aeaiu Eoeue/eoeeie.

?oaeieoeeea eniieii aaeia auee nayuaiiineoaeeoaeyie. Ii Eaa ?oaeieoeeee
ia?ooee o?aaeeoeeth e eca?ae ieao i?inaauaiey — i?aiiaeaaae a aeiiacee
enoi?eth. Aai aeaia Yieeey i?ienoiaeeea ec noa?eiiiai ?iaea
nayuaiieeia-a?iyi Oaai?neeo. Noaiai iioae a oeieo a Oa?iiiiea, eoaea
iooea ia?aaaee aee?aeoi?ii oe?aeineie aeiiacee. A 1891 aiaeo ?oaeieoeeea
ia?aacaeatho ai Eueaia. E oiio a?aiaie a naiuea oaea /aoaa?i aeaoae.

Iyoue eao nionoy io /aoioee oia?ea iaoue, a a 1898-i iinea einoeueoa —
ioaoe. Noa?oaio nuio, Eueao, auei 23 aiaea, ni a?aiaiai ii noaiao
ecaanoiui th?enoii. Noaiaio — 22, ii nooaeaio Eueaianeiai oieaa?neoaoa,
auioaeaeai ca?aaaouaaoue /anoiuie o?ieaie. Ieaaeoaio TH?/eeo — 14; ii
noaiao ienaoaeai, aoaeao ienaoue enoi?e/aneea ?iiaiu iiae inaaaeiieiii
THeeai Iieeueneee. Nano?a Niouea — 13, iinea o/aau ai Eueaianeie
eiina?aaoi?ee e Aaineie iocueaeueiie aeaaeaiee iia aueaeao caioae ca
i?ioanni?a Noaieneaaa Aeieno?yineiai.

Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee o/eony ia oeeinioneii oaeoeueoaoa, iiae aeeyieai
Ieoaeea A?ooaaneiai niaoeeaeece?oaony ia enoi?ee. A “Caieneao Iaoeiaiai
oiaa?enoaa ?i. Oaa/aiea” ia/aoaao noaouee ii enoi?ee eaca/anoaa e
Oiaeueieo/eiu. Iinauaao eaeoeee ii eeoa?aoo?a i?ioanni?a Aeaenaiae?a
Eieannu.

A?ooaaneee ii?aeiiaiaeiaae eco/aoue ano?iiiieth, aaieiaeth, aaia?aoeth.
Iieueneee i?ioanni? Aioiiee ?aiaie niaaooao eco/aoue Nieioea. Noaiai
?oaeieoeeee ioioii aa?aony ca yoo oaio e a 1900 aiaeo ia/aoaao
iiiia?aoeth “I?i ieyie niiy/i?”.

6 aeaeaa?y 1899 a. Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee naeae auioneiua yecaiaiu a
oieaa?neoaoa e iieo/ee i?aai i?aiiaeaaaoue aaia?aoeth e enoi?eth ia
oe?aeineii, iieueneii e iaiaoeeii ycueao. THiioa ?aoaao i?iaeieaeeoue
o/aao e aaeao a Aaio eco/aoue aaieiaeth, aeae?ia?aoeth, aaiii?oieiaeth.

Ii aica?auaiee Noaiai Eueaiae/ i?aiiaeaao a aeiiaceyo Eueaiaa e
Oa?iiiiey. A 1902-i anooiaao a a?ae n aei/a?ueth aiaiiiai a ionoaaea,
o/eoaeueieoeae ec-iiae Ia?aiuoey Neaeeeie Oaiea? (1881—1918). A oii aea
aiaeo o ieo ?iaeaeaaony aei/ue, iacaaiiay a /anoue aaaooee Yieeeae, a
1908-i — nui Eaa, a /aou?a aiaea nionoy — aei/ue E?eia. Ec-ca aieueiiai
na?aeoea Neaeeea oia?ea a 37 eao. Noaiai Eueaiae/ iaeei ainieouaaao
aeaoae. A ienueiao e nano?a Niouea oineoao ii Neaeeea.

A 1905 a. N.?oaeieoeeee ecaeaao eieao “Iei?oiy aaia?ao?y”, eioi?ie
caeiaeee iniiau oe?aeineie aaia?aoe/aneie iaoee. A iae ii iainiiaae
i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey aaia?aoee, aa ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo iaoe, iieiaeee
ia/aei oe?aeineie oa?ieiieiaee. Aia?aua aaae a iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iai?io
aaia?aoe/aneee oa?iei “Oe?aeia”.

