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480-479 гг. до н.э. – поход Ксеркса на Грецию – кульминационный пункт греко-персидских войн

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?inneeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie E. Eaioa.

?aoa?ao

480-479 aa. aei i.y. – iioiae Ena?ena ia A?aoeeth – eoeueieiaoeeiiiue
ioieo a?aei-ia?neaeneeo aiei

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaio I eo?na

Enoi?e/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Niaoeeaeueiinoe enoi?ey

Aaa?eeaiei A. A.

Eaeeieia?aae 2009a.

A?aiy 480-479 yaeyaony eoeueieiaoeeiiiie eiiiaieae, eioi?ay aeieaeia
iieacaoue, eiio aeeoue iiae nieioeai, a eiio ca iei.

Ia?a?ua a ai?ueaa n ia?naie iauyniyeny ?yaeii niauoee, i?ienoaaeoeo
iinea ieii/aiey aoi?iai iioiaea. A 486 a. aei i. y., ai a?aiy
iiaeaioiaee Aea?ey e o?aoueaio iioiaeo, a Aaeioa aniuoioei ainnoaiea,
aeeeaoaany aei ia/aea 484 a. A ia?aue aea aiae ainnoaiey oia? Aea?ee I,
e aai i?aaiiee Ena?en, i?iaeieaeae aeaa aiaea ai?ueao a Aaeioa. A 482 a.
aea i. y. aniuoioei ainnoaiea a Aaaeeiia, iiaeaaeaiiia n aieueoie
aeanoieinoueth a oii aea aiaeo. Aaeiao e Aaaeeiiey auee iecaaaeaiu iinea
yoiai aei iieiaeaiey iau/iuo nao?aiee, e aiao ia?neaeneie aeanoe noae
aua aieaa neeueiui. Ia neaaeothuee aea aiae, iinea iiaeaaeaiey ainnoaiey
a Aaeioa, Ena?en ia/ae iiaeaioiaeo e iiaiio iioiaeo i?ioea a?aeia.
Ia/eiay n 483 a. aei i. y. a Eiiee, Eeeeeee e Oeieeee iiaeaioiaeyeenue
aienea e niae?aeny oeio. Iannu aieiia, i?eauaathueo ec naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo
?aeiiia Ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa, niaaeeiyeenue a Iaeie Acee.
Iaeiia?aiaiii auee ia/aou e a?aiaeeiciua ?aaiou ii iino?ieea iinoa /a?ac
Aaeeaniiio e eaiaea ia Oaeeeaeeea ia iieoino?iaa Aeoy, a iaoiae
Aoiineiai iuna, iianiiai aeey ii?aieaaaiey.

Iaaeaeo oai a Aoeiao a 483-482 a. aei i. y. a ?oaeieeao Eaa?eiia auee
ioe?uou iiaua na?aa?iiiniua aeeeu, ?acei oaaee/eaoea aeiau/o na?aa?a. Ii
i?aaeeiaeaieth Oaienoieea aeioiaeu io eaa?eeneeo ?oaeieeia auee ia?auaiu
a ainoaea?noaaiiua e, aianoi i?aaeiae ?acaea/e eo ioaeaeueiui
a?aaeaeaiai, iai?aaeaiu ia iino?ieeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeioa. I?ioea
yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey aunooiee A?enoeae, neaaeoy noa?ie o?aaeeoeeiiiie
iieeoeea. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi Aoeiu a yoi a?aiy auee aua ainoaea?noaii,
iniiaaiiui ia caieaaeaeee e caieaaeaaeaiee, ainoaea?noaii aua ia aei
eiioea ioaa/aiiui aeaiaaeiuie ioiioaieyie, A?enoeae e a aeaeueiaeoai
iuneee ?acaeoea Aoei eae ainoaea?noaa caieaaeaeue/aneiai, oai aieaa /oi
caiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue auea e inoaaaeanue iainii?eiie i?eaeeaaeae
oieueei aoeineeo a?aaeaeai. Oaienoiee aunooiae aia?aua eae oaeaioeeaue
iiaaoi?, ia iiaiyaoeeny ii?aaoue n ?ooeiie noa?uo ioaeeaathueo
o?aaeeoeee e i?iaicaeaneoue iiaua iooe ?acaeoey Aoeineiai ainoaea?noaa.
Ii, aoaeo/e inoi?iaeiui, oiiui iieeoeeii, o/eouaay a?aaeaeaaiinoue e
auaeaeiooiio ei i?iaeoo, ii ia/ae naia i?aia?aciaaiea nooiiooiuo Aoei a
ii?neia ainoaea?noai, iiae i?aaeeiaii iaiaoiaeeiie ai?ueau n Yaeiie.
Ecaanoey i ia?neaeneeo i?eaioiaeaieyo e aieia ono?aieee iineaaeiaa
nii?ioeaeaiea i?iaeoo Oaienoieea, e a 482 a. aei i. y. A?enoeae aue
ecaiai iooai ino?aeenia ec Aoei e ioi?aaeeny a ecaiaiea.

