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Административное устройство России в XVIII веке

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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1. Iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa XVIII aaea

2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu

3. Oaaaee i ?aiaao

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Ath?ie?aoey – eaoaai?ey enoi?e/aneay, a ?innee iia aaaeao ia/aei io
a?aiaie ioi?ieaiey aaniethoecia. Ia anyeia eeoei, i?e/anoiia e
i?aaeaieth, iiaeii iacaaoue ath?ie?aoii e ia anyeea o/?aaeaeaiey –
ath?ie?aoe/aneeie. Eeoea, ioi?aaeyaoea oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee, ecaanoiu
e ai a?aiaia ?onneie I?aaaeu – oaea oiaaea nouanoaiaaee ae?ieee e oeoiu.
A iineaaeothuea noieaoey /eneaiiinoue eo, eae e iiiaieeaoo?a
ioi?aaeyaiuo eie ooieoeee, oaaee/eaaeanue e oneiaeiyeanue, ii ie a XVI,
ie a a XVII noieaoeyo ath?ie?aoey a ?innee aua ia neiaeeeanue.

Iiaeiaii oiio, eae iiia?oe/aneoth oi?io i?aaeaiey ia iniiaaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?eciaeia n/eoatho aaniethoenoneie (iaee/ea ?aaoey?iie
a?iee, ath?ie?aoee, i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiie oeiainiaie nenoaiu,
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee,
iaania/eaaaoeo iaoa?eaeueii aaniethoenoneee ?aaeei), oae e oi?io
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa i?aaiia?ii iacuaaoue ath?ie?aoe/aneie
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iaeeoei nenoaia, niaieoiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?eciaeia, a ia iaeei eee ianeieueei ec ieo. Yoi – caaeneiinoue
/eiiaieeia io iiia?oa, no?iaay ea?a?oey o/?aaeaeaiee e aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe, ?oeiaiaenoaothueony a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe onoaaaie e
?aaeaiaioaie, aaeeiiia?acea no?oeoo?u e ooaoia o/?aaeaeaiee e
iaycaiiinoae aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, oaeoaeaiea ?acaeaeaiey eo o?oaea,
au?aaeaaoaany oioy au a oaeii ia?ae/iii aeaea, eae ?aca?aie/aiea
a?aaeaeaineie e aiaiiie neoaea, e o. ae.

Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea /eiiaiie ath?ie?aoee ai
a?aiaia Iao?a Ia?aiai. A ?aaioa iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e:
?anniio?aiea iniaaiiinoae ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa a XVIII aaea,
oa?aeoa?enoeea ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu.

Iniaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa XVIII aaea

Iao?ii ia?aui auea nicaeaia aaeeiay nenoaia aeanoe, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iiae/eiyaoayny eiia?aoi?o e ninoiyaoay ec neaaeothueo caaiueaa: naiao
(aicaeaaeyaiue aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?ii) – eieeaaee (i?yiia iiae/eiaiea
naiaoo) – aoaa?iaoi?u (i?yiia iiae/eiaiea eieeaaeyi). Iinea aoi?ie
aoaa?ineie ?aoi?iu aeanoue aoaa?iaoi?ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oieueei ia
i?iaeioeeth aoaa?ineiai ai?iaea, inoaeueiuie i?iaeioeeyie oi?aaeyee
aiaaiaeu.

Eaeath i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe neaaeoao eneaoue a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo oea?y ia «iauai aeaaa», i ?iee ainoaea?noaa a
aeinoeaeaiee yoiai iauaai aeaaa e i ?iee iiia?oa – aaeeiiee/iiai
i?aaeoaey. Eaeay ?aoi?iu oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe ninoiyea a nin?aaeioi/aiee
anae iieiiou aeanoe a iaeieo ?oeao – eiia?aoi?a.

I?aae?aoi?iaiiay neooaoeey ninoiyea a oii, /oi iiieii oea?neie aeanoe a
?innee nouanoaiaaee aua aeaa enoi/ieea cia/eoaeueiiai aaoi?eoaoa e
aeanoe, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo iiaee ieacaoueny e
ia?eiaee/anee ieacuaaeenue eiieo?e?othueie n oea?ai. Oaeiau: aiy?neay
aeoia, /uey aeanoue oea io iooeia e aeaaeia (?iaeiaay) e oea?eiaue, n
aeanoueth io Aiaa aeaiiie. Ecaanoii oneeaiea eiaiii yoie aeanoe a
Niooiia a?aiy – iao?ea?oe nia/aea Aa?iiaai, a caoai Oeea?ao. Iiieii
yoiai, iniiaiua aii?inu ?aoaeenue a i?eeacao, naiaai ?iaea aaaeiinoaao,
/anoue ec eioi?uo caieiaeanue aeaeaie ia eaeie-oi eiie?aoiie oa??eoi?ee
eee eaeie-oi eiie?aoiie a?oiiu ianaeaiey, aoi?ay – aaaeaea aeaeaie a
ianooaaao anaai ainoaea?noaa (iai?eia?, iinieueneee – aeeieiiaoe/aneea
ioiioaiey) e o?aouey ianeoaeeaaea iio?aaiinoe oea?neiai aeai?a. E ia/aeo
XVIII aaea ian/eouaaaony oaea ieiei 70-oe i?eeacia. Aicaeaaeyee i?eeacu,
eae i?aaeei, ?iaeiaeoua ethaee.

Aanueia aaaeiay ia?aiaia a ninoaaa Naiaoa e e?oaa aai aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iecioea a 1718 aiaeo o/?aaeaeaieai eieeaaee. Oaea a 1698 aiaeo,
O?ainen Ee ninoaaee aeey oea?y i?iaeo aaaaeaiey eieeaaeaeueiie nenoaiu a
aaeieieno?aoeee. Caoai Iao? aanaaeiaae ia yoii i?aaeiaoa n Eaeaieoeai,
Etha?anii e ae?oaeie eeoeaie. Aeey oea?y auee ninoaaeaiu ?aciua caienee
ia yoii aeaea. Aaaeiaeoaa aeeyiea a yoii ioiioaiee eiae Aai?eo Oee,
anooieaoee a ?onneoth neoaeao a 1715 aiaeo e ioi?aaeaiiue a Oaaoeeth
aeey eco/aiey aaeieieno?aoeaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee yoie no?aiu. Oeaeue ?yae
iaii?eaeia, io/anoe e iiiuia i?eienuaaaiuo Eaeaieoeo, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?o
Oeea.

Oaea a 1715 aiaeo oea?ue ii?o/ee aaia?aeo Aaeaea aeinoaoue eiino?aiiuo
o/aiuo e a «i?aainoyo» (o.a. i?aaao) eneoniuo ethaeae aeey ioi?aaeaiey
aeae a eieeaaeyo. A eiioea oiai aea aiaea ii?o/aii ?aceaeaioo i?e
aano?eeneii aeai?a Aanaeianeiio nuneaoue ec «o?aeaa?ia (iena?ae) eee
ae?oaeo i?eeaciuo ethaeae oaeeo, eioi?ua ciatho ii-neaayinee, io anao
eieeaaee, eioi?ua anoue o oeana?y, e?iia aeooiaiuo, ii iaeiiio /aeiaaeo,
e /oia iie auee ethaee aeia?ua e iiaee oa aeaea caeanue iniiaaoue». A
1717 aiaeo auei ii?o/aii Eciaeeiao i?eaeaoaoue oaaaeneeo ieaiiuo,
aeeaoeo a Neae?e, a neoaeao a eieeaaeyo. Iaaeaeo oai auei aaeaii
iineaoue a Eaieanaa?a /aeiaae 30 eee 40 iieiaeuo iiaeuey/eo aeey
iao/aiey iaiaoeeiio ycueo, «aeaau oaeiaiaa a eieeaaeoi auee».

A eiioea 1717 aiaea oaea ii?aaeaeaii auei /enei eieeaaee — aeaayoue: 1)
/oaeano?aiiuo aeae, 2) eaia?, eee eacaiiuo nai?ia, 3) thnoeoeee, 4)
?aaeceii: n/ao anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?eoiaeia e ?anoiaeia, 5) aieineee
(o.a. eieeaaeoi) 6) aaeie?aeoaeneee, 7) eiiia?oe, 8) ooaon-eiioi?:
eacaiiue aeii, aaaeaiea anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, 9) aa?a e
iaiooaeoo?. I?aceaeaioaie ii/oe anao eieeaaee auee iacia/aiu ?onneea,
aeoea-i?aceaeaioaie ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii eiino?aioeu. A i?iaeieaeaiea
1718 aiaea ana auei i?eaioiaeaii e ioe?uoeth iiauo o/?aaeaeaiee,
iineaaeiaaaoaio a eiioea yoiai aiaea. Oeaeue ?yae iaeacia oea?y aeaao
iai iiiyoea i iaia?aieyo aai i?e yoii neo/aa.

