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А.Д. Сахаров

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IEAI

No?.

1. Aaaaeaiea 2

2. Aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea 2

3. A.Ae. Naoa?ia “Ca aacuyaea?iue ie?, ca auaeeaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa” 7

3.1. Ioiioaiea Naoa?iaa e yaea?iie yia?aaoeea. “Ioaoe aiaei?iaeiie
aiiau”. 7

3.2. Eeaea? i?aaicaueoie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey 12

3.3. Iaecaaaeiinoue ia?ano?ieee 13

4. Aunooieaiea ia Ia?aii nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia 14

4.1. Nuacae ia iiaeao naeaeaoue ana n?aco 14

4.2. I?iaeo Eiinoeoooeee Nithca Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee Aa?iiu e Acee 16

5. I?aanoaaiiue i?eia? 18

Caeeth/aiea 19

Eeoa?aoo?a 22

1. Aaaaeaiea.

Aiae?ay Aeieo?eaae/a Naoa?iaa ciatho eae e?oiiaeoaai o/aiue
nia?aiaiiinoe, eae aaoi?a auaeathueony ?aaio ii oeceea yeaiaioa?iuo
/anoeoe e einiieiaee. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo iniiaiay eaeay inouanoaeaiey
oa?iiyaea?iiai neioaca. Aai iuneue i ianoaaeeueiinoe i?ioiia iiia/aeo
eacaeanue ia?aaeueiie, ii /a?ac ianeieueei eao ie?iaay iaoea
i?iaicaeaneea iienee ?aniaaea i?ioiia “yenia?eiaioii aaea”. A ?aaiie
ia?a i?eaeiaeueiua eaeae ii auaeaeioe eo a einiieiaee, aea?cioa
i?iieeiooue a ?aiithth enoi?eth Anaeaiiie.

Oaeaea aanue ie? ciaao A. Ae. Naoa?iaa eae auaeathuaainy iauanoaaiiiai
Aaeayoaey, aanno?aoiiai ai?oea ca i?aaa /aeiaaea, ca ooaa?aeaeaiea ia
Caiea i?eiaoa iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae. Iiiai nee ioiyei o iaai
Aiieeoe/aneia i?ioeainoiyiea. *aeiaae aeoaieeo aoiaienoe/aneeo
oaaaeaeaiee, aunieeo i?aanoaaiiuo i?eioeeiia, A. Ae. Naoa?ia anaaaea
Ainoaaaeny ene?aiiei e /anoiui.

AEeciue A.Ae.Naoa?iaa – oieeaeueiue i?eia? aaccaaaoiiai neoaeaiey
/aeiaaeo e /aeiaa/anoao.

2. Aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea

Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ Naoa?ia, anaie?ii ecaanoiue o/aiue e iauanoaaiiue
aeayoaeue, ?iaeeeny 21 iay 1921 aiaea a Iineaa. Aai ?iaeeoaee- Naoa?iaa
Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia e Naoa?ia Aeieo?ee Eaaiiae/, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue
oeceee, aaoi? ?yaea o/aaieeia e caaea/ieeia ii oeceea, a oaeaea iiiaeo
iao/ii-iiioey?iuo eiea. Aiineaaenoaee Aeieo?ee Eaaiiae/ aue aeioeaioii
eaoaae?u iauae oeceee ia oece/aneii oaeoeueoaoa Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaaeaaiae/aneiai einoeoooa eiaie Eaieia.

A 1938 aiaeo iinooiee ia oece/aneee oaeoeueoao IAO. A 1941 aiaeo, iinea
ia/aea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, i?ecuaaeny, iaeiaei ia i?ioae
iaaeeoeeineoth eiienneth e yaaeoe?iaaeny aianoa n IAO a Aooaaaae, aaea a
1942 aiaeo ieii/ee n ioee/eai oece/aneee oaeoeueoao. Aio auei
i?aaeeiaeaii inoaoueny ia eaoaae?a e i?iaeieaeaoue naia ia?aciaaiea.
Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ ioeacaeny io yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey e aue iai?aaeai
Ia?eiiaoii aii?oaeaiee ?aaioaoue a Oeueyiiane ia iai?iiiue caaiae. A
aiaeu aieiu Aiae?aai Aeieo?eaae/ai auee naeaeaiu ecia?aoaiey e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey ii eiio?ieth ea/anoaa a?iiaaieiuo iao?iiia.
I?aaeeiaeaiiue ei iaoiae eiio?iey aioae a o/aaiee iiae iacaaieai “Iaoiae
Naoa?iaa” .

?aaioay eiaeaia?ii, A.Ae.Naoa?ia oaeaea naiinoiyoaeueii caieiaeny
iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e a 1944-1945 aiaeao auiieiee ianeieueei
iao/iuo ?aaio.A yiaa?a 1945 aiaea iinooiee a anie?aioo?o Oece/aneiai
einoeoooa AI NNN? (OEAI), aaea aai iao/iui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aue aeaaeaiee
E. A. Oaii. Ieii/ee anie?aioo?o, caueoea eaiaeeaeaoneoth aeenna?oaoeeth
a iiya?a 1947 aiaea, e aei ia?oa 1950 aiaea ?aaioae a aeieaeiinoe
ieaaeoaai iao/iiai nio?oaeieea. A ethea 1948 aiaea iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa
Ieieno?ia NNN? aue i?eaea/ai e ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth oa?iiyaea?iiai
i?oaeey.

Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ ia/ae enneaaeiaaiey ii yaea?iie i?iaeaia i?ioea
naiaai aeaeaiey. Iicaeiaa, oaea aieaey a ?aaioo, ii i?eoae e iiaieth,
/oi yoie i?iaeaiie ioaeii auei caieiaoueny. A NOA oaea aianth aaeenue
aiaeiae/iua enneaaeiaaiey, e A. Ae. Naoa?ia n/eoae, /oi iaeuecy
aeiioneaoue iieiaeaiey, i?e eioi?ii NOA noaee au iiiiiieueiui
iaeaaeaoaeai oa?iiyaea?iiai i?oaeey. A yoii neo/aa noaaeeueiinoue ie?a
auea au iinoaaeaia iiae oa?ico.

I?iaeaia nicaeaiey niaaoneiai oa?iiyaea?iiai i?oaeey auea oniaoii
?aoaia, e A. Ae. Naoa?iao i?eiaaeeaaeeo auaeathuayny ?ieue a nicaeaiee
oa?iiyaea?iiai iiaouanoaa NNN?. Ii caieiae ?yae ?oeiaiaeyueo
aeieaeiinoae – iineaaeiea aiaeu aeieaeiinoue caianoeoaey iao/iiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey niaoeeaeueiiai einoeoooa. ?aaioay iaae nicaeaieai
oa?iiyaea?iiai i?oaeey, A. Ae. Naoa?ia iaeiia?aiaiii auaeaeioe e
?ac?aaioae niaianoii ni naiei o/eoaeai E. A. Oaiiii eaeath
eniieueciaaiey oa?iiyaea?iie yia?aee a ie?iuo oeaeyo. A 1950 aiaeo A.
Ae. Naoa?ia e E. A. Oaii ?anniio?aee eaeath iaaieoiiai oa?iiyaea?iiai
?aaeoi?a, eioi?ay eaaea a iniiao ?aaio a NNN? ii oi?aaeyaiiio
oa?iiyaea?iiio neioaco.