Nii?oaeaiea aiaiiiai oeioa i?iaiaeeeinue ia iiaie iniiaa. Ioeacaaoenue
io noa?ie iino?ieee ei?aaeae ii iaae?a?eyi, ainoaea?noai nin?aaeioi/eei
iaiin?aaenoaaiii’ a naieo ?oeao ana aeaei nii?oaeaiey oeioa, ii?o/ay
caaioo i caaioiaea nianoae e iaai?a yeeiaaea aiaaoaeoei a?aaeaeaiai Aoei
ca eo nianoaaiiue n/ao (nenoaia o?ea?a?oee). Oaeei ia?acii, ca eaaeaeue
ei?aaeue e aai ieii/aoaeueiia iniauaiea noae a ii?yaeea i/a?aaeiie
iiaeiiinoe ioaa/aoue o?ea?a?o, aea?oaothuee /anoue naieo aeioiaeia aeey
ioaeae iieena. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue Oaienoieeo, eioi?ue a 482—481 aa.
aei i. y. aue eca?ai no?aoaaii, ia oieueei ia?aiai?oaeiaaoue noa?ue, ii
e nicaeaoue iiaue, niaa?oaiiue ii naiae oaoieea oeio, ninoiyaoee ec
o?ea?, aianoi i?aaeieo iyoeaeanyoeaanaeueiuo ei?aaeae. Yoa ?aoi?ia
oaeaea niaeaenoaiaaea aeaeueiaeoae aeaiie?aoecaoeee Aoei ia oieueei
iiaie nenoaiie i?aaiecaoeee iino?ieee oeioa, ii e i?eaea/aieai ai oeio
iaeininoiyoaeueiuo aoeiyi. Iie, aia?aua a enoi?ee Aoei, ia?acoy yeeiaaee
o?ea?, iieo/aee e i?aaiecaoeeth, e aiciiaeiinoue aunooieaiee n aaeeiui
iiaieai a aoeineii ia?iaeiii nia?aiee. Ianiiiaiii, /oi i?iaaaeaiea oaeie
?aoi?iu auei aiciiaeii oieueei a oneiaeyo iiaiai iac?aaathuaai eiioeeeoa
n Ia?neae.

Iiieiay, /oi a neaaeothuee ?ac ia?nu i?aaei?eiyo aieaa ianooaaiia
iaoanoaea, a?a/aneea ainoaea?noaa ia/aee iiaeaioiaeo, a eiaiii.

Nia?oa caeeth/eea n Aoeiaie aeiaiai? i niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo i?ioea
ia?nia. A 481 a. aei i. y. e yoiio nithco i?eieioee iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
iieenu. Oaeei ia?acii, a ninoaa iai?iieoaeueiiai nithca aioei 31
a?a/aneia ainoaea?noai. Iaeiaei cia/eoaeueiay /anoue a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia
ii-i?aaeiaio i?eciaaaea aa?oiaioth aeanoue ia?neaeneiai oea?y (ai?iaea
Oannaeee, Ooeioeaeu, Aaioee, eie?ia e ae?.).

Oae eae Nia?oa, noiyaoay ai aeaaa iauaaeeiaiey iaeiiiiianneeo ai?iaeia,
auea naiui neeueiui ia nooa e aeeyoaeueiui /eaiii iiaiai nithca, oi
aa?oiaiia eiiaiaeiaaiea nithciuie aieneaie auei i?aaeinoaaeaii
nia?oaioeai. Aeaaea ai aeaaa oeioa aioeia?neaeneie eiaeeoeee aue
iinoaaeai nia?oaiaoe, oioy iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiioth e eo/ooth /anoue
nithciie yneaae?u ninoaaeyee aoeineea ei?aaee.

