.

Афинская симмахия и Пелопоннесский союз

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 826
Скачать документ

IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?ANIOAEEEE AAEA?ONUe

AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

ENOI?E*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«AOEINEAss NEIIAOEss E IAEIIIIIANNEEE NITHC»

Auiieiee

Nooaeaio 3 a?oiiu

1 eo?na

Eaoeiae/ Aaaaiee

IEINE

2007

NIAeA?AEAIEA:

1) AAAAeAIEA

2) AOEINEEE II?NEIE NITHC

3) IAEIIIIIANNEEE NITHC

4) AIAOIAIIEEOE*ANEAss AI?UeAA AEIEIA

5) CAEETH*AIEA

6) NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

AAAAeAIEA

Aicieeiiaaiea, nouanoaiaaiea e acaeiiioiioaiey oaeeo iiuiaeoeo
i?aaiecaoeee, eae Aoeineay neiiaoey e Iaeiiiiianneee nithc, aia anyeeo
niiiaiee, yaeythony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai a eco/aiee enoi?ee
ae?aaiae A?aoeee V noieaoey aei iaoae y?u. Aeaei a oii, /oi eiaiii yoe
aeaa aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiey ii?aaeaeyee aioo?eiieeoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea A?aoeee yoiai ia?eiaea. A noa?o ai?ueau iaaeaeo ieie iiiaee
i?aeoe/anee ana a?a/aneea iieenu. Iaaeaeo aeaoiy yoeie aeieaie ni
a?aiaiai ?acaeeenue iiuiua i?ioeai?a/ey, i?e/ai ia oieueei
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea, ii e nioeeaeueiua. Iaino?aiea yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee a
eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaaei e iaeiiio ec naiuo e?iaaauo niauoee
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie enoi?ee – Iaeiiiiianneie aieia.

Acaeiiay a?aaeaea Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca (neiiaoee) e nithca
Iaeiiiiianneiai auea iaoneiaeaia, i?aaeaea anaai, aeiaaeueiuie ioee/eyie
a eo no?oeoo?a, oa?aeoa?ii aeiieie?iaaaoeo ia eo oa??eoi?ee oeiia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, ?acee/eyie ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa iieenia.

Iniaue eioa?an a ?anniio?aiee aeaiiiai aii?ina i?aaenoaaeyao oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi nienie eeoa?aoo?u (ai anyeii neo/aa, ?onneiycu/iie)
ii iaio aeiaieueii ia?aie/ai. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a iniiaiii
iaaieueoia eiee/anoai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ecaeaiee a?iaea o/aaieea ii
Enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Eoceueia e ianeieueeeo
o?anoiiaoee.

Iaaeaeo oai, io?eoeaoue aaaeiinoue oaiu ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui.
Iaeuecy oaeaea io?eoeaoue e aa aeooaeueiinoue, aaaeue iiuo nicaeaiey
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo aeieia e iauaaeeiaiee iaiiaeiaea Aoeineie neiiaoee e
Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca aeoeaii eniieueciaaeny e eniieuecoaony a aieaa
iicaeieo ia?eiaeao enoi?ee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiie caaea/ae iiaai ?aoa?aoa aoaeao aiaeec no?oeoo?u
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ono?ienoaa iaieo aeieia,
a oaeaea aiaeec i?e/ei, iiaeeyaoeo ia ia/aei Iaeiiiiianneie aieiu
431-404 aa.

AOEINEEE II?NEIE NITHC

Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee a?a/aneeo iieenia
yaeyeny Aoeineee Ii?neie nithc. Ai aeaaa aai noiyee Aoeiu. Nicaeai aue
Aoeineee ii?neie nithc aua ai a?aiy a?aei-ia?neaeneeo aiei. No?iai
aiai?y, e iniiaiui, ia?aiia/aeueiui aai iacia/aieai auea eiioeaio?aoeey
nee aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey caoaa/aiiuo ia?neaeneeie aieneaie a?a/aneeo
ai?iaeia (aeaaiui ia?acii, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a Iaeie Acee e ia
iiiai/eneaiiuo ino?iaao Yaaeneiai ii?y).

Iaeiaei oaea a eiioea a?aei-ia?neaeneeo aiei noaei aieaa /ai i/aaeaeii,
/oi aoeineee nithc aeaaii oaea ia?a?in ia?aiia/aeueiua oceea ?aiee
a?aiaiiiai aiaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey. Ii i?aa?aoeeny a iiuiue
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneee nithc a?a/aneiai ie?a, eiaaoee aieueoie e?oa caaea/,
eiaaoee naith nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneoth
i?ia?aiiu.

A enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue aeaa ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey
Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca:

1) ia?eiae oae iacuaaaiie Aeaeinneie neiiaoee (478-454 aa. aei i.y.).
Yoi auei a?aiy, eiaaea ia?aae iieenaie – /eaiaie nithca noiyea i?aaeaea
anaai caaea/a inaiaiaeaeaiey caoaa/aiiuo ia?naie ai?iaeia a iaicia/aiiii
a auoai?eaaaeaiiuo no?ieao ?aaeiia.

2) ia?eiae iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa Aoei a nithca. A yoi a?aiy
oi?ie?oaony Aoeineay a?oy (aea?aeaaa), yaeyaoayny iineoaeai aeoeaiie
iieeoeee a a?a/aneii ie?a oie yiioe.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie aoeineie neiiaoee yaeyeinue oi, /oi iia iinoiyiii
iiiieiyeanue iiauie /eaiaie, aeaaiaea?y /aio e i?aa?aoeeanue e 30-i
aiaeai V aaea a nithc, ian/eouaaaoee 300 iinoiyiiuo /eaiia (e?oiiaeoaa
iauaaeeiaiea a enoi?ee A?aoeee). A ninoaa Aoeineiai nithca aioea
aieueoay /anoue a?a/aneeo iieenia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii iiaa?aaeueth
Yaaeneiai ii?y. I?e yoii noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi /eaiaie aoeineie neiiaoee
yaeyeenue (a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa) ai?iaea ?acaeoua, iaeaaeaaoea
eioaineaiie yeiiiieeie, i?ioeaaoathuei ?aianeii e aeoeaiie oi?aiaeae.
E?iia oiai, iiiyoii, anai ai?iaeai – o/anoieeai nithca auei i?enoua
aeaiie?aoe/aneia ono?ienoai.

Aaaeiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie Aoeineiai nithca (eioi?ay, e neiao, aoaeao
ioee/aoue aai e io aeaaiiai iiiiiaioa – nithca Iaeiiiiianneiai) auea
aaeeiay oeiainiaay nenoaia. Yoa nenoaia i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea
aaeeiie nithciie eaciu. Iiiieiyeanue eacia ca n/ao n?aaenoa, iinooiaaoeo
ai a?aiy aaeaaiaeiuo /eaineeo aciinia. Oaeea aciinu eiaiiaaeenue
oi?inaie. ?aniieaaaeanue eacia ia ino?iaa Aeaein, ioeoaea e aa?ao naia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea iacaaiea ia?aiai yoaia nouanoaiaaiey aoeineie neiiaoee.
A 454 aiaeo eacia auea ia?aiauaia a Aoeiu.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aaee/eia aciina – oi?ina – onoaiaaeeaaeanue a
caaeneiinoe io yeiiiie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae iieena. Oaeei ia?acii,
aiaaoua iieenu auiea/eaaee aieueoea noiiu, iaaeaee iieenu, ?aniieaaaaoea
a neeo ?aciuo i?e/ei ia?aie/aiiui aeioiaeii. I?aaaea, aaee/eia oi?ina
eaaeaeua /aou?a aiaea ia?aniao?eaaeanue, e anee aeioiaeu eaeiai-eeai
/eaia nithca aic?anoaee, oi noiio aciina aio, niioaaonoaaiii,
oaaee/eaaee.

Ooi/iaiiay noiia ooaa?aeaeaeanue iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aoeineie aaeeya
(noaea i?enyaeiuo). Oi?in niae?aeny ii iyoe oa??eoi?eyi, iacuaaaiui
iiaeaoiuie ie?oaaie: o?aeeeneiio, aaeeaniiioneiio, eiieeneiio,
ea?eeneiio e iniaiio ino?iaiiio, aeeth/aaoaio a naay ino?iaa Yaaeneiai
ii?y. Ca i?aaeeueiui e ?aaoey?iui iinooieaieai oi?ina neaaeeee iniaue
iaaece?aoaeue – aieneii, e aeaia niaoeeaeueiuo oiieiiii/aiiuo, ii nooe
yaeyaoeony aai iiiiuieeaie. Anee eoi-eeai ec nithcieeia ia aiinee oi?in
a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie, e iaio i?eiaiyeenue yeiiiie/aneea naieoeee.

Iauay noiia aciinia ninoaaeyea i?eia?ii 460-600 oaeaioia na?aa?a a aiae
(oaeaio=26 ea). Niioaaonoaaiii, eacio aoeineie neiiaoee aaeaaiaeii
iiiieiyei 12-16 oiii na?aa?a, i?aainoiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiiai a icia/aiioth
yiioo a A?aoeee. Yoi auea ia?iiiay noiia, iicaieyaoay a oa/aiea
iieoaiaea niaea?aeaoue iaaiiue oeio a 200 o?ea? n 40-ouny/iui yeeiaaeai,
e nooiiooiia aienei /eneaiiinoueth iyoue ouny/ aiieeoia.

A aeaeinneee ia?eiae nia?aiiua oaeei iooai n?aaenoaa oee ia niaea?aeaiea
nithciiai oeioa e nithciiai iiie/aiey. ?anii?yaeeoaeai iauae eaciu
n/eoaeinue anaiauaa nia?aiea ia ino?iaa Aeaein. Iaeiaei iinea oaea
oiiieiaaoaainy ia?aiina nithciie eaciu a Aoeiu (454) nia?aiiuie
n?aaenoaaie ?anii?yaeaeanue oieueei aoeineay aaeeyy. Iia,
niioaaonoaaiii, ia/aea o?aoeoue n?aaenoaa ia niaea?aeaiea ia nithciuo, a
aoeineeo aiaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee. Auee aeaaea i?aoeaaeaiou naiiaieueiiai
eniieueciaaiey nithciuo n?aaenoa ia aoeineia no?ieoaeuenoai. A a 427
aiaeo Aoeiu naiiaieueii oaaee/eee noiio oi?ina a aeaa ?aca aaeaeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa ia aiaiiua aeaenoaey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi oeiainiaay iieeoeea nithca
iinoaiaiii yaiethoeeiie?iaaea io ?aaiiiaania/eaathuaai oaeiaeaoai?aiey
anao ioaeae anao /eaiia nithca aei ioe?uoie oeiainiaie yenieoaoaoeee
Aoeiaie inoaeueiuo.

I/aiue aaaeiie aeaoaeueth a nicaeaiee aaeeiie yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u
aioo?e nithca auea ?aoi?ia ii oieoeeaoeee ia? aana e n/aoa, auea
aaaaeaia aaeeiay iiiaoiay nenoaia. A iniiao anao ?an/aoia auee iieiaeaiu
oa noaiaea?ou, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a iieeoe/aneii aaaaiiia nithca –
Aoeiao. Ai?i/ai, yoi iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi Aoeiu, a a /anoiinoe eo
ii?o Ie?ae, yaeyeenue ianoiyuei ia?aaaei/iui ioieoii oiaa?iuo iioieia
anae Yeeaaeu.

ssaeyynue aeaiie?aoe/aneei iieenii, Aoeiu i?iaiaeeee oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth
iieeoeeo aeaiie?aoecaoeee nithciuo iieenia. A ?aieao yoie iieeoeee
i?ioiaeeei niiine?iaaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee e eo noi?iiieeia a
nithciuo ai?iaeao, oeo/oaiea oneiaee aeey yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeaaoaiey
oi?aiai-?aianeaiiuo e?oaia iauanoaa. Iineaaeiyy ia?a aaaeao e
oaaee/aieth ?iee n?aaeiaai ?ac?yaea a?aaeaeai a iieeoe/aneie aeecie
iieenia, e oneeaieth cia/aiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aaiia, a /anoiinoe –
Ia?iaeiuo nia?aiee.

