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Аграрная реформа П. А. Столыпина и развитие сельского хозяйства

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Aaaaeaiea

Enoi?ey ia oai?eoueny i?iecaieueiuie aeayieyie “aaeeeeo ethaeae”,
eae iieaaaee iaeioi?ua iuneeoaee. Ii enoi?ey ia oai?eoueny e eaeeie-oi
aacee/iuie neeaie, au?aaeathueieny a aeaenoaeyo e iano?iaieyo iann,
eae n/eoaee ?yae oai?oeia 50 eao iacaae. Enoi?ey – yoi nieioiay
?aaiiaeaenoaothuay iinooieia iiiaeanoaa ee/iinoae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
neeaaeuaaaony a caaeneiinoe io iauanoaaiiuo e eoeueoo?iuo oneiaee, a
eioi?uo ae aeiaaeinue ?acaeaaoueny, e aeeaaeuaaaony a enoi?e/aneea
niauoey ni naiei oaeaeueiui aanii, caaenyuei io ia?niiaeueiuo naienoa e
iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey.

I?iaeaia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa a aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaie caaioeo ii/oe eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia iaoae no?aiu.

Eae eco/eoue, iiiyoue ni anae iauaeoeaiinoueth ?aoi?iaoi?neee eo?n
naaiaeiyoiaai ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu? Aaaeue oaea aeaaii iiaeia/aii, /oi
?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou ?aoi?i, eae e iaeaieaa iauaeoeaiua eo ioeaiee,
iiyaeythony ia n?aco, a nionoy iaeioi?ue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Ionthaea
i?ienoaeaao any eo o?oaeiinoue aeey iiieiaiey a ia?eiae, eiaaea ?aoi?iu
oieueei ?acaa?ouaathony, oieueei iaae?atho oaiiu.

Enoi?ey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaen/a?iaaiue enoi/iee oeaiiaeoae
eioi?iaoeee: eiie?aoii – enoi?e/aneeo i?eia?ia. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i
?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi
ia iniiaa yoeo i?eia?ia iiaeii a eaeie- oi ia?a i?eaeeceoueny e
iiieiaieth ?aoi?i nia?aiaiiuo, a a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo e
i?aaeneacaoue, ni?iaiice?iaaoue i?eioeeieaeueiua iai?aaeaiey eo ?acaeoey
a aoaeouai. Caeanue oianoii aeiaaaeoue, /oi, e niaeaeaieth, oeaiiue
enoi?e/aneee iiuo eiiaaea inoaaony iaaino?aaiaaiiui: iu niiaa e niiaa
iiaoi?yai ioeaee i?ioeiai. Auoue iiaeao yoi caieiooue e?oa? Ii oi/aony
aa?eoue, /oi iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue iiuo i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee
ana-oaee aiciiaeii. A yoii eeth/a y ?aoee inoaiiaeoue naie auai? ia
aeaiiie oaia.

Ia aucuaaao niiiaiey, /oi a enoi?ee ?innee ca ia?aua aiaeu OO aaea
n eneeth/eoaeueiie neeie i?inooieea ee/iinoue Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a
Noieuieia. Eiy Noieuieia anaaaea aucuaaei nii?u, aai oiiieiaiea n?aco
aea aoyaeaaao ian a e?oaiai?io no?anoiuo e acaeiieneeth/athueo ioeaiie.
Ie iaeei ec iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae oea?ecia ia/aea OO aaea ia iiaeao
eaeoe n iei a n?aaiaiea ii i?aaeaiiie e ainoi?aeaiiie iaiyoe aai
ii/eoaoaeae e nin?aaeioi/aiiie iaiaaenoe ?aaiethoeeiia?ia. Ia?eiae
“noieuieineie ?aaeoeee” aenaeeoeu – “noieuieineea aaenooee” n iaeiie
noi?iiu e ai?aoe ca aeaai ?innee, /aeiaae, “aeinoieiue nanoue ia
oea?neee o?ii” – n ae?oaie. A /anoiinoe, eioa?aniue oaeo, iuiaoiee
i?aceaeaio ?innee A. I. Aeueoeei iacuaae o?ao aaeeeeo ?aoi?iaoi?ia
?innee: Iao?a I, Aeaenaiae?a II, e I.A. Noieuieia. I?aaaea, iieeoe/aneay
ea?uea?a Noieuieia auea iaaeieaie – anaai 5 eao. Ca yoi a?aiy ii aue
ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae e i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa ieieno?ia.

Noieuiei i?ici?eeaaa ae?oaeo oaeaeae iniiaiua i?e/eiu noieue
aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ?innee, a aeaaiia, noiae i?aaeeiaeeoue e
ai iiiaii inouanoaeoue a?aiaeeiciua ieaiu aa i?aia?aciaaiey,
iaania/eaathuaa ananoi?iiiaa e no?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea no?aiu.
Noieuiei oaeaeae aeaaioth i?e/eio canoiy naeueneiai oicyenoaa
?innee a iaueiiii caieaiieueciaaiee . Ana yoi e canoaaeei iaiy
naeaeaoue iiiuoeo aeoaaea ?acia?aoueny a ?aoi?iaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe , ai acaeyaeao e /aeiaa/aneie nooe I. A. Noieuiei
.

I/aiue aieueoie iauai eioi?iaoeee iaienai ii iiae oaia. Noieo
oiiiyiooue i oii, ianeieueei oi?ioi aeaiiay oaia enneaaeiaaia iaoeie. Ia
iie acaeyae, aeiaieueii iniiaaoaeueii. I?e/ai iniaaiii iiiai ioaeeeaoeee
auei naeaeaii ca iineaaeiea 10 eao.

Iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeony ia eiiiiceoeee iiaai ?aoa?aoa: a aa
no?oeoo?a ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeeo aeaaa, iinayuaiiay aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia I.
A. Noieuieia. E yoi, ia iie acaeyae, ni?aaaaeeeai, o. e. eiaiii aa?a?iay
?aoi?ia ?aniieiaeaia a naiii oeaio?a i?ia?aiiu noieuieineeo
i?aia?aciaaiee, yaeyaony iniiaiie aa ninoaaiie /anoueth. A ia/aoe /anoi
iiaeii ano?aoeoue neiaini/aoaiea “noieuieineay ?aoi?ia”, iiae eioi?ie
?acoiaaony eeoue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia. Ii oae eae iu eiaai aeaei n
i?ia?aiiie, o. a. naiaai ?iaea oii?yaei/aiiie nenoaiie, oi niaa?oaiii
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue aa?a?ioth ?aoi?io a aa ia?ac?uaiie nayce n
iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie iai?aaeaieyie ?aoi?ie?iaaiey, a oaeaea n i?iaeaiaie,
eioi?ua oae eee eia/a eiatho e iae ioiioaiea: e i?eia?o, aii?in i
niioiioaiee Noieuieia e Aeoiu; ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Noieuieiui e
Ieeieaai II; oaeenoai I.A. Noieuieia.

A aeiiieiaiea y oioae au neacaoue ianeieueei neia i i?eioeeiao, eioi?ua
y iuneaiii caeiaeee a ?aoa?ao e iiiuoaeny, ianeieueei yoi oaeaeinue,
?aaeeciaaoue ia i?aeoeea. Ia?aue i?eioeei- yoi naycue n
nia?aiaiiinoueth. Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, ?anniio?aiiua a ?aoa?aoa, eiatho
naie i?yiua aiaeiae a ianoiyuai. Aoi?ie- eniieueciaaiea enoi?e/aneeo
oaeoia(ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou) , ainiiieiaiey Noieuieia , aai nuia.
Yoi iicaieeo, ia iie acaeyae, ?anniio?aoue i?iaeaio, ia au?uaay aa ec
enoi?e/aneiai eiioaenoa.

Aeaaa I: Yeiiiie/aneay e Iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee

a eiioea 19ai – ia/aea 20ai aaea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau eo/oa iiiyoue aoiinoa?o, a eioi?ie i?eoeinue
?aaioaoue Iao?o A?eaaeeaae/o Noieuieio, ioaeii ?anniio?aoue iieeoe/aneia
e yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea a no?aia n eiioea XIX aei ia/aea OO aaea.

Ia nouea XIX e XX aaea iauanoai anooieei a iiaoth oaco naiaai
?acaeoey, eaieoaeeci noae ie?iaie nenoaiie. ?inney anooieea ia iooue
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iicaea no?ai Caiaaea e iiyoiio iiiaea ai
aoi?ie yoaeii no?ai, oaeea no?aiu iacuaaee “iieiaeuie oeuieeaie”. A yoo
a?oiio aoiaeeee oaeea no?aiu, eae ssiiiey, Oo?oeey, Aa?iaiey, NOA.

Nei?inoue, n eioi?ie ?acaeaaeanue ?inney, auea i/aiue auniea, yoiio
niinianoaiaaea oaea ?acaeoay Aa?iia; iia ieacuaaea iiiiuue, aeaeeeanue
iiuoii, a oaeaea iai?aaeyea yeiiiieeo a ioaeiia ?onei. Iinea
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia 90o aiaeia, ?inney ia?aaeeea oyaeaeue
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1900-1903 aiaeia, caoai ia?eiae aeeeoaeueiie
aeai?annee 1904-1908 aiaeia. N 1909 ii 1913 aiaea yeiiiieea ?innee
naeaeaea aua iaeei ?aceee nea/ie. Iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
au?in a 1,6 ?aca, i?ioeann iiiiiieecaoeee yeiiiieee iieo/ee iiaue
eiioeuen, a ?acoeueoaoa e?ecena neaaua, iaeaiueeea i?aaei?eyoey
?aci?eeenue, /oi e onei?eei i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai a 80-90 aiaeu a?aiaiiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea iauaaeeiaiey auee caiauaiu e?oiiuie iiiiiieeyie;
ea?oaeyie, neiaeeeaoaie (I?iaeoaieue, I?iaeiaooue e o.ae.).
Iaeiia?aiaiii oei oe?aieaiea aaieiaie nenoaiu (?onnei-Aceaoneee,
Iaoa?ao?aneee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaiee).

Auaic eaieoaea ec ?innee ia iieo/ee iniaiai ?aciaoa, /oi
iauyniyeinue eae iaaeinoaoeii oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, oae e iio?aaiinoyie
inaiaiey ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa no?aiu, ii a eiioea eiioeia ?inney
aeeth/eeanue a ai?ueao ca noa?u aeeyiey, /oi e iiaeaeei ca niaie aieio n
ssiiieae, iaeiie ec no?ai aoi?iai yoaeiia.

A ia/aea OX aaea ?inney yaeyeanue n?aaeia?acaeoie no?aiie. Ia?yaeo n
auniei?acaeoie eiaeono?eae a yeiiiieea no?aiu aieueoie oaeaeueiue aan
i?eiaaeeaaeae ?aiiaeaieoaeenoe/aneei e iieooaiaeaeueiui oi?iai oicyenoaa
– io iaiooaeoo?iiai aei iao?ea?oaeueii-iaoo?aeueiiai. ?onneay aea?aaiy
noaea nin?aaeioi/aieai ia?aaeeoeia oaiaeaeueiie yiioe. Aaaeiaeoeie ec
ieo auee e?oiiua iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey, oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeenue
io?aaioee, yaeythuea niaie i?yiie ia?aaeeoie aa?ueiu. E?anoueyineia
iaeicaiaeuea, iaueia n aa ia?aaeaeaie oi?iiceee iiaea?iecaoeeth
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa.