Aa?iaeio oae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i nicaeaiee iauayeeeineiai nithca i?ioea
ia?nia: «A /enea ieaiai, eioi?ua aeaee (ia?nai) “caieth e aiaeo”, auee
neaaeothuea: oannaeeeoeu, aeieiiu, yieaiu, ia??aau, eie?u, iaaiaou,
iaeeeoeu, ooeioeeneea aoaeoeu, oeaaioeu e inoaeueiua aaioeeoeu, e?iia
oanieeoeaa e ieaoaeoeaa. I?ioea ieo-oi i?i/ea yeeeiu, eioi?ua iauyaeee
aieio aa?aa?ai, caeeth/eee inayuaiiue aea?oaii?eiioaieai e eeyoaie
nithciue aeiaiai?. A aeiaiai? yoio aeanee oae: anyeee yeeeineee ai?iae,
i?aaeaaoeeny ia?neaeneiio oea?th, ia auioaeaeaiiue e yoiio
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, a neo/aa iiaaaeu nithcieeia iaycai oieaoeoue
aeanyoeio aeaeueoeeneiio aiao. Oaeia aue nithciue aeiaiai? yeeeiia.

Ana yeeeiu, eca?aaoea “eo/ooth aeieth” a iauayeeeineii aeaea, nia?aeenue
a iaeiii ianoa. Oai iie aea?aeaee niaao e caeeth/eee nithc iiae eeyoaie,
i?aaeaea anaai ?aoea i?ae?aoeoue a?aaeaeo e iaaeaeioniaiua aieiu…
Caoai yeeeiu ?aoeee iineaoue niaeyaeaoaaa a Aceth ?acociaoue i aiaiiie
neea ia?neaeneiai oea?y, eioi?ue, ii eo naaaeaieyi, iaoiaeeeny n aieneii
a Na?aeao» (Aa?iaeio. Enoi?ey, VII, 132. 145. Ia?.

A enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, iinayuaiiie a?aei-ia?neaeneei aieiai, — ieoao
nia?aiaiiue enneaaeiaaoaeue A.I. No?iaaoeeee, — i?eiyoui yaeyaony
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi nithc a?a/aneeo ainoaea?noa aeey ai?ueau n ia?naie
neiaeeeny inaiueth 481 a. aei i. y. Iiaiey o/aiuo ?anoiaeyony eeoue a
oii, eiai iacuaaoue eieoeeaoi?ii nicaeaiey yoiai nithca — Nia?oo eee
Aoeiu… Oioy yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea e ia i?ioeai?a/eo eeoa?aoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee, oai ia iaiaa iii iaoi/ii io?aaeaao enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aeae.

Nicaeaiea aioeia?neaeneie eiaeeoeee ia yaeyeinue aaeeiia?aiaiiui aeoii.
Niauoey 481 a. aei i. y., ii-aeaeeiiio, eeoue caaa?oeee aeeeoaeueiue
i?ioeann eiinieeaeaoeee a?a/aneeo nee i?ioea ia?neaeneie iianiinoe,
eioi?ue ia/aeny caaeieai aei iaoanoaey Ena?ena… A Nia?oa a 492 a. aei
i. y. a ?acoeueoaoa ino?ie aioo?eiieeoe/aneie ai?ueau iiaaaeo iaea?aeaee
Eeaiiai e Eaioeoeae — noi?iiieee aeoeaiie aioeia?neaeneie iieeoeee.
Aeaia?ao, eeoeaoeeny o?iia, auioaeaeai aue eneaoue oaaaeeua a Ia?nee.

A Aoeiao noi?iiieee aioeia?neaeneeo aeaenoaee iauaaeeieeenue aie?oa
Ieeueoeaaea, eioi?ue, aaeaa ecaaaeaa iianiinoe ia?neaeneiai ieaia,
i?eaue a 492 a. aei i. y. a Aoeiu ec Oa?niiana…