A iaeiii ec i?iaeoia i eieeaaeyo neacaii, /oi ono?ienoai eo iioiaea ia
ono?ienoai /ania, aaea eieana acaeiii i?eaiaeyo ae?oa ae?oaa a
aeaeaeaiea. N?aaiaiea yoi ia iiaei ia iii?aaeoueny Iao?o, eioi?ue eiaiii
no?aieeny e oiio, /oia ?onneea ethaee ai anai i?eaiaeeee ae?oa ae?oaa a
aeaeaeaiea, eai ana cei i?ienoiaeeei io ?aciauaiiinoe eiean.

Iniiaiie iuneueth i?e o/?aaeaeaiee eieeaaee auei oneeaiea e
acaeiiaeaenoaea o?oaea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia. Naycue iaaeaeo
eieeaaeyie caeeth/aeanue, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, e a oii, /oi eo i?aceaeaiou
auee a oi aea a?aiy naiaoi?aie. Aeey aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa a eieeaaeyo auee
ninoaaeaiu iniaua i?aaeea. Iao? noa?aeny ii?aaeaeeoue oi/iaa i?aaeiaai
iaycaiiinoe neoaeaueo, aiooeoue ei /oanoai aeieaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
oneeeoue ai anao ioiioaieyo eiio?ieue iaae aeaenoaeyie /eiiaieeia.
Iaaeinoaoie a i?aaeeao, ii eioi?ui aeieaeiu auee aeaenoaiaaoue i?aaiu
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aucuaae aei yoiai iiiaeanoai neo/aaa iani?aaaaeeeauo
?aoaiee noaeae e i?iecaieueiuo aeaenoaee i?eeaciuo ethaeae. Iao?
noa?aeny iiii/ue yoiio iaaeinoaoeo aaaaeaieai eieeaaeaeueiiai ii?yaeea
i?e oi?aaeaiee aeaeaie, ono?ienoaii ?aciuo aeieaeiinoae aeey
iaaethaeaiey ca i?aaeeueiui oiaeii aeae, iacia/aieai eiio?iea?ia,
iaee/aaoeo ana neo/ae ia?ooaiey eaeeo-eeai caeiiia eee
iaaeia?iniaanoiiai eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoe. «Iai?aaaea», eioi?oth Iao?
oioae enei?aieoue ec /eiiaiiai ethaea, a ?innee auea a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie neaaenoaeai i?aaeiae nenoaiu «ei?ieaiey». Iaaea?ii eiino?aioeu,
iinauaaoea aeiiao?ianeoth ?onue, a iaeei aiein inoaeaeaee th?eaee/aneee
auo e ath?ie?aoeth ?innee, aiai?y iiae?iaii i i?iecaiea, n?aa?iethaee e
aeanoieinoe i?eeaciuo ethaeae e noaeae, i iaaieiaiee eo e iauaio aeaao,
i ia?ooaiee ia eaaeaeii oaao i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, i ia?aaeaiee neoaeaueo.
Iiaua o/?aaeaeaiey Iao?a aeieaeiu auee naeaeaoueny oeieie aeey ?acaeoey
a ath?ie?aoee iieeoe/aneie i?aanoaaiiinoe; oea?ue oioae caiaieoue
nenoaio «ei?ieaiey» iaania/aieai neoaeaueo eacaiiui aeaeiaaiueai; ii
iaaeayeny ia ?acaeoea a /eiiaieeao oaaaeaiey e caeiio e aieiaiey e
ioaeaeai ia?iaea.

Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oiau aeaenoaey oea?y a yoii iai?aaeaiee eiaee oniao.
Iaaeaaeaeu aai ia oaea/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue eieeaaee ia eniieieeenue.
Iaaeinoaaaei iiuoiuo e aeia?iniaanoiuo /eiiaieeia. Ii iocuao iaeiiai
nia?aiaiieea, iiaua o/?aaeaeaiey a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaaea iiaaee e
?aciui iaoaeianoaai. Oea?ue aanueia /anoi aeaeiaaeny ia ?aceaae iaaeaeo
eieeaaeyie. Eiiaaea ii nianoaaiii?o/iuie ?anii?yaeaieyie noa?aeny
ai?ioueny n oaeiai ?iaea iaaeinoaoeaie, ianoaaeye, o/ee, ii?eoeae e
naiiee/ii o/anoaiaae a aeaeao. Oae, iai?eia?, iaeiaaeaeu a 1722 aiaeo ii
nai ?oeiaiaeee auai?ii i?aceaeaioa THnoeoe-Eieeaaee, iauyniyy iiae?iaii
i?e yoii onoaiiaeaiiua i?aaeea.

*oi eanaaony aeieaeiinoae, eiaaoeo oeaeueth eiio?ieue iaae
i?aaeeueiinoueth aeaenoaee i?enoonoaaiiuo iano, oi iiuoii a yoii ?iaea
auei iacia/aiea oaea a 1705 aiaeo ecaanoiiai aeaeueoea e iaooiieiiai
o?oaeaieea Eo?aaoiaa «einiaeoi?ii ?aoooe». Ooo ii aue iinoaaeai ai aeaaa
oeiainiaiai oi?aaeaiey a oeaeie ?innee, ia?aienuaaeny ia yoeo aeaeao n
naiei oea?ai, ioe?uaae ceioiio?aaeaiey, oeacuaae iiaua enoi/ieee
aeioiaeia e ia uaaeee i?e anai yoii aeaaea e neeueiuo ethaeae. Oaeia aea
cia/aiea eiaei o/?aaeaeaiea oeneaeia, naeaeaaoeony anei?a iaiaaenoiuie
ia?iaeo, a /ai i?e neo/aa niciaaaeny aeaaea nai Iao?.

Oaeiaui eiio?iea?ii e aeiiin/eeii aue Cioia, a 1715 aiaeo ii?aaeaeaiiue
«?aaeci?ii» i?e Naiaoa e naeaeaaoeeny caoai «iaa?-nae?aoa?ai» i?e yoii
o/?aaeaeaiee. A ia/aea 1722 aiaea Iao? o/?aaeee i?e Naiaoa
«aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a, oi anoue no?yi/aai io ainoaea?y e ainoaea?noaa». Ii
aeieaeai aue «niio?aoue iae?aiei, aeaau Naiao naith aeieaeiinoue o?aiee
e a naiai caaiee i?aaaaeii e iaeeoeaia?ii iinooiae e iaae anaie
i?ieo?i?u, aeaau a naiai caaiee enoeiii e ?aaiinoii iinooiaee, e ca
oeneaeaie niio?aoue» e i?i/. Iao? aiai?ee i aeieaeiinoe
aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a: «E iiiaaea nae /ei, yei iei iaoa e no?yi/ee i aeaeao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oiai ?aaee iiaeeaaeeo aa?ii iinooiaoue, eai ia?ai ia
iai acuneaii aoaeao». Aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?, eioi?ui aue iacia/ai
ssaoaeeineee, ie/ueaio noaeo ia iiaeeaaeae, e?iia noaea naiiai
ainoaea?y.

Oi aea naiia no?aieaiea ?acaeoue aaeeinoai, caeiiiinoue e oniao a
aeaenoaeyo ath?ie?aoee iaia?oaeeaaaony e a ?anii?yaeaieyo Iao?a
ioiineoaeueii i?aaiia ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey. E caeanue oaea n 1702 aiaea
caiaoii i?aiaeaaeaiea eieeaaeaeueiiai ia/aea; e ooo Iao? noa?aeny
aiooeoue anai e eaaeaeiio aeaeaiea aeaenoaiaaoue naiinoiyoaeueii e
/oanoai aeieaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. *a?ac iacia/aiea «ao?ieno?ia» e
o/?aaeaeaiea «?aoooae», «ao?ienoa?neie iaeaou», «aeaaiiai iaaeno?aoa» e
i?i/eo oea?ue aeaeae iaeeaeoue e a n?aaeiai eeanna iauanoaa niiniaiinoue
e aeaeo naiioi?aaeaiey. Ana iaoaeianoaa aaeieieno?aoeee, ana neo/ae
ia?ooaiey i?aaa e ia?iaeiie iieuecu, eae iaaeayeny Iao?, iiaee eaa/a
naeaeaoueny ecaanoiuie iin?aaenoaii oaeeo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ana aeieaeiu
auee o?oaeeoueny, iaaece?aoue e a neo/aa ioe?uoey eaeie-eeai «iai?aaaeu»
aeiiineoue eoaea neaaeiaaei. E aeieaeiinoe «?aeaoiaenoa?a» e
«aa?ieueaeiaenoa?a», o/?aaeaeaiiua a eiioea Iao?ianeiai oea?noaiaaiey,
eiaee oeaeueth oneeaiea eiio?iey, auneooeaaiea aeaeia, i?eaea/aiea anao
e eaaeaeiai e o/anoeth a o?oaea ia iieueco ainoaea?noaa. N?aaenoaii
iiiu?aiey e o?oaeo auea oaeaea ninoaaeaiiay a 1722 aiaeo «oaaaeue i
?aiaao», aeaaaaoay i?inoi? ee/iui ea/anoaai neoaeaueo, iacaaeneii io eo
?iaeaeaiey e i?ienoiaeaeaiey, e aeieaeainoaiaaaoay aiooeoue oaaaeaiea e
/eio, e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeieaeiinoe. «Oaaaeue i ?aiaao» auea ninoaaeaia
e iaienaia naiei Iao?ii, ii ia?acoeo eiaaoeony o iaai a ia?aaiaea
?anienaiee /eiia ei?ieaanoa «naiiaea?aeaaiuo», o?aioeocneiai, i?onneiai,
oaaaeneiai e aeaoneiai. Aeaeii oaeaea, /oi i?eieiaeenue a niia?aaeaiea e
aiaeeeneea o/?aaeaeaiey. Iauynieoaeueiue oaeno e «oaaaee», eee ioieou,
a/a?ia eni?aaeyeenue e aeiiieiyeenue oaeaea naiei oea?ai.