Nioeeaeueii-eeanniaay no?oeoo?a no?aiu io?aaeaea oa?aeoa? e
o?iaaiue aa yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Ia?yaeo n oi?ie?iaaieai eeannia
ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa (ao?aeoacey, iaeeay ao?aeoacey, i?ieaoa?eao), a
iai i?iaeieaeaee nouanoaiaaoue e nineiaiua aeaeaiey – ianeaaeea
oaiaeaeueiie yiioe. Ao?aeoacey caieiaea aaaeouoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea
no?aiu a OO aaea, aei yoiai iia ia ea?aea neieueei-ieaoaeue
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?iee a iauanoaaiii iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, oae eae
iia auea iieiinoueth caaeneia io naiiaea?aeaaey, a neaaenoaea /aai e
inoaaaeenue aiieeoe/iie e eiina?aaoeaiie neeie.

Aeai?yinoai, eioi?ia nin?aaeioi/eei aieaa 6I% anao caiaeue, noaei
aeaaiie iii?ie naiiaea?aeaaey, oioy a nioeeaeueiii ieaia iii oa?yei
naith iaeii?iaeiinoue, naeeaeaynue n ao?aeoaceae.

E?anoueyinoai, ninoaaeyaoaa 3/4 ianaeaiey no?aiu, auei oaeaea
cao?iiooi nioeeaeueiui ?anneiaieai iauanoaa (20% – eoeaee, CI% –
na?aaeiyee, 5I% – aaaeiyee ) . Iaaeaeo iiey?iuie aai neiyie aicieeaee
i?ioeai?a/ey.

A ia/aea OO aaea eeann iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ian/eouaae 16.8 iei.
/aeiaae. Ii aue iaiaeii?iaeai, aieueoay /anoue ?aai/eo ninoiyea ec
iaaeaaii i?eoaaeoeo a ai?iae e?anoueyi, ii aua ia iioa?yaoeo naycue n
caieae. ssae?ii yoiai eeanna noae oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie i?ieaoa?eao,
eioi?ue ian/eouaae aieaa 3 iei. /aeiaae.

Iieeoe/aneei no?iai a ?innee inoaaaeanue aaniethoiay iiia?oey. Oioy
a 7I-uo aiaeao XIX aaea aue naeaeai oaa ii iooe i?aa?auaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy a ao?aeoacioth iiia?oeth, oea?eci nio?aiee ana
ao?eaoou aaniethoecia. Caeii aeanee : “Eiia?aoi? ?inneeneee anoue iiia?o
naiiaea?aeaaiue e iaia?aie/aiiue ” .

Aei 1905 aiaea aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii a ?innee aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, iinoaiiaeaiey eioi?iai eiaee ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? aeey oea?y.

Naiao – aunoay noaeaaiay einoaioeey e oieeiaaoaeue caeiiia.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue aeaoiy ieienoa?noaaie,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo eiio?iee?iaaeanue eiieoaoii ieieno?ia.

Ieeieae II, anaia?ii ia?aaeaeay naith aeanoue, i/aiue ?aaieai
ioiineeny e ethaie e?oiiie iieeoe/aneie ee/iinoe. Oae, N.TH.Aeooa,
i?eia?aooee a ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiuo ?aoi?i aeeyiea a i?aayueo e?oaao, aue
a 1903 aiaeo niauai ni naiaai iinoa e iacia/ai ia aeieaeiinoue
i?aaenaaeaoaey eiieoaoa ieieno?ia.

Iniaie i?iaeaiie aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yoe aiaeu aue iaoeeiiaeueiue
aii?in. 57% ianaeaiey ?innee auee ia?onneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, e iie
iiaeaa?aaeenue anyeiai ?iaea aeene?eieiaoeee ni noi?iiu ?onneeo
/eiiaieeia. A yoeo ioiioaieyo ?inney ia oieueei i?eoaniyea oa eee eiua
ia?iaeu , ii e noaeeeaaea eo iaaeaeo niaie. Iiiaea iiae aeaaeaieai
?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey yiea?e?iaaee a aeeaeaeoea no?aiu caiaaea, oai
iaieiaeenue ia ?aaioo. Caiaoioth /anoue yiea?aioia ninoaaeee ethaee,
eioi?ua oeaeueth naiae aeecie noaaeee ai?ueao i oea?eciii.

?inney iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii ia/aea aiaoeaaoueny a ai?ueao ca ?uiee
nauoa. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?inneae e ssiiieae ca ainiiaenoai ia ?uiea nauoa
a Eeoaa, noaea iaeiei ec i?eia?ia ?acaeaea noa? aeeyiey a ie?a. ss ia
aoaeo iienuaaoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey, eioi?ua ?acaa?ioeenue a ?acoeueoaoa
aieiu, ii iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeneacaiey Ieaaa, eioi?ue i?aae?aeae
aeey ?innee iaeaiueeoth iiaaaeiiinioth aieio, ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Aieia
/aoei iieacaea iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue ?onneie a?iee, a oaeaea
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue yeiiiieee e aieia. N.TH.Aeooa ienae: «Aianoi oiai,
/oia ono?aieoue oa?ico aioo?aiieo iio?ynaiee, ian/anoiay aieia
i?eaeeceea ian ia aeanyoee eao e ?aaiethoeee. Aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua
iiianea ?inney a yoie aieia i?aauoaee 3 ie?ae. ?oaeae.»

N ii?aaeaieai a aieia ia/aea ia?anoaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey a
no?aia (1905-1907). Ec anaai yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ?innee
o?aaiaaeenue eae iieeoe/aneea, oae e yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua
niiaee au oe?aieoue e icaei?iaeoue yeiiiieeo ?innee. Ai aeaaa yoeo
?aoi?i aeieaeai aue anoaoue oiiue e /anoiue /aeiaae, aeey eioi?iai
i/aiue aaaeia auea noaeueaa ?innee. Ei noae Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei.

Aeaaa II: Aeayoaeueiinoue I.A. Noieuieia.

2.1 E?aoeay aeia?aoey i I. A. Noieuieia e ainoiae aai ia
iieeoe/aneoth a?aio

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei – auoiaeaoe ec noa?iai aeai?yineiai
?iaea, ecaanoiiai n eiioea XVI aaea. ?iae Noieuieiuo aeae ?innee
auaeathueony iieeoe/aneeo e eeoa?aoo?iuo aeayoaeae. Aaaooea I.TH.
Ea?iiioiaa – o?iaeaeaiiay Noieuieia. I?aaeaae – naiaoi? A.A. Noieuiei
– ae?oa I.I. Nia?aineiai, e?oiiaeoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey ia/aea
XIX aaea. Ioaoe – A?eaaeee Aeieo?eaae/ – o/anoiee E?uineie aieiu,
Ae?oa E.I. Oienoiai, iaaauaaoee aai a ssniie Iieyia. Iaoue
I.A.Noieuieia – Aiia Ieoaeeiaia – o?iaeaeaiiay Ai?/aeiaa –
ieaiyiieoea eaioeea?a ?innee A.I.Ai?/aeiaa, iaeiieeannieoea
A.N.Iooeeia ii eeoeath. AEaia Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a – i?aaio/ea
A.A.Noai?iaa. Oaeei ia?acii, naiuey Noieuieiuo a XIX – XX aaeao auea a
?iaenoaa e ae?oaeaa ni ciaiaieoaeoeie ethaeueie ?innee. Naiuey
I.A.Noieuieia aeaaeaea iiianoueyie a Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Eacaineie,
Iaicaineie e iicaea Eaoianneie aoaa?ieyo.

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ a 1881 aiaeo iaiaeeaeaiii aeey iiiaeo iinooiee
ia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa, aaea n
eioa?anii eco/ae oeceeo, aaieiaeth, aioaieeo, ciieiaeth,
ano?iiiieth.

A 1884 aiaeo a aic?anoa 22 eao I.A.Noieuiei ieii/ee anoanoaaiiue
oaeoeueoao iaoa?ao?aneiai Oieaa?neoaoa. Iinea ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoa ii
neoaeeo a ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa, ii /a?ac aiae
ia?aaiaeeony a IAAe e iiiaaeaao, i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yi, a Eiaaineoth
aoaa?ieth. Noieuiei aue ?aae yoiio iacia/aieth, iii iiiiaei aio
?ane?uoueny e eae /aeiaaeo, e eae oi?ioaio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth. Ii, iiaeieao
?acaiaa?eaae n e?anoueyiaie, eae aoaea aieouaae ana i /ai iie aiai?eee ,
a aiai?eee iie i caiea , i ?aoeeiiaeueiii aaaeaiee oicyenoaa e i iiiaeo
ae?oaeo aauao, eioi?ua o?aaiaeeee e?anoueyi. Anei?a ii caaae naia
oicyenoai. Aai aei/ue, I.I. Aie ienaea: “Iie ioaoe i/aiue ethaee
naeueneia oicyenoai, e eiaaea auaae a Eieiiaa?aaeuea, aanue ooiaeee a
caaiou i iinaaao, iieinao, iinaaeeao a eano e ?aaioo a o?oeoiauo
naaeao”.

Iioii ii aue iacia/ai oacaeiui i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yinoaa, a a
1899 aiaeo – aoaa?iaoi?ii a oie aea aoaa?iee. A 1902 aiaeo A.E.Ieaaa
iacia/ee aai eniieiythuei aeieaeiinoue a?iaeiaineiai aoaa?iaoi?a.
Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi Noieuiei noae naiui iieiaeui aoaa?iaoi?ii ?innee,
iinea iacia/aiey ia yoo aeieaeiinoue ii n?aco acyeny ca eco/aiea aeae
aoaa?iee, ii aai aeaenoaey eiio?iee?iaaeenue aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii
Aeeaineei e oioue iaaeaeo ieie ia auei ieeaeeo o?aiee, yoi i?aoeei
oa?aeoa?o Noieuieia. A 1903 aiaeo Noieuiei noae na?aoianeei
aoaa?iaoi?ii. Yoi auei, aaconeiaii aeoii aunieiai aeiaa?ey ni noi?iiu
ananeeueiiai Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae . Caeanue e canoaea aai
ia?aay ?aaiethoeey, a eioi?ie ii i?eiaiee aanue a?naiae n?aaenoa – io
i?yiiai ia?auaiey e ia?iaeo aei ?ani?aau n iiiiuueth eacaeia. I?e yoii a
aeayoaeueiinoe aoaa?iaoi?a iiyaeeenue aeaa io/aoeeaua /a?ou: ai-ia?auo,
ii ia niouaeny ea?aoue ia oieueei ae eaauo, ii e i?aauo, anee eo
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aoiaeeea ca ?aiee aeicaieaiiiai. Ai-aoi?uo, a ioee/ea
io aieueoeinoaa aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aeayoaeae Noieuiei aue ee/ii o?aa? e
ia aiyeny inoaaaoueny eeoeii e eeoeo n ?acaiaaaiiie oieiie. Ii ia i?inoi
cayaee ?aaiethoeeiia?ai n o?eaoiu Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu:” Ia
caioaaaoa!”, ii e ia naiii aeaea aae naay aanno?aoii.

A ai?aea 1906 aiaea Noieuiei iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae e
any ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae eiaeeony ia aai iea/e.

2.2 Noieuiei e Aeoia.

Noieuiei aue iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae 26 ai?aey 1906 aiaea.
Aeaiooaou I Aeoiu auee i?eiyou oea?ai ia ae?oaie aeaiue – 27 ai?aey. Iao
niiiaiee, /oi Noieuiei iieo/ee naie iino iiae Aeoio a oii niunea, /oi
aio auei aeiaa?aii i?ieiaeeoue iieeoe/aneee eo?n a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo
oneiaeyo – iaania/eoue niaeeoaeuenoai aeioiea ie/ai ia noaniaiiiai
naiiaea?aeaaey n “ia?iaeiui i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii”. Anei?a Noieuiei
niaiyao Ai?aiueeia ia iinoo i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ieieno?ia. E caeanue
noaeueaa I Aeoiu ieacaeanue acaeiinaycaiiie i noaeueaie Noieuieia.
?inione I aeoiu i?iecioae a aeaiue iacia/aiey Noieuieia i?aiuea?ii – 8
ethey 1906 aiaea.

Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Aeoia caeeaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoai
cai?inaie. Ianoaeaeaeenue aii?inu i eiioeneaoeee caiaeue o iiiaueeia,
iono?aiaiea aaeieieno?aoeee, ioiaiu nia?oiie eacie aeey iieeoe/aneeo
caeeth/aiiuo, ioaeii neacaoue, /oi ia oieueei a Aeoia , ii e a eaaeiaoa
ieieno?ia ia auei niaeaney. Noieuiei ia n/eoae, /oi neea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
i?iyaeony eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iii aoaeao auiineoue naie ?aoaiey
“iauaaeeiaiiui” ieienoa?noaii e yoei iaeaa/eo ?aaioo ainoaea?th.

I.A. Noieuiei ia/ae iieeoeeo oniieiaiey ia?iaea. Ia?u auee i/aiue
no?iaea – aaaaeaiea aiaiii-iieaauo noaeia, aaea eo/ea ioeoea?ia ?aoaea
noaeueao /aeiaaea. *anoia i?eiaiaiea a?iee “a iiiiuue a?aaeaeaineie
aeanoe” Ia “oniieiaiea” auee a?ioaiu ana neeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa e a?aiaiii
oaeaeinue iiaeaaeoue ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea. Noieuiei, i?iaiaey
oaeoth iieeoeeo, aue i?inoi iaiaoiaeei aeai?yinoao e eeanno eioueo.

Eae y oaea ienae iieeoeea Noieuieia auea ia ii aeooa aa?anneaii
iano?iaiiui ia?oeyi, oai aea eaaeaoai. Yoi aueeeinue a oa??i?enoe/aneee
aeo, eioi?ue i?iecioae 12 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea. A ?acoeueoaoa ac?uaa
iiaeaei 27 /aeiaae. Iino?aaeaee e aeaoe Noieuieia, eioi?ue nai ia
iino?aaeae, a iiiaio ac?uaa ii iaoiaeeeny a naiai ?aai/ai eaaeiaoa,
eioi?ue iaoiaeeeny a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii eiioea aea/e.

Iaiyoue i ac?uaa /anoi o?aaiaeeea Noieuieia, ii i?eienuaae anth aeio
naaa ca e?iaue e neacu, ca eneaea/aiiua aeecie ethaeae, iino?aaeaaoeo io
ac?uaa. Ii anei?a ii iaoae a naaa neeu, ia i?a?uaay ?aaiou ie ia iaeei
aeaiue, noae aioiaeoue iiaua ?ac?aaioee ii niiniaai iiaeaaeaiey
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey. Iinea 12 aaaonoa i?anoeae Noieuieia
iiaeiyeny n?aaee ieieno?ia. Aeey anao ii noae i?eia?ii ii?aeueiie neeu.
?aaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii yoiai aeanoieiai aeoa yaeeanue auno?ay e aieaa
aeanoieay ?aaeoeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Noieuiei naeaeae iaeneioi oneeee aeey
yoiai. 24 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea auea iioaeeeiaaia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay ninoiyea ec aeaoo /anoae – ?ai?anneaiie e
?aoi?ienoneie. A iae aiai?eeinue, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai i?ioeaiiinoaaeo
ianeeeth neeo. A ianoiinoyo, iauyaeaiiuo ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee,
aaiaeeeenue aiaiii-iieaaua noaeu (“nei?i-?aoeoaeueiua”). A oeaio?a
?aoi?ienoneie i?ia?aiiu aue ciaiaieoue oeac 9 iiya?y 1906 aiaea, i
aiciiaeiinoe auoiaea ec iaueiu. Oeaeue aeaiiiai caeiia, eioi?ue
iiaeienae nia?oiue i?eaiai? ecaa/iie e?anoueyineie iaueia – iiaa?iooue
aa?a?ioth i?iaeaio ae?oaie noi?iiie, aianoi oiai /oiau yeni?ii?ee?iaaoue
caieth o iiiaueeia, iaaccaiaeeaaeanue iaueia, oae eae i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea
iaueia caiee ?ani?aaeaeyeenue iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie. Iaeiaei o?aaiaaeinue
?ac?aoaiea iineaaeieo ia ?ac?ooaiea yoiai einoeoooa, oieueei
oe?aieaoaainy a oiaea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee. Ca oi a?aiy iiea
ninoaaeyeenue e?anoueyineea cai?inu e i?ioiaeeee caiaeueiua aoiou –
iaueia ooaa?aeeeanue eae ianoiyuee i?aai e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Caiaeueiue aii?in, inoaaoeeny ia?aoaiiui, n nia?aiee I Aeoiu,
aaoiiaoe/anee iiyaeeny ia nia?aaoainy canaaeaiee II Aeoiu 20 oaa?aey
1907 aiaea. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeauai?iay eiiiaiey i?ioea ia aac
aiaoaoaeuenoaa e aeaaeaiey ia ecae?aoaeae ni noi?iiu aeanoae. Naiaoneea
“?acuyniaiey” eneeth/eee ec /enea ecae?aoaeae aieueoea a?oiiu e?anoueyi
e ?aai/eo. I?aneaaeiaaeenue eaaua auai?ueee, cai?auaeenue ecae?aoaeueiua
nia?aiey, ianna iaieioeyoeee auea i?aaei?eiyoa e iouaia a oiae ii /anoe
?annueie ecae?aoaeueiuo iiaanoie, iacia/aiea aeiy e ianoa auai?ia. Ii
ianiio?y ia yoi, e oioue auai?u i?ioiaeeee a ianoaiiaea niaaea
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, II Aeoia ieacaeanue aieaa eaaie, /ai
ia?aay.

Eaaua o?aeoeee a Aeoia iieo/eee a niaieoiiinoe 222 iaiaeaoa (43% iauaai
/enea eca?aiiuo aeaiooaoia). Ia?iaeieee ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee – 157 iano.
Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay o?aeoeey ian/eouaaea 65 aeaiooaoia. A oi aea
a?aiy “oeaio?” – eaaeaou iioa?yee 80 iaiaeaoia. Iaeiia?aiaiii oneeeeenue
i?aaua e ieoya?enou, iie caiyee a Aeoia 54 ianoa (10%). ?aceia
ineaaeaiea eaaeaoneiai “oeaio?a” e noieue aea yaiia oneeaiea eaaiai
e?uea oaea aiai?eei i oii, /oi aiciiaeiinoue niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e Aeoiie noaea aua aieaa i?ec?a/iie. Oaea 6 ia?oa
Noieuiei aunooiee ia?aae aeaiooaoaie n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiie.
Nienie ioe?uaae ciaiaieoue oeac 9 iiya?y, aeaeaa ia?a/eneyeenue ae?oaea
aa?a?iua ia?ii?eyoey. Ai anae inoaeueiie /anoe ?a/e Noieuiei /aoei aeae
iiiyoue, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu aioiai
niaianoii i caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie i?eeiaeeoue ana oneeey,
i?aoi? n?aco iiyniee, eaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai ii eiaao a aeaeo:
i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia “o?aieo enoi?e/aneea caaaou ?innee”, oi anoue
naiiaea?aeaaii-iiia?oe/aneoth aeanoue.Eiioeiaea ?a/e yaii i?iaioee?iaaea
eaaoth /anoue Aeoiu ia ?aceea aunooieaiey. Noieuiei aiai?ee n iniai
au?aceoaeueiie eioiiaoeeae, aai neiaa auee iaiieiaiu neeie e /oanoaii
iniaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa. ?a/ue auea ei?ioeie, ii neiaa, i?iecianaiiua a
iae, noaee enoi?e/aneeie: «Ana aaoe iaiaaeee ?ann/eoaiu ia oi, /oiau
aucaaoue o aeanoe e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aee/ aiee e iunee; Ana iie
naiaeyony a aeaoi neiaai :”?oee aaa?o!” Ia yoe neiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai n
iieiui niieienoaeai e n niciaieai naiae i?aaiou , iiaeao ioaaoeoue oiaea
oieueei aeaoiy neiaaie “Ia caioaaaoa!”. Eae ie oyaeaei auei aia/aoeaiea,
i?iecaaaeaiiia ia iaai canaaeaieai 16 ia?oa, Noieuiei aua ia aeiioneae
e iunee i ?inionea Aeoiu. A yoi a?aiy a Aeoia oee aeaaaou ii aeaoi
aii?inai: aa?a?iay iieeoeea e i?eiyoea /?acau/aeiuo ia? i?ioea
?aaiethoeeiia?ia. I?aaeoaeuenoai o?aaiaaei inoaeaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
oa??i?ecia, ii aieueoeinoai aeaiooaoia ioeacaeenue yoi naeaeaoue. Aieaa
oiai, 17 iay Aeoia i?iaieiniaaea i?ioea “iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee iieeoeee”.
Oaea ie o eiai ia inoaaaeinue niiiaiey, /oi nei?i II Aeoia i?ae?aoeo
naia nouanoaiaaiea, eneaeny oieueei i?aaeeia aeey ?inionea aeoiu. E
anei?a i?aaeeia iaoaeny. N iiiiuueth aeaoo i?iaieaoi?ia, aaaioia io?aiee
auei nino?yiaii iaaeiaiea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie o?aeoeee II Aeoiu, a
iiaeaioiaea ath aiaiiiai caaiai?a, eioi?ue aue iai?aaeai i?ioea oea?y e
anaai ainoaea?noaa. Ia yoii iniiaaiee Noieuiei 1 ethiy 1907 aiaea
iio?aaiaae iono?aiaiey 55 aeaiooaoia e eeoiea 16 ec ieo aeaiooaoneie
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe, /oiau eo iiaeii auei iaiaaeeaiii a?anoiaaoue. *a?ac
ianeieueei ianyoeaa ia no?aieoeu ia/aoe “auieuee” aeaa oaieeee –
Oi?ieeiaa e A?iaeneee. Iie i?eciaaaeenue, /oi “caaiai?” aue i?aaieciaai
ii caaeaieth io?aiee.

3 ethiy Ieeieae II nai iauyaee i ?inionea aeoiu e iacia/ee nicua ia 1
iiya?y 1907 aiaea. A iaieoanoa, i?iaicaeaneaoei ?inione Aeoiu, auei
iauyaeaii i ei?aiiuo eciaiaieyo a caeiia i auai?ao. Aeo 3 ethiy 1907
aiaea aue ni?aaaaeeeai iacaai ainoaea?noaaiiui ia?aai?ioii, ii aue
niaa?oai a ia?ooaiea iaieoanoa 17 ieoya?y 1965 aiaea, niaeanii eioi?iio
ie iaeei caeii ia iiaeao auoue i?eiyo aac naieoeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiu. Iaaeaaeaeu Noieuieia ia oi, /oi iiaeao oaeanony neeiieoue
“oeaio?”, eioi?ue aue i?eaieai i?aaeoaeuenoao, ii oaea n ia?auo aeiae
noaei iiiyoii, /oi iaaeaaeaea ia?aaeueia.

Iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia noaea aeaaiie
caaea/ae ia oieueei aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa e oea?y, ii e aeey anae
ao?aeoacee. A yoi a?aiy ia/aee ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoia. Ii aue ?ac?aaioai
Niaaoii iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa. Nionoy anaai eeoue iaaeaeth iinea
ioe?uoey II Aeoiu, ia canaaeaiee 27 oaa?aey 1907 aiaea. I?iaeou
ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia auoee ec ieoya?enoneie n?aaeu. Oaeei ia?acii,
oea?ue e Noieuiei, anoaa ia iooue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa,
iie?aeenue ia iiaeaea?aeeo ia oieueei /a?iinioaioeaa e iiianoiiai
aeai?yinoaa, ii e aieueoae /anoe oeaiciaie “iauanoaaiiinoe”, aeeth/ay ia
oieueei ieoya?enoia, ii e a?oiio i?ia?annenoia, oioy iie i?aaeii/eoaee
naia ni/oanoaea acyoiio i?aaeoaeuenoaii eo?no ioe?uoi ia aoeoe?iaaoue.
I?e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia, auee iieiinoueth
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiu eaiou auai?ueeia a iieueco ao?aeoacee e iiiaueeia. I e
II Aeoiu yaii ia aienuaaeenue a naiiaea?aeaaioth nenoaio, e iaaei auei
nicaeaoue iiaoth Aeoio, aieaa “iieeaaeenooth”, a aeey yoiai ana
n?aaenoaa oi?ioe.