A.Ae.Naoa?iao o?eaeaeu (a 1953, 1956 e 1962 aiaeao) auei i?enaiaii
caaiea Aa?iy Nioeeaeenoe/aneiai O?oaea, a 1953 aiaeo aio auea
i?enoaeaeaia Ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aiey NNN?, a a 1956 aiaeo – Eaieineay
i?aiey. A 1953 aiaeo ii aue eca?ai aeaenoaeoaeueiui /eaiii Aeaaeaiee
iaoe NNN?. Aio oiaaea auei 32 aiaea. Iaei eoi aue eca?ai aeaaeaieeii oae
?aii. Aiineaaenoaee A.Ae.Naoa?ia aue eca?ai /eaiii ?yaea ca?oaaaeiuo
aeaaeaiee. Ii oaeaea yaeyaony ii/aoiui aeieoi?ii iiiaeo oieaa?neoaoia.

?aaioay iaae nicaeaieai aiaei?iaeiiai i?oaeey, A. Ae. Naoa?ia aianoa n
oai iniciae aaeeeoth iianiinoue, eioi?ay oa?iaeaao /aeiaa/anoao e anaio
aeeaiio ia Caiea a neo/aa, anee yoi i?oaeea aoaeao iouaii a oiae.
Iianiinoue aeey /aeiaa/anoaa i?aaenoaaeyee aeaaea eniuoaoaeueiua ac?uau
yaea?iiai i?oaeey, eioi?ua oiaaea i?iaiaeeeenue a aoiinoa?a, ia
iiaa?oiinoe caiee e a aiaea. Iai?eia?, aoiinoa?iua ac?uau i?eaiaeeee e
ca?aaeaieth aoiinoa?u e e auiaaeaieth ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia ia
aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo io ianoa eniuoaiee. A 1957-1963 aiaeao A. Ae.
Naoa?ia aeoeaii aunooiae i?ioea eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey a aoiinoa?a,
a aiaea e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee. Ii yaeeny iaeiei ec eieoeeaoi?ia
Iineianeiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?a i cai?auaiee yaea?iuo eniuoaiee
a o?ao n?aaeao.

A ia/aea 70o aiaeia n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a iaoae no?aia ia/aee
ianne?iaaiioth eaiiaieth i?ioea A. Ae. Naoa?iaa. Aai auneacuaaiey
eneaaeaeenue, i iai e i aai aeaia ioaeeeiaaeenue eeaaaoie/aneea
iaoa?eaeu. Ianiio?y ia yoi, A. Ae. Naoa?ia i?iaeieaeae naith
iauanoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. A 1975 aiaeo ii iaienae eieao “I no?aia e
ie?a”. A oii aea aiaeo aio auea i?enoaeaeaia Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey ie?a. A
iiaaeaaneie eaeoeee “Ie?, i?ia?ann, i?aaa /aeiaaea”, eceaaay naie
acaeyaeu, ii ioiaoee, /oi “aaeeinoaaiiie aa?aioeae ie?a ia Caiea iiaeao
auoue oieueei niaethaeaiea i?aa /aeiaaea a eaaeaeie no?aia”.
I?enoaeaeaiea A. Ae. Naoa?iao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ie?a nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
iiaie aieiie aeaceioi?iaoeee e eeaaaou ii aai aae?ano.

A 1979 aiaeo, n?aco aea iinea aaiaea aiene a Aoaaienoai, A. Ae. Naoa?ia
aunooiee n cayaeaieai i?ioea yoiai oaaa, cayaea, /oi yoi- o?aae/aneay
ioeaea. Anei?a iinea yoiai ii aue eeoai anao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iaa?aae
e 22 yiaa?y oiai aea aiaea auneai aac noaea a ai?iae Ai?ueeee. A nnueea
ii i?iaue 7 eao aac ianeieueeeo aeiae. Aeinooi e iaio a yoe aiaeu aue
naaaeai e ieieioio, ii aue eciee?iaai io niaaoneie e ie?iaie
iauanoaaiiinoe. Ca a?aiy ai?ueeianeie nnueee A. Ae. Naoa?ia i?iaae o?e
aieiaeiaee, e iaio i?eiaiyeenue ia?u oece/aneiai aicaeaenoaey, ai a?aiy
aieiaeiaie ii aue eciee?iaai aeaaea io aeaiu. Ianiio?y ia eieinnaeueiua
o?oaeiinoe, A. Ae. Naoa?ia e a Ai?ueeii i?iaeieaeae naie iao/iua
enneaaeiaaiey e iauanoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii ieoao cayaeaiey a
caueoo iieeoe/aneeo caeeth/aiiuo a NNN?, noaouee i i?iaeaiao
?aci?oaeaiey, i iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo.

A aeaeaa?a 1986 aiaea A. Ae. Naoa?ia aica?auaaony a Iineao. Ii aunooiaao
ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oi?oia “Ca aacuyaea?iue ie?, ca auaeeaaiea
/aeiaa/anoaa”, aaea i?aaeeaaaao ?yae ia? a iaeanoe ?aci?oaeaiey,
eiathueo oeaeueth i?iaeaeiooue aia?aae ia?aaiai?u n NOA (yoe
i?aaeeiaeaiey auee inouanoaeaiu, /oi iicaieeei caeeth/eoue niaeaoaiea n
NOA ia oie/oiaeaiee ?aeao n?aaeiae e iaiueoae aeaeueiinoe). Ii
i?aaeeaaaao oaeaea eiie?aoiua oaae a iaeanoe nie?auaiey a?iee a NNN?,
aeaenoaaiiua ia?u ii iaania/aieth aaciianiinoe aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee.
Caoai A. Ae. Naoa?ia ?aaioaao a Oece/aneii einoeoooa ei. I. I. Eaaaaeaaa
AI NNN? a aeieaeiinoe aeaaiiai iao/iiai nio?oaeieea. Ii eca?ai /eaiii
I?aceaeeoia AI NNN?, i?iaeieaeaao aeoeaiia o/anoea a iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. Inaiueth 1988 aiaea ec Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? A. Ae. Naoa?iao
niiaueee, /oi ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in i aica?auaiee aio
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iaa?aae, eioi?uo ii aue eeoai a 1980 aiaeo. A. Ae.
Naoa?ia ioeacaeny io yoiai aei inaiaiaeaeaiey e iieiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee
anao oao, eoi aue inoaeaeai ca naie oaaaeaeaiey a 70o e 80o aiaeao. Ii
aue eca?ai ii/aoiui i?aaenaaeaoaeai iauanoaaiiiai niaaoa ananithciiai
iauanoaa “Iaii?eae”.