Iiaaaea aioeia?neaeneeo nee a Nia?oa e Aoeiao iiaeaioiaeea aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey naeeaeaiey iaaeaeo yoeie ainoaea?noaaie e caeeth/aiey
iai?iieoaeueiiai nithca i?ioea ia?nia (yieiaoee). Ia?aui aeoii yoiai
nithca, ii-aeaeeiiio, auei ia?auaiea Aoei e Nia?oa n i?inueaie iaeacaoue
yaeioeaa ca oi, /oi iie i?aaeinoaaeee ia?nai “caieth e aiaeo”… Aoi?ie
?ac iie oaea iaeaioia Ia?aoiineiai n?aaeaiey iineaee a Nia?oo aanoieea
Oeaeeiieaea n i?inueaie ieacaoue iiiiuue. Eaeaaeaiiiyia ?aoeee iiii/ue
aoeiyiai, iaeiaei, ii-aeaeeiiio, ineiaeiaiea aioo?eiieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee a Nia?oa a nayce n aeaenoaeyie Eeaiiaia caaea?aeaei
ioi?aaeaiea aiaiiiai io?yaea. Eoae, aa?iyoii, yoio aeiaiai?, a ia
Iaeiiiiianneee nithc ai aeaaa ni Nia?oie iineoaeee iniiaaieai aeey
aicieeiiaaiey aiineaaenoaee aioeia?neaeneie eiaeeoeee. Iinoaiaiii e
yoiio nithco i?eniaaeeiyeenue oa a?a/aneea ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua ia
aeaeaee iiae/eiyoueny ia?nai.

Aa?iaeio ia niiauaao, eaeiaa auea /eneaiiinoue a?a/aneiai aienea; ana
aea ia iniiaaiee aai aeaiiuo i /enea a?a/aneeo aieiia, o/anoaiaaaoeo a
iineaaeothuae aeoaa i?e Ieaoayo, iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi nooiiooiay
a?iey a?aeia ninoiyea i?eaeeceoaeueii ec 35 oun. aiieeoia e oaeiai aea
/enea eaaeiaii?oaeaiiuo. *oi eanaaony oeioa, oi a oa/aiea anae aieiu
a?aee ia iiaee aunoaaeoue aieaa 366 ei?aaeae, i?e/ai ieiei 2/3 yoiai
oeioa ninoiyei ec aoeineeo noaeia. Nia?aaoeeny aiiaue, oaea ianeieueei
iicaea, aaniie 480 a. aei i. y., nithciue eiia?ann ?ac?aaioae ieai
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee. Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth Oaienoieea, n eioi?ui, i/aaeaeii,
oieueei iinea aieueoeo eieaaaiee niaeaneeenue nia?oaioeu, auei ?aoaii
oeaio? oyaeanoe iia?aoeee ia?aianoe ia ii?a; nooiiooiia aienei aeieaeii
auei oieueei i?ee?uaaoue oeio e iaeaa/aoue aai aeaenoaey.

Iiaue ia?eiae ia/aeny aaniie, eiaaea 480 a. aei i. y. aienei ia?nia,
ia?aeaey /a?ac Aaeeaniiio, iai?aaeeinue ii o?aeeeneiio iiaa?aaeueth ii
iai?aaeaieth e Iaeaaeiiee. I?iaeaeaeaiea aiene iaania/eaae oeio, neaaeoy
aaeieue aa?aaa.

Ia iooe ia?nia a A?aoeeth auei o?e iaeaieaa o?oaeiuo i?ioiaea: 1.
Aeieeia Oaiia, ia a?aieoea Oannaeee e Iaeaaeiiee; 2. Oa?iiieeu, ia
a?aieoea N?aaeiae e Naaa?iie A?aoeee e 3. Enoieeneee ia?aoaae, ia iooe e
Iaeiiiiiano. Ia?aiia/aeueii auei ?aoaii ano?aoeoue ia?nia a Oannaeee,
eoaea ia ei?aaeyo aue iineai 10 000-e io?yae, iaeiei ec iieeiaiaeoeaa
eioi?iai aue Oaienoiee. Iaeiaei a?aee ia iieo/eee iiaeaea?aeeo
oannaeeeoeaa aeey caueou aua aeaoo ai?iuo i?ioiaeia, iaoiaeeaoeony a
iaeanoe iaeiiai ec ieaiai, au?aceaoeo aioiaiinoue iiae/eieoueny ia?nai.
Auyniea ia ianoa ianoaiiaeo, a?aee ?aoeee aa?iooueny ia?aoii,
ioeacaaoenue io ieaia caueou Oannaeee.