Oaia?ue, ecaaaeaoenue io iiiiceoeeiiiie aeoiu, Noieuiei iia i?iaiaeeoue
iieeoeeo aaoi?eoa?ioth e eiina?aaoeaioth, iniiaaiioth ia oaa?aeie
?aoeiinoe iaiiaeoue no?aio e oe?aieoue aeanoue. Ii/aa aeey yoiai auea
iiaeaioiaeaia iiaui ecae?aoaeueiui caeiiii.

Aeoineee ni?aai/iee 1916 aiaea ?enoao oaeoth ea?oeio: aeai?yia,
ninoaaeyaoea, ii ia?aiene 1897 aiaea, iaiaa 1% ianaeaiey, iieo/eee a III
aeoia 43% iano io iauaai /enea, oi anoue 66 iano, i?eia?ii 15% iano
iieo/eee iiiaueee . Eeoea eeaa?aeueiuo i?ioannee 84 (19,4%), oi?aiaoeu
-36 (7,5%), nayuaiieee e ienneiia?u iieo/eee 44 ianoa, /oi i?eia?ii
(10%) io iauaai /enea. ?aai/ea e ?aianeaiieee iieo/eee anaai 11
iano.Oaeei ia?acii, Aeoia iieo/eeanue oaeie, eaeay ioaeia auea
Noieuieio.

16 iiya?y 1907 aiaea Noieuiei aunooiaao ia?aae Aeoiie n
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeaeea?aoeeae. Ia?aay e iniiaiay caaea/a, eae ii
aiai?ee, yoi ia ?aoi?iu, a ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae, eioi?ay iiaeao
ni?aaoue ana, /oi auei caaeoiaii ei. Iinea i?eiyoey oeaca 9 iiya?y
Aeoiie ii n aianaiiuie iii?aaeaie iinooiee ia ianoaeaeaiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e oaeaea aue i?eiyo, iinea /aai ii aeaoa aai
ooaa?aeaeaiey oea?ai noae eiaiiaaoueny caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. Ii
naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth yoi aue eeaa?aeueiue ao?aeoaciue
caeii, eioi?ue niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a aea?aaia. Eiia/ii
aea yoi aue i?ia?anneaiue caeii.

Noieuiei ia ia?aie/eaaeny ?aoi?iaie a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ii
iaaeoiuaae ?aoi?iu ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, ia?aciaaiey aeey iaeieioueo e
e?anoueyi. ?a/ue, a eioi?ie cao?aaeaaeenue yoe aii?inu i?icao/aea a
Aeoia 9 iiya?y 1908 aiaea. Anei?a a Aeoia aiciee “Iieueneee aii?in”, ii
iiyaeeny a 1910 aiaeo a nayce n aii?inii i caiaaeiii cainoaa e auai?ao
io caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee a Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao.

Caeiiii?iaeo aue i?eiyo 29 iay 1910 aiaea. Ii, ianiio?y ia auno?ua
oaiiu, n?ie aaaaeaiey cainoaa a caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo a caeiiii?iaeoa
i?eoeinue ia?aaeaeiooue ia aiae: Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao oaea ia oniaaae
i?eiyoue aai aei 1 ethey, oi anoue aei n?iea auai?ia.

Caeiiii?iaeo i auaeaeaiee ec Oea?noaa Iieueneiai Oieiueiu aue
ii-ianoiyuaio ia?aui auoiaeii iiaiai noieuieineiai “oeaio?a”.
Caeiiii?iaeo i Oieiueia aue i?eiyo 26 ai?aey 1912 aiaea
i?aaiieoya?enoneei aieueoeinoaii. 4 iay aai ia?aaeaee a
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, a oaea 23 ethey oiai aea aiaea ooaa?aeee
oea?ue e caeiiii?iaeo noae caeiiii.

Iaaeaeo oai, e inaie n iieiie i/aaeaeiinoueth iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi
?aoi?i ia aoaeao. Yoi i?eaaei e ?aceiio iaino?aieth i?ioeai?a/ee
anao caaiueaa nenoaiu – iaaeaeo i?aaie e eeaa?aeueiie /anoueth Aeoiu.

Noieuiei a eioa?aueth iaeiie ec iaiaoeeeo aacao nooue neo/eaoaainy
n Caiaaeiui cainoaii iauyniye neaaeothuei ia?acii: Aeoia “aua
neeoeii thia e /a?an/o? iano?ieia ii aeooo – iieeoe/aneie iiaeaioiaea
naieo /eaiia, /oiau aa acaeyaeu e ?aoaiey n/eoaeenue aac
aeaeueiaeoeo ni?aaie iaiia?aoeiuie”. 

Aeaaa III : Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia I.A. Noieuieia.

3.1. Nouiinoue noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Iu oaea oiiieiaee i oii, /oi ai aeaao oaea naieo i?aia?aciaaiee
Noieuiei noaaee eciaiaiey a noa?a yeiiiieee. N /aai ia/aoue a iae?
I?aiuea? aue oaaaeaeai, e aai aunooieaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia yoii,
/oi ia/eiaoue iaiaoiaeeii n aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu. E nai Noieuiei, e aai
iiiiiaiou iiae/a?eeaaee aeaaioth caaea/e ?aoi?iu- nicaeaoue aiaaoia
e?anoueyinoai, i?iieeiooia eaeaae nianoaaiiinoe e iioiio ia
ioaeaeathuaany a ?aaiethoeee, aunooiathuaa eae iii?a i?aaeoaeuenoao.
Caeanue /aoei i?inooiatho iieeoe/aneea niia?aaeaiey aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu:
aac e?anoueyinoaa ieeaeay ?aaiethoeey a ?innee auea iaaiciiaeia. 5
aeaeaa?y 1908 aiaea a ?a/e i “caiaeueiii caeiiii?iaeoa e caieaono?ienoaa
e?anoueyi” Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “ianoieueei ioaeai aeey
ia?aono?ienoaa iaoaai oea?noaa, ia?aono?ienoaa aai ia e?aieeo
iiia?oe/aneeo onoiyo, e?aieee ee/iue nianoaaiiee, ianoieueei ii yaeyaony
i?aa?aaeie aeey ?acaeoey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, aeaeii ec o?oaeia
iineaaeiaai nuacaea nioeeaeenoia- ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, auaoaai a Eiiaeiia a
naioya?a ianoiyuaai aiaea… aio oi, /oi ii iinoaiiaee: «i?aaeoaeuenoai,
iiaeaaea iiiuoeo ioe?uoiai ainnoaiey e caoaaoa caiaeue a aea?aaia,
iinoaaeei naaa oeaeueth ?aniueeoue e?anoueyinoai oneeaiiui ianaaeaeaieai
ee/iie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe eee oooi?neei oicyenoaii. Anyeee oniao
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee iaiineo na?ueaciue oua?a aeaeo
?aaiethoeee»

E?iia iieeoe/aneeo ono?aieaiee, a caeii 9 iiya?y i?aaeoaeuenoai
caeiaeeei e yeiiiie/aneee niune. Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae a ?a/e ia?aae
Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii 15 ia?oa 1910, /oi “…eiaiii yoei caeiiii
caeiaeai ooiaeaiaio, iniiaaiea iiaiai nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneiai
e?anoueyineiai no?iy”. Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou ?aoi?i iniiauaaeenue ia
oii, /oi aac ii?iaeueiiai aa?a?iiai ooiaeaiaioa, aac i?ioeaaoathuaai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aac auieaneeaaiey ec naea ia ?uiie o?oaea
ieeeeiiia auaoeo e?anoueyi, aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu, i?iiuoeaiiinoue
?innee aoaeao ia?a/aia ia /aoeoth aeeciue i?e iinoiyiiie “iiaeei?iea” a
aeaea eacaiiuo caeacia.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, niaeanii eiioeaioeee Noieuieia, iiaea?iecaoeey no?aiu
o?aaiaaea ianeieueeeo oneiaee: ia?aia- naeaeaoue e?anoueyi
iieiiaeanoiuie nianoaaiieeaie, /oiau “e?aieea e neeueiua”,
inaiaiaeeaoenue io iiaee iaueiu, iiaee iaieoe “oaiaeo e iueyiuo”. E
aoi?ia- aeiaeoueny oneeaiiiai ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiaee?aieaiiiai
?acaeoeai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea.

Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia aeeth/aea a naay ?yae acaeiinaycaiiuo i?iaeai, e ana
eo ?aoaiey i?iiecuaaea e?aniay ieoue- oii? ia ia iaueio, a ia
aaeeiiee/iiai nianoaaiieea. Ianiiiaiii, yoi aue iieiue ?ac?ua n
eaeaieiaeae ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea, eiaaea oii? aue naeaeai eiaiii ia
e?anoueyineoth iaueio eae ia aeaaioth iii?o, aaco naiiaea?aeaaey e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a oeaeii.

?ac?ooaieth e?anoueyineie iaueiu niinianoaiaae ia oieueei oeac io 9
iiya?y 1906 aiaea, ii e ae?oaea caeiiu 1909- 1911 aa.,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuea ?inione iaueiu e aiciiaeiinoue aai i?iaaaeaiey
?aoaieai i?inoiai aieueoeinoaa, a ia 2/3, eae yoi auei ?aiueoa. Iinea
i?eiyoey oeaca 9 iiya?y Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie ii iinooiee ia
ianoaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e oaeaea aue i?eiyo, iinea /aai
noae eiaiiaaoueny caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. A yoie aeaaa iu ia iiaeai
?anniio?aoue niaea?aeaiea yoeo aeaoo caeiiia- caeanue oianoii eceiaeeoue
eo nouiinoue, iniiaiua /a?ou. Ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth yoi
auee, aaconeiaii, eeaa?aeueiua ao?aeoaciua caeiiu, niinianoaothuea
?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a aea?aaia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ia?anneaiua.
?aciua enneaaeiaaoaee aeatho ?acee/ioth nouiinoioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo yoeo
caeiiia.

Oae, niaeanii eiioeaioeee A. ss. Aa?aoa, caeii “iaania/eaae i?ia?ann
ii ooaeoaio, i?onneiio ia?acoeo, oiaaea eae ?aaiethoeeiiiue iooue
ioe?uaae “caeaioth oeeoeo” “aia?eeaineiio”, oa?ia?neiio iooe,
iaeneiaeueii yooaeoeaiiio e auno?iio, a ?aieao ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa”.