Aai iauanoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue auea iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau
ia?ano?ieea i?iaiaeeeanue aeoeaii e iineaaeiaaoaeueii, aac i?iiaaeeaiey,
e /oiau iia noaea iaia?aoeiie. A 1989 aiaeo, iinea aani?aoeaaeaioiie ii
aeeeoaeueiinoe e iaeaeo ai?ueau ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee, A. Ae. Naoa?ia
noae ia?iaeiui aeaiooaoii NNN? io AI NNN?. Ii aue iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae
e nii?aaenaaeaoaeae naiie e?oiiie ia?eaiaioneie a?oiiu-
iaae?aaeiiaeueiie aeaiooaoneie a?oiiu, iauaaeeiythuae iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo,
i?ia?anneaii iano?iaiiuo aeaiooaoia. Aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii neacaoue,
/oi a ?acoeueoaoa naiae ia?eaiaioneie aeayoaeueiinoe ii noae iaeiie ec
aeaaiuo iieeoe/aneeo oeao? iaoae no?aiu. A iineaaeiea ianyoeu aeecie ei
iiaeaioiaeai i?iaeo iiaie Eiinoeoooeee NNN?, aace?othuaeny ia i?eioeeiao
aeaiie?aoee, oaaaeaiey i?aa /aeiaaea, noaa?aieoaoa iaoeee e ia?iaeia. A
.Ae. Naoa?ia – aaoi? iiiaeo niaeuo iieeoe/aneeo eaeae, ia?aaeei
iia?aaeaaoeo naia a?aiy, a caoai caaiaauaaaoeo ana aieueoaa i?eciaiea.

Naoa?ia neii/aeny 14 aeaeaa?y 1990 a., iinea iai?yaeaiiiai aeiy ?aaiou
ia Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia. I?inoeoueny n aaeeeei /aeiaaeii i?eoee
nioie ouny/ ethaeae.

3. A.Ae. Naoa?ia “Ca aacuyaea?iue ie?, ca auaeeaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa”

3.1. Ioiioaiea Naoa?iaa e yaea?iie yia?aaoeea.

“Ioaoe aiaei?iaeiie aiiau”.

22 ethey 1968 aiaea “Iueth-Ei?e Oaein” iioaeeeiaaea ia?aaiae Naoa?ianeeo
“?aciuoeaiee i i?ia?anna, ie?iii ninouanoaiaaiee e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
naiaiaea” – o?e iieiua aacaoiua no?aieoeu. A oio aeaiue niaaoneee oecee,
iaecaanoiue ia Caiaaea, noae ie?iaie ciaiaieoinoueth.

N oao ii? ii oaea ieeiaaea ia aeaeae naiaai nae?aoiiai einoeoooa, a
/a?ac ianeieueei eao oecee-oai?aoee, naeaeaaoee aeey aiaiiie iiue NNN?
aieueoa /ai eoi-eeai ec aai eieeaa, i?aa?aoeeny /ooue ee ia a aeaaiiai
i?ioeaieea niaaoneiai ?aaeeia e caueoieea i?aa /aeiaaea.

Iauanoaaiiay yaiethoeey Naoa?iaa i?ienoiaeeea ia i?inoi a oiaea aai
?aciuoeaiee. ?aaioay aaeece aa?oeiu aiaiii-iao/iie ie?aieaeu, ii a?ae ia
naay i?ioanneiiaeueioth e ee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iineaaenoaey naiae
?aaiou. A 1958 aiaeo ii acye ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?ae?auaiey
yaea?iuo eniuoaiee a aoiinoa?a. Ii iiaen/eoae, /oi aeaaea a naiii
aaciianiii – “/enoii” – aa?eaioa eaaeaeay iaaaoiiia ac?uaa ia?aeaao ia
aeaaeue aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aea?oa – 6600 /aeiaae. Aai ieneieueei
ia ooaoaei, /oi aea?oau yoe i?eioeeieaeueii aiiieiiu, e /oi naii
aea?oaii?eiioaiea ?anoyiaony ia ianeieueei ouny/ eao (iiea ia
?aniaaeaony ia?aciaaiiue i?e ac?uaa ?aaeeiaeoeaiue oaea?iae).

Oi auea i?ioanneiiaeueiay i?iaeaia, iaeiaei aai eieeaaai ii iaa noi?iiu
ie?iaie aa??eeaaeu ieacaeenue iaiinoeaeeiu “ii?aeueiua e iieeoe/aneea
auaiaeu ec oeeo?”, eioi?ua ii naeaeae. A oie yiiiaa auee o iaai e
ii?aaeaiey, auea e iiaaaea, eioi?ie ii ai?aeeeny, – aeiaiai? 1963 aiaea
i i?ae?auaiee iaaecaiiuo eniuoaiee.

Iiiaaeiaeeenue aiaeu aeeciaiiiai iiuoa, /oiau oaaaeeoueny, neieueei a
niaaoneeo naaoeuo eaeaaeao niaea?aeaeinue niaeoeyoeee e iaiaia. Oiaaea
ii noae aeoiaoue, /oi ana i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaeii ae?oaiai noiyo e anai
ia?iaeai oa?iaeatho iauea iianiinoe. E, iaeiiaoe, oaea i?ioeainoiy
niaaoneiio ?aaeeio, i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi noiaenoai caeanue ia aieueoa,
/ai iaaeaeo ?aeiaie e ii?iaeueiie eeaoeie, a eaea?noai io nioeeaeueiiai
?aea iaoae a caueoa i?aa /aeiaaea.

A “Ainiiieiaieyo” Naoa?ia ?anneacuaaao i oii, /oi i?aaeoanoaiaaei
aeaaiiio iiai?ioo a aai iauanoaaiiie aeia?aoee, eiaaea ii noieue
aucuaathua ia?ooee “i?aaeea oi?ioaai oiia” a 1968 aiaeo. Ii ?anneac yoio
inoaaeyao eaeia-oi /oanoai iaoaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Io, a naiii aeaea. I?eoae e iaio ciaeiiue aeo?iaeeno e i?aaeeiaeee
iaienaoue niaianoioth noaoueth “i ?iee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe eioaeeeaaioeee
a nia?aiaiiii ie?a”. Naoa?ia niaeaneeny, iaeiaei oi, /oi ii iaienae,
iaioaaei ?aaeaeoeeth naiae ?aaeeeaeueiinoueth. Iio?aaiaaeinue “aeia?i”
naa?oo. Ii iineae ?oeiienue Noneiao e iieo/ee io?eoeaoaeueiue ioaao.

E /oi aea aeaaeaiee e o?eaeaeu aa?ie? Ioaeae ?oeiienue aeo?iaeenoo e
“caaue iai anai yoii aeaea.”

Eae-oi i/aiue oae eaaeiaanii. Iaei iioiaea ia Naoa?ianeoth
iaoe?ioeiinoue – ionoue e iyaeoth aiaoia, ca eioi?ie c?eoaee Ia?aiai
nuacaea Ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia neaaeeee n caie?aieai/ainoi?aii
/aiciouaieai.

E nianai ia ni/aoaaony yoio ?anneac n ia/aeii aeaau “Ia?aae iiai?ioii”
ec Naoa?ianeeo “Ainiiieiaiee”. Oai ii ieoao i naieo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
caaioao oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea ii aeieao neoaeau ii o/anoaiaae a
ianoaeaeaieyo oiaaeaoiae aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneie neooaoeee:

“. . .oiai, /oi i?eoeinue ociaoue, auei aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau n
iniaaiiie ino?ioie ii/oanoaiaaoue aanue oaean e ?aaeueiinoue aieueoie
oa?iiyaea?iie aieiu, iaua/aeiaa/aneia aacoiea e iianiinoue,
oa?iaeathuoth anai iai ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Ia no?aieoeao io/aoia, ia
niaauaieyo ii i?iaeaiai enneaaeiaaiey iia?aoeee, a oii /enea iia?aoeee
no?aoaae/aneiai oa?iiyaea?iiai oaea?a ii i?aaeiieaaaaiiio i?ioeaieeo, ia
noaiao e ea?oao iaiuneeiia e /oaeiaeuiia noaiiaeeinue i?aaeiaoii
aeaoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey e ?an/aoia, noaiiaeeinue auoii – iiea aua
aiia?aaeaaiui, ii oaea ?anniao?eaaaiui eae ia/oi aiciiaeiia. ss ia iia
ia aeoiaoue ia yoii. . .”