Nia?oaioeu n naiiai ia/aea ianoaeaaee ia iai?iia Enoia, ii inoaeueiua
nithcieee auee i?ioea yoiai ieaia, oae eae aai auiieiaiea i?aaeaaaei ia
?aca?aaeaiea ia?nai ana ai?iaea, ?aniieiaeaiiua a n?aaeiae A?aoeee,
iiyoiio auei ?aoaii caueuaoue A?aoeeth o ai?iiai i?ioiaea Oa?iiiee.

Caeanue aicieeaao aii?in iauaai ii?yaeea: oaeia ee aeaenoaeoaeueii
iaeeo/oee niinia eniieueciaaiey ai? i?e iai?iia no?aiu e auee ee oaea
ecaanoiu a?aeai iniiaiua caeiiu no?aoaae/aneiai eniieueciaaiey ai?,
aicieeathuea ec naiie i?e?iaeu aieiu.

Nia?aiaiiay aeoaiei i?iaeoiaiiay no?aoaaey i?eiaiyao ai?u ia aeey
i?ee?uoey no?aiu, a ii niiniao Eaiieaea. *a?ac ethaie ai?iue e?yae, a
oii /enea e /a?ac yoo, anaaaea iaeaeaony, aeeaea eee aeaeueoa,
iioaeiaiaa eee iio?oaeiaa, ianeieueei aei?ia. Caiyoue ana yoe iooe
/?acau/aeii cao?oaeieoaeueii, a caueoeoue eo ana ieeiaaea ia oaeaaony.

Iai?eyoaeue anaaaea iaeaeao ianoi, aaea ii noiaao i?i?aaoueny eee
aeaaiaea?y naiaio /eneaiiiio i?aainoiaenoao, eee aeaaiaea?y
iaaeinoaoi/iie aaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeaieea, eee aea caeaey a oue iaeiiio
ec iai?iieoaeueiuo caneiiia e eniieuecoy aeey yoiai oioy au i?inooth
ai?ioth o?iieieo; eiaaea aea eeiey i?i?aaia aaea-ieaoaeue a iaeiii
ianoa, oi io?yaeu, caieiathuea ana ae?oaea i?ioiaeu, iiaeaa?aathony
aaee/aeoae iianiinoe. Anee iie ia aoaeoo a e?ao/aeoee n?ie
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiu e ia nieioony oio/an n ianoa, oi iiaoo iioa?youe
aiciiaeiinoue ionooieaiey; e aeaaea anee ei oaeanony oeoe aac iioa?ue,
iie ana aea inoathony io?acaiiuie ae?oa io ae?oaa eee n aieueoei o?oaeii
niiaoo aeiaeoueny aiciaiiaeaiey acaeiiie nayce.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaa?oaiii ia o?aaiaaeinue iaiaioaoaa anyeoth
aaeeoaeueiinoue iici?iia i?aaeaoaeuenoai eciaiieea Yoeaeueoa aeey oiai,
/oiau ia?nai ioe?ueinue Oa?iiieeueneia ouaeuea.

A iai?eyoaeueneie no?aia, eae e anthaeo, ioaeai i?iaiaeiee, e aai
anaaaea i?eia?aoatho aeia?ii eee neeie, iiaeeoiii eee iiaiyie; eaeay aea
iaoiaea ioithaeue ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iiaaeoae oai?ee aiaiiiai
eneonnoaa, a naienoaaiia iieeiaiaeoeai n naiuo ae?aaieo a?ai?i.

Iai?iia ai?iuo i?ioiaeia eiaao niune eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iia noaaeo
naaa oeaeueth ia ieii/aoaeueiia caaea?aeaiea iai?eyoaey, a eeoue
i?eioaeaeaiea aai e ecaanoiie iioa?a a?aiaie e e i?eiyoeth
e?iaii?ieeoiuo aiaa. Anee aea oioyo eniieueciaaoue ai?u aeey oiai, /oiau
aeaenoaeoaeueii io?aceoue aoi?aeaiea i?aainoiaeyueo ii /eneaiiinoe
aiene, oi ii oai?ee oaeoeee neaaeoao nia?aoue ana neeu i?ioea oiai
i?ioiaea eee iaeiiai ec oao i?ioiaeia, eioi?ui aeieaeai
ainiieueciaaoueny iai?eyoaeue; caoai, a oio iiiaio, eiaaea ec oanieiu
auoea eeoue /anoue aai aiene, ia iaai iaiaaeatho a?anieio. Anee oaeanony
?acaeoue yoo aua ioiineoaeueii neaaoth e ia ?acaa?ioaoothny a aiaaie
ii?yaeie — /anoue, oi iai?eyoaeue iiianao aieueoea iioa?e. Aio i?eaeaony
aa?iooueny a ouaeuea, a ioaeaeueiua io?yaeu iiaoo ieacaoueny niaa?oaiii
io?acaiiuie e aoaeoo iiaieiaii eno?aaeaiu.