Eiiaaea aeaaea noieue ieaieoaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea ieacuaaeanue, oai ia
iaiaa, iaaeinoaoi/iie, e eaeie-eeai ec iieenia ieacuaae nii?ioeaeaiea
aaaaiiiee Aoei. A oaeii neo/aa ia iiiiuue aeaiie?aoe/aneei neeai
i?eoiaeeee aoeineee oeio e ioiaiii aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu aiieeoia. Naiui
ecaanoiui i?eia?ii iiaeiaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ai aioo?aiiea aeaea
iieenia-nithcieeia yaeyaony ianeeuenoaaiiia aaaaeaiea Ia?eeeii
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai no?iy ia ino?iaa Naiin a 440 aiaeo. I?e yoii naiinneea
ieeaa?oe/aneea e?oae auee oie/oiaeaiu, noaiu ai?iaea n?uou, a aeeoaee
auee i?eaiai?aiu e aiooeoaeueiie eiio?eaooeee.

Ainnoaiea ia Naiina auei ia aaeeinoaaiiui: a ?aciia a?aiy i?ioea
oneeeaathuaainy aoeineiai ainiiaenoaa aunooiaee Iaenin, Oanin, Oaeeeaea,
a 427 aiaeo ?ac?aceeinue ainnoaiea ia ino?iaa Eanain. O anao oaeeo
iieenia anoue iauay /a?oa: ana iie eiaee ieeaa?oe/aneia i?aaeaiea, /oi
iaoneaaeeaaei eo iaaeiaieuenoai aaeeeiaea?aeaaiie iieeoeeie Aoei. Eae
i?aaeei, ia ainnoaiey ?aoaeenue iieenu n aeinoaoi/ii iiuiie
iaoa?eaeueiie aacie, oi anoue ainnoaiey aiieia eiaee oainu ia oniao.
Iaeiaei eoia aunooieaiee anaaaea aue iaeiei: ?aca?ii a?iee eino?aaioia,
onoaiiaeaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneiai no?iy, eaciue ieeaa?oe/aneeo aiaeaeae.
Aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a oe?aieaiee iiaouanoaa Aoei nua?ae auaeathueeny
iieeiaiaeaoe Ia?eee (495-429 aei i.y.), aeia?aoey eioi?iai aaeeeieaiii
iienaia a «N?aaieoaeueiuo aeeciaiienaieyo» Ieooa?oa.

Oeaeyi oe?aieaiey i?i/iinoe aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca neoaeeea e
iieeoeea oae iacuaaaiiai auaaaeaiey eea?ooia. Eea?ooe – yoi aoeineea
a?aaeaeaia, iieo/aaoea caiaeueiua o/anoee ia oa??eoi?ee nithciuo
ai?iaeia. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi o/anoee iie iieo/aee naiua ieiaei?iaeiua,
aeaaiaea?y /aio auno?i i?aa?auaeenue a caaeeoi/iuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa.
Eea?ooe ioee/ii iiieiaee, /oi naiei oeo/oeaoeiny iieiaeaieai iie iaycaiu
eneeth/eoaeueii aoeineie aeaiie?aoee, a iinaio noaiiaeeenue aa i?i/iie
nioeeaeueiie iii?ie a naieo iieenao. E?iia oiai, aunaeaiea aaaeiyeia ec
Aoei neeueii niinianoaiaaei e noaaeeecaoeee ianoaiiaee a ai?iaea, oae
eae iie yaeyeenue iaeiei ec naiuo aaniieieiuo yeaiaioia.

Ana auoa iaiai?aiiua iniaaiiinoe a ?acaeoee Aoeineie neiiaoee i?eaaee e
oiio, /oi iinoaiaiii Aoeiu ec ai?iaea-?oeiaiaeeoaey nithca i?aa?aoeeenue
a naiaia?acioth aai noieeoeo. A Aoeiu nuacaeaeenue oiieiiii/aiiua aeey
?aoaiey ?aciiai ?iaea aii?inia yeiiiie/aneiai, iieeoe/aneiai, noaeaaiiai
oa?aeoa?ia. A oae eae noieeoea ioaeaeaaony a c?eiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee
naiaai noaoona, oi a Aoeiao i?ienoiaeeo ianooaaiia no?ieoaeuenoai (ia
eioi?ia, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, o?aoeony cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
n?aaenoa ec nithciie eaciu). Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae aicai aicaiaeeony
Ia?oaiii, aeiaiaeeony aei eiae/aneiai caaa?oaiey aaeeeieaiiue eiiieaen
Ae?iiiey, nicaeathony aeanoyuea neoeueioo?iua iaiyoieee.

Iiaeiaiia noaiiaeaiea Aoei eae noiee/iiai ai?iaea icia/aao niaie
oaiaeaioeeth iinoaiaiiiai i?aa?auaiey aoeineiai nithca a naiaai ?iaea
oaaea?aoeaiia ono?ienoai. Iniiaie iauaaeeieoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee
yaeyeenue: aeaiie?aoe/aneee niinia i?aaeaiey, nouanoaiaaiea
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aaaaeaiea oieoeoee?iaaiiuo ia? n/aoa
e aana.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeieaeiu eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi a V aaea aei iaoae y?u
noi?ie?iaaeinue oaeia iiuiia aiaiii-iieeoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea n
yeaiaioaie oaaea?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa, eae Aoeineee ii?neie nithc. Aai
ioee/eoaeueiuie /a?oaie yaeyeenue: nouanoaiaaiea aaeeiie oeiainiaie
nenoaiu, oeene?iaaiiie nenoaiu /eaineeo aciinia, aaaaeaiea aaeeiie ia?u
n/ao e aana (ia iniiaa aoeineie), aeiieie?iaaiea (i?e/ai aaciaiai?i/iia)
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai niiniaa i?aaeaiey.