Iiaui, ai?y/ei yeaiaioii oao ianoaeaeaiee noae aii?in i?ioeai?aeaoiie
iai?iiu (I?I) – ?aeaoiuo nenoai, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo oie/oiaeaoue
aoaeothuea aaeeenoe/aneea ?aeaou i?ioeaieea. Ianiio?y ia
“iai?iieoaeueiia” cao/aiea I?I, Naoa?ia i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi nicaeaiea
oaeie iai?iiu /?acau/aeii iianii. Iiaay aiiea
iai?iieoaeueii-ianooiaoaeueiuo aii?oaeaiee iiaei?aaea au aeaenoaaiiinoue
i?aaeiaai no?aaea ie?a – Acaeiiia Aa?aioe?iaaiiia Oie/oiaeaiea. Oioue
yoio no?aae e auaeyaeeo aeiaieueii aacoiii, ii eo/oa oaeie, /ai ieeaeie.

21 ethey 1967a. Naoa?iaui auei iaienaii ienueii a OeE. Yoi aieueoia
iineaiea. Iii aeeth/aao a naay 9-no?aie/iia ienueii n a?eoii “Nae?aoii”
e 10-no?aie/ioth ?oeiienue noaouee, iiaeaioiaeaiiie “niaianoii n
ecaanoiui ioaeeoeenoii Y.Aai?e” aeey iioaeeeiaaiey a “Eeoa?aoo?iie
aacaoa”.

Oaia ienueia – ii?aoi?ee I?I, i?aaeeiaeaiiue iacaaeieai aei oiai
aia?eeaineei i?aceaeaioii Eeiaeiiii Aeaeiiniiii e ieieno? iai?iiu
?iaa?oii Iaeiaia?ie. ?a/ue oea i aeaonoi?iiiai ioeaca NOA e NNN? io
nicaeaiey i?ioeai?aeaoiie iai?iiu i?ioea ianne?iaaiiiai iaiaaeaiey (i?e
nio?aiaiee ?aaio ii caueoa io aaeeie/iuo ?aeao, caiouaiiuo i?iaieaoi?ii
eee a ?acoeueoaoa io neo/aeiiai ionea).

A 1968 aiaeo ii aunooiee ni noaoueae “?aciuoeaiey i i?ia?anna, ie?iii
ninouanoaiaaiee e eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaea”. A yoie noaouea aue
ianoaeaeai ?yae i/aiue aaaeiuo i?iaeai, noiyueo ia?aae niaaoneei
iauanoaii, e i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe eo ?aoaiey. Iao aiciiaeiinoe a e?aoeie
aeia?aoee eceiaeeoue oioy au aaaei yoo aiaaooth iuneyie ?aaioo. Ioiaoei
oieueei oi, /oi eaaeaony iai iaeaieaa aaaeiui. A. Ae. Naoa?ia
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ?aoaiea anao i?iaeai, noiyueo ia?aae iaoae no?aiie,
aoaeao aeinoeaiooi iaiiiai eaa/a e iaiiiai nei?aa, anee ana i?iaeaiu
aoaeoo ianoaeaeaoueny ioe?uoi e aeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai, e eaaeaeue
a?aaeaeaiei aoaeao eiaoue i?aai o/anoey a ianoaeaeaiee ethaiai aii?ina,
e auneacaiiia ei iiaiea aoaeao ianoaeaeaoueny ii nouanoao e aac
iianaiey, /oi eaeia eeai auneacuaaiea aoaeao eniieueciaaii eae iiaiae
aeey iieeoe/aneiai eee oaieiaiiai inoaeaeaiey. Oaeei aea
aeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny e ?aoaiey ii anai
ianoaeaeaaiui aii?inai. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiie?aoecaoeey niaaoneiai
iauanoaa, oaaaeaiea e eaaeaeiio a?aaeaeaieio e niaethaeaiea anao
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa anoue oneiaea oniaoiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa ia oieueei
a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneii, ii e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a nioeeaeueii-
yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee. A. Ae. Naoa?ia n/eoae i/aiue aaaeiui aeiaanoe
aei eiioea e?eoeeo noaeeiecia, iineieueeo aac aai inoaeaeaiey e ioeaca
io noaeeineeo iaoiaeia iaaiciiaeii ?acaeoea aeaiie?aoee.

A iaeanoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee A. Ae. Naoa?ia enoiaeee ec oiai,
/oi yaea?iay aieia, anee iia aicieeiao, i?eaaaeao e aeaaee anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa, e iiyoiio iaeuecy aeiionoeoue aiaiiiai noieeiiaaiey
iaaeaeo i?ioeainoiyueie aaeeeeie aea?aeaaaie- iaeaaeaoaeyie yaea?iiai
i?oaeey. A neeo yoiai neaaeoao ia?aoiaeeoue io i?ioeainoiyiey e
niaianoiiio ?aoaieth anao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioeeeoia a ianoaiiaea
nio?oaeie/anoaa, ia aiiynue ca iaeiinoi?iiiei i?aeiouanoaii e
?anniao?eaay eaaeaeia niaeaoaiea eae iauee oniao. Iaeaaeeoue
nio?oaeie/anoai iaaeaeo aaeeeeie aea?aeaaaie oai aieaa iaiaoiaeeii, /oi
ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii noieo ?yae i?iaeai, eioi?ua ie nioeeaeenoe/aneea
no?aiu a ioaeaeueiinoe, ie eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu a ioaeaeueiinoe ia
niiaoo ?aoeoue. Yoi, eae auei oeacaii A. Ae. Naoa?iaui,- i?iaeaiu
ie?iaiai aieiaea, na?aea/iuo caaieaaaiee, caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu e ?yae ae?oaeo. Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo i?iaeai o?aaoaony
nio?oaeie/anoai anao ?acaeouo no?ai, e A. Ae. Naoa?ia a naiae ?aaioa
iaiaoee i?ia?aiio oaeiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. Iaeiiaoe, a naiae noaouea
“?aciuoeaiey i i?ia?anna, ie?iii ninouanoaiaaiee e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
naiaiaea” A. Ae. Naoa?ia ioiaoee, /oi ii ia?a oaeoaeaiey nio?oaeie/anoaa
anao no?ai nioeeaeenoe/aneay e eaieoaeenoe/aneay nenoaiu aoaeoo
caeinoaiaaoue iaeia o ae?oaie iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou (iai?eia?,
eaieoaeenoe/aneay nenoaia aoaeao aaiaeeoue yeaiaiou ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, a nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaia aoaeao
aaiaeeoue yeaiaiou ?uii/iie yeiiiieee), e oaeei ia?acii i?iecieaeao
naeeaeaiea (eiiaa?aaioeey) aeaoo nenoai.