I?e noieue ?aaiinoiii aeaeaiee Iao?a eni?aaeoue aaeieieno?aoeeth e
noaeii?iecaiaenoai a ?innee, ii ia iia ia einiooueny aii?ina i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ninoaaeaiey iiaiai oeiaeaiey. Eni?aaeoue e aeiiieieoue
Oeiaeaiea oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a n/eoaeinue Iao?ii aeaeii e?aeiae
aaaeiinoe. Ia?aue oaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee naeaeai aue oeacii 18 oaa?aey
1700 aiaea, eioi?ui i?aaeienaii naanoe Oeiaeaiea n iineaaeothueie
caeiiaie. Auea ninoaaeaia iaeaoa ec aiy?, aeoiiuo aeai?yi, noieueieeia e
aeueyeia. Aei 1703 aiaea iia oniaea «naanoe» oieueei o?e aeaau Oeiaeaiey
e auea cae?uoa. A 1714 aiaeo o/?aaeaeaia iiaay eiienney, aeaenoaiaaaoay
ii 1718 aiae. Iia ninoaaeea aei aeanyoe aeaa naiaeiiai Oeiaeaiey,
eioi?ia ia eiaei ieeaeeo iineaaenoaee.

A 1718 aiaeo Iao? ?aoeeny inoaaeoue i?aaeiee iooue e i?yii ni/eieoue
iiaia oeiaeaiea ia iniiaaiee caeiiia ?onneeo, oaaaeneeo e aeaoneeo. A
1720 aiaeo ia?aciaaia aeey yoie oeaee eiienney ec ?onneeo e
eiino?aioeaa. Iaeiaei e iia ia eiaea oniaoa e eeoue iiieiaeueii
i?inouanoaiaaea aei eii/eiu Aeaoa?eiu I. Aeaei auei o?oaeiia. Ioaeii
auei ia oieueei nia?aoue aeaenoaothuaa i?aai a iaeii oeaeia, ii e
oeo/oeoue e aeiiieieoue aai ia iniiaaiee i?aaenoaaeaiey i eo/oai
ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee e oao ia?acoeia, eioi?ua eiaeenue ia
Caiaaea. Ai anyeii neo/aa, aeey eniieiaiey oaeie caaea/e auee ioaeiu
th?enou, iiiainoi?iiia ia?aciaaiiua ethaee, iaaeaeo oai eae
th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea oiai a?aiaie ia iiaei auoue aunieei.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iieo/aiey anae iieiiou aeanoe a naie ?oee, Iao? I,
naeaeae neaaeothuaa.

Eieeaaee: Oiaiueoee /enei caaiueaa (ii noa?iio i?eeacia) aiia?aoa
oi?aaeaiey; Oii?yaei/ee e i?eaae yoe caaiuey oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa a
nenoaio: oaia?ue iie iacuaaeenue eieeaaeyie e eaaeaeay ec ieo
caieiaeanue ii?aaeaeaiiui ?iaeii aeae (Iao? ?aca?aie/ee iaycaiiinoe
eieeaaee, /oi a i?eeacao niaethaeaeinue ia anaaaea), iai?eia?:
Eiiia?oe-eieeaaey aaaeaea oi?aiaeae, Aaeie?aeoaeneay – oeioii e o. ae.;

Ooaou eieeaaee auee naeaeaiu aaeeiiia?aciuie. Auea aaaaeaia «Oaaaeue i
?aiaao», oii?yaei/eaaaoay neoaeaaiua ioiioaiey e, oaeoe/anee caiaiyaoay
i?eioeei ?iaeiaeoinoe i?eioeeiii auneoae (i?ioanneiiaeecia).

Naia eaeay ?aoi?iu, ?ac?aaioea e i?eaaaeaiea a eniieiaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo
niaaoieeai-eiino?aioeai, iniaaiii Aai?eoo Oeea, i?aaeeiaeeaoei caiaieoue
aanii?yaei/ii ono?iaiiua i?eeacu (o/?aaeaeaiey oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe)
eieeaaeyie ii oaaaeneiio ia?acoeo.

Naiao. Auea eeeaeaee?iaaia Aiy?neay Aeoia e nicaeai Naiao,
iiae/eiyaoeeny iai?yioth oea?th. Naiao, nicaeaiiue a 1711 aiaeo, aue
aeaaiui i?aaiii oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe: «O/?aaeaeai oeacii Iao?a I 22
oaa?aey 1711. Ia?aiia/aeueii ooieoeeiie?iaae eae a?aiaiiue
eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai aeey oi?aaeaiey no?aiie a ionoonoaea oea?y,
caiaieaoee Aiy?neoth aeoio. ssaeyeny caeiiiniaauaoaeueiui i?aaiii,
noaeaaii-aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae. Inouanoaeye oaeaea iaaeci? ca
eieeaaeyie (e?iia eiino?aiiie). Aia/aea ninoiye ec 9 /eaiia e
iaa?-nae?aoa?y. *eaiu Naiaoa — naiaoi?u — iacia/aeenue oea?ai ec /enea
a?aaeaeaineeo e aiaiiuo /eiiaieeia ia?auo o?ao eeannia (ii Oaaaee i
?aiaao)». Naiao noae eieeaaeaeueiui eaaeiaoii Iao?a I, i?ecaaiiui
iiieiaoue e aei?aaaouaaoue aai oeacu, ?ac?aaaouaaoue e aaiaeeoue a
aeaenoaea i?iaeou ?aoi?i.

Oaeei ia?acii i?eioeei ?iaeiaeoinoe aue a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oi?acaeiai
e auea eeeaeaee?iaaia Aiy?neay Aeoia, ia iiae/eiyaoayny ?aiaa oea?th
iai?yioth.

Aeaaiue iaaeno?ao. Nicaeaiiue a 1720-i aiaeo Aeaaiue iaaeno?ao aaaeae
aeaeaie ai?iaeia e oaeaea iaoiaeeeny ia iieiaeaiee eieeaaee. Oai naiui
o/?aaeaeaeny oeaio?aeeciaaiiue eiio?ieue iaae ai?iaeaie. Iao? I iieiaeee
ia/aei th?eaee/aneiio ioi?ieaieth ai?iaeneiai nineiaey.

Neiiae. A 1721 aiaeo Iao?ii aue nicaeai Nayoaeoee Neiiae, iaeaaeaaoee
i?aaaie eieeaaee e aaaeaaoee oea?eiaiuie aeaeaie. Oea?eiaue noaea
/anoueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. A ?innee auei oi?acaeiaii
iao?ea?oanoai. Oaeei ia?acii, oaeoe/anee auea eeeaeaee?iaaia aua iaeia
oi/ea aaoi. Oea?ue iieo/ee aaeeiiee/ioth aeanoue a no?aia.

Iao? Aaeeeee caiaoee iaeiaaeaeu: «Ieaaea a naaoa oae iao, eae o ian
auei, a io/anoe e anoue e caei ouaony anyeea ieiu /eieoue iiae
oi?oaoeeth i?aaaeu». E Eaai Iinioeia aeaeiaaeny: «Iai nea aaeueie
caci?ii: ia oi/eth o eiicaioeaa, ii e aano?iaia noae /eiyo i?aaaaeai, a
o ian aa?a nayoay, aeaai/anoeaay, ia aanue naao neaaiay, a noaeiay
?ani?aaa ieeoaea ia aiaeiay e eaeea oeacu aai eiia?aoi?neiai aaee/anoaa
ie ninoiyony, ana ie ai /oi ia?auathony, ii anye ii naiaio iau/ath
aeaeatho… ?inneeneay caiey ai iiiaeo ianoao caionoaea, e ana io
iai?aaaeu e io iacae?aaiai e iai?aaiai ?annoaeaeaiey. E eaeea aeaaee ie
/eiyony, a ana io iai?aaaeu».