A oii aea neo/aa, eiaaea iai?eyoaeue i?aaei?eiye ia?aoiae /a?ac ai?u a
ianeieueeeo ianoao iaeiia?aiaiii, iiaeii a?ineoue ana naie neeu ia
eaeoth-eeai /anoue aai aiene e oaeei ii?yaeeii ii?iciue ?acaeaeaoueny ni
anaie /anoyie i?ioeaieea, aeaenoaoy ana a?aiy iauaaeeiaiiuie neeaie. Yoa
oeiaea ianoieueei i?inoa, /oi iu ano?a/aai aa i?eiaiaiea oaea a
ae?aaiaeoeo aiaiiuo i?aaeaieyo. Ia?aui aaeeeei ia?iaeii-caaiaaaoaeai ii
eaaaiaea?iui enoi?e/aneei i?aaeaieyi auee anne?eeoeu i?e oea?a Ieia. E
aio, eiaaea oea?ue Iei, eae ?anneacuaaao i?aaeaiea, iioae ia
aaeo?eeoeaa, aaeo?eeneee oea?ue aeae iaeiie /anoe anne?eeoeaa
nionoeoueny ii ai?iui ouaeueyi a naith no?aio, a caoai iaiae ia iaa e
?acaee. Ii Iei ieacaeny ianoieueei neeai, /oi i?iieeoeo /a?ac ae?oaea
ouaeuey io?yaeia auei aeinoaoi/ii aeey oiai, /oiau a eiia/iii n/aoa
ana-oaee iiaaaeeoue aaeo?eeoeaa.

Eoae, iu aeieaeiu i?eciaoue, /oi i?eioeeiu no?aoaae/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey ai? auee ecaanoiu oaea a ae?aaiaeoea a?aiaia, ii a?aee a
480 a. ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe neaaeiaaoue ei. I?eoeinue au nia?aoue ana
neeu o ai?u You e caeanue aeaoue ianooiaoaeueiue aie. Ii yoi auei
iaaiciiaeii oaea ii /enoi iieeoe/aneei niia?aaeaieyi. Iaeuecy aeaeaoue
io eiiaeiia?aoa iaeeeo ?anioaeee, /oiau iie auneaee oae aeaeaei io aeiia
ana naie neeu e iiaeaa?aee eo anai iianiinoyi ianooiaoaeueiiai aiy aua
aei oiai, eae iaae eo nianoaaiiie no?aiie iaaeniao iaiin?aaenoaaiiay
oa?ica; i?e yoii cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eo, a eiaiii aoeiyia, auea caiyoa
ai oeioa. Ii i?aaeaea anaai a?aee ia eiaee oaeoe/aneie aiciiaeiinoe
aeaoue ianooiaoaeueiue aie aaeaeo iaee/ey o ia?nia eiiieoeu. Oieueei
eneonii aua?aiiay iai?iieoaeueiay iiceoeey n iaania/aieai oeaiaia aeaea
iiaaaeo i?e Ia?aoiia.

Anee au a?aeai niiaa oaeaeinue caiyoue iiaeiaioth aea iiceoeeth, oi,
eiia/ii, ia?nu ia yoio ?ac ia ieo ia iaiaee au, a, iaieaey aa — a
aeaiiii neo/aa i?e iiiiue oeioa, — eneaee au n?aaeaiey a ioe?uoii iiea.