Yoa ?aaioa A. Ae. Naoa?iaa aucaaea aieueoie eioa?an e iieiaeeoaeueiia
ioiioaiea ai anai ie?a. Ca ?oaaaeii iia auea ecaeaia ia iiiaeo ycueao
iauei oe?aaeii ieiei 20 ieeeeiiia yecaiiey?ia. A iaoae no?aia iiyaeaiea
yoie ?aaiou niaiaei n ia/aeii ia?eiaea canoiy. Noaouey ia auea ecaeaia,
acaeyaeu A. Ae. Naoa?iaa caiae/eaaeenue, ii noaouey oiaeeea ii ?oeai a
nieneao, iiiaea aa /eoaee, e iia nua?aea aieueooth ?ieue a ?acaeoee
iauanoaaiiie aeecie a iaoae no?aia. Iinea iiyaeaiey yoie noaouee A. Ae.
Naoa?ia aue iono?aiai io nae?aoiie ?aaiou e aa?ioeny a Iineao. Iieeaeay
ianoa, aaea ii i?iaeee 20 eao, Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ ia?aaae 139 ouny/
?oaeae E?aniiio E?anoo e ia no?ieoaeuenoai Ananithciiai iieieiae/aneiai
oeaio?a. A 1969 aiaeo ii niiaa iinooiee ia ?aaioo a Oai?aoe/aneee ioaeae
OEAIa, ia aeieaeiinoue noa?oaai iao/iiai nio?oaeieea.

3.2. Eeaea? i?aaicaueoie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

A iiya?a 1970 aiaea aue nicaeai Eiieoao i?aa /aeiaaea, iaeiei ec
iniiaaoaeae eioi?iai yaeeny A. Ae. Naoa?ia. I?iaicaeanea ?aiaa iauee
i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio niaethaeaiea i?aa /aeiaaea yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ia oieueei caei?iaiai ?acaeoey iaoae no?aiu, ii e
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ie?a, A. Ae. Naoa?ia ia inoaaeye aac aieiaiey ie
iaeiiai neo/ay ia?ooaiey i?aa /aeiaaea. Ii iaiaeiie?aoii aunooiae a
caueoo iieeocaeeth/aiiuo, i?ioea eniieueciaaiey ineoeao?ee a
?ai?anneaiuo oeaeyo, ca i?aai auai?a no?aiu i?iaeeaaiey e ianoa
aeeoaeuenoaa a yoie no?aia, a caueoo ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo ia?iaeia (a
/anoiinoe, ca i?aai e?uineeo oaoa? aa?iooueny ia naith ?iaeeio).

Eaaeaeia oaeia aunooieaiea o?aaiaaei iaiaeiai a?aaeaeaineiai ioaeanoaa.
Iaeiia?aiaiii A. Ae. Naoa?ia i?iaeieaeae ?acaeaaoue naith eaeath
iauanoaa, iniiaaiiiai ia oaaaeaiee e i?aaai /aeiaaea e ia niaethaeaiee
yoeo i?aa. Aai i?aaeeiaeaiey ii inouanoaeaieth eaeae aeaiie?aoe/aneiai e
i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa ai iiiaii niaiaee n iai?aaeaieai naaiaeiyoiae
ia?ano?ieee a iaoae no?aia, eioi?ay inouanoaeyaony iaaeeaiii, iiae/an
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueii, n ionooieaieyie, ii ana aea inouanoaeyaony.

Ana naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii aii?inai iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa A. Ae.
Naoa?ia, eae i?aaeei, iai?aaeye ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi ia?oee e ainoaea?noaa (a
oa aiaeu- E. E. A?aaeiaao, I. A. Iiaeai?iiio e A. I. Einuaeio). Ioaaoia
ii ia iieo/ae. Ianiio?y ia caiae/eaaiea iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe A.
Ae. Naoa?iaa, eiy aai iieo/aei ana aieaa oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue a iaoae
no?aia. Ia aai aae?an a Eiieoao i?aa /aeiaaea e a OEAI i?eoiaeeei iiiai
ienai io ethaeae, eioi?ua ioaeaeaeenue a i?aaiaie iiiiue.

Iinea 1985 aiaea, eiaaea ia iauanoaaiiia niciaiea ia?ooeeanue eaaeia
no?aoiie i?aaaeu i eiiioienoe/aneii oa??i?a, aicieeei oe?ieia aeaeaeaiea
n o?aaiaaieai oaaeiaa/eoue iaiyoue i aea?oaao.

Aeaaeaiee Naoa?ia aue iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae e ii/aoiui i?aaenaaeaoaeai
iauanoaa “Iaii?eae” aei naiie naiae eii/eiu.

“Iaii?eae”, aeooiaiui eeaea?ii e i?aaiecaoi?ii eioi?iai aue aeaaeaiee
Aiae?ae Naoa?ia, aiciee eae ianniaay i?aaiecaoeey ia aieia aeoeaiinoe
iauanoaa, “aei?aaaoaainy” aei i?aaaeu, iauanoaa, aeaeaaoaai eneoieoue
naith aeio ia?aae ethaeueie, iaaeiii iino?aaeaaoeie io iieeoe/aneeo
?ai?annee, e, iaeiiaoe, iauanoaa, aeaeaaoaai aica?aoeoue naith
enoi?e/aneoth iaiyoue. A oi a?aiy “Iaii?eae” iieueciaaeny ianniaie
iiaeaea?aeeie ?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey: e ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo, e
eioaeeeaaioeee, e iieeoe/anee aeoeaiie iauanoaaiiinoe “iaiiueeianeie”
aaia?aoeee. Iniiaiie “?aai/ae neeie” “Iaii?eaea” auee
aeia?iaieueoeu-yiooceanou, iniiaiui i?eioeeiii ieaie?iaaiey ia?ii?eyoee
– ?an/ao ia eieoeeaoeao e ianniaoth iiaeaea?aeeo.

3.3. Iaecaaaeiinoue ia?ano?ieee

A.Naoa?ia a noaouea Iaecaaaeiinoue ia?ano?ieee i?iaiaeece?iaae i?e/eiu,
eioi?ua i?eaaee NNN? a eiia/iii eoiaa e yiioa canoiy. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ii iacuaaao ionoonoaea ieth?aeecia a no?oeoo?ao aeanoe, a
yeiiiieea, a eaeaieiaee. N yoei naycaia ath?ie?aoecaoeey anae
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie. Ieoe oi?aaeaiey eiioeaio?e?othony a
?oeao ethaeae, iaeaaeathueo aeanoueth a neeo aeieaeiinoe. Ananeeueiay
ath?ie?aoey noaea iniiaie aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey.

A.Naoa?ia oaaaeaeai a aaniethoiie enoi?e/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ia?ano?ieee. Ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao: iaecaaaeiu aieueoea o?oaeiinoe e
i?aiyonoaey yeiiiie/aneiai, ineoieiae/aneiai, i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
oa?aeoa?a. Ia?iae i?ioiaeee ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee ?aca?auathuoth
aioeoeieo, eiaaea iiiaea ia ?aaioaee, a oieueei nicaeaaaee aeaeeiinoue
?aaiou, i?eo/aaooth e eaee, eeoeaia?eth e i?eniiniaeai/anoao. Anee
aioo?aiieo i?aanoaaiiuo nee ieaaeaony iaei, oi iao iooue aoaeao
iaaeeaiiui, i?ioeai?a/eaui, n ionooieaieyie e iaaeaieyie. Iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue yeiiiie/aneea e th?eaee/aneea oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo auaiaeia
eieoeeaoeaa, /aoeia ?aaae?iaaiea ia eiiuthieoo?o ?uiea, auaiaeai
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, auaiaeia oi?ioay ee/iay ?aaioa.