Iao? aei a?iaa ia ia?anoaaae ai?ioueny i?ioea yoiai cea. Aanueia /anoi e
ii aeaeiaaeny ia ouaoiinoue no?iaiai iaeacaiey aeiiaiuo, ia
ianiaethaeaiea i?aaeienuaaaiuo ei i?aaee, ia i?ac?aiea e caeiio. Oniao
aai no?aieaiee a yoii ioiioaiee aue oie/oiaeai. Iacaaeieai aei naiae
nia?oe Iao? a oeaca i ?acee/ee oo?aoia e iaeacaiee ca ainoaea?noaaiiua e
ia?oeeoey?iua i?anooieaiey au?aceeny neaaeothuei ia?acii: «Eiaaea eoi a
naiai caaiee iia?aoeo, oi aaaeo iaianao anaio ainoaea?noao; eiaaea
noaeuey no?anoe ?aaee eaeie eee iioeaanoaa, a iniaeeai eiaaea eaeiinoaa
?aaee iia?aoeo, oiaaea ia?aia noaiao anth eieeaaeth ouaony a naie
oa?aaoa? (oi anoue a naith aei?iao) naiaeeoue, iianaynue io ieo ecaaoa,
e oaeaeaa oi, iiae/eiaiiua a eaeie ?inione aiaaeoo, iiiaaea no?aoa
ia/aeueieea aiyoueny aanueia ia noaioo, aeey oiai iiiaaea ia/aeueieeo
no?anoiiio oaea iaeacuaaoue iiae/eiaiiuo iaeuecy… e oaei iiiaeo ana a
aanno?aoea i?eaeoo, ethaeae a ainoaea?noaa ?aci?yo, Aiaeee aiaa
iiaeaeaioo e oaei ia/a ia?oeeoey?iie eciaiu iiaeao auoue ainoaea?noao ia
oi/eth aaaenoai, ii e eiia/iia iaaeaiea» e i?i/.

A iaiauaiiii aeaea ioee/ey a iieiaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa XVII
noieaoey ii n?aaiaieth n XVIII a. io?aaeaiu a i?enyaao. A XVII noieaoee
ionoonoaiaae aaeeiue oaeno i?enyae: a ?acee/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo eiaeenue
naie e?anoii?eaiaeiua caiene aeey ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe. Aeey iiaeuey/eo Iinieueneiai i?eeaca e ?ac?yaea iia auea ia oaeie,
eae aeey iiaeuey/eo i?i/eo i?eeacia; naie e?anoii?eaiaeiua caiene auee o
aeoiiuo /eiia, eiino?aioeaa ia ?onneie neoaeaa, aeiineeo eacaeia e o.
ae. I?e Iao?a aea aue onoaiiaeai aaeeiue oaeno i?enyae, iiae eioi?ie
noaaeee iiaeiene eae naiaoi?u, oae e eaioeaey?neea neoaeeoaee:
«Ainoaea?noaaiiuo eieeaaee a /eaiu, oaeie; e i?i/ea /eiu a?aaeaeaineea,
e eaaeaeue iniai»,- eae neacaii a Aaia?aeueiii ?aaeaiaioa. Aua aieaa
nouanoaaiii oi, /oi a i?enyao Aaia?aeueiiai ?aaeaiaioa aaaaeaii
iaycaoaeuenoai, eioi?iai iao e ia iiaei auoue a e?anoii?eaiaeiuo caienyo
XVII a., a eiaiii: aeaenoaiaaoue a niioaaonoaee n eino?oeoeeyie,
?aaeaiaioaie e oeacaie.

Ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaia iaiaoiaeeia ea?a?oey o/?aaeaeaiee. Ea?a?oey
o/?aaeaeaiee yaeyaony, iiaeaeoe, aaeeinoaaiiui i?eciaeii,
oianeaaeiaaiiui ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiie io i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai
iaoaiecia i?aaeoanoaothuaai a?aiaie: oaea a XVII a. nouanoaiaaee
Aiy?neay aeoia, a oaeaea i?eeacu a oeaio?a e aiaaiaeneea ecau ia ianoao.
Iaeiaei yoi o?ao/eaiiia aeaeaiea, iniaaiii a aai n?aaeiai caaia, auei
eeoaii aaeeinoaa i?eioeeiia i?aaiecaoeee e ii?aaeaeaiey i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae. Ii?iaoeaiua aeou, ii?aaeaeyaoea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
Aiy?neie aeoiu e i?eeacia, ionoonoaiaaee. Aaeaa ee ia naiui y?eei
i?eia?ii ionoonoaey no?iaie nenoaiu a oi?ie?iaaiee oeaio?aeueiiai
aiia?aoa yaeyaony iiiaeanoaaiiinoue i?eioeeiia ii?aaeaeaiey eo
eiiiaoaioeee: aeanoue iaeieo i?eeacia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia anth no?aio
(Iiianoiue, Iinieuenei-Iooea?neee e ae?.), ae?oaea i?eeacu oi?aaeyee
ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?eae (I?eeac Eacaineiai aeai?oea, Neae?neee,
Niieaineee e ae?.); aianoue iaeioi?uo i?eeacia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia
ia?aie/aiioth oa??eoi?eth (/aoe: Aaeeoeeay, Onothaeneay e ae?.) eee
ii?aaeaeaiiua io?anee oi?aaeaiey. A no?oeoo?o ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee aoi?aaeenue aeai?oeiaua, a oaeaea iao?ea?oea i?eeacu.

A XVII a. aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, eae e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, ia
?aniieaaaee aeieoiaioaie, ii?aaeaeyaoeie eo i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe. Iu ia
ciaai i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aiy?eia, /ai io ieo ioee/aeenue i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe ieieueie/aai, ?aaii eae e ioee/ee iiaeuey/aai aoi?ie noaouee
io iiaeuey/aai o?aoueae. A ?aaeueiie aeecie yoe ?acee/ey nia?aiaiieee
oiaee oeiaeoue, ii yoe ?acee/ey ia auee cae?aieaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueii,
iniiauaaeenue ia iau/iii i?aaa. Oieueei i?e aaniethoiie iiia?oee
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea e o/?aaeaeaiey io naiuo aunieeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
einoaioeee aei naiuo ieceeo auee iaaeaeaiu eino?oeoeeyie e ?aaeaiaioaie.

A XVII, eae e a ia?aie /aoaa?oe XVIII a., i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey e ia?niiae, eo ianeoaeeaaaoee, aeaeeeenue ia aeaa o?iaiy:
aunoee, i?aayuee, e iecoee, eniieieoaeueneee. ?ieue aunoaai o?iaiy a
XVIII a. auiieiyea i?aayuay ath?ie?aoey, canaaeaaoay a Naiaoa. Iia
nouanoaaiii ioee/aeanue io i?aayuae aa?oooee XVII a., canaaeaaoae a
Aiy?neie aeoia. I?e eiiieaeoiaaiee iineaaeiae ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue
i?eioeeiii ii?iaeu eaiaeeaeaoia e ?iaenoaa n oea?neie oaieeeae – ioaoe e
a?aouey noi?oae oea?y aicaiaeeeenue a aeoiiua /eiu. A aeoio iinueae
naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?aie/aiiue e?oa a?enoie?aoe/aneeo oaieeee,
i?e/ai aeoiiue /ei ca iaiiiaeie eneeth/aieyie yaeyeny iiaeeciaiiui.
Aiy?eia oea?ue iia iacia/eoue aiaaiaeie eaeiai-ieaoaeue oacaea,
iinoaaeoue ai aeaaa i?eeaca eee, iaeiiaoe, ioi?aaeoue auiieiyoue
eaeia-eeai ii?o/aiea ca ?oaaae. Oaeie aiy?ei, ia o/anoaoy a canaaeaieyo
Aeoiu, ia oo?a/eaae naiaai /eia. Neo/aaa, iiaeiaiiai oiio, /oi i?iecioae
n eiycai e aiy?eiii A. A. Aieeoeuiui, oaai?eoii oea?aaiu Niouee,
ieacaaoeiny a nnueea e eeoeaoeiny ia oieueei /eia, ii e caiaeueiuo
aeaaeaiee, a XVII a. auei iaiiiai.

Aeoiiua /eiu, iniaaiii aiy?a e ieieueie/ea, iieueciaaeenue cia/eoaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie iacaaeneiinoueth io aa?oiaiie aeanoe – iie iaania/eaaeenue
caieae e e?anoueyiaie. A 1678 a. 45 aiy?, 27 ieieueie/eo, 19 aeoiiuo
aeai?yi e 8 aeoiiuo aeueyeia aeaaeaee 11% aeai?ia, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo anai
naaoneei oaiaeaeai ?innee. Ec aiy? eiycue I. E. Iaeiaaneee aeaaeae 1397
aeai?aie, eiycue ss. I. Iaeiaaneee e oiai aieueoa -1989 aeai?aie, eiycue
E. A. Ai?iouineee – 4609 aeai?aie! Aacaaaeioth aeeciue yoei e ei
iiaeiaiui aiy?ai e ieieueie/ei iaania/eaaee ouny/e e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi,
niaaaeaaoeo aa?eia iaiaoiaeeiuie aeeciaiiuie ?ano?naie, iacaaeneii io
oiai, eaeea iaycaiiinoe ii auiieiye e aaea iaoiaeeeny – a noieeoea eee
ca aa i?aaeaeaie.