IAEIIIIIANNEEE NITHC

Iaeiiiiianneee nithc aue iniiaai ?aiueoa Aoeineie neiiaoee – ii
neiaeeeny oaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI aaea aei iaoae y?u. Ia ia?auo ii?ao
ii aeeth/ae a naay iieenu, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia Iaeiiiiianneii iieoino?iaa.
E na?aaeeia iyoiai noieaoey a ninoaa nithca aioee oaea ii/oe ana iieenu
?aaeiia, ca eneeth/aieai a?aaeaeaaiiai Nia?oa A?aina. E?iia
Iaeiiiiianneeo ai?iaeia /eaiaie nithca noaee Oeau e oeaeue ?yae aieaa
iaeeeo iieenia Oieeaeu, Aei?eaeu e Eaaeaaeu (iaeanoae a N?aaeiae
A?aoeee).

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iieenia, aoiaeeaoeo a ?anniao?eaaaiue nithc,
ioiineeinue e aa?a?iui. Aeey ieo auei oa?aeoa?ii neaaia ?acaeoea ?aianea
e oi?aiaee. ?acoiaaony, /oi aieueoay /anoue iieenia eiaee ieeaa?oe/aneia
ono?ienoai n eiina?aaoeaiie iieeoe/aneie i?ia?aiiie e a?oae/aneeie
iauanoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Ai?i/ai, ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi a ninoaa
Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca aoiaeeee e oaeea iiuiua oi?aiaua oeaio?u, eae
Iaaa?u, Neeeii e Ei?eio. Yoe ai?iaea i?ae?anii aeiiieiyee aa?a?iua
iieenu. A i?eioeeia, eiaiii aeaaiaea?y /eainoao yoeo ai?iaeia
Iaeiiiiianneee nithc e noae iaeiei ec neeueiaeoeo aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
iauaaeeiaiee A?aoeee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca eiaao iiiai ioee/ee io
no?oeoo?u Aoeineie neiiaoee. Oae, iaee/ea n?aaee /eaiia nithca aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa ionoaeuo aa?a?iuo iieenia aeoia n oaea oiiieiaaoeieny iiuiuie
oi?aiauie oeaio?aie oeia Iaaa? iaoneaaeeaaei neaaoth oeaio?aeecaoeeth.
Iieenu – o/anoieee nithca nio?aiyee naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue aieioue
aei oiai, /oi iiaee aac aaaeiia ae?oaeo nithcieeia aanoe aiaiiua
aeaenoaey. Aieaa oiai – iaiaeiie?aoiu neo/ae aiei nithcieeia iaaeaeo
niaie! A Iaeiiiiianneii nithca ia nouanoaiaaei iauae eaciu, aaeeiie
nenoaiu oeiaine?iaaiey, ia auei aeaaea ?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiu ?aaoey?iuo
aciinia o/anoieeia nithca. ?acoiaaony, ia auei e iaeiaai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaia, eioi?ue eiae au iieiiii/ey aiaoeaaoueny ai
aioo?aiiea aeaea iieenia (eae a aoeineie neiiaoee).

Noaiiaynue /eaiii Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca, a?a/aneee iieen a?ae ia naay
ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iniiaiui, eiia/ii, auei i?iaaaeaiea
neii?aeeie?iaaiiie aiaoiae iieeoeee e o/anoea a niaianoiuo aiaiiuo
aeaenoaeyo. A yoeo oeaeyo eaaeaeue /eai nithca iaycai aue aunoaaeyoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aieiia, eiiieoeu, aiaauo ei?aaeae. Eioa?anii
ioiaoeoue, /oi yoi /enei auei oeene?iaaiiui aeey eaaeaeiai /eaia,
iacaaeneii io aai yeiiiie/aneie iiue (a eae iu iiiiei, eiaiii niia?acii
n aiciiaeiinoyie iieenia aceiaeny nithcie/aneee iaeia a aoeineii ii?neii
nithca). I?iaeiaieuenoaeai, nia?yaeaieai e i?oaeeai eaaeaeue iieen
aeieaeai aue iaania/eaaoue naay nai. Eiiaiaeiaae aiaiiui eiioeiaaioii
iieena oaeaea naie, ianoiue eiiaiaee?.

Aunoei i?aaiii Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca auei nia?aiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao
nithciuo iieenia. Nia?aiea yoi i?ienoiaeeei a Nia?oa, i?aaenaaeaoaeyie
ia iai auee nia?oaineea yoi?u. Ia nia?aiee eaaeaeue iieen, ianeieueei au
iae ii ie aue, eiae iaeei aiein. ?aoaiey nithciiai nia?aiey
ooaa?aeaeaeenue nia?oaineie aiaeeie. Yoi (a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aieina eaaeaeiio iieeno) yaeyeinue niiniaii ?aaoee?iaaoue a naith
iieueco ?aaioo nia?aiey aeey Nia?ou. Aua iaeiei i?aeiouanoaii Nia?ou
yaeyeinue oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi nithciia aienei aicaeaaeyeinue
nia?oaineeie oea?yie, a iauaaeeiaiiui oeioii eiiaiaeiaaee nia?oaineea
iaaa?oe. Iaeiaei, ia iie acaeyae, ieeaeiai ia?aie/aiey i?aa nithcieeia
iu caeanue ia caiaoei, aaaeue iniiaiie oaea?iie neeie nithciiai aienea
yaeyeinue eiaiii iiiai/eneaiiia e oi?ioi iao/aiiia aienei nia?oaineeo
aiieeoia.