Oaia?ue o ian anoue aiciiaeiinoue n?aaieoue ?aaeueiua aeaea n
oai?aoe/aneeie aueeaaeeaie aeaaeaieea i?aaeeueiuie e iao/ii
aannii?iuie…

4. Aunooieaiea ia Ia?aii nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia.

4.1. Nuacae ia iiaeao naeaeaoue ana n?aco.

A ieoya?a 1988 aiaea ii aue eca?ai /eaiii I?aceaeeoia Aeaaeaiee Iaoe
NNN?. A iiya?a aio aia?aua ?ac?aoeee auaoaoue ca a?aieoeo.

A yoe aiaeu Naoa?ia iiiai ienae, aeaaae aan/eneaiiua eioa?aueth,
o/anoaiaae a ?aaioa iao/iuo e iieeoe/aneeo oi?oiia, ano?a/aeny n
aeaeiuie o/aiuie, iauanoaaiiuie aeayoaeyie, aeaaaie ainoaea?noa –
Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a?, O?ainoa Ieooa?aiii, ?iiaeueaeii ?yeaaiii, Ieoaeeii
Ai?aa/aaui. Aai aeaaiie caaioie noaei iaania/aiea nei?aeoaai oiaea e
iaia?aoeiinoe ?aoi?i a Niaaoneii Nithca.

Naoa?ia i?eieiae aeoeaiia o/anoea a iiiuoeao ?aoaiey iaino?eaoeony a
ia?eiae “ia?ano?ieee” iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia. Ii i?iaeieaeae
caueuaoue i?aaa e?uineeo oaoa?. Ai a?aiy e?ecena a Iaai?iii Ea?aaaoa e
caieao?ynaiey a A?iaiee ii niaa?oee iiacaeeo a Aca?aaeaeaeai, A?iaieth e
Iaai?iue Ea?aaao. Iinea aeanoieiai ?acaiia aeaiiino?aoeee a Oaeeene 8
ai?aey 1989 aiaea Naoa?ia acaeee a A?oceth e iiiia i?aaieciaaoue
iaaeaeoia?iaeioth iaaeeoeeineoth iiiiuue iino?aaeaaoei.

A ai?aea 1989 aiaea Naoa?ia aue eca?ai ia?iaeiui aeaiooaoii NNN? io
Aeaaeaiee Iaoe. Yoiio i?aaeoanoaiaaea ae?aiaoe/iay e iai?yaeaiiay
auai?iay eaiiaiey. Ia Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia a ino?ie aeeneonnee
auee iiaeiyou ana ianouiua i?iaeaiu, aucaaiiua /aou?aoeaoieie iiiuoeaie
?aoi?i. Ii aieueoeinoao ec ieo Naoa?ia auneacuaae naia iiaiea. Naiui
y?eei ec aai aunooieaiee auei i?iaicaeaoaiea “Aeae?aoa i aeanoe”,
ioiaiyaoaai 6 noaoueth Eiinoeoooeee NNN? i ?oeiaiaeyuae ?iee
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee.

Iao aieueoa ie nuacaeia ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia, ie naiiai Niaaoneiai
Nithca. Nienaiu a a?oea noaiia?aoe/aneea io/aou, aeaaii oo?aoeee neeo
i?eiyoua oiaaea ii?iaoeaiua aeou, noa?eenue ec iaiyoe eiaia e oaieeee.
Ii inoaeenue aanoeaiiui aeinoiyieai o?iee aeaiie?aoee, aeinoeaeaiey e
ioeaee ia?auo ?aoi?iaoi?ia, ia eioi?uo ia a?ao iio/eoueny nia?aiaiiui
iieeoeeai.

Nuacaeu iieacaee, eae aaaeii oiaoue neooaoue e neuoaoue ae?oa ae?oaa,
no?aieoueny e iiieiaieth oiai, /oi aiai?eo oaie iiiiiaio. Anee au
ia?iaeiua aeaiooaou NNN? iaeaaeaee yoei ea/anoaii, aunooieaiea
aeaaeaieea A.Ae. Naoa?iaa ia inoaeinue au iacaia/aiiui. Oaea ia ia?aii
canaaeaiee Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ i?aaeeiaeee i?eiyoue aeae?ao, a eioi?ii
ioeaieoue i?ienoiaeyuea a no?aia i?ioeannu e ii?aaeaeeoue ia?niaeoeau
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Eae ciaoue, iiaeao auoue, eiaiii yoio aeieoiaio
iicaieee au nio?aieoue aaeeeoth aea?aeaao. Oau, aeaiooaou niaoeee n
?aoaieai aii?inia e ioiaoioeenue io i?i?iea.

Ii, Naoa?ia noae iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aeaenoaothueo eeoe ia yoii ia?aii a
NNN? naiaiaeiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii oi?oia, e iiiaia naeaeae, /oiau
iai?aaeoue aai ?aaioo ii eiino?oeoeaiiio ?oneo. Ii aue aaaaeai a
nicaeaiioth Nuacaeii Eiinoeoooeeiiioth eiienneth. A iineaaeiea aeie
Nuacaea ii i?eniaaeeieeny e iauaaeeiaieth aeaiooaoia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
e?uea – Iaae?aaeiiaeueiie aeaiooaoneie a?oiia, eioi?ay noaea i?iia?acii
aoaeoueo ia?eaiaioneeo o?aeoeee.

27 iiya?y 1989 aiaea, ia ia?aii canaaeaiee Eiinoeoooeeiiiie eiiennee
Naoa?ia ia?aaeae i?aaenaaeaoaeth Eiiennee Ai?aa/aao naie i?iaeo
Eiinoeoooeee. Aai i?iaeo aue aaeeinoaaiiui. Ii iacuaaeny “I?iaeo
Eiinoeoooeee Nithca Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee Aa?iiu e Acee”.

4.2. I?iaeo Eiinoeoooeee Nithca Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee Aa?iiu e Acee.

Noaa a 1989 aiaeo /eaiii Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiieoaoa, A. Naoa?ia caaeoiae
iaienaoue naie i?iaeo Eiinoeoooeee. Aai ae?oa e o/eoaeue E.A. Oaii
aiai?ee: “*oiau iaienaoue Eiinoeoooeeth, iaaei eiaoue ca iea/aie
aeeciue, a aieiaa iaiiiai cae?aaiai niunea, iaycaoaeueii oaaaeaoue oao,
aeey eiai iia ieoaony, e oaaaeaoue naiiai naay”. Ca yoeie neiaaie
oaaaeuaaaony ee/iinoue Aiae?ay Aeieo?eaae/a Naoa?iaa. a i?aaiaoea e
naiaio i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooeee Aiae?ae Naoa?ia ienae: `Oeaeue ia?iaeia NNN?
– n/anoeeaay e aeinoieiay aeeciue, aeaaiiieo/iay aeeciue. E ie? ai anai
ie?a`.