Ae?oaia aeaei Naiao e naiaoi?u. I?e iacia/aiee naiaoi?ii (eae, ai?i/ai,
e ia ae?oaea aeieaeiinoe) oea?ue ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny eiui i?eioeeiii –
neoaeaaiie aiaeiinoueth. Anee aiy?neee ioi?une n i?eau/iie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth i?aiaeieaaae nooiaie neoaeaaiie eanoieoeu e a
eiia/iii n/aoa aeinoeaae naiiai aunieiai /eia, i?eoiaey ia niaio iooeo,
oi i?aaa noaoue naiaoi?ii aeiaeaaeenue eeoea, iaeaaeaaoea ee/iuie
aeinoieinoaaie; caneoae aea i?aaeeia ai aieiaiea ia i?eieiaeenue. Auoa
anaai oeaieeenue oi, neoaeaaiia ?aaiea, ia?aciaaiea e o. ae. Iiaua
e?eoa?ee neoaeaaiie aiaeiinoe ii?iaeaeaee iiauo ethaeae a aa?oiai neia
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Yoi auea iiaay ciaoue, ia/eiaaoay naith
?iaeineiaioth aaeueiiae ni a?aiaie Iao?a, oeaeeeii iaycaiiay naiae
ea?uea?ie oea?th.

Ii naiaoi?a io aiy?eia ioee/aea aua iaeia iniaaiiinoue: aiy?ei – /ei,
naiaoi? – aeieaeiinoue. Eeoei, ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai auauaoaa ec
ninoaaa Naiaoa, oo?a/eaaei caaiea naiaoi?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeeoei
aieueoay caaeneiinoue naiaoi?a io aa?oiaiie aeanoe. Yoa caaeneiinoue
i?aayuae ath?ie?aoee io oea?neie aeanoe a aua aieueoae ia?a
i?ineaaeeaaaony a yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe. Anee a XVII a. aeaaiiieo/ea
aaeueiiae iaania/eaaeinue eo nianoaaiiuie e?aiinoiuie e?anoueyiaie, oi a
XVIII a. naiaoi?u, eae e i?i/ea /eiiaieee, iieo/aee aeaiaaeiia
aeaeiaaiuea. I?ae?auaiea neoaeau aeaeei ca niaie i?ae?auaiea auaea/e
aeaeiaaiuey; ia?aiauaiea ii neoaeaa, naycaiiia n iiieaeaieai eee
iiauoaieai, oaeaea io?aaeaeinue ia ?acia?a aeaeiaaiuey.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu

Aeey ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oa?aeoa?iu iaeeiaeiaua
no?oeoo?a e ooaou ianoiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Yoiai iaeuecy
neacaoue ie i Aiy?neie aeoia, ie i i?eeacao. Enoi?ee iiaeao onoaiiaeoue,
/ai caieiaeenue oio eee eiie i?eeac e aeaaea Aiy?neay aeoia, oieueei
yiie?e/aneei iooai, oi anoue eco/aieai eo aeayoaeueiinoe: neaaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo o/?aaeaeaiee, io?aaeaiiua a aeieoiaioao, iicaieytho
onoaiiaeoue eo eiiiaoaioeeth.

Eeoue a iao?ianeia a?aiy ana o/?aaeaeaiey auee iaania/aiu eino?oeoeeyie,
?aaeaiaioaie e ooaoaie. Nicaeaaony aiaoia no?ieiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey,
eioi?oth nia?aiaiieee oiiaeiaeyee /aniaiio iaoaiecio. Eae a iai ana
aeioeee e eieaneee iaoiaeyony ai acaeiiaeaenoaee, auiieiyy
ii?aaeaeaiioth iaa?oceo, oae a ainoaea?noaaiiii ono?ienoaa – /aoeay
nenoaia niiiae/eiaiiinoe o/?aaeaeaiee e ?acaeaeaiey ooieoeee.

Oieoeeaoeey e ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiea aaee e niaoeeaeecaoeee /eiiaie/anoaa e
ae?iaeaieth iaycaiiinoae aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. Aeaaiui iieacaoaeai ?inoa
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea yaeyaony ioa?aie/aiea aiaiiie neoaeau io
a?aaeaeaineie. A XVII a. aiaiiay e a?aaeaeaineay neoaeaa niaiauaeenue a
iaeiii eeoea. N/eoaeinue, /oi iiciaiee e iiuoa aiy?eia aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau n iaeeiaeiaui oniaoii ni?aaeyoueny n aiaiiuie,
aeeieiiaoe/aneeie e aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ooieoeeyie. Oae, A. A. Aieeoeui,
iiuoiue aeeieiiao, ii eeoaiiue niiniaiinoae aiaia/aeueieea, ana aea aue
iinoaaeai ai aeaaa aiene, o/anoaiaaaoeo a aeaoo iaoaea/iuo E?uineeo
iioiaeao. ?aoiue /aeiaae XVII a. ia neeiia naiae aiaiiie neoaeau,
n/eoay, /oi ii oaea en/a?iae neeu ia yoii iii?eua, ia?auaeny n i?inueaie
e oea?th ia?aaanoe ia neoaeao a?aaeaeaineoth, /oiau «iiei?ieoueny» a
aeieaeiinoe aiaaiaeu, ieneieueei ia niiiaaaynue, /oi aai iiuoa e
iiciaiee aeinoaiao aeey oi?aaeaiey oacaeii.

?aaoey?iay a?iey, nicaeaiiay i?e Iao?a, auea ?ann/eoaia ia ianeoaeeaaiea
aa ea?a?oeae aiaiiie ath?ie?aoee – i?ioanneiiaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiui
ioeoea?neei ei?ionii. Aiaiiay neoaeaa anee e niaiauaeanue n eiie, oi
oieueei n aeeieiiaoe/aneie, ii oaeia niaiauaiea ii?aaeaeyeinue eo
anoanoaaiiie acaeiinaycueth.

E i?iyaeaieyi ?inoa niaoeeaeecaoeee ioiineony ae?iaeaiea aeieaeiinoae,
iaaethaeaaoaany ai anao iiae?acaeaeaieyo ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu.
Aianoi aeaau i?eeaca, oaeoe/anee ?anii?yaeaaoaainy aai
aeayoaeueiinoueth, nicaeathony eieeaaee ni naiae ea?a?oeae aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe: i?aceaeaio, aeoea-i?aceaeaio, niaaoieee e ananni?u. Aua aieaa
ae?iaiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a iecoai yoaeiia; iiyaeythony ?aiaa ia
nouanoaiaaaoea aeieaeiinoe eniieieoaeae ?anii?yaeaiee aa?oooee
ath?ie?aoee – i?ioieieenou, aeooa?eonu, nae?aoa?e e i?.

*eneaiiinoue ath?ie?aoee e eiioeo oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a anee e
oaaee/eeanue, oi iacia/eoaeueii. Yoi iauyniyeinue ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe iaaeaeo noa?aie oi?aaeaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaieai anae
nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Oae, anee a Aiy?neie aeoia e
eiioeo noieaoey ian/eouaaeinue /ooue aieaa 100 /eaiia, oi a Naiaoa
canaaeaei aeaayoue /aeiaae. I?enoonoaea eieeaaee ninoiyei ec aeanyoe
/eaiia aianoi aeaoo-o?ao a i?eeacao. Caoi i?eeacia a eiioea noieaoey
auei 44, a eieeaaee e ?aaiuo n ieie o/?aaeaeaiee – aeaaiaaeoeaoue.
Ieaaee?iaea i?iecioea e a iaeanoiie aaeieieno?aoeee: i?e Iao?a ia ianoao
aicieeee ia nouanoaiaaaoea a XVII a. aoaa?ineea e i?iaeioeeaeueiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, a aianoa n ieie e eo ooaou.

Iaeiaei naia ii naaa /eneaiiinoue aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
aeaaiui i?eciaeii ath?ie?aoe/aneie nooe oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa.
Eiee/anoai ethaeae, caiyouo a oi?aaeaiee, aaaeii eeoue a oii ioiioaiee,
/oi ieieioi eo aeieaeai iaania/eoue aeaenoaea ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu.
Eiee/anoaaiiue iieacaoaeue a ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaia eiaao oaeia aea
cia/aiea, eae /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea,-
aeey yoiai oiaea iaiaoiaeei ieieioi eeoe, o/anoaothueo a i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eeoue iinea aicieeiiaaiey ath?ie?aoee ia/eiaaony aa ?anoe?aiiia
aini?iecaiaenoai.

E naaiaeiy ioaaonoaaiiinoue, e naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo
iieeoe/aneeo, iauanoaaiiuo e oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ieacaeenue
o?acaiiuie, iineieueeo i?aai i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ia?aoei e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi, canaaeathuei a eiieoaoao e iacia/aiiui ?oeiaiaeyuei
i?aaiii ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeee. Aaconeiaii, caeiiii e aeaiie?aoe/ii,
eiaaea, iai?eia?, a aieueieoea ia oieueei a?a/e e aaeieieno?aoeey
iaeaaeatho i?aaii i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey eiioeeeoiuo
neooaoeee; aaconeiaii, ?acoiii, eiaaea ai?iaeneea aeanoe e i?ionithcu
?aniieaaatho aiciiaeiinoueth inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue (a Eaaaaea aeaaea
aieueiua eiatho a eiio?iee?othuai i?aaia naiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey). Ii
eiaaea eiioeeeou iaaeaeo yoeie einoaioeeyie i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi aeaei
ia aeaeaaaony n ianoa, oi iaeeoei iaaaoeaiua noi?iiu neiaeeaoaeny
i?aeoeee.