Aua iaeiei ioee/eai Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca io aai aoeineiai iiiiiaioa
yaeyaony aeia?iaieueiinoue o/anoey. Anee ethaay iiiuoea auoiaea ec
aoeineie neiiaoee iiaeaaeyeanue, i?e/ai n e?aeiae aeanoieinoueth, oi i
i?eiaiaiee aiaiiuo ia? i?ioea iieenia, iiaeaeaaoeo aueoe ec
Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca, enoi/ieee naaaeaiee ia nio?aieee. Iai?eia?, oaea
iaiaeiie?aoii oiiieiaaoeany Ei?eio, Oeau e Iaaa?u a ?aciia a?aiy
auoiaeeee e aica?auaeenue a nithc. Eioa?anii, /oi ii iiaieth A.E.
Eoceueia, eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iineoaeeei i?e/eiie i?i/iinoe
Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee o/anoue oaeaea ionoonoaea
oeiainiaie yenieoaoaoeee e iyaeia ioiioaiea e nithcieeai, oi iiaeii
iiiyoue, ii/aio eiaiii Iaeiiiiianneee nithc i?inouanoai. i?inouanoaiaae
ieiei 200 eao – a yoi naiue aieueoie n?ie nouanoaiaaiey n?aaee anao
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee A?aoeee.

AIAOIAIIEEOE*ANEAss AI?UeAA AEIEIA

Eae iu oaaaeeeenue ai a?aiy aiaeeca no?oeoo?u iaieo aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
ia?aciaaiee – Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca e Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca – yoi
auee iiuiaeoea iauaaeeiaiey a?a/aneiai ie?a. Niioaaonoaaiii, aeinoeaioa
caieoa naiaai iiaouanoaa, iaa noi?iiu noaee i?iaiaeeoue naith aeoeaioth
aiaoithth iieeoeeo. Iniaaiii aeoeaii ca i?iaaaeaiea oaeie iieeoeee
acyeny aoeineee nithc. Aoeiu i?aneaaeiaaee /aou?a iniiaiua oeaee:

1) Aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea nithca ca n/ao iiauo ai?iaeia a Yaaeneii
aannaeia;

2) Oneeaiea iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey Aoei a Aaeeeie A?aoeee, THaeiie Eoaeee
e Neoeeeee;

3) I?iieeiiaaiea a aannaei *a?iiai ii?y;

4) Ecieyoeey Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca, oiaiueoaiea aai iieeoe/aneiai
aeeyiey.

Iiiyoii, /oi oai naiui Aoeiu i?aneaaeiaaee /aoeoth oeaeue: i?aa?auaiea
ai?iaea a aaaaiii, aeaaainoaothuoth neeo a A?aoeee.

Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi iiaeiaiua oeaee ia iaoee yiooceacia a ai?iaeao
– o/anoieeao Iaeiiiiianneiai nithca. Iniaaiii iaaeiaieueiu iiaeiaiie
iieeoe/aneie aeieo?eiie Aoei inoaeenue Nia?oa e aa e?oiiaeoee nithciee
Ei?eio. Oaeei ia?acii, ia?eiae n 440 ii 430 aiaeu noae ia?eiaeii ino?iai
aeeieiiaoe/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeaiai?noaa aeaoo noi?ii. Yoi
i?ioeaiai?noai y e iiiuoathnue ?anniio?aoue a yoie aeaaa.

Ia?aui e?oiiui oniaoii Aoei noaei aeeth/aiea a ninoaa nithca ninaaeiaai
ino?iaa Yaeia a 458 aiaeo. Ianiio?y ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu
Nia?ou e Ei?eioa aoeiyia noiaee aunaaeeoueny ia ino?iaa, ?acaeoue yaeiyi
a ioe?uoii n?aaeaiee e caoaaoeoue eo ai?iae. Iinea iiaaaeu aoeiyia
aeaenoaiaaee ii noaia, iienaiiie a aeaaa «aoeineee ii?neie nithc»: auee
n?uou ai?iaeneea noaiu, ia Yaeio auea iaeiaeaia aieueoay eiio?eaooeey,
ia ino?iaa aue onoaiiaeai aeaiie?aoe/aneee no?ie. Yaeia noaea iineooiui
o/anoieeii aoeineiai nithca, auiea/eaay aaeaaiaeii a nithcioth eacio
oi?in. Eioa?anii, /oi ?acia? yaeineiai oi?ina ninoaaeye 30 oaeaioia,
yaeyynue iaeiei ec naiuo aunieeo /eaineeo aciinia ai anai nithca.

Iinea oniaoiiai ?aoaiey yaeineiai aii?ina Aoeiai oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue
ae?oaeanoaaiiua ioiioaiey n o?aaeeoeeiiiui i?ioeaieeii Nia?ou a
Iaeiiiiiana – A?ainii (a aianoa n iei e ni iiiaeie oannaeeeneeie
ai?iaeaie). Iinea yoeo oniaoia aeanoue Aoei a aannaeia Yaaeneiai ii?y
ieeai oaea ia inia?eaaeanue, aoeineia aeeyiea auei onoaiiaeaii aieaa /ai
i?i/ii.

N na?aaeeiu 40-o aiaeia V aaea aei iaoae y?u aoeiyia ia?aoeee naiia
i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea ia a?a/aneea ai?iaea, ?aniieiaeaiiua ii aa?aaai
*a?iiai ii?y. Aieueoeinoai i?e/a?iiii?neeo oeaio?ia auei iniiaaii
eiieeneeie iieenaie, n eioi?uie iie iiaeaea?aeeaaee naiua oaniua
ioiioaiey: oi?aiaua, iieeoe/aneea, eoeueoo?iua. E na?aaeeia V aaea
a?a/aneea ai?iaea I?e/a?iiii?uey i?aa?aoeeenue a ?acaeoua e aiaaoua
iieenu, eiio?iee?iaaaoea cia/eoaeueioth oa??eoi?eth, onoaiiaeaoea nayce
n ianoiuie ieaiaiaie. Aeeth/aiea yoeo iieenia a ninoaa aoeineie
aea?aeaau, onoaiiaeaiea aeeyiey a yoii ?aaeiia aeaaaei Aoeiai aieueoea
auaiaeu eae yeiiiie/aneiai, oae e iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?ia, i?eaaei au e
aic?anoaieth aoeineiai iiaouanoaa. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aoeineiai aeeyiey a
I?e/a?iiii?uea ?anniao?eaaeinue ia oieueei aoeiyiaie, ii e Nia?oie e
Ei?eioii eae aiieia caeiiiia?iia yaeaiea, oae eae aieueoay /anoue
eiieeneeo ai?iaeia, auaoeo iao?iiieeyie i?e/a?iiii?neeo eieiiee, oaea
aoiaeeea a ninoaa aoeineie aea?aeaau, a iioiio e eo eieiiee aeieaeiu
auee iineaaeiaaoue i?eia?o iao?iiieee.