Aai iineaaeiyy ?aaioa I?iaeo “Eiinoeoooeee Nithca Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee
Aa?iiu e Acee” (14.12.89 a.) niaea?aeeo 46 noaoae, naiue ec ieo
iinayuaiu i?aaai /aeiaaea. A I?iaeoa i?ineaaeeaaaony Naoa?ianeay
eiioeaioeey ia?acaeaeueiie nayce iaaeaeo i?aaaie /aeiaaea e ie?ii ia
caiea, iaaeaeo auaeeaaieai /aeiaa/anoaa e ioe?uoinoueth eaaeaeiai
iauanoaa… Oaia?ue yoi iacuaatho “iiaui iuoeaieai”.

A I?iaeoa Eiinoeoooeee a noaouea 8 Naoa?ia i?aaeeiaeee ii?io: “A ie?iia
a?aiy cai?auaia nia?oiay eaciue”. A.Ae. Naoa?ia, iiaeii neacaoue,
iia?aaeee a?aiy. Oia? ii 14 aeaeaa?y 1989 aiaea, a 15 aeaeaa?y 1989
aiaea aue i?eiyo e i?iaicaeaoai. Aoi?ie Oaeoeueoaoeaiue i?ioieie e
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio Iaeoo i a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaao,
iai?aaeaiiue ia ioiaio nia?oiie eacie, a i?aaiaoea eioi?iai ia/a?oaii:
“Ana ia?u ii ioiaia nia?oiie eacie neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?ia?ann
a iaania/aiee i?aaa ia aeeciue”.

I?iaeo Naoa?iaa i?ioeainoiye aeaenoaothuae oiaaea eiinoeoooeee, a
eioi?ie iieiinoueth ionoonoaiaaea naia eaeay caueou i?aa /aeiaaea.
Iiyoiio Naoa?ia i?aaeeaaae niaoeeaeueii cae?aieoue a eiinoeoooeee oaeea
iieiaeaiey eae:

naiaiaeo yiea?aoeee, naiaiaeo ia?aaeaeaeaiey (no.6);

cai?auaiea iaaeeoeeineeo e ineoieiae/aneeo iiuoia iaae ethaeueie aac eo
niaeaney (no.6);

niaethaeaiea i?eioeeia i?acoiioeee iaaeiiaiinoe (no.9);

cai?auaiea aeene?eieiaoeee ii iaoeeiiaeueiui, ?aeeaeiciui e iieeoe/aneei
oaaaeaeaieyi.

Nouanoaaiiui auei e aai i?aaeeiaeaiea i oii, /oiau Anaiauay Aeaeea?aoeey
i?aa /aeiaaea III e Iaeou i i?aaao /aeiaaea, a oaeaea ae?oaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaeaoaiey eiaee ia oa??eoi?ee Nithca i?yiia aeaenoaea
e i?ei?eoao ia?aae caeiiaie Nithca e ?anioaeee (no.5).

5. I?aanoaaiiue i?eia?.

A.Ae.Naoa?ia noiye o enoieia iiaiai iuoeaiey e aue i?aaeoa/ae ia/aaoaeny
ia?ano?ieee a iaoae no?aia e ie?a. Iaeiei ec ia?auo ii i?iaicaeanee
iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iiaie anaeaineie i?aanoaaiiinoe e aa?u, iie?athueany
ia oieueei ia “aa/iua” ii?aeueiua enoeiu, ii oaeaea o/eouaathuea
iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee, aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu, aicieeoea
aianoa n onei?ythueiny ?acaeoeai iaoae oeeaeeecaoeee.

Aai aa?a e iioeieci auee iniiaaiu ia aeoaieii oai?/aneii iiieiaiee
nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee i /aeiaaea e anaeaiiie a oeaeii. A 1975
a. ii caeii/ee Iiaaeaaneoth eaeoeeth neiaaie: “Ouny/aeaoey iacaae
/aeiaa/aneea ieaiaia i?ioiaeeee no?iaue ioai? ia auaeeaaaiinoue, e a
yoie ai?ueaa auei aaaeii ia oieueei oiaiea aeaaeaoue aeoaeieie, ii e
niiniaiinoue e ?acoio, e nio?aiaieth o?aaeeoeee, niiniaiinoue e
aeueo?oenoe/aneie acaeiiiiiiue /eaiia ieaiaie. Naaiaeiy ana /aeiaa/anoai
a oeaeii aea?aeeo iiaeiaiue aea yecaiai. A aaneiia/iii i?ino?ainoaa
aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue iiiaea oeeaeeecaoeee, a oii /enea aieaa ?acoiiua,
aieaa “oaea/iua”, /ai iaoa. ss caueuath oaeaea einiieiae/aneoth
aeiioaco, niaeanii eioi?ie einiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea Anaeaiiie
iiaoi?yaony a iniiaiuo /a?oao aaneiia/iia /enei ?ac. I?e yoii ae?oaea
oeeaeeecaoeee, a oii /enea aieaa “oaea/iua”, aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue
aaneiia/iia /enei ?ac ia “i?aaeuaeoueo” e “iineaaeothueo” e iaoaio ie?o
eenoao eieae Anaeaiiie. Ii ana yoi ia aeieaeii oiaeeoue iaoaai
nayuaiiiai no?aieaiey eiaiii a yoii ie?a, aaea iu, eae aniuoea ai i?aea,
aicieeee ia iaeii iaiiaaiea ec /a?iiai iaauoey aanniciaoaeueiiai
nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee, inouanoaeoue o?aaiaaiey ?acoia e nicaeaoue
aeeciue, aeinoieioth ian naieo e niooii oaaaeuaaaiie oeaee”.

Aeeyiea A.Ae.Naoa?iaa ia oiae ia?ano?ieee a no?aia e a ie?a aua o?aaoao
aeoaieiai e ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca. ssnii, iaeiaei, /oi iii ia?iiii e ia
iiaeaeaaony i?inoie eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea. Iii nianoeei aioo?e
eaaeaeiai ec ian a?aieoeo iaaeaeo aeia?ii e ceii a noi?iio aeia?a o
aieueoeinoaa cae?aaiiuneyueo ethaeae; iii, eiia/ii, iaeanoi/eei
oaaaeaeaiiuo i?ioeaieeia ia?ano?ieee: o?oaeii ?annoaaaoueny n aeanoueth,
n i?eaeeaaeyie, n i?aae?annoaeeaie. Ii ana /aeiaa/anoai noaei ianiiiaiii
aeia?aa iiae aeeyieai yoie ee/iinoe. Yoi anaeyao iaaeaaeaeo, /oi
aeiiieieoaeueiue caian aeia?iou, eioi?ue ii ia?aaeae /aeiaa/anoao /a?ac
eaaeaeiai ec ian, e aa?u a iaia?aoeiinoue ia?ano?ieee a no?aia e a ie?a,
oioue a iaeie noaiaie niiaoo eiiiaine?iaaoue iaainiieieiinoue iioa?e
yoiai *aeiaaea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Naoa?ia ia?aue iiiye, eee ai anyeii neo/aa ia?aue ai aanue aiein neacae,
/oi a iao aae oa?iiyaea?iiai i?oaeey yoi i?ioeainoiyiea a?iceo aiacaiiui
oie/oiaeaieai anaai aeeaiai ia Caiea e oeacae auoiae.

Ai?ueaa ca i?aaa /aeiaaea, eioi?oth ii ?acaee, yoi ia oeeaio?iie/aneia
caiyoea aeinoaeeo eioaeeeaaioia, a ai?ueaa ca i?aa?auaiea iaoae no?aiu
ec aeeeoaoo?u a aeaiie?aoe/aneia ioe?uoia iauanoai, ai?ueaa ca
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeiaa?ea, i?aiaeieaiea eiio?iioaoeee, ca iooue e
?aci?oaeaieth.