Iicaeiaeoaa i?aaeaiea ?anneacuaaao, /oi Oaienoiee, eca?aiiue aoeiyiaie a
iieeiaiaeoeu, n naiiai ia/aea ioeacaeny io anyeie iai?iiu ia nooa e
oioae eae iiaeii aeaeueoa aueoe n oeioii iaano?a/o ia?nai. A nouiinoe
yoi auei au a oi a?aiy iaeeo/oei ?aoaieai. Ana ?aaii ii?neia n?aaeaiea
auei iaecaaaeii; a a neo/aa oaea/e iiaaaea iaae ia?neaeneei oeioii
nicaeaea au aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey iiaaaeu ia nooa: aieueoay
/anoue yeeiaaea iiaea aueoe ia nooo, iaaeaoue aiieeoneea aeiniaoe e
ninoaaeoue iiaee?aieaiea nooiiooiie a?iee. Ia?nu aea aeey naieo
no?aoaae/aneeo iaiaa?ia eeoeeenue au aeiiieieoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa —
iaoiaea ii?neei iooai.

Ii i?e iiaeiaiii ieaia aeaenoaee iiaee au aicieeiooue ?aciiai ?iaea
i?aiyonoaey. Ioaeaeueiua eiioeiaaiou a?a/aneiai oeioa aaeaa ee niiaee au
oae nei?i i?eaioiaeoueny e nia?aoueny a aeaeaeoth yeniaaeeoeeth, e
naiiio Aaeeaniiioo; ?ene aue i/aiue aaeee, oai aieaa /oi ia?neaeneea
noaea aea?aeaeenue n aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth o aa?aaia, iiea
nooiiooiia aienei ia iiaeioei e a?aieoeai Yeeaaeu.

Oaeei ia?acii, noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, ii/aio a?aee, iaeiiaoe, eca?aee
n?aaeiee iooue; iie iiiuoaeenue cae?uoue i?ioiae i?e Oa?iiieeao, oiaaea
eae oeio iiaeaeeaeae iai?eyoaeueneea ei?aaee o naaa?iie ieiia/iinoe
Yaaae aeec iuna A?oaiecey. Aoeiyia, aua i?eieiaaoea aieueoia o/anoea i?e
caiyoee Oaiiaeneiai ouaeuey, oaia?ue eciaieee naie acaeyae,
nin?aaeioi/eee ana neeu eneeth/eoaeueii ia oeioa e ia aeinoaaeee
eiioeiaaioa a aienei Eaiieaea. Caiyoea Oa?iiiee yaeyaony, i/aaeaeii,
eeoue aeiiieieoaeueiui oo?eoii e iniiaiiio no?aoaae/aneiio ieaio: aeaoue
n?aaeaiea a ioe?uoii ii?a, e naaa?o io Yaaae. Aeaeueoa e naaa?o
iaaiciiaeii auei au nia?aoue ana ?ac?iciaiiua eiioeiaaiou oeioa, aeaaea
o A?oaiecey eo ia oaeaeinue nia?aoue iieiinoueth; ioieoe aea aeaeueoa ia
tha cia/eei au inoaaeoue N?aaeithth A?aoeeth aac iai?iiu ia ?aca?ii
nooiiooiiio ia?neaeneiio aieneo, oae eae Oa?iiieeu auee aaeeinoaaiiie
iiceoeeae, aaea auea aua iaaeaaeaea aai caaea?aeaoue, iieoaea oeio
i?ee?uaaao n ii?y oeaia oa?iiieeueneiai io?yaea.

*anoi auneacuaaeinue oaeeaeaiea, ii/aio a?aee ia oneeeee aienei
Eaiieaea; oioy e iaeuecy iieaaaoueny ia aeioaaeoea aei ian oeeo?u, ii
ana aea aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii, /oi i?e iauae /eneaiiinoe
aieiia-nia?oeaoia ieiei 2 000 /ae. Eaiieae eiae a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee
eeoue 300 ec ieo. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi e ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa auneaee
eeoue iaaieueoea io?yaeu eee aea aiana ie/aai, iaeiaei yoi eaaei
iiaeaeaaony iauyniaieth. A?aeai auea ciaeiia iianiinoue iai?iiu a ai?ao.
Eiaaea cae?uoea i?ioiaea ia oaeaaony, oi yoi icia/aao ia oieueei iioa?th
iiceoeee, ii e aeaaeue aieueoae /anoe anaai aienea, e /ai iineaaeiaa
neeueiaa, oai aieueoay /anoue aai ia?a/aia, oae eae aieaa
iiiai/eneaiiiio aieneo o?oaeiaa ionooiaoue. Aeey ionooiathuaai aienea
ia?neaeneea anaaeieee e eo/ieee auee iniaaiii iianiuie
i?aneaaeiaaoaeyie. Iaaeaeo oai, /oiau cae?uoue ouaeuea, auei aeinoaoi/ii
e iaaieueoiai aienea; a naiii aeaea a?aee i?iea?aee a eiia/iii eoiaa
n?aaeaiea ia iioiio, /oi eo io?yae aue /eneaiii neaa, a eeoue ec-ca
iaaeinoaoi/iie aaeeoaeueiinoe.