N eiioea 40-o aiaeia aoeiyia i?enooiatho e ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu ii
onoaiiaeaieth naiaai ainiiaenoaa a I?e/a?iiii?uea.

A 437 aiaeo aei i.y. oi?ioi iniauaiiay yneaae?a e ioai?iua io?yaeu
aiieeoia ai aeaaa n Ia?eeeii auee iai?aaeaiu a Iiio. Ieooa?o ieoao ia
yoii yieciaea neaaeothuaa: «I?eaua a Iiio n aieueoie yneaae?ie, aeanoyua
nia?yaeaiiie, Ia?eee naeaeae aeey yeeeineeo ai?iaeia ana, /oi ei auei
ioaeii, e ioianny e iei ae?oaeaethaii, a ie?anoiui aa?aa?neei ia?iaeai,
e eo oea?yi e eiycueyi ii ieacae aaeeeoth iiiiuue, iieacaa
iaono?aoeiinoue, niaeinoue aoeiyi, eioi?ua ieuaoo, eoaea oioyo e ana
ii?a aea?aeao a naiae aeanoe. AEeoaeyi Neiiiu Ia?eee inoaaee
o?eiaaeoeaoue ei?aaeae iiae eiiaiaeie Eeiaoa e io?yae aiieeoia aeey
ai?ueau n oe?aiii Oeianeeaai. Iinea ecaiaiey iineaaeiaai e aai
i?eaa?aeaioeaa ii i?iaae a Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee iinoaiiaeaiea i oii, /oiau
a Neiiio auei ioi?aaeaii 600 aoeiyi, ecuyaeaoeo ia oi niaeanea: iie
aeieaeiu auee aeeoue aianoa n ei?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie Neiiiu, iiaeaeea n
ieie aeiia e caieth, eioi?oth i?aaeaea caieiaee oe?aiu».

Anei?a Neiiia noaiiaeony naiaia?aciui iii?iui ioieoii aoeineie aeanoe ia
*a?iii ii?a. Iinea iiioeeneie yeniaaeeoeee Ia?eeea a ninoaa aoeineie
aea?aeaau, e?iia Neiiiu, aioee oaeaea Aien ia thaeiii aa?aao, Aiieeiiey
e Eno?ey ia caiaaeiii iiaa?aaeuea, a a Na Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea ninoaa
nithca iiiieieee Ieioae, e, aiciiaeii, Ieueaey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeanoue aoeineie aea?aeaau ooaa?aeeeanue a iaeaieaa
e?oiiuo oeaio?ao I?e/a?iiii?uey, /oi iicaieyei eiio?iee?iaaoue iaoe?iua
oa??eoi?ee yoiai aiaaoiai ?ano?naie ?aaeiia.

Ia aeiaieuenoaoynue aeanoyueie oniaoaie naiae iieeoeee e aeeieiiaoee a
aannaeia Yaaeneiai ii?y e a I?e/a?iiii?uea, aoeiyia noaee ?acaeaaoue
aeoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth naiaai aeeyiey a caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee ia iooyo a aaeeeoth A?aoeeth e a THaeiie Eoaeee e Neoeeeee.
Yoi iai?aaeaiea aoeineie aiaoiae iieeoeee eacaeinue aoeineei eeaea?ai
iaiau/aeii ia?niaeoeaiui. Aeaei a oii, /oi aaeeeay A?aoeey auea
aiaaoaeoae e aonoiianaeaiiie iaeanoueth n i?ioeaaoathueie ai?iaeaie,
oaeeie eae Oa?aio, Iaoaiiio, E?ioii, ?aaee, Eie?u, Naeeioio, Aaea,
Ne?aeocu, Eaoaia. Ana yoe ai?iaea ie/ooue ia onooiaee ie ii
yeiiiie/aneiio, ie ii eoeueoo?iiio ?acaeoeth iaeaieaa ciaiaieoui
ai?iaeai Aaeeaineie A?aoeee. E?iia oiai, onoaiiaeaiea aoeineie aaaaiiiee
a Aaeeeie A?aoeee i?aa?aoeei au Aoeiu a naiaai ?iaea iieeoe/aneia
iauaaeeiaiea i?aeoe/anee anaai a?a/aneiai ie?a – e i?iaeaia ecieyoeee
aeaaiiai i?ioeaieea – Nia?ou – auea au ?aoaia iieiinoueth! Aianoa n oai
yoi iaianei au iaiii?aaeiue oaea? ii yeiiiieea aua iaeiiai a?aaa –
Ei?eioa, aaaeue aai nouanoaiaaiea oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth caaenaei io aai
naycae n ai?iaeaie Aaeeeie A?aoeee.

N na?aaeeiu 440-o aiaeia aoeiyia ia/aee ieaiiia?ioth ?aaeecaoeeth naiae
caiaaeiie iieeoeee. Aua a eiioea 60-o aiaeia V aaea iinea iiaeaaeaiey
e?oiiiai ainnoaiey eeioia a Nia?oa, aoeiyia i?eiyee naiia aeayoaeueiia
o/anoea a noaeueaa iianoaioeaa, eioi?ui nia?oaioeu auee auioaeaeaiu
?ac?aoeoue auacae ec Iannaiee. N iiiiuueth aoeiyi aunaeaiiua eeiou
iainiiaaeenue a ai?iaea Iaaiaeoa, ?aniieiaeaiiii a naiii oceii ianoa
Ei?eioneiai caeeaa, eioi?ue aue aeeth/ai a ninoaa Aoeineiai nithca.
Oe?aieaoenue a Iaaiaeoa, aoeiyia iiaee a ethaie iiiaio ia?a?acaoue
ii?neie iooue, naycuaaaoee Ei?eio n caiaaeiuie ai?iaeaie.