A. Iiiia ?anniao?eaaao nouiinoue noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouiinoue aa iniiaiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, ii- eiiio. Aio
oiae aai ?annoaeaeaiee. Aua Eaiei n/eoae, /oi ?aoi?ia Noieuieia-
i?onneee iooue ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia, ia/oi, auaiaeiia iiiaueeai. Ii
aaaeue iii?a i?onneiai iooe- thiea?a, iiiaue/uee oicyenoaa. Noieuiei aea
eneae iii?o n?aaee aiaaoiai e?anoueyinoaa. Eaiei aeiionoee oo aea
ioeaeo, /oi e *a?iuoaaneee, eioi?ue n/eoae ?aoi?io 1861 aiaea
iiiaue/ueae. Ia naiii aeaea ana eiie?aoiua ?aoaiey ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea
ioaa/aee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eioa?anai nio?aiaiey oea?y e aai
ath?ie?aoee. E Noieuiei oiaea aeoiae i nio?aiaiee ath?ie?aoee, a oe?ieii
niunea neiaa – i nio?aiaiee ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. A 1861 aiaeo n
yoie oeaeueth ioaa?aee e iiiaue/ee aa?eaio ?aoi?iu(inaiaiaeeoue
e?anoueyi aac caiee) e e?anoueyineee aa?eaio(inaiaiaeeoue, ioaeaa
e?anoueyiai anth caieth). Aua?aee iaueiiue aa?eaio inaiaiaeaeaiey.
Eiaiii ii iicaieee nio?aieoue ainoaea?noaaiioth iaoeio ?innee e
?inneeneoth eiia?eth. Oaea oiaaea noaei ynii, /oi oea?y aieueoa
eioa?anoao ?inneeneia ainoaea?noai, /ai iiiaueee. Noieuiei oiaea eneae
iooue nio?aiaiey i?aaeaea anaai ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia ii
ioiaeaeanoaeye n i?aaeoaeuenoaii e oea?ai. Noieuiei aeeaea ia e
thiea?neiio, a e aia?eeaineiio iooe. A NOA Eeieieuei ioe?ue aei?iao ia
caiaae anai, aeaeaaoei noaoue oa?ia?aie. Ii/oe oi aea iuoaeny naeaeaoue
Noieuiei, oieueei aei?iao ii ioe?ue ia Ainoie. Ii nouanoao ii iuoaeny
niaaeeieoue aia?eeaineee iooue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee eaieoaeecia n
nio?aiaieai aiia?aoa ath?ie?aoee naiiaea?aeaaey.

3.2 Niaea?aeaiea noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu

Eiie?aoiua ia?u aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu Noieuieia aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi ecaanoiu.
Niaeanii 1 noaouee caeiia 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea “eaaeaeue aeiiioicyei,
aeaaeathuee iaaeaeueiie caieath ia iaueiiii i?aaa, iiaeao ai anyeia
a?aiy o?aaiaaoue oe?aieaiey ca niaie a ee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue
i?e/eoathuaeny aio /anoe ec icia/aiiie caiee”. Aieaa oiai, caeii
?ac?aoee aio inoaaeoue ca niaie eceeoee, anee ii ca ieo caieaoeo iaueia
ii aieaa ieceie aueoiiie oeaia 1861 a. Auoiae ec iaueiu ?anniao?eaae
naeueneee noiae, anee aea niaeanea ia auaeaaaeinue a oa/aiea 30 aeiae,
oi auaeae inouanoaeyeny caineei ia/aeueieeii. Ii o?aaiaaieth
auaeaeeaoeony iaueia auea iaycaia auaeaeeoue ei acaiai /a?aciieinuo
caiaeue ioaeaeueiue eiiiaeoiue o/anoie- io?oa. Aeiiieiaieai e caeiio 14
ethiy 1910 aiaea aue i?eiyoue iaaeie iaeaoaie 29 iay 1911 aiaea caeii i
caieaono?ienoaa. A niioaaonoaee n iei aeey i?iaaaeaiey caieaono?ienoaa
ia o?aaiaaeinue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oe?aieaiey caiee ca aeai?ioicyaaaie.
Naeaiey, aaea auee i?iaaaeaiu caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou, aaoiiaoe/anee
iauyaeyeenue ia?aoaaeoeie e ianeaaenoaaiii- iiaeai?iiio aeaaeaieth.
Caieaono?ieoaeueiua eiiennee auee iaaeaeaiu oe?ieeie iieiiii/eyie,
eioi?ua iie ioneaee a oiae, /oiau ianaaeeoue eae iiaeii aieueoa oooi?ia
e io?oaia.

Aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ?ac?ooaiey iaueiu e ianaaeaeaiey iaeeie /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe aue e?aaeeoiue aaie. Iin?aaenoaii iaai ainoaea?noai
iiiiaaei iiiaei e?anoueyineei naiueyi a i?eia?aoaiee caiaeue. Aaie
i?iaeaaae a e?aaeeo caiee, neoieaiiua ?aiaa o iiiaueeia, eee
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ainoaea?noao. I?e yoii e?aaeeo aeey aaeeiiee/iiai
oicyenoaa aue aaeaia ieaea, /ai ii e?aaeeoai iaueia. Iaaeaeo 1905 e 1914
aa. a ?oee e?anoueyi ia?aoee oaeei iooai 9,5 iei. aa caiee. Iaiaoiaeeii,
iaeiaei caiaoeoue, /oi oneiaey i?iaeaae auee aeiaieueii aeanoeeie- ca
i?in?i/eo ieaoaaeae caiey o iieoiueea ioae?aeanue e aica?auaeanue a
aaieianeee oiiae aeey iiaie i?iaeaaee. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao I. Aa?oa, yoa
iieeoeea auea aanueia ?acoiiie a ioiioaiee iaeaieaa ?aaioiniiniaiie
/anoe e?anoueyi, iia iiiiaea ei, ii ia iiaea ?aoeoue aa?a?iue aii?in a
oeaeii(e?anoueyia- aaaeiyee ia iiaee i?eia?anoe caiee). Aieaa oiai,
auaeaeaiea a ioaeaeueiia oicyenoai iau/ii ia aeaaaei o/anoee,
aeinoaoi/iua aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou e aeaaea e?aaeeou aeaea nouanoaaiii
ia iaiyee, e Noieuiei acye eo?n ia ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi ia naiaiaeiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua caiee. A caaea/o ia?anaeai/aneiai oi?aaeaiey aoiaeeei
?ac?yaeeoue caiaeueioth oaniioo, eioi?ay iaaethaeaeanue a oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiao ?innee. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie ia?anaeaiey yaeeenue Neae?ue,
Naaa?iue Eaaeac, N?aaeiyy Acey. Ii iiaieth I. Yeaeaeueiaia ianniaia
ia?anaeaiea auei i?aaieciaaii aeey oiai, /oiau, ia iaaeaeyy e?anoueyi
iiiaue/ueae caieae(?aaeeeaeeci), iaiaaoeoue iaeieo e?anoueyi ca n/ao
ae?oaeo, ?anionoea iaueio e iaeaa/ea ia?aoiae oiai, /oi i?eiaaeeaaeaei
aaaeiyeai a nianoaaiiinoue caaeeoi/iuo ioaeeeia. Inoaaoeony aac caiee
aeieaeai aue ai-ia?auo i?eiyoue ai?iae, a ai- aoi?uo ie?aeiu, eoaea
i?aaiecoaony ia?anaeaiea. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey Noieuiei noa?aeny
aeinoe/ue eiii?iienna iauanoaaiiuo nee, /oiau, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia
ouaieyoue caeiiiuo i?aa iiiaueeia ia caieth, a n ae?oaie – iaania/eoue
caieae iaeaieaa niciaoaeueioth /anoue e?anoueyinoaa- , eae
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, iii?o naiiaea?aeaaey.

Ia?aae oai eae i?iaeieaeeoue enneaaeiaaiea ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee I.
A. Noieuieia, iaiaoiaeeii, ia iao acaeyae, i?iaanoe iiaa?oiinoiue aiaeec
caneoaeeaathuae aieiaiey noaouee eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe A.
Iaioaeaaaa “Neae?neay iaeennay Noieuieia”.

A eiioea aaaonoa- ia/aea naioya?y 1910 aiaea I. Noieuiei e
aeaaiioi?aaeythuee caieaono?ienoaii e caieaaeaeeai A. E?eaioaei
niaa?oeee iiacaeeo ii Neae?e. Ii ieii/aieth aeaeaaaoeee aue ninoaaeai
io/ao, n o/aoii eioi?iai Noieuiei e

E?eaioaei auaeaeioee eiiieaenioth i?ia?aiio i?eaaoecaoeee neae?neie
caiee. A ei?ioeee n?ie aue ?ac?aaioai iaeao caeiiii?iaeoia e
iinoaiiaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aaaaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth
a Neae?e. Oaea a iiya?a 1910 aiaea Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea caieaono?ienoaa e
caieaaeaeey iai?aaeei a Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio aeaaiaeoee ec oao
aeieoiaioia- “Iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi e
eii?iaeoeaa ia eacaiiuo caieyo neae?neeo aoaa?iee e iaeanoae”. Nooue aai
auea aanueia ?aoeoaeueia: aac anyeiai aueoia i?aaeinoaaeoue caieth
neae?neei naeueneei iauaaoaeyi a nianoaaiiinoue.

I?iaaaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoa a aeeciue ano?aoeeinue n iaiaeuie
o?oaeiinoyie: ai- ia?auo caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou a Neae?e ia
caaa?oeeenue(ec- ca iaoaaoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caieaia?ia), a ai- aoi?uo
ia oaaoaei n?aaenoa.

Eae aua iaeio i?e/eio iiaeii auaeaeeoue ia?aaeienaeueioth ia ia?aue
acaeyae i?iaeaio, eioi?ay, eae iieacaea enoi?ey, eiaea i/aiue aaaeiua
iineaaenoaey aeey anae ?inneeneie eiia?ee a oeaeii: Neae?ue, aoaeo/e
“no?aiie e?anoueyineie” ca i?aaua ia?oee ia auai?ao a Ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeoio ia aieiniaaea(!). Ninoaa neae?neeo aeaiooaoia aue i?aaenoaaeai
eneeth/eoaeueii iiiiceoeeiiiuie oiaaeaoiaio iieeoe/aneiio ?aaeeio
ia?oeyie e ieacae aieueoia aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? ianoaeaeaiey
caeiiii?iaeoa i caieaono?ienoaa e?anoueyi Neae?e. Ii/aio iu
aeoeaioe?iaaee aieiaiea ia yoie i?iaeaia, iacaaa aa
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie?

Aeey ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in iaiaoiaeeii ioaea/ueny io iauaai oiaea
iiaanoaiaaiey… Aua ?aiueoa, ia auai?ao a ia?aoth Ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeoio a/a?a aua iao?ea?oaeueiue ioaeee eca?ae aeoio aac aaeeiiai
i?aaiai(!). Eiaiii caeanue e i?iecioae ia?aue na?ueaciue i?ieie a
eniuoaiiii eicoiaa “Oea?ue e ia?iae”. Yoi icia/aei, a naith i/a?aaeue,
e?ao iiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, caeeth/athuaeny a oii, /oiau
aiieioeoue eaeath aaeeiaiey oea?y n ia?iaeii a aeeciue, iaeoe iii?o
naiiaea?aeaaeth a aeaea iao?ea?oaeueiiai e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey,
“aaie?ionoai oeaca?ecia”. Ia o?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny i oao iineaaenoaeyo,
eioi?ua, auoue iiaeao oieueei iac?aaaee a oio ia?eiae, auee iacaiaoiu,
ii eioi?ua iaycaoaeueii aeaaeoo i naaa ciaoue iaiiiai iicaea…

Eoae, auoaoeacaiiue i?iaeo i caieaono?ienoaa ieacaeny neae?neei
aeaiooaoai ia ii aeooa: iie iioeae?iaaee yoi oai, /oi “neae?neea
noa?iaeeeu, aeeay naiae aeeciueth, ieeaeiai caieaono?ienoaa ia i?inoyo”.
Ianoaeaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoa caoyioeinue aac?acoeueoaoii aieioue aei
i?ae?auaiey aeayoaeueiinoe IV Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu. I?aaaea, aei
nia?oe Noieuieia ?aaioa oea n?aaieoaeueii nii?i, ii iioii, eae ecaanoii,
iinea nia?oe i?aiuea?a, caeiiii?iaeo eeoeeny aeaaiie naiae caaiaeiie
i?oaeeiu e ?aaioa caoyioeanue.