Ianeeeth ii i?ioeaiiinoaaee aeia?i a aeecie iauanoaa.

Ii – aeaaio-anoanoaieniuoaoaeue e iuneeoaeue, iiciaaoee yaeaiey
i?e?iaeu, aaaeouea e oi?aaeyaiiio yaea?iiio neioaco e e ?oeioai?iiio
oa?iiyaea?iiio ac?uao iaia?aie/aiii aieueoie iiuiinoe, ?acaeaoee
aeoaeiiia iiieiaiea caeiiia einiieiaee, i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey
Anaeaiiie – oae aea aeoaiei iinoea e caeiiiia?iinoe aeecie iauanoaa,
oeacaa iooe i?aiaeieaiey eaoaeeecia anaiauae aeaaee, ana aua
oa?iaeathuae /aeiaa/anoao ec-ca i?anooiiuo aeaenoaee e ?a/ae
?aaeoeeiiiie /anoe EINN e iiiaieeaoo?u, eioi?uo iu yaeyainy
naeaeaoaeyie.

Oae aea eae iinooiae Aiae?ae Aeieo?eaae/ a naieo oai?aoe/aneeo
?ac?aaioeao ii i?eeeaaeiie oeceea, caeai/eaay eo ia e?aneaui eioaa?aeii,
a oi?ioeie, aioiaie aeey i?eiaiaiey, oae e a naiae iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii ia a?inae eicoiae e i?ecuau, a nai nae ca iaienaiea
i?iaeoa “Eiinoeoooeee Nithca Niaaoneeo ?anioaeee Aa?iiu e Acee”,
noa?aynue aeaoue iai a ?oee iooi/aiiue eino?oiaio aeey eni?aaeaiey
aeecie iaoae no?aiu.

Ia iai?aenue aai aeeciue oae aiacaiii, ii naeaeae au yoio eino?oiaio
niaa?oaiiui. Ii oeaey ec aeecie ii inoaaee iai i?ia?aiio:

1. Ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaea

“Aeaaiuie e iinoiyiiuie ninoaaeythueie iiae iiceoeee yaeythony: eaeay,
/oi nio?aiaiea ie?a ia?ac?uaii naycaii n ioe?uoinoueth iauanoaa e
niaethaeaieai i?aa /aeiaaea, eae noi?ioee?iaaii ai Anaiauae aeaeea?aoeee
i?aa /aeiaaea, a oaeaea oaaaeaeaiea, /oi oieueei eiiaa?aaioeey
nioeeaeenoe/aneie e eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoai iiaeao iaania/eoue
aeieaiaa/iue ie? e auaeeaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa”.

2. I nio?oaeie/anoaa

“Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aaciianiinoue e ?aaeueiia ?aci?oaeaiea iaaiciiaeiu aac
aieueoaai aeiaa?ey iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie Caiaaea e NNN? e ae?oaeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Iaiaoiaeeii oeaaeeaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiua eiioeeeou
ia aaca eiii?iiennia e ainnoaiiaeaiey noaaeeueiinoe, aaea au yoi ie
i?ienoiaeeei. Iaiaoiaeeii iieii/eoue n iiaeaea?aeeie aeanoaaeeece?othueo
e yeno?aienoneeo nee e anao oa??i?enoe/aneeo a?oii, a oaeaea n iiiuoeaie
?anoe?eoue noa?o aeeyiey iaeiie noi?iiu ca n/ao ae?oaie. Ana no?aiu
aeieaeiu nio?oaeie/aoue a ?aoaiee yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo e
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. Iaoae no?aia iaiaoiaeeia aieueoay ioe?uoinoue e
aeaiie?aoey. Iai ioaeiu: naiaiaeiue iioie eioi?iaoeee, iieiia e
aaconeiaiia inaiaiaeaeaiea ocieeia niaanoe, naiaiaea ia?aaeaeaeaiey,
auai? no?aiu e ianoa i?iaeeaaiey, yooaeoeaiue eiio?ieue ia?iaea iaae
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeeie”.

3. I aiiea aii?oaeaiee

“Aac ?aoaiey iieeoe/aneeo e aoiaieoa?iuo i?iaeai i?ia?ann a ?aci?oaeaiee
e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaciianiinoe aoaeao iaiau/aeii o?oaeiui, anee aiiaua
aiciiaeiui. E iaiai?io, aeaiie?aoecaoeey e eeaa?aeecaoeey a NNN?- a
oaeaea yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann, n ieie naycaiiue- aoaeao
cao?oaeiai, iiea ia caiaaeeeony aiiea aii?oaeaiee”.

4. Ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e NNN?

“Caiaae e aanue ie? caeioa?aniaaiu a oniaoa ?aoi?i a NNN?. Yeiiiie/anee
neeueiue, aeaiie?aoe/aneee e ioe?uoue Niaaoneee Nithc aoaeao aaaeiui
aa?aioii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie noaaeeueiinoe, a oaeaea oi?ioei ia?oia?ii a
niaianoiuo iieneao ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai”.

“Ia neaaeoao iaaeayoueny ia oi, /oi aiiea aii?oaeaiee enoiueo
iaoa?eaeueiua e eioaeeaeooaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe Niaaoneiai Nithca, eee
/oi NNN? ?acaaeeony iieeoe/anee e yeiiiie/anee; aanue enoi?e/aneee iiuo
aiai?eo ia ia?aoiii. Iaeiaei i?ioeann aeaiie?aoecaoeee e eeaa?aeecaoeee
inoaiiaeony. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey i?eia?aoao au?aaeaiiue
aiaiii-eiaeono?eaeueiue oa?aeoa?, e neaaeoao iianaoueny, /oi ai aiaoiae
iieeoeea aoaeoo i?aiaeaaeaoue yeniaineiienoneea iioeau e nithc n
aeano?oeoeaiuie neeaie”.

Anee iu aoaeai neaaeiaaoue yoei iieiaeaieyi e ?aaioaoue, eiay oeaeueth
“Ie?, i?ia?ann, i?aaa /aeiaaea” (oae auea icaaeaaeaia aai Iiaaeaaneay
?a/ue), yoi aoaeao eo/oae aeaiueth aai iaiyoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee. – I.: Iaii?aia, 1991

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaa e iaaeaaeaea.-I.: 1990.

Aiiia? A.A. Caaieo eieieie.. Aiae aac Naoa?iaa, 1991.

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee. – I.: Iaii?aia, 1991, No?. 2

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994, no?.8

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaa e iaaeaaeaea.-I.: 1990, No?.10

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994,no?.27

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994, no?.4.

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaa e iaaeaaeaea. – I.: Eioa? Aa?ni, 1990, no?. 10.

Oai aea, no?.20

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994, no?.5

Naoa?ia A.Ae. Ie?, i?ia?ann, i?aaa /aeiaaea, 1990, no?. 121

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994,no?.8

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994, no?.10

Naoa?ia A.Ae. O?aaiaiou aeia?aoee.-I.: Iaii?aia, 1994, no?.12

Aiiia? A.A. Caaieo eieieie.. Aiae aac Naoa?iaa, 1991, no?.51

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