Oa?iiieeu aea — oioy y e aia?aua auneacuaath yoi caeanue — yaeythony a
iauai no?aoaae/aneii caiunea a?a/aneie iai?iiu eeoue aoi?inoaiaiiui
aniiiiaaoaeueiui aeaenoaeai. Aaaeue ?an/ao i?e caiyoee yoie iiceoeee aue
iniiaai ia iaaeaaeaea, /oi a?a/aneiio oeioo oaeanony iiaaaeeoue
ia?neaeneee o A?oaiecey, e oiaaea iai?eyoaeueneiio nooiiooiiio aieneo
i?eaeaony ioeacaoueny io naieo iaia?aiee e ionooieoue. Naia ii naaa
iai?iia Oa?iiiee ia eiaea ii/oe ieeaeeo oainia ia oniao; iia yaeyeanue,
anee ?anniao?eaaoue aa eciee?iaaiii, eeoue aa?ie/aneie iiiuoeie, i?e
eioi?ie ioithaeue ia auei iinoaaeaii ia ea?oo n?aco ana. N oi?iaeueiie e
n iaoa?eaeenoe/anee-aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey yoi auei, iiaeii neacaoue,
ioeaeie, ii a oi aea a?aiy yoiai o?aaiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiiai
ii?yaeea. Ia ioaeaaaoue aa?aa?ai aac aiy aeinooi a eneiiii yeeeineea
caiee auei iaecia?eii aaaeii n ii?aeueiie oi/ee c?aiey.

E Eaiieae iiiye e auiieiee nouiinoue naiae caaea/e. Eae oieueei noaei
ecaanoii, /oi ia?nu niaa?oeee iaoiae, ii i?eeacae aeaaiie /anoe naiaai
aienea ia/aoue ionooieaiea; nai aea ni naieie nia?oeaoaie inoaeny aeey
oiai, /oiau i?ee?uoue yoi ionooieaiea e aianoa n oai aeinoieiui ia?acii
inouanoaeoue eaeath aiceiaeaiiie ia iaai ai?ueau. Aeaaeue nia?oeaoia
yaeyaony ia oieueei iaeiie eneoieoaeueiie aea?oaie e ia oieueei iaeiie
aa?ieneie nia?oueth a aith, i?ee?uaaaoai ionooieaiea, iia — e oi e
ae?oaia iaeiia?aiaiii.

E?eoeee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi Eaiieae aeieaeai aue ionooieoue; ianiiiaiii,
naie e?eoeee ia aai ianoa ionooieee au. Yoe neiaa Aai?eoa Eai iiaeii
i?eaanoe e a iaoai aiaiii-enoi?e/aneii iaci?a eae iaeeo/ooth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo n?aaeaiey i?e Oa?iiieeao.

Eae Ieeueoeaae naiae iai?iieoaeueii-ianooiaoaeueiie oaeoeeie i?e
Ia?aoiia aeieacae, /oi Yeeaaea oaea onaieea iniiaiua caeiiu aiaiiiai
eneonnoaa, oae Eaiieae aiieiuaao ii?aeueiia ia/aei a aieia, aai
cia/aiea, aai oeaiiinoue; ia oieueei ?uoea?neoth ee/ioth o?aa?inoue e
aa?ieneoth nia?oue, ii e aa?ienoai eae i?aaie/aneee yeaiaio aieiu, eae
niciaoaeueiia aiaiiia aeaenoaea.

Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiio, /oi a?aee niciaaaee yoo eaeath, aeaao iai iiyo,
eioi?ue a neiaao, eeanne/aneeo, eae naii niauoea, caia/aoeae aai niune
ia ana a?aiaia:

Iooiee, eiaaea ou i?eaoaeaoue a Nia?oo, niiaue oai, /oi ou aeaeae ian
caeanue iaaoeie