A 1917 aiaeo Oe?aeia auea ?acaeaeaia iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae.
E oaea oiaaea aaia?ao i?aaeaeaeae ?aniaae iiaie eiia?ee: “oaeaeoa /e
i?ci?oa ioneoeiooue oeaio?iooaaeuei? neee aeiaanoe aei eiia/iiai
?iciaaeo ?in?enueei? na?oiai? aea?aeaae”. Oe?aeio ii aeaeae a ie?iaii
niae?oaeanoaa a ea/anoaa caieaaeaeue/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, aeeoieoeu
ie?a, onooiathuae eeoue Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai. O/aiue aue oaaaeaeai:
oe?aeioeai aieaa naienoaaiii aeeoue a naeao, ai?iaea iacuaaao
“naiiaa?eieie ?inoeoooaie ethaenoaa”.

1 iiya?y 1918 aiaea auea i?iaicaeaoaia COI?. Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee
noaiiaeony niaaoieeii i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai.
Aioiaeo ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou aeey Eeae iaoeee, ia/aoaao a
aa?iiaeneie i?anna noaouee ii i?iaeaiai oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe,
?ac?aaaouaaao iniiau aiaiiie aaia?aoee.

A 1919 aiaeo Noaiai Eueaiae/ ociaao i iaia?aiee iieueneeo aeanoae
oie/oiaeeoue aai. Iiaiaeii noaei iiyaeaiea a AEaiaaa eieae
aioeiieueneiai niaea?aeaiey aac oaieeee aaoi?a. 25 oaa?aey o/aiue ieoao
caaauaiea “Iiy iine?aeiy aiey” e ii?o/aao ae?oao Eaaio ?aeianeiio e
oo?eio Noaieneaao Aeieno?yineiio ?anii?yaeeoueny aai aaoi?neeie i?aaaie
e eiouanoaii.

Ii ?oaeieoeeiio iiaacei, aai i?eaeaoatho ia aeieaeiinoue i?ioanni?a a
Aeaaeaieth ie?iaie oi?aiaee a Aaia. Oe?aeineay ienaoaeueieoea, ocieoea
AOEAAa Iaaeaaeaea No?iaoeaaa aniiieiaea: “Aue a Aaia aua i?ioanni?
?oaeieoeeee, ianoiyuee o/aiue, eioi?ue aeaenoaeoaeueii eioa?anoaony
naiae iaoeie… aua ia noa?ee, ii iieueciaaeny ii/aoii”.

A neaaeothuai aiaeo oe?aeineay eioaeeeaaioeey nicaeaao a I?aaa
Oe?aeineee aieueiue oieaa?neoao, i?aiiaeaaaoue a eioi?ii i?aaeeaaatho
N.?oaeieoeeiio. E?iia oiai, ii /eoaao eaeoeee a Aunoai iaaeaaiae/aneii
einoeoooa ei. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa e a Ea?eiaii oieaa?neoaoa. E iinoiyiii
iaaethaeaao ca niauoeyie a Oe?aeia. Noaiai Eueaiae/ iaeiei ec ia?auo
iiaeaa?aaao e?eoeea iiaue aaeieieno?aoeaiue ?acaeae niaaoneie Oe?aeiu,
inouanoaeaiiue a 1923 aiaeo. ?acaeaeaiea ia aoaa?iee iacaae
aiao?iieciii, ia ie?oaa — aiiiaeeae, a “?aeiiaeecaoeeth” n/eoaao
ia?aaeeoeii oea?ecia, ia o/eouaathuei i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoe/aneea e
yoiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u.

Iaeiaei aeeciue a yiea?aoeee aiaoao o/aiiai. Aeey aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou
aio ioaeiu yeniaaeeoeee ii Oe?aeia. E ?oaeieoeeee iai?aaeyao ienueii
oe?aeineiio i?aaeoaeuenoao n i?inueaie aeaoue ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aacae.