Naia ii naaa ath?ie?aoey ia yaeyaony ceii. Iia iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
nio?aiaieth nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iaeeea ?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey.
Ii yoi aiciiaeii eeoue i?e oii oneiaee, /oi iia aoaeao niaethaeaoue
aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu e ia?aaeano aeanoue naiaio i?aaenoaaeoaeth,
eca?aiea eioi?iai iaania/eo aio iaiaoiaeeiua iieiiii/ey. Yoi aiciiaeii
oaeaea i?e oii oneiaee, /oi eca?aiiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao auoue
ia?aeca?ai eee niauai eae ii aiea iecia, oae e ii ?aoaieth aunoae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Ioie?aiea yoaoecia a iauanoaa, ninoiyuai ec
?acee/iuo neiaa, iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iiyoaiii. Naaiaeiy iooue
aaia?aoe/aneiai ?acoe?oiiaiey e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee yaeyaony iaeaieaa
aeaenoaaiiui. Eiie?aoiue iiuo Caiaaea (a /anoiinoe, caeii Aeaooa?a ai
O?aioeee) ioe?uaaao ia yoii iooe oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau.

Aeaenoaeoaeueiay oaeia ath?ie?aoee caeeth/aia a oii, /oi iia yaeyaony
nianoaaiie/aneie ei?ii?aoeeae. Iu aeieai aea?aeaeenue iiaiey, aoaeoi
ath?ie?aoey iaie oieueei oi?aaeyao, ii aeaeaao yoi ieioi, iayooaeoeaii.
Oaeoe/anee aea iia ian – anao aeeaoueo a iauanoaa e caiyouo eaeie-eeai
aeayoaeueiinoueth – i?enaaeaaao e aeaeaao yoi ii-naiaio oi?ioi,
ianoa?nee, aeaaea ae?ooicii. Ia?ac ath?ie?aoa annioeee?iaaeny o ian n
iaeie eacaiiie ianeie, iiae eioi?ie eaieai oaaaeeony ia?thcaoaa
/aeiaa/aneia nouanoai, ei anaio ?aaiiaeooiia, aioiaia ooiieoue a
aani?inaaoiie eacoenoeea ethaia aeeaia ia/eiaiea. Aea, oaeay ianea o
iaai anoue, oaeei ii /anoi yaeyaony iai, ii, a nouiinoe, ii – eiaeee,
ecai?ioeeaue, oiaeue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, yia?ae/ii caiyoue naiei aecianii
n iiiiuueth iniauo n?aaenoa e ai eiy iniaiai ?iaea «i?eauee».

Eae ecaanoii, iauanoai aeeaao oieaa?naeueiuie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie e
ethaeae, e aauae; ath?ie?aoey aeeaao i?enaiaieai yoeo acaeiiaeaenoaee –
e oiaea oieaa?naeueiui, iieo/ay io yoiai naie aeaaiua oaeiaieuenoaey. A
iaoa ath?ie?aoey iieo/eea aianoa n ainoaea?noaii iaia?aie/aiiue aeinooi
e oi?aaeaieth yeiiiieeie e eoeueoo?ie, i?iieeioa aoeaaeueii ai ana noa?u
/aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai
«iainoaea?noaeaiey» aei 1985 aiaea (eiaaea ia/aeanue ia?ano?ieea) a
iauanoaa iaeuecy auei iaeoe ianoa, aaea au ie oicyeie/aea ath?ie?aoey.

Oaaaee i ?aiaao

Iniaia ianoi a oi?ie?iaaiee ath?ie?aoee i?eiaaeeaaeeo Oaaaee i ?aiaao
1722 aiaea. 24 yiaa?y 1722 aiaea Iao? I ooaa?aeee Caeii i ii?yaeea
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau a ?inneeneie eiia?ee (/eiu ii noa?oeinoao e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue /eiii?iecaiaenoaa). Iiaeaioiaea yoiai caeiia –
“Oaaaee i ?aiaao” auea ia/aoa aua a 1719 aiaeo e auea anoanoaaiiui
i?iaeieaeaieai ?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a I, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?ie aic?inei eiee/anoai aeieaeiinoae a a?iee e ainoaea?noaaiiii
aiia?aoa. A iniiao “Oaaaee i ?aiaao” auee iieiaeaiu aiaeiae/iua aeou,
oaea nouanoaiaaaoea a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, iniaaiii a Aeaiee e
I?onnee. I?e ?ac?aaioea caeiia auee oaeaea i?eiyou ai aieiaiea /eiu,
oaea nouanoaiaaaoea a ?innee. “Oaaaeue i ?aiaao” iiieii naiie oaaeeoeu
eiaea aua ainaiiaaeoeaoue ioieoia iiyniythuaai oaenoa e onoaiaaeeaathueo
oo?aou ca aa ia?ooaiea. Ana /eiu “Oaaaee i ?aiaao” iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia
o?e oeia: aiaiiua, noaoneea (a?aaeaeaineea) e i?eaeai?iua e aeaeeeenue
ia /aou?iaaeoeaoue eeannia. Eioa?anii, /oi caeii ieeae ia ?acuyniye naii
iiiyoea “/ei”, a neeo /aai iaeie enoi?eee iineaaeiee ?anniao?eaaee
aoeaaeueii e eeoue a nenoaia /eiii?iecaiaenoaa, ae?oaea aea – eae oo eee
eioth aeieaeiinoue. Ia iao acaeyae, “Oaaaeue i ?aiaao” aeeth/aea e oe e
ae?oaea iiiyoey. Iinoaiaiii aeieaeiinoe ec “Oaaaee” eneeth/athony e a
eiioea XVIII aaea en/acatho aiana (Iao?ianeay “Oaaaeue i ?aiaao”
ian/eouaaea 262 aeieaeiinoe). Iao?ianeay “Oaaaeue”, ii?aaeaeyy ianoi a
ea?a?oee ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, a iaeioi?ie noaiaie aeaaaea
aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeiooueny oaeaioeeaui ethaeyi ec iecoeo nineiaee.
“Aeaau oai ioioo iiaeaoue e neoaeaa e iiui /anoue, a ia iaoaeai e
ooiayaeoeai iieo/aoue”- aeaneea iaeia ec iienaoaeueiuo noaoae caeiia.

Aiaiiua /eiu iauyaeyeenue auoa niioaaonoaothueo ei a?aaeaeaineeo e
aeaaea i?eaeai?iuo /eiia. Oaeia noa?oeinoai aeaaaei i?aeiouanoaa aiaiiui
/eiai a aeaaiii – ia?aoiaea a aunoaa aeai?yineia nineiaea. Oaea 14-e
eeann “Oaaaee” (oaiae?ee, n 1730 a. – i?aii?uee) aeaaae i?aai ia
iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai (a a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaa iioiinoaaiiia
aeai?yinoai i?eia?aoaeinue /eiii 8-ai eeanna – eieeaaeneee ananni?, a
/ei eieeaaeneiai ?aaeno?aoi?a – 14-e eeann, aeaaae i?aai eeoue ia ee/iia
aeai?yinoai). Ii Iaieoanoo 11 ethiy 1845 a. iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai
i?eia?aoaeinue n i?iecaiaenoaii a ooaa-ioeoea?neee /ei (8-e eeann).
Aeaoe, ?iaeaeaiiua aei iieo/aiey iooeii iioiinoaaiiiai aeai?yinoaa,
ninoaaeyee iniaoth eaoaai?eth iaa?-ioeoea?neeo aeaoae, i?e/ai iaeiiio ec
ieo ii oiaeaoaenoao iooea iiaei auoue aeaii iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai.
Aeaenaiae? II oeacii io 9 aeaeaa?y 1856 aiaea i?aai iieo/aiey
iioiinoaaiiiai aeai?yinoaa ia?aie/ee iieo/aieai /eia iieeiaieea (6-e
eeann), a ii a?aaeaeaineiio aaaeiinoao – iieo/aieai /eia 4-ai eeanna
(aeaenoaeoaeueiue noaoneee niaaoiee).

I?eiyoea aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeiia, ii?aaeaeyaoaai ii?yaeie
i?ioiaeaeaiey neoaeau e onoaiaaeeaathuaai ea?a?oeth neoaeaaiuo
?ac?yaeia. Oaia?ue i?eioeei caiyoey oie eee eiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeieaeiinoe ii ciaoiinoe caiaiyeny ath?ie?aoe/aneei. I?iaeaeaeaiea ii
neoaeaaiie eanoieoea caaenaei io auneoae, ia?aciaaiey, a a eoiaa, – io
ee/iuo niiniaiinoae aeai?yieia.