A 435-433 aiaeao aoeiyia eiaei aiaoaeenue ai aioo?aiithth ai?ueao,
eioi?ay ?acai?aeanue iaaeaeo aeeoaeyie aieueoiai ino?iaa Ea?ee?a (iuia
iacuaaaiiai Ei?oo) e aai eieiieae ia Aae?eaoe/aneii aa?aao – Yieaeaiiii.
Aoeiyia caeeth/eee nithc n Ea?ee?ie e i?eiyee yoio aiaaoue ino?ia a
ninoaa aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca. Yoa aeoeey icia/aea aieueoie oniao
aoeineie caiaaeiie iieeoeee. Aeaei a oii, /oi /a?ac Ea?ee?o i?ioiaeee
iniiaiie ii?neie iooue ec A?aoeee a Neoeeeeth, e yoio ai?iae ecaeaaia
aue iiae eiio?ieai Ei?eioa. E?iia oiai, Ea?ee?a ?aniieaaaea e?oiiui
oeioii (ieiei 120 aiaauo o?ea?) – o?aoueei ii aaee/eia iinea Aoei e
Ei?eioa, – /oi ?acei oneeeaaei aiaiiia iiaouanoai aoeineiai ii?neiai
nithca.

Cae?aieaoenue ia iooyo a Aaeeeoth A?aoeeth, Aoeiu naeaeaee iiiuoeo
i?iieeiooue a THaeioth Eoaeeth e Neoeeeeth. A 443 aiaeo aoeiyia
aicaeaaeee eioa?aniia ia?ii?eyoea, a eiaiii: iniiaaiea iauaa?a/aneie
(o.a. ec a?aaeaeai ?aciuo ai?iaeia) eieiiee a THaeiie Eoaeee ia ianoa
?ac?ooaiiiai Neaa?ena. Auei nia?aii aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai eieiienoia,
i?e/ai ia iiaia ianoi iiaeaeaee auaoaoue oaeea auaeathueany aeayoaee
a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u, eae «ioaoe enoi?ee» Aa?iaeio, a?oeoaeoi? e
a?aaeino?ieoaeue Aeiiiaeai, nioeno I?ioaai? (ii i?aaeeiaeee naie oneoae
aeey ninoaaeaiey caeiiia iiaiai ai?iaea). Ii cai?ino ec Aoei
aeaeueoeeneee i?aeoe aeae aeaaii?eyoiia i?aaeneacaiea, eioi?ia
eaeaieiae/anee iiaeaioaaeeaaei iniiaaiea iiaiai ai?iaea. Oiaaea a 443
aiaeo aoeiyia iniiaaee iiaoth eieiieth, aeaa ae iacaaiea Oo?ey. Oaeia
iacaaiea iauyniyaony oai, /oi ii caiuneo Aoei yoio ai?iae aeieaeai aue
noaoue iieioii aoeineiai aeeyiey a THaeiie Eoaeee. Aoeiai oaeaeinue
caeeth/eoue nithciua aeiaiai?u, oi anoue aeeth/eoue a nithc
thaeiieoaeeeneee ai?iae ?aaee ia aa?aao Iannaineiai i?ieeaa e ai?iae
Eaiioeiu a Neoeeeee, /oi nicaeaaaei Aoeiai oaeiaiue ieaoeaea?i aeey
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a neoeeeeeneea e thaeiieoaeeeneea aeaea.

?oeiaiaeeoaee aoeineie aeaiie?aoee, ?acaeaay aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea oniaoe
ii oe?aieaieth iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey a a?a/aneii ie?a e aeaeay
cae?aieoue naia ?oeiaiaenoai n?aaee a?aeia, auaeaeioee eaeath nicuaa
iauayeeeineiai eiia?anna. Ieooa?o niiauaao ia yoii oae: «Ia?eee, aeaeay
aua aieaa i?iaoaeeoue ia?iaeioth ai?aeinoue e aiooeoue a?aaeaeaiai
no?aieaiea e aaeeeei aeaeai, aian a Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea i?aaeeiaeaiea i
oii, /oiau ana yeeeiu, aaea au iie ia aeeee, a Aa?iia, eee Acee, a iaeuo
ai?iaeao, eee aieueoeo, iineaee ia iauee nuacae a Aoeiu oiieiiii/aiiuo
aeey niaauaiey ia yeeeineeo o?aiao, niaeaeaiiuo aa?aa?aie, i aea?oaao,
eioi?ua iie aeieaeiu i?eianoe ca nianaiea Yeeaaeu ii iaaoo, aeaiiiio
aiaai, eiaaea iie n?aaeaeenue n aa?aa?aie, i aaciianiii aeey anao
ieaaaiee ii ii?th e i ie?a. Aeey yoie oeaee aoeiyia iineaee 20 /aeiaae
noa?oa 50 eao. Iineu oaiaa?eaaee yeeeiia i?eeoe a Aoeiu e i?eiyoue
o/anoea a niaauaieyo i ie?a e i iaueo aeaenoaeyo Yeeaaeu».

Nicua iauayeeeineiai eiia?anna a Aoeiao, iaoiaeeaoeony ia aa?oeia
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo oniaoia, aue au auaiaeiui i?aaeaea anaai Aoeiai,
oneeee au eo iieeoe/aneia aeeyiea a A?aoeee, i?eo/ay yeeeiia e iunee ia
Aoeiao eae i?eciaiiii ?oeiaiaeeoaea a?a/aneiai ie?a.

?acoiaaony, Nia?oa e Iaeiiiiianneee nithc, a neeo auoaoiiiyioouo i?e/ei,
aunooieee i?ioea nicuaa oaeiai eiia?anna, i?aaei?eiyee ?aciiai ?iaea
ioaaoiua ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia n?ua eiia?anna, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ii ia
ninoiyeny.