Iaeiaei, aua a 1908 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai i?enooieei e ?aciaaeaaaieth
iaaeaeia e?anoueyineeo iauei a Neae?e. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue iaeei
oee?eoey?, ioi?aaeaiiue i?aiuea?- ieieno?ii neae?neei aoaa?iaoi?ai: “ia
aeiioneay eaeeo- eeai ianeeee iaae aieath naieo noa?iaeeeia eee
iiainaeia, niaeaenoaiaaoue oiio, /oiau naeueneea iauanoaa n iaueiiui
caieaiieueciaaieai ia?aoee e aeaaeaieth ee/iiio”. Ianoiui /eiiaieeai a
aanaaeao n ianaeaieai ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue i?iyaeyoue neoaeaaiue oaeo e
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueioth ianoie/eainoue. Ianiiiaiii a yoii i?aaeienaiee
io?aceeenue iiaua iiaeoiaeu a iiiuoeao i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iaanoe
oa?ia?ecaoeeth ?innee. Aaaeue a oeaio?aeueiuo iaeanoyo ianeeea i?e
nicaeaiee oooi?ia e io?oaia auei iau/iie i?aeoeeie.

A Aa?iiaeneie ?innee iiiuoee auaeaeeoueny ia oooi?a e io?oaa iau/ii
aucuaaee nii?ioeaeaiea na?aaeiyoeeie /anoe aea?aaie(iiiaea e?anoueyia
ineoieiae/anee ia iiaee inaiaiaeeony io iaueiiiai oeeaaea aeecie). A
Neae?e aea iaueia auea caiaoii neaaae, e e?anoueyia ioioii oee ia
ioaeaeaiea. Eiaiii ioiineoaeueiay iac?aeinoue neae?neie iaueiu ai iiiaii
aeaeaea ei?aiiiai aea?aaaineiai ioaeeea, ia aiai?y oaea i ia?anaeaioeao,
iaaeaaeiui noi?iiieeii noieuieineeo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Eoae, aa?iainy e i?iaeaia ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee. A caaea/o
ia?anaeai/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, eae yoi oaea auei neacaii, aoiaeeei
?ac?aoaiea ianouiiai aii?ina ia?aianaeaiiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?iee
?innee. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie ia?anaeaiey auee Neae?ue, N?aaeiyy Acey,
Aeaeueiee Ainoie e Naaa?iue Eaaeac. I?aaeoaeuenoai any/anee iiiu?yei
canaeaiea aeaiiuo ?aaeiiia: auee ono?aiaiu ana i?aiyonoaey e nicaeai
na?ueaciue noeioe aeey ia?anaeaiey a inaaeaaaiua ?aeiiu no?aiu.
E?aaeeou, ioioneaaiua ia?anaeaioeai, oaaee/eeenue a /aou?a ?aca ii
n?aaiaieth n ia?eiaeii 1900-1904 aa. I?iacae aue aanieaoiui,
niaoeeaeueiua ii eiino?oeoeee, “noieuieineea” aaaiiu, iicaieyee aacoe n
niaie neio e eiouanoai.

3.3 Iaoiaeu noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Aei Noieuieia i?aaeoaeuenoai oiaea noa?aeinue iiiiaaoue aiaaoui
e?anoueyiai- aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue eueaioiua e?aaeeou E?anoueyineiai
aaiea. Caiaoei, /oi Noieuiei, iai?ioea, ioaiaeee aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue
a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiu?aiey ia e?aaeeoai(o.a. aeaiaaeiui
n?aaenoaai), a aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii, aauanoaaiiui ?u/aaai.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeaiueae e?anoueyiei iia iii?inoo i?iieoue, noaoue
aea?oaie aeaeueoeia, oeiainiauo ai?ioee e /eiiaieeia. Eiaiii iiyoiio
Noieuiei noa?aeny ?aaeeciaaoue iiiiuue a iaoo?aeueiii aeaea. Ai- ia?auo,
iooai nicaeaiey ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u: a ciiao ia?anaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoai no?ieei aeaeaciua aei?iae, aiaeio?aieeeua, eieiaeoeu,
oeieu. Oae, e i?eia?o, oieueei iaaeeoeeineeo ioieoia auei ioe?uoi ieiei
500.

E?anoueyiei oaeaea iieo/ae iiiiuue a aeaea naiyi, neioa, eiaaioa?y- ana
yoi iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue oieueei a oicyenoaa: i?iaeaoue ana yoi a
Neae?e auei iaeiio. A naycea “ainoaea?noai- e?anoueyiei” eneeth/aeny
ia?aeoiuee- oi?aiaaoe.

Aiai?y i iaoiaeao i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi iie
iie?aeenue ia iaaeei aiia?aoa, /eiiaieeia, iieeoeee.(Aaaeue yoi auea
?aaiethoeey naa?oo!). Iu oaea oiiieiaee, ?aoi?ia ?aaeeciaaeanue a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea a no?aia oea?eea ianoaiiaea ?anno?aeia, aenaeeoe, i?yiiai
ianeeey aeanoae. I?anooiiee ii e anoue i?anooiiee, ii oi, /oi naia
aeanoue n iiiiuueth aiaiii-iieaaiai noaea, a ninoaa eioi?iai Noieuiei
cai?aoee aeeth/aoue th?enoia, ?anno?aeeaaao naieo a?aaeaeai- yoi auei
iaaeaeaiii. Ca ia?eiae n 1905 aei 1909 aiaea /enei eaciaiiuo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia ia i?aauoaei 2,4 oun. /aeiaae(n?aaieoa n 2,7 oun.
oaeouo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoe) , ii yoi iaianei ia?iiiue ii?aeueiue
oaea? ii aeanoyi. Noieuiei nicaeae i?aoeaaeaio: i?aai aeanoe ea?aoue aac
iauyniaiee.

Noieuiei ooaa?aeee e i?aai aeanoe aiaoeaaoueny a noaoai yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey. I?aai ainoaea?noaa ia ianeeea a yeiiiieea aia?aua
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii a iaua?inneeneii ianooaaa eiaiii Noieuieiui a oiaea
aai ?aoi?i.

3.4 I?e/eiu iaoaea/e aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

?yae aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa (nia?oue Noieuieia, ia/aei aieiu)
i?a?aaee noieuieineoth ?aoi?io.

Anaai 8 eao i?iaiaeeeanue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia, a n ia/aeii aieiu iia auea
ineiaeiaia – e, eae ieacaeinue, iaanaaaea. Noieuiei i?inee aeey iieiiai
?aoi?ie?iaaiey 20 eao iieiy, ii yoe 8 eao auee aeaeaei ia niieieiuie.
Iaeiaei ia e?aoiinoue ia?eiaea e ia nia?oue aaoi?a ?aoi?iu, oaeoiai a
1911 aiaeo ?oeie aaaioa io?aiee a eeaaneii oaao?a, auee i?e/eiie e?aoa
anaai i?aaei?eyoey. ?aoi?ia ia aeinoeaea ie iieeoe/aneeo, ie
yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae, eioi?ua ia?aae iae noaaeeenue. O e?anoueyi ia auei
aeinoaoi/ii iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeey oiai /oiau iiaeiyoue naia
oicyenoai, /oiau eoieoue iiaoth oaoieeo, eioi?ay iicaieeea au iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, ii noieuieineee aa?a?iue eo?n i?iaaeeeny e
iieeoe/anee. Aeaei a oii, /oi e?anoueyia ia niiaee caauoue i iiiaue/ueae
caiea, aeaaea “eoeaee” ,a?aay iaueiioth caieth, aea?aeaee a oia e
iiiaue/ueth. Ei anaio i?i/aio, nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue a aea?aaia
ia niaea, a oneeeeanue aei i?aaeaea. Iianiinoue ninoiyea a oii, /oi
a?iaeaiea ooei a aeoaue e aue iaecaaaeai iiaue ac?ua. Aaaaeaiea /anoiie
iiaeai?iie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth aianoi iaueiiie oaeaeinue aaanoe
oieueei o /aoaa?oe iaueiieeia. Ia oaeaeinue e oa??eoi?eaeueii ioi?aaoue
io “ie?a” caaeeoi/iuo oicyaa, o.e. ia oooi?neeo e io?oaiuo o/anoeao
iinaeyeenue iaiaa iieiaeiu eoeaeia. Ia?anaeaiea ia ie?aeiu oae aea ia
oaeaeinue i?aaieciaaoue a oaeeo ?acia?ao, eioi?ua niiaee au nouanoaaiii
iiaeeyoue ia eeeaeaeaoeeth caiaeueiie oaniiou a oeaio?a. Ana yoi
i?aaeaauaei e?ao ?aoi?iu aua aei ia/aea aieiu, oioy aa einoa?
i?iaeieaeae oeaoue, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue ia?iiiui /eiiaie/ueei aiia?aoii ai
aeaaa n yia?ae/iui i?eaiieeii Noieuieia – aeaaiui oi?aaeythuei
caieaono?ienoaii e caieaaeaeeai A.A. E?eaioaeiui.

I?e/ei e?aoa ?aoi?i auei ianeieueei: i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
e?anoueyinoaa, iaaeinoaoie auaeaeyaiuo n?aaenoa ia caieaono?ienoai e
ia?anaeaiea, ieioay i?aaiecaoeey caieaono?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, iiaeuai
?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey a 1910-1914 aa. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia
i?iaiaeeeanue a oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey. Ii
aeaaiie i?e/eiie auei nii?ioeaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa i?iaaaeaieth iiaie
aa?a?iie iieeoeee.

3.5 Eoiae ?aaeecaoeee aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu

Eaeiau aea auee eoiae noieuieineiai aa?a?iiai eo?na, eioi?ue aue
iineaaeiae noaaeie oea?ecia a ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea? Oaeaeanue ee
aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia ii Noieuieio? Enoi?eee a iniiaiii n/eoatho, /oi
?acoeueoaou auee i/aiue aeaeaee io iaeeaeaaiuo… Ii iiaieth A.
Aiiaea?aaa, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee, iaaeaeaiea e?anoueyi
i?aaii /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth oaeaeinue eeoue /anoe/ii, i?e
yoii nio?aieeinue aioaaiienoe/aneia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e
iiiaueeaie; i?iaaaeaiea caieaono?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, ioaeaeaiea e?anoueyi
ii iaueiu oaeaeinue a iacia/eoaeueiie ia?a- ieiei 10% e?anoueyi
auaeaeeeinue ec oooi?a; ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi a Neae?ue, N?aaeithth
Aceth, ia Aeaeueiee Ainoie a eaeie- oi noaiaie oaeaeinue. Yoi- auaiaeu,
aeey iauaeoeaiie ioeaiee iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeony e iniiaiui oeeo?ai e
oaeoai.

I?eia?ii ca aeanyoue eao oieueei 2,5 iei. e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa
oaeaeinue inaiaiaeeony io iiaee iaueiu. Aeaeaeaiea ca oi?acaeiaiea
“ie?neiai” i?aaeaiey ia naea aeinoeaei iaeaunoae oi/ee iaaeaeo 1908 e
1909 aa. (ieiei iieieeeeiia cai?inia aaeaaiaeii). Iaeiaei aiineaaenoaee
yoi aeaeaeaiea caiaoii nie?aoeeinue. Neo/ae iieiiai ?inionea iaueiu a
oeaeii auee e?aeia ?aaeeeie(ieiei 130 oun.). “Naiaiaeiua” e?anoueyineea
caieaaeaaeaiey ninoaaeee eeoue 15% iauae ieiuaaee ia?aaaouaaaiie caiee.
Aaeaa ee iieiaeia ?aaioaaoeo ia yoeo caieyo e?anoueyi (1,2 iei.)
aeinoaeenue io?oaa e oooi?a, cae?aieaiiua ca ieie iinoiyiii, a /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue. Nianoaaiieeaie niiaee noaoue eeoue 8% iauaai /enea
o?oaeaieeia, ii iie oa?yeenue a ianooaaao no?aiu.