A o?ao ?ac?yaeao neoaeau – a?aaeaeaineie, aiaiiie e aeai?oeiaie – ana
aeieaeiinoe ?acaeaeyeenue ia 14 ?aiaia – io 1-ai aunoaai, iai?eia?,
eaioeea?a a a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaa, aei 14-ai iecoaai – eieeaaeneiai
?aaeno?aoi?a. “Oaaaeue i ?aiaao” ioaeaeeea /eiiaiue eeann io iecoae
ath?ie?aoee. I?e Iao?a /eiiaiee oaea n 14 ?aiaa iieo/ae ee/iia, a n 8-ai
(eieeaaeneee ananni?) – iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai. Aeey aiaiiuo
iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue oaea n 14 ?aiaa – iecoaai
ioeoea?neiai /eia i?aii?ueea. Yoi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iaeaieaa
niiniaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi “iiaeeuo” nineiaee i?iaeaaoueny iaaa?o ii
nioeeaeueiie eanoieoea, /oi oe?aieyei ?yaeu aeai?yinoaa.

Ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey yoiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa aeaenoaiaaee caaeieai aei
aa iaia?iaeiaaiey. Oae, i?e iiaeai?a ni?aoieeia Iao? ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny
ia ii?iaeie, a i?eioeeiii neoaeaaiie aiaeiinoe. Iiyaeaiea a ie?oaeaiee
oea?yyoaeeo auaeathueony niiaeaeaeieeia ec eeoe aeaeaei ia ?iaeiaeouo,
eae Iaioeeia, Oaoe?ia, ssaoaeeineee e ae?., ioiineony e eiioeo XVII –
ia//eo XVIII aaea. ?aaiui ia?acii oaeea aeieaeiinoe, eae eaioeea? e
aeoea-eaioeea?, oiaea iiyaeeenue a iaeoiaea ?aiaa 1722 a.- n?aco aea
iinea Iieoaaneie aeeoi?ee.

Cia/aiea Oaaaee i ?aiaao ninoieo a oii, /oi iia i?eaaea a nenoaio e
oieoeoee?iaaea ana /eiu eiia?ee ia anao o?ao iii?euao ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeau: nooiiooiie, aiaiii-ii?neie e a?aaeaeaineie – io i?aii?ueea ia
aiaiiie e eieeaaeneiai ?aaeno?aoi?a ia a?aaeaeaineie aei
aaia?ae-aaeie?aea, oaeueaeia?oaea e eaioeea?a.

Oaaaeue iaycuaaea anao neoaeeoue e iauyaeea neoaeao aaeeinoaaiiui
enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothuaai ?aiaa e aai iineaaeothuaai
iiauoaiey: «Iu aeey oiai ieeiio eaeiai ?aiaa ia iicaieyai, iiea iie iai
e ioa/anoao ieeaeeo oneoa ia iieaaeoo e ca iiua oa?aeoa?u ia iieo/ao».
Ana 14 ?aiaia, ninoaaeythueo Oaaaeue, yaeyeenue nooiaiyie neoaeaaiie
ea?a?oee, ii eioi?ui i?e iaaeeaaeauai ?aaiee e niiniaiinoyo iia
i?iaeaeaaoueny /eiiaiee a ethaie io?anee neoaeau.

Oaaaeue i ?aiaao ioe?uaaea aeinooi a ?yaeu aeai?yinoaa eeoeai «iiaeeiai»
i?ienoiaeaeaiey: aeineoaeeaoeany aei ia?aiai ioeoea?neiai /eia aa
aiaiiie neoaeaa e VIII ?aiaa ia a?aaeaeaineie iieo/aee ianeaaenoaaiiia
aeai?yinoai e ana i?ienoaeaaoea ec yoiai i?eaeeaaee. I?ienoiaeeei
iath?ie?a/eaaiea aeai?yinoaa e iaeai?yieaaiea ath?ie?aoee.

A aiaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aoi?i Iao?a 1 neiaeeeny iiaue iaoaieci
oi?aaeaiey no?aiie. Io i?aaeoanoaothuaai aai ioee/aee aeaa i?eciaea:
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneia ia/aei e ia/aei ath?ie?aoe/aneia. ?aoeeiiaeeci
i?iyaeyeny a /aoeii ?aca?aie/aiee i?aa e iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo
oeaio?aeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie. A iniiao ?aca?aie/aiey aue iieiaeai
io?aneaaie i?eioeei. A ?acoeueoaoa auea nicaeaia no?ieiay nenoaia
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, eiiiaoaioeey eioi?uo ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia anth
no?aio.

I?eeaciay nenoaia, i?aeoe/anee eeoaiiay nenoaiiinoe, auea caiaiaia
eieeaaeaeueiie. Ath?ie?aoe/aneia ia/aei au?aaeaeinue a nicaeaiee
ea?a?oee aaeeiiia?aciuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ?oeiaiaenoaiaaaoeony a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeaiaioaie, eino?oeoeeyie e ianoaaeaieyie.
?aaeaiaioaoeee iiaeaa?aaeanue ia oieueei ?aaioa o/?aaeaeaiee, ii e
eaaeaeue oaa aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaii auei e aeaeaeaiea
aoiaa, aeieoiaioia.

Oea?ue a ioi?ieaoaeny aaniethoenoneie nenoaia iieueciaaeny
iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoueth. Any /eiiaiay ?aoue io eiieenoa aei aaeueiiaee
iaoiaeeeanue a caaeneiinoe io iiia?oa. Yoo caaeneiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeoanoaothuei a?aiaiai oneeeaaee ia?aaiae /eiiaieeia n iaoo?aeueiiai
ia aeaiaaeiia niaea?aeaiea e aaaaeaiea iiaiai e?eoa?ey neoaeaaiie
aiaeiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy yoa ?aoue i?eia?aea aieueooth, /ai ?aiueoa,
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, a neeo oao naiuo ?aaeaiaioia, onoaaia e
ianoaaeaiee, eioi?ua n oaeei ona?aeeai ?ac?aaaouaae Iao?. Ath?ie?aoey
iaoiaeeeanue a caaeneiinoe io oea?y, ii e oea?ue eniuouaae ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ath?ie?aoee, iineieueeo iia aeieaeia auea auiieiyoue aai aieth,
i/a?/aiioth oeacaie.

Eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa aeieaeai aue
naanoe iacaaeneiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia aei ieieioia. Aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee, ieacaaoaeny yoaia?iie, Iao? nicaeae aeaa
einoeoooa eiio?iey – oeneaeueioth neoaeao e i?ieo?aoo?o. Aeaeaee iie
iauaa aeaei – eiio?iee?iaaee ath?ie?aoe/aneee aiia?ao, ii ?aciuie
n?aaenoaaie: i?ieo?i?neee iaaeci? inouanoaeyeny a noaiao eaioeaey?ee,
oeneaeueiue – i?aeiouanoaaiii ca eo i?aaeaeaie. Ioee/ea, aeaeaa,
ninoiyei e a oi?iao eiiieaeoiaaiey einoeoooia: anee i?ieo?aoo?a
yaeyeanue iieiinoueth ath?ie?aoe/aneei o/?aaeaeaieai, aaeainee a eioi?ii
caiieiyeenue iacia/aiiuie oea?ai /eiiaieeaie, oi a iecoai caaia
oeneaeueiiai iaaeci?a eiiaaea i?ineaaeeaaaony auai?iia ia/aei, eiaaea
?a/ue oea i oeneaeao io iinaaeneiai ianaeaiey. Eiio?iee?othuea ooieoeee
eiaee ia?aie/aiiia cia/aiea. Eia/a e ia iiaei auoue a ainoaea?noaa n
iiia?oe/aneei no?iai, aaea ia ia?iae, a ath?ie?aoey i?aaeea e naay aea
eiio?iee?iaaea.

Iiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yyeyeanue oaaii aia?aae a ainoaea?noaaiiii
no?ieoaeuenoaa: iia caiaieea a?oae/ioth i?eeacioth nenoaio, yaeyynue
iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia aa?iiaecaoeee ?innee, e, iaeiiaoe, a
oneiaeyo oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaiii?yaeea iieiaeeea ia/aei caeiiiinoe.

Aeaaay iauoth iieiaeeoaeueioth ioeaieo aaeieieno?aoeaiui iiaoanoaai, ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue e ia eo iaaaoeaiuo noi?iiao. Oae, oieoeeaoeey
oi?aaeaiey oie/oiaeaea iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe ia ie?aeiao
ainoaea?noaa (Aeii) e eaii?e?iaaea niaoeeoeeo oi?aaeaiey oa??eoi?eyie,
ianaeaiiuie ia?onneeie ia?iaeaie. I?eia? ec ae?oaie noa?u: i?e Iao?a
ee/iinoiia ia/aei i?eia?aei eiioeuenu aeey naiaai ?acaeoey, e a oi aea
a?aiy e?aiinoie/aneee ?aaeei aacaeaeinoii iiaeaaeye yoi aea ee/iinoiia
ia/aei o iiiaiieeeeiiiie iannu e?anoueyi.

Noieue aea iaiaeiicia/iie aeieaeia auoue ioeaiea neeaaeuaaaoaeny i?e
Iao?a ath?ie?aoee. Aac ath?ie?aoee ia iiaei nouanoaiaaoue ie iaeii
ainoaea?noai iiaiai a?aiaie, eaeoth au oi?io i?aaeaiey iii ie eiaei.
Iaee/ea ath?ie?aoee, eae i oii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao enoi?e/aneee iiuo
?innee XVIII a., aeaaea a aiaeu aaca?aiaiuey, eiaaea o?ii caieiaee na?ua
ee/iinoe, eeoaiiua eieoeeaoeau e niiniaiinoae e ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iicaieyei no?aia a neeo eia?oeee aeaeaaoueny aia?aae,
i?aaaea, iaaeeaiiaa, aac i?aaeiaai aeanea, ii a ?aiaa caaeaiiii
iai?aaeaiee.