I?iaeaeaeaiea Aoei a caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyei niaie
nia?oaeueioth iianiinoue aeey Ei?eioa, ecieyoeeth Nia?ou e iiuiaeoae
neeu oaea? ii Iaeiiiiianneiio nithco a oeaeii. Ie Nia?oa, ie (iniaaiii)
Ei?eio ia iiaee n yoei ie?eoueny e i?aaei?eieiaee naiua yia?ae/iua ia?u,
/oiau i?ioeainoiyoue aoeineei eieoeeaoeaai. Iaeiiiiianoeu eneaee iooe
ineaaeaiey aoeineie aea?aeaau, iiaeaea?aeeaay ieeaa?oe/aneea e?oae
n?aaee nithcieeia, iiaeia?aaaee iaaeiaieuenoai iiiiceoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia
oeiainiaie yenieoaoaoeeae aoeiyi, iiaoaeaeay eo oai naiui e auoiaeo ec
neiiaoee. Ia yoii iooe Iaeiiiiianneiio nithco oaeaeenue ianeieueei
i/aiue aaaeiuo aeoeee. Oae, nia?oaioeai oaeaeinue neeiieoue e auoiaeo ec
Aoeineiai ii?neiai nithca aaaeiue a no?aoaae/aneii ioiioaiee iieen
Iaaa?u, caie?aaoee i?ioiae ec Iaeiiiiiana a N?aaeithth A?aoeeth.
Aeaaiaea?y i?ieneai Ei?eioa iaeei ec iieenia ia Oaeeeaeeea, ai?iae
Iioeaeay, a 432 aiaeo auoae ec nithca, e aoeiyia aiieia caeiiii
iianaeenue, eae au yoiio i?eia?o ia iineaaeiaaee nithcieee ec naaa?iiai
iiaa?aaeuey Yaaeneiai ii?y.

Iaeiaei iniaaiii yia?ae/iua oneeey i?ioea aoeineie yeniainee i?aaei?eiye
Ei?eio a Aaeeeie A?aoeee. Iniiaaiiue aoeiyiaie iiaue ai?iae Oo?ey oae e
ia i?aa?aoeeny a eo ieaoeaea?i ii i?e/eia oiai, /oi caeanue oaeaeinue
oe?aieoue naia aeeyiea iaeiiiiiannoeai. Aoeineea nithcieee ?aaee e
Eaiioeiu auee iaeo?aeeciaaiu niei/aieai neoeeeeeneeo ai?iaeia ai aeaaa n
Ne?aeocaie, aaea i?aiaeaaeaee aioeaoeineea iano?iaiey, e iioiio
aiciiaeiinoe aoeineiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa caeanue ieacaeenue iacia/eoaeueiu.

Nia?oa a yoi a?aiy oaeaea ?anoe?yea ciiu naiaai aeeyiey, aeeth/ay a
Iaeiiiiianneee nithc iiauo /eaiia a N?aaeiae A?aoeee: iieenu Aaioee,
Oieeaeu, Naaa?iie Aei?eaeu, ino?iaa Eaaeaaeu. Aieueoay /anoue n?aaeiae
A?aoeee noaea ciiie nia?oaineiai aeeyiey.

Aiiaua aea, a oeaeii neaaeoao auaeaeeoue aieueooth aeoeaiinoue e, /oi
naiia aeaaiia, ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo eieoeeaoeaao
aoeineie aea?aeaau. ?oeiaiaeyuea e?oae iaeiiiiianoeaa ia/eiatho
iiieiaoue, /oi iie ia a neeao iieeoe/aneei eeai aeeieiiaoe/aneei
iaoiaeaie inoaiiaeoue ana aic?anoathuaa iiaouanoai Aoei. Oaeei ia?acii,
e eiioeo 30-o aiaeia V aaea aei iaoae y?u ia iiaanoeo aeiy noaiiaeony
aii?in i aieia.

CAEETH*AIEA

Oaeei ia?acii, y ?anniio?ae enoi?eth aicieeiiaaiey iaieo
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee, iiaeaa?a aiaeeco no?oeoo?o
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ono?ienoaa nithcia.
Eiaiii caeanue, oaea ia yoii yoaia iu aeaeei oa i?e/eiu, eioi?ua
ei?aiiui ia?acii iiaeeytho ia enoiae e?iaii?ieeoiie Iaeiiiiianneie
aieiu, eioi?ay a?yioea a 431 aiaeo e i?iaeieaeaeanue aei 404.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ana ono?ienoai aoeineie neiiaoee auei i?eaioe?iaaii ia
oneeaiea aiaiiie, yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie iiue iaeiiai iieena –
Aoei. Yoi, ii iiiyoiui i?e/eiai, aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai inoaeueiuo
/eaiia neiiaoee.

A naith i/a?aaeue, Iaeiiiiianneee nithc aue aeaenoaeoaeueii niiauanoaii
?aaiuo ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa, eiaaoeo ?aaiua i?aaa e auaoeo naiaiaeiuie a
naiai auai?a aeaeueiaeoaai iooe ?acaeoey. Niioaaonoaaiii, eiaiii ii
ieacaeny aieaa i?i/iui aiaiii-iieeoe/aneei aeieii, noiaaoei ia
?annuiaoueny iiae oyaioaie aieiu.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1) «Enoi?ey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee», iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.E.Eoceueia, Iineaa,
«Aunoay oeiea», 1986

2) Ieooa?o. «N?aaieoaeueiua aeeciaiienaiey». Aeaaa «Ia?eee».

3) O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. I, 1964.

4) «Enoi?ey Aa?iiu» a 8 oiiao. Oii 1. I, 1988

5) Aieueoay yioeeeeiiaaeey Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey-2004. Noaouee «Aoeiu»,
«Nia?oa», «Iaeiiiiianneay aieia».

6) Eioa?iao-yioeeeeiiaaeey www.vikipedia.ru

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019