Caieaono?ieoaeueiay iieeoeea ia aeaea ea?aeeiaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia.
Noieuieineia caieaono?ienoai, ia?aoaniaaa iaaeaeueiua caiee, ia eciaieei
caiaeueiiai no?iy, ii inoaeny i?aaeiei- i?eii?iaeaiiui e eaaaea e
io?aaioeai, a ia e iiaaeoae aa?eeoeueoo?a oeaca 9 iiya?y.

Aeayoaeueiinoue e?anoueyineiai aaiea oaeaea ia aeaea aeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Anaai ca 1906- 1915 aa. aaie i?eia?ae aeey i?iaeaaee
e?anoueyiai 4614 oun. aeanyoei caiee, iiaeiya oeaiu n 105 ?oa. a 1907 a.
aei 136 ?oa. a 1914 a. ca aeanyoeio caiee. Aunieea oeaiu e aieueoea
ieaoaaee, iaeaaaaiua aaieii ia caaiueeia, aaee e ?aci?aieth iannu
oooi?yi e io?oaieeia. Ana yoi iiae?uaaei aeiaa?ea e?anoueyi e aaieo, e
/enei iiauo caaiueeia iioei aiec.

Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea iaoiaeu e eoiae
noieuieineie aa?a?iie iieeoeee. Ia?anaeaioeu i?aaeii/eoaee
iainiiauaaoueny a oaea iaaeeouo ianoao, oaeeo eae O?ae, Caiaaeiay
Neae?ue, iaaeaee caieiaoueny inaiaieai aacethaeiuo eaniuo cii. Iaaeaeo
1907 e 1914 aa. 3,5 iei. /aeiaae auaoaee a Neae?ue, ieiei 1 iei. ec
aa?ioeenue a aa?iiaeneoth /anoue ?innee, ii oaea aac aeaiaa e iaaeaaeae,
eai i?aaeiaa oicyenoai auei i?iaeaii.

Iaeiei neiaii, ?aoi?ia ia oaeaeanue. Iia ia aeinoeaea ie yeiiiie/aneeo,
ie iieeoe/aneeo oeaeae, eioi?ua ia?aae iae noaaeeenue. Aea?aaiy a ianoa
n oooi?aie e io?oaaie inoaaaeanue oaeie aea ieuae, eae e aei Noieuieia.
Oioy, iaiaoiaeeii i?eaanoe oeeo?u, eioi?ua i?eaiaeeo A. Iiiia- iie
iieacuaatho, /oi eia- eaeea naeaeae a iieiaeeoaeueioth noi?iio
iaaethaeaeenue: n 1905 ii 1913 aa. iauai aaeaaiaeiuo caeoiie
naeueoicoaoieee au?in a 2-3 ?aca. I?iecaiaenoai ca?ia a ?innee a 1913 a.
i?aauoaei ia o?aoue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iiauo a NOA, Eaiaaea,
A?aaioeia aianoa acyouo. ?inneeneee yenii?o ca?ia aeinoea a 1912 a. 15
iei. oiii a aiae. A Aiaeeth ianea auaiceeinue ia noiio, aaeaia
aieueooth, /ai noieiinoue anae aaeaaiaeiie aeiau/e cieioa a Neae?e.
Ecauoie oeaaa a 1916 a. ninoaaeye 1 ie?ae. ioaeia. Ia i?aaaea ee,
iaiaaeaaeeaathuea iieacaoaee? Ii ana aea, ii iiaieth Iiiiaa, aeaaioth
caaea/o- naeaeaoue ?inneth no?aiie oa?ia?ia- ?aoeoue ia oaeaeinue.
Aieueoeinoai e?anoueyi i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue a iaueia, e yoi, a /anoiinoe,
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei ?acaeoea niauoee a 17 aiaeo. Aeaei a oii, e iu oaea
e?aoei eanaeenue yoie i?iaeaiu, eiaaea aiai?eee i ?acoeueoaoao auai?ia a
Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio, /oi noieuieineee eo?n i?iaaeeeny iieeoe/anee.
Ii ia canoaaee e?anoueyieia caauoue i iiiaue/ueae caiea, eae
?ann/eouaaee aaoi?u oeaca 9 iiya?y. Iiaienia/aiiue ?aoi?iie eoeae, a?aay
iaueiioth caieth, aea?aeae a oia e iiiaue/ueth, eae e inoaeueiua
e?anoueyia. E oiio aea ii noaiiaeeny ana aieaa caiaoiui yeiiiie/aneei
eiieo?aioii iiiaueea ia oeaaiii ?uiea, a ii?ie e iieeoe/aneei, i?aaeaea
anaai a cainoaa. E oiio aea iiaay iiioeyoeey “neeueiuo” oicyaa, ia
eioi?uo ?ann/eouaae Noieuiei, auea iaaeinoaoi/iie, /oiau noaoue iii?ie
oea?ecio…

Caeanue y?ei i?iyaeyaony iniiaiay i?e/eia iaoaea/ ao?aeoaciuo ?aoi?i-
iiiuoea eo i?iaaaeaiey a ?aieao oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu. E neiao, neaaeai,
/oi iiaeii ano?aoeoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, aoaeoi Noieuieiuie ?aoi?iai i?inoi
ia oaaoeei a?aiaie aeey iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iao acaeyae,
yoe ?aoi?iu ii naiae nouiinoe ia iiaee auoue ?aaeeciaaiu yooaeoeaii a
oie neooaoeee. Yoiai a?aiaie o ieo iii?inoo ia iiaei auoue: ia eaeii-
eeai yoaia iie iii?inoo caaycee au. Iiyoue iiaoi?ei, /oi iaaiciiaeii, ia
iaiyy iaaeno?ieee, eciaieoue aacen- nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaiaeeoue ao?aeoaciua ?aoi?iu a ?aieao
aaniethoecia( aeaaea n eca?aieai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaia nouiinoue
aeanoe iaei /ai eciaieeanue) ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Caeanue
eiia/ii iu eiaai a aeaeo iaeneio i?aia?aciaaiee. Iiaeii aeiionoeoue, /oi
noieuieineea ?aoi?iu, anee au iie i?iaeieaeaeenue, neaaeai, aua eao 10,
i?eianee au ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou, aeaaiui ec eioi?uo auei au
nicaeaiea neiy iaeeeo e?anoueyineeo nianoaaiieeia- oa?ia?ia, aea e oi a
oii neo/aa, ii au?aaeaieth Eaieia, anee “ianoiyoaeuenoaa neiaeeeenue
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaaii?eyoii aeey Noieuieia”. Ii ?acaa ia yoe naiua
oa?ia?u a NOA noaee aacie aeey iiyaeaiey iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
aioeath?ie?aoe/aneeo oi?i aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee? Ia iao acaeyae
naiui ?aaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii auei au nicaeaiea iauanoaaiiie neeu,
eioi?ay iaieioaii i?eaaea au a eiioea eiioeia ia e ?aaiethoeee. Ii ia
nioeeaeenoe/aneie, a eeoue ao?aeoaciie. Ii ?acaa iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeie
eoia oniaoiui n oi/ee c?aiey aaniethoecia, a ?aieao e ai eiy eioi?iai
i?aoai?yeanue a aeeciue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia!?

Aeaaa IV: Iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie I.A. Noieuieia

4.1 Oooaeoaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Noieuieiui e Ieeieaai II

Oaea a 1909 aiaeo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Ieeieaai II e Noieuieiui ia/aee
ii?oeoueny. ss oaea ienae, /oi oea?ue ia ethaee ethaeae, eioi?ua eiaee
oaa?aeue oa?aeoa?, ii n/eoae, /oi iiaeiaiua eeoea “oco?ie?otho” aai
aeanoue. ?aoi?iu caaeoiaiiua Noieuieiui i?aia?aciaaiea ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia no?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo, aaaaeaiea anaiauaai
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, aaaaeaiea cainoaa a caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo e
o.ae.) ia a?iceee onoiyi naiiaea?aeaaey, ii ?aaiethoeey auea
iiaaaeaeaia, e , eae n/eoae Ieeieae II e aai iiiiuieee ec Niaaoa
iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa, iiaaaeaeaia iaanaaaea, a iiyoiio ?aoi?iu ia
ioaeiu. Nenoaiaoe/aneea i?eaee?ee e eeyocu e?aeia i?aauo oea?th ia aeaao
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oi iaiaei iiii?oeei e?iae Noieuieio. ?aoaii auei
nicaeaoue Ii?neie aaia?aeueiue ooaa ec aeaoo aeanyoeia ethaeae, oae eae
yoi aucuaaei aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, Noieuiei ?aoee i?iaanoe aai
ooaou /a?ac Aeoio, eioi?ay ooaa?aeaeaea athaeaeao. Ieeieae II n/eoae,
/oi ana aeaea i aii?oaeaiiuo neeao – aai ee/iay eiiiaoaioeey. Ieeieae II
aeaiiino?aoeaii ia ooaa?aeee caeiiii?iaeo. A yoi aea a?aiy ?aniooei
i?eia?aoaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea i?e aeai?a. Neaiaeaeueiua iioiaeaeaiey
“noa?oea” canoaaeee iii?ineoue oea?y auaiaoue ?aniooeia ec noieeoeu, ii
Ieeieae neacae, /oi eo/oa aeanyoue ?aniooeiuo, /ai iaeia enoa?eea
eiia?ao?eoeu. Ociaa i yoii ?acaiai?a Aeaenaiae?a Oaaei?iaia i?inoi
aiciaiaaeaeaea Noieuieia e a nayce n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui e?ecenii i?e
ooaa?aeaeaiee ooaoia Ii?neiai aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa ianoaeaaea ia aai
ionoaaea.

A ia?oa 1911 aiaea ?ac?aceeny aua aieaa iiuiue e?ecen. I?e o/?aaeaeaiee
caiaaeiuo cainoa, i?aaua iiniaoeee aeaoue aie Noieuieio a
ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa, e i?iaieiniaaee i?ioea eo?ee, iieo/ea iaaeaniia
?ac?aoaiea iiia?oa. Aeey Noieuieia eoiae aieiniaaiey yaeeenue iieiie
iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, ii iiiye, /oi Ieeieae i?aaeae naiaai i?aiuea?a. ia
aeeaeaeoae aoaeeaioeee o oea?y Noieuiei iiaeae a ionoaaeo. Ii aue aiieia
oaa?ai, /oi aai ionoaaeo i?eioo, ii yoiai ia i?iecioei ec-ca aeaoo
i?e/ei. Ai-ia?auo, oea?ue ia i?eieiae ca ieieno?aie i?aaa auoiaeeoue a
ionoaaeo, n/eoay, /oi oieueei iiia?o iiaeao eeoaoue ieieno?ia eo iinoia,
a ai-aoi?uo, ii iiaeaa?any aeiaieueii aaeeiiaeooiie aoaea eiycae e
aaeianoaothuae eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee Oaaei?iaiu, eioi?ay iauyniyea
Ieeieath, /oi Noieuiei – /aeiaae, eioi?ue niiniaai auaanoe ?inneth ec
e?ecena. Oaeei ia?acii Noieuiei ia iieo/ee ionoaaeo, eioi?oth ii
aeaeae. Iiiya neooaoeeth, ii auaeaeaaao ia?aae Ieeieaai ?yae aeanoeeo
oneiaee. Ai-ia?auo, ?anionoeoue Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao e aeoio ia o?e
aeiy e caeiiii?iaeo i?iaanoe ii 87 noaouea, a aeaaiuo naieo i?ioeaieeia
– I.I. Aeo?iiai e A.O.O?aiiaa – Noieuiei o?aaiaae oaeaeeoue ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa. E aua iacia/eoue n 1 yiaa?y 1912 aiaea ooaea
20 iiauo aeaiooaoia ii auai?o Noieuieia. Ii Ieeieae ieeiaaea ia i?iuae
oaeeo “neeiauo i?eaiia “.Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Noieuiei a ?acoeueoaoa
naiae iyoeeaoiae aeayoaeueiinoe, iioa?ye ne?iiiinoue, i?eia?ae
iiioiaioaeueiinoue, ii ii ciae, /oi Ieeieae ia yoii aeaea ia inoaaeo.
Oea?ue ia/ae iaeei, ii iinoiyiii uaeeaoue ii iino naiaai i?aiuea?a: ia
iiaeienuaae caeiiii?iaeoia, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou iaaeie iaeaoaie,
iacia/ae a i?aaeoaeuenoai aeoeaiuo i?ioeaieeia Noieuieia. Iiecee neooe i
nei?ie ionoaaea i?aiuea?a.