Nouanoaiaaiea ath?ie?aoee aua ia icia/aei aaniethoiiai cea. Aanue aii?in
– a eaeie ia?a ath?ie?aoee oaeaeinue iainiaeoueny io inoaeueiiai
iauanoaa, ia?anoe iacaaeneiinoue io iaai e a eaeie ia?a aa
aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeaa?aaeanue eiio?ieth ni noi?iiu iauanoaa. Ioaeaaeei
aeieaeiia Iao?o Aaeeeiio – ii iiieiae iaee/ea ecuyiia, i?enoueo
ath?ie?aoee, e iuoaeny i?aiaeieaoue eo, iaeiaei iieueciaaeny
n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ua ia iiaee i?eianoe iaeeaeaaiiai yooaeoa:
ath?ie?aoeth ii eiio?iee?iaae ath?ie?aoe/aneeie aea n?aaenoaaie.

O?aaeeoeeiiii i?e aiaeeca e ioeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a iai
iaia?oaeeaaaony e ioia/aaony iaee/ea ath?ie?aoecia. I?iyaeaiey
iineaaeiaai noaee /ooue ee ia iaoeeiiaeueiie /a?oie ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. I ath?ie?aoecia ieeieaaaneie ?innee ?acei
ienae ia?eec A. aea Ethnoei (1839 a.). Iicaeiaa, a iinea?aoi?iaiiue
ia?eiae (1882 a.) ?.A. Oaaeaaa eiinoaoe?oao, /oi “enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea,
au?aceaoaany o eaaeaeiai aa?iiaeneiai ia?iaea ?aciiia?aciuie oi?iaie
iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, iiaeiuaii a ?innee aaeeinoaaiiith e
eneeth/eoaeueiith oi?iith – ?acaeoeai ath?ie?aoe/aneie iiaee aei
e?aeiaai i?aaeaea, o.a. iaoaie/aneei ioiioaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e oaeouae
ia?iaeiie aeecie e iaiai?io”. A 1905 aiaeo E.A. Oeoiie?ia iacaae
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoee ni?ieaeaoiee ia?eiae “ath?ie?aoe/aneie oco?iaoeeae” e
iiae/a?eioe, /oi “i?e aacia?iii eiee/anoaa “aeae” anai?iieeathuaai
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai no?iy, oi?acaeiythuaai naiinoiyoaeueioth ?aaioo
a?aaeaeai e iaoeee, niciaoaeueiia o/anoea ai anao yoeo ieeeeiiao aeae
oaeoe/anee niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aa?oiaiay
aeanoue ia iiaeao ie ciaoue, ie ianoaeeoue, ie i?iaa?eoue ii/oe ie/aai.
Iiyoiio aa oi?aaeoaeueiay ?ieue aeaeaaony eeoue eaaeouaeny. Iiaeiuaiiay
aea ee/ii a yoe ieeeeiiu iaeeeo oi?aaeoaeueiuo aeae, iia ia eiaao
aiciiaeiinoe eo eiio?iee?iaaoue. A ?acoeueoaoa – aaeeinoaaiiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeanoueth no?aiu yaeyaony eaioeaey?ey.

Caeeth/aiea

Nicaeaiea /eiiaiie ath?ie?aoee, nicaeaiea iaoaiecia th?eaee/anee
?ac?aaioaiiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa yaeyaony
auaeathuaeny caneoaie Iao?a I.

?aoi?ia nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, i?aaei?eiyoay Iao?ii 1,
aucuaaeanue ?yaeii i?e/ei. O?aaiaaeinue nicaeaiea iiaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ioaa/aaoaai aeooo a?aiaie e niiniaiiai
yooaeoeaii inouanoaeyoue ?oeiaiaenoai iiaea?iece?othuainy iauanoaii.
Iao? I no?aieeny ooaa?aeeoue e cae?aieoue naith aaniethoioth aeanoue.
Aeey aiieiuaiey “aunoae aiee” iiia?oa auea iaiaoiaeeia niaa?oaiiay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoeia.

A eiioea 17 – ia/aea 18 aaea a Aa?iia e caoai a ?innee ooaa?aeeeenue
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa, niaeanii
eioi?ui ia Aia, a ?acoi /aeiaaea yaeyeny enoi/ieeii ciaiee e ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. A eoiaa “aeoo a?aiaie” oaeaea iiaeoaeeeaae e nicaeaieth iiauo
o/?aaeaeaiee aeanoe. Iao? iaaeayeny, /oi n ooaa?aeaeaieai ?aoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e ecaeaieai ?acoiiuo caeiiia ii nicaeano “?aaoey?iia
ainoaea?noai”, a eioi?ii oieueei e aiciiaeii aeinoeaeaiea “iauaai
aeaaa”. Yoei iauyniyaony aeoeaiia caeiiioai?/anoai Iao?a, ia
aeiaa?yaoaai naiei iiaeaeaiiui e no?aieaoaainy ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue
i?aeoe/anee ana noa?u eo aeecie, aeeth/ay e ee/ioth.

A oiaea iaeanoiie ?aoi?iu 1708-1710 aa. no?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia 8
aoaa?iee (iicaea – 11) ai aeaaa n aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?aie e aoaa?iaoi?aie,
iacia/aaoeieny oea?ai ec /enea iniai aeiaa?aiiuo eeoe. Aoaa?iaoi?u
nin?aaeioi/eee a naieo ?oeao aunoea aiaiiua e a?aaeaeaineea ooieoeee e
anth iieiioo noaeaaiie aeanoe ia ianoao. A iiae/eiaiee aoaa?iaoi?ia
iaoiaeeeinue iaa?-eiiaiaeaio (aiaiiia aaaeiinoai), iaa?-eiienna? e
iaa?-i?iaeaioiaenoa? (aeaiaaeiua e oeaaiua nai?u), eaiae?eooa?
(noaeaaiua aeaea). E aoaa?ieyi i?eienuaaeenue iieee, eioi?ua iie
niaea?aeaee ca naie n/ao.

N 1719 a. aoaa?iee noaee aeaeeoueny ia 50 i?iaeioeee, a iineaaeiea- ia
oacaeu. N oi?ie?iaaieai eieeaaee ?aoi?ia iieo/eea naia caaa?oaiea, o.e.
ana ianoiua i?aaiu noaee iiae/eiyoueny niioaaonoaothuei eieeaaeyi.
?aoi?ia i?eaaea e ?aceiio ?inoo ianoiiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa.

Iniaia ianoi a oi?ie?iaaiee ath?ie?aoee i?eiaaeeaaeeo Oaaaee i ?aiaao
1722 aiaea. Cia/aiea Oaaaee i ?aiaao ninoieo a oii, /oi iia i?eaaea a
nenoaio e oieoeoee?iaaea ana /eiu eiia?ee ia anao o?ao iii?euao
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau: nooiiooiie, aiaiii-ii?neie e a?aaeaeaineie –
io i?aii?ueea ia aiaiiie e eieeaaeneiai ?aaeno?aoi?a ia a?aaeaeaineie
aei aaia?ae-aaeie?aea, oaeueaeia?oaea e eaioeea?a.

Oaaaeue iaycuaaea anao neoaeeoue e iauyaeea neoaeao aaeeinoaaiiui
enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothuaai ?aiaa e aai iineaaeothuaai
iiauoaiey: «Iu aeey oiai ieeiio eaeiai ?aiaa ia iicaieyai, iiea iie iai
e ioa/anoao ieeaeeo oneoa ia iieaaeoo e ca iiua oa?aeoa?u ia iieo/ao».
Ana 14 ?aiaia, ninoaaeythueo Oaaaeue, yaeyeenue nooiaiyie neoaeaaiie
ea?a?oee, ii eioi?ui i?e iaaeeaaeauai ?aaiee e niiniaiinoyo iia
i?iaeaeaaoueny /eiiaiee a ethaie io?anee neoaeau.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aoaeeia A., Eaaaaea TH., Enaeinii O., Naaeia E. Ath?ie?aoeci e
ath?ie?aoey: iaiaoiaeeiinoue ooi/iaiee // Eiiioieno. 1988. ? 12.

2. Aiae?aaa N.TH. Iaoa i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa, aoaeouaa: no?oeoo?a aeanoe e
caaea/e iauanoaa // Iinoeaeaiea. Nioeeieiaey. Nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea.
Yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia. I., 1989.

3. Ieee?aiei A.I. Ath?ie?aoey e noaeeieci. ?inoia, 1989.

4. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia. Aaaaeaiea //?inneeneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai O-XX aa.: O. 5. I., 1986. N. 140-149.

5. A?eeia? A. A. Enoi?ey Iao?a Aaeeeiai: A 2 o. O. 2. — I.: OA??A, 1996.
C.201

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