3 ieoya?y 1926 aiaea ii i?eaeaoaieth niaaoneeo aeanoae aianoa n
o/aieeaie A.Aaayeii, A.Aooeo?ii e I.Eaaie/oeii (ana ?ai?anne?iaaiu)
ia?aacaeaao a Oa?ueeia, /oiau aicaeaaeoue eaoaae?o a aaiaeace/aneii
einoeoooa. Aeanoe iiiaauaee 300 ?oa. ca?ieaou (noiia aiooeoaeueiay a oa
a?aiaia), caaiea aeaaeaieea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeeeuey e ?aciaie iiiiue a
?acia?a ca?ieaou. Iinea aeieaeo ?acaeoiee Noaiai Eueaiae/ inoaaeyao
aeaoae nano?a.

Ia?aua ienueia e nano?a Niouea eniieiaiu iioeiecia: “Ii? ia?ae, o??oee
iaaeoa?iai?, ooo, o Oa?eia?, cian?i oniiei?eenue ? nieth ooo oae, ye
a?ae nia?o? Nea?eee ia niaa — ? aii/? ? iiiieoaei?. Aeaeyaeath aeia?a e
an?… ia iiaeooue aeeoe c? caeeaoaaiiy, ui oae iieiaei aeaeyaeath”.

Oaea a neaaeothuai aiaeo ?oaeieoeeee iniiaae e aicaeaaee Oe?aeineee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo aaia?aoee e ea?oia?aoee. Oiaaea aea
ioi?aaeyaony a yeniaaeeoeeth ii Aeiai?o e ia Aeiiaoeeee e?yae: “ss oaeee
ia?aaaioaaeaiee ?iaioith, ui ye eiaeiiai aeiy ia iaieoo aea? noi??iee
ae?oeo e i?ioyaii oeaeiy ia c?aaeaaoth iaeii? iaie, oi iiiaaeath o
aaciaae?eiee i?i?ea”, — naooao a ienueia nano?a.

“Iaia ?iaeaii aac iiai ia oi aeicaieo ?aaeaeoi?ii aaia?ao?/iiai
a?aeae?eo, ui ia?eia? 11% iaoa??aeo aei i’yoe oii?a (?a/ue eaeao i
iiaeaioiaea “Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? aioeeeeiiaae??”. — AE.I.) ?
e?eueeanio iai. Aea acyoenue ca ia? iooo, ai ae?enii iaia i?eiai, ooi
i?a ae iaia canooieoe. ? o?aaa iieacaoe na?oia?, ui e “oioee” uinue
iooiueiai iio?aoeythoue c?iaeoe”.

A ae?oaii ienueia 45-eaoiee ?oaeieoeeee i?eciaaony: “y a?ae iieiaeie iay
aei iieiaeie aa?aniy iino?eii aoa o ?ic’?caeao”.

O/aiue ?aci/a?iaai nooaeaioaie: “12 aiaeei oeaeiaaiai aaaeaiiy iaeaea
ia?aae ii?iaei?ie eaaeaie”. I?e oii, /oi “ii? caei?iaey iana?oea.
Aieiaiee i?e aai/ (iaaeinoaoie. — AE.I.), ui ia iiaeo aieinii ? aeiaai
aiai?eoe. Cae?i/ea ia?oee oii ii?? 14-oiiiai? “Nenoaie aaia?ao?/iiai
ciaiiy”, oaia? aa?ony aei ae?oaiai. *e cae?i/o an? 14? Eaaeaa” (ienueii
io 6 ethey 1932 aiaea).

Aaniie 1928-ai i?eacaeatho aeaoe Eaa e E?eia. Nionoy aiae ?oaeieoeeiai
ecae?atho aeaaeaieeii AOAI, ii ii ia ?aae. Niciaaony nano?a, /oi
iinoiyiiua iiacaeee a Eeaa ii aeaeai einoeoooa “aeia?a i?ae??aooue iith
? oae oaea aeiaie? ieineo eeoaith”. Nooi/iua e eiiaiaee?iaee iiea/eaaoue
ia niaoeee…

Iaeaioia iiaiai 1929 aiaea o/aiue ieoao: “…/oth, ye iiaie? oa inoaoi/ii
nioneathny ia aeii c aieo caei?iaey e ?ioaeaeooaeueii? neee. Iaaeoi
aeiaai y aea?aeaany iieiaeei ? oaia? iaaeoi oaeaeei noa??thny e
?iaethny, ye eaaeooue Aaaoee (aeaoe. — AE.I.), ianoiyuee noa?ooea.
Iaoeiaa ?iaioa eaea iai? aeoaea ieiyai — ia?aoeiaeaeathoue… ??ci?
ath?ie?aoe/i? caiyooy e aace?/ can?aeaiue, ia ye? o?aaa oiaeeoe… Eiee
ii? caei?ia’y o?ioe a??oa?, ana c ino?aoii aeoiath, ui oi aoaea ye
caae?o eaae. Aaaoee i?inoi caeioiooue i?ae ieioii c aieiaeo e oieiaeo”.

Aianoa n oai a einoeoooa ia/aeenue nii?u, oiaei iiaeia?aoua i?aaiaie.
O/aieeia i?ioanni?a iano?aeaatho i?ioea i?aiiaeaaaoaey, iiaeaiaa?eaatho
eo o?aaiaaoue aeey naay eo/oeo aeieaeiinoae, iao/iuo caaiee. ?oaeieoeeee
ia niaeaoaaony. E oiaaea a IAIO iiyaeyaony iieeai, iiaeienaiiue a
/anoiinoe e aeaieoii E?eiu ?oaeieoeeie Aaneeeai Aaayeii. I?ioanni?
iiaeaaeai, e ia oieueei einoeoooneeie iao?yaeeoeaie. Ii ciaao i
ia/aaoainy a ?anioaeeea aieiaeiii?a: a yeniaaeeoeeyo aeaeae
oie/oiaeaiiua naea, oia?oeo ethaeae.

23 ia?oa 1933 aiaea Noaiaia ?oaeieoeeiai a?anoiauaatho e ?iaii /a?ac
iieaiaea “ca o/anoea a eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e
oieiiaaea” i?eaiaa?eaatho e iyoe aiaeai nnueee. Ai a?aiy neaaenoaey ii
iaienae iiiia?aoeth “Aaiiii?y”, a a “Nae?eaaa” — eieaeeo “Aiaeiaaiia
aeeiai?ea caiii? ei?e”. Iaa ?aaiou caa?aei IAIO, e aaea iie, iaecaanoii.

Onoaiiaeaii, Noaiai ?oaeieoeeee i?aauaae a Aaeiii?i-Aaeoeeneii eaaa?a,
?aaioae ia eaninieaaa. Aaniie 1935-ai ia?aaaaeai ia Nieiaee. Auaoee
niociee Naiai Ieaeaaeiue aniiieiae: “Ianoii aai (?oaeieoeeiai. — AE.I.)
iaeoaiey noaiiaeony oae iacuaaaiay ia?aay eieiiia, nu?ay, aiith/ay
eaia?a, eoaea ieeiaaea ia caaeyaeuaaei nieioea, eioi?ia ia ino?iaa aua e
ia /anoue ainoue. Ia?u n eeiiaie, oyaeaeue, aeaaea ai?ueeee io iaoi?ee
aicaeoo, ooo aea ?acaaoaiu iie?ua ii?oyiee, ooaiu, aooeaou, aaeaiee, a
aie?oa oieiae e aieiae”.

?oaeieoeeee aue a eiaaeeaeiie eiiaiaea, ec-ca /aai neeueii no?aaeae io
aieiaea, oaeaniiai ioiioaiey io?aiu. Iaeiaei “aea?aeaeny niaa?oaiii
iacaaeneii e ieeiaaea ia ia?auaeny ie n eaeeie i?inueaaie ie e eaeiio
?oeiaiaenoao, — ii i?inoi aai eaii?e?iaae e o/ee iieiaeaaeue aaia?aoee”,
ieoao N.Ieaeaaeiue.

A oth?ueia i?ioanni? ?oaeieoeeee ano?aoee 36-eaoea naiae iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe e 25 eao — oieaa?neoaoneie i?ioanno?u. I?eciaiea e
anaie?iay neaaa ia nianee iniiaaoaey oe?aeineie aaia?aoee io ?anno?aea,
e eioi?iio Noaiaia ?oaeieoeeiai i?eaiai?eee oaea iinea ioauoey nnueee.

2007 aiae aue i?iaicaeaoai ia Oa?iiiieueueia Aiaeii aaia?aoa
?oaeieoeeiai

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