4.2 Oaeenoai Noieuieia.

A aaaonoa 1911 aiaea Noieuiei ioaeuoae a naiai eiaiee a Eieiia?aaeuea,
oai ii ?aaioae iaae iiauie i?iaeoaie, eioi?ua niae?aeny i?aaenoaaeoue ia
canaaeaiee Aeoiu, ii e ?aaioo, e ioaeuo i?eoeinue i?a?aaoue ec-ca
iiacaeee a Eeaa, aaea aeieaeai aue ioe?uoueny iaiyoiee Aeaenaiae?o II.
I?aauaaiea a Eeaaa ia/aeinue n inei?aeaiey. Noieuieio ia iaoeinue ianoa
a aaoiiiaeeyo, a eioi?uo neaaeiaaea oea?neay naeoa – aio yaii aeaaaee
iiiyoue, /oi ii eeoiee. I?aaenaaeaoaeth Niaaoa ieieno?ia i?eoeinue
eneaoue ecaic/eea. Eiaaea naeoa i?eoi?iiceea, ?aniooei iaeyioeny e
oaeaeae Noieuieia e eeeeouanee aiciiee “Nia?oue ca iei, Nia?oue ca iei
aaeao. Ca Iao?ii… ca iei!” ?aoathuea niauoey ?acaa?ioeenue 1 naioya?y.
A 6 /ania oo?a Eoeyaei, ia/aeueiee Eeaaneiai io?aiiiai ioaeaeaiey,
aeieiaeee i aioiayuainy iieooaiee eeaaneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o
O.O.O?aiiao. A 7 /ania oo?a ii niiauee. ia yoii Noieuieio e iii?inee aai
ia aoeyoue ii ai?iaeo. Eiaaea Aia?ia iiyaeeny a oaao?a, Eoeyaei iii?inee
aai aa?iooueny ia eaa?oe?o. Aia?ia ooae e aa?ioeny /a?ac ianeieueei
ieioo e nae ia naia ianoi a 18-ii ?yaeo ia?oa?a. Ai a?aiy aio?aeoa
Eoeyaei iiaoi?ee naia i?eeacaiea, niiaa iiaoi?ee naie iaoeo?ue iaiaa?.
Iaeiaei ioeoea?, aeaaeo?eaoee o aoiaea, ia ioneae aai ia?aoii a oaao? e
oieueei aiaoaoaeuenoai Eoeyaei, i?ioiaeeaoaai a yoi a?aiy ieii,
iicaieeei Aia?iao ieacaoueny a oaao?a. Noieuiei noiye a yoi a?aiy eeoeii
e ia?oa?o, Aia?ia iiaeioae e Noieuieio e i?iecaae aeaa auno?aea. Iaeia
ioey iiiaea a ?oeo, a ae?oaay aeeaio. Noieuiei neii/aeny a naioya?y
1911aiaea a /anoiie eeeieea Iaeianeiai. Ioey i?e iiiaaeaiee caaeaea
ia/aiue, e yoi ?aoeei aeaei iaaeeoeeia ieacaeanue aaniiiiuiie.

Aia?iaa caaea?aeaee n?aco e noaee aeanoiei ecaeaaoue, aai n o?oaeii
oaeaeinue au?aaoue ec ?oe e?iaiaeaaeiie oieiu. Aai ioi?aaeee a “Einie
eaiiie?” e iinea iieieaiiniiai neaaenoaey aai iiaaneee. Iiaeeeiiay
i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n oaeenoaii Noieuieia, ninoieo ia a oii, eai ii aue
oaeo – aaaioii io?aiee eee ?aaiethoeeiia?ii, a a oii ciaea ee io?aiea i
caiunea Aia?iaa.

Aeaaaeinue aeaa iauyniaiey. Ia?aia – io?aiea a eeoea oiaa?eua aioo?aiieo
aeae, oaoa ioaeaeueiiai ei?iona aeaiaea?iia aaia?aea I.A.Eo?eiaa,
ia/aeueieea aeai?oeiaie iieeoeee A.E.Nie?eaeiae/a, Eoeyaei e
aeoea-aee?aeoi?a aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee eaia?-thiea?a Aa?eaeia, oi anoue
oiio, eiio auea ii?o/aia io?aia oea?y ai a?aiy oi?aeanoa, ?aoeee
einoeaie?iaaoue iieooaiea ia Noieuieia, iieooaiea oniaoii
i?aaeioa?aoeoue e iieo/eoue ca o?aa?inoue iaa?aaeu, ii a ?aoathuee
iiiaio iie iioa?yee oi?aaeaiea iaae Aia?iaui. Aoi?ia-yoa /aoaa?ea
oioaea, /oiau Noieuiei aue oaeo, e naeaeaee iie yoi ?oeaie Aia?iaa.

Caeeth/aiea

?aaiethoeey iieacaea ia?iiiue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e
iieeoe/aneee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo ia?iaeii e aeanoueth. No?aia o?aaiaaeenue
?aaeeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu, eioi?uo ia iineaaeiaaei. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
no?aia a ia?eiae noieuieineeo ?aoi?i ia?aaeeaaea ia eiinoeoooeeiiiue
e?ecen, a ?aaiethoeeiiiue. Noiyiea ia ianoa eee iieo ?aoi?iu ia iiaee
?aoeoue neooaoeeth, a oieueei iaiai?io ?anoe?yee ieaoeaea?i aeey ai?ueau
ca

ea?aeeiaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey. Oieueei oie/oiaeaiea oea?neiai ?aaeeia e
iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey iiaee eciaieoue oiae niauoee, ia?u, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eiye Noieuiei a oiaea naieo ?aoi?i auee iieiaei/aouie. Aeaaiue
aea e?ao ?aoi?i Noieuieia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii oioae inouanoaeoue
?ai?aaiecaoeeth aia aeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai e aii?aee aio No?oaa ienae:”
Eiaiii aai aa?a?iay iieeoeea ninoieo a e?e/auai i?ioeai?a/ee n aai
inoaeueiie iieeoeeie. Ii eciaiyao yeiiiie/aneee ooiaeaiaio no?aiu, oi
a?aiy eae any inoaeueiay iieeoeea no?aieony nio?aieoue a aiciiaeii
aieueoae iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneoth “iaaeno?ieeo” e eeoue neaaea
oe?aoaao aa oanaae. Eiia/ii aea Noieuiei aue auaeathueiny aeayoaeai e
iieeoeeii, ii i?e nouanoaiaaiee oaeie nenoaiu, eioi?ay auea a ?innee,
ana aai i?iaeou “?aneaeuaaeenue” i iaiiieiaiea eee i iaaeaeaiea iiiyoue
anth aaaeiinoue aai ia/eiaiee. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi aac oao /aeiaa/aneeo
ea/anoa, oaeeo eae: niaeinoue, oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue, iaii?enoinoue,
iieeoe/aneia /oouea, oeo?inoue – Noieuieio a?yae ee oaeaeinue naeaeaoue
oioue eaeie aeeaae a ?acaeoea no?aiu.

Enoi?ey iiaoi?yaony. Eae iaoaeeaeoaeueii, iiaeiaiay ioeaea auea
niaa?oaia cia/eoaeueii iicaea e nianai a eiuo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo.
Yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia i?iaaeeeanue o ian, eae iia eaaeaony, oi/ii
ii oie aea i?e/eia: aa oioaee inouanoaeoue aia aeaiie?aoee e aac
aeaiie?aoee. ?acoeueoao ecaanoai e auaiae i/aaeaeai: ia iiaoi?youe
ioeaie enoi?ee.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

Aa?ao A.ss. I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1991.

Aie I.I. I.A.Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea.- I.: Nia?aiaiiee ,
1991

Aa?o I. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa .- I.: I?ia?ann, 1992.

Aeooa N.TH. e I.A. Noieuiei – ?inneeneea ?aoi?iaoi?u OO noieaoey / iiae
?aae. Aiaiu/a A.A. – I.1992.

A?aiei A.I. Nia?aiaiiua aa?a?iua i?iaeaiu e ?aoi?ia
Noieuieia.//Ain-ai e i?aai ?4.- I.-1994

Cu?yiia I.I. Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei . //Aii?inu enoi?ee ?6.- I.
-1990

Eaca?acia A.A. I Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a Noieuieia.- I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao,
1991.

E?aoeia iiniaea ii enoi?ee /iiae ?aae. Ei?aeei A.I.- Iineaa.: Aunoay
oeiea, 1992.

Eiaaeue/aiei E.Ae. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia . // Enoi?ey NNN?
?2.- I.-1992

Eociaoeia I.A. Nii?u aie?oa Noieuieia e aai iieeoeee //
Niaoeeaeeno.-1994.-?3.

Ino?ianeee E.A. Noieuiei e aai a?aiy. – Iiaineae?ne, 1992.

Iiiia A. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia// Iaoea e aeeciue .- 1992.-?10.

?oiyioeaa I. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia: i?aaeiinueee, caaea/e e
eoiae. // Enoi?ey NNN? ?10.- I.-1990

Ne?ioeei A.A. Aaeeeea ?aoi?iaoi?u ?innee . – I.1991

Nai?iee ?a/ae I. A. Noieuieia . Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney //Iieiaea
aaa?aeey.-I.-1990.

Oaoeeeei E.O. Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney.- I.1991.

Yeaeaeueiai I. ?aaiethoeey naa?oo a ?innee. – I.: Eieaa , 1989.

Eociaoeia I.A. Nii?u aie?oa Noieuieia e aai iieeoeee //
Niaoeeaeeno.-1994.-?3.-N.4

E?aoeia iiniaea ii enoi?ee /Ei?aeei A.I.- Iineaa.: Aunoay oeiea,
1992.- 94n.

N.TH. Aeooa e I.A. Noieuiei – ?inneeneea ?aoi?iaoi?u OO noieaoey /
iiae ?aae. Aiaiu/a A.A. – I.1992. – 26n.

Aa?o I. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa .- I.: I?ia?ann, 1992.-49n.

Eaca?acia A.A. I Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a Noieuieia.- I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao,
1991.- 11n.

E.O.Oaoeeeei. Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney.- I.1991.- 63n.

A.ss. Aa?ao. I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1991.-25n.

Aa?o I. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa .- I.: I?ia?ann, 1992.-50n.

Nai?iee ?a/ae I. A. Noieuieia . Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney //Iieiaea
aaa?aeey.-1990.

Aie I.I. I.A. Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea.- I.: Nia?aiaiiee ,
1991.-241n.

Oai aea – 245n.

A.ss. Aa?ao. I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1991.-86n.

A. Iiiia. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia// Iaoea e aeeciue .- 1992.-?10.- N. 46

Aie I.I. I.A.Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea.- I.: Nia?aiaiiee ,
1991.-224n.

I. Yeaeaeueiai. ?aaiethoeey naa?oo a ?innee. – I.: Eieaa, 1989.-163n.

A.ss. Aa?ao. I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1991.-88n.

Aie I.I. I.A.Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea.- I.: Nia?aiaiiee ,
1991.-302n.

E.O.Oaoeeeei. Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney.-I.1991.-15n.

A.ss. Aa?ao. I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.-I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1991.-17n.

E.O.Oaoeeeei. Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney.-I.1991.-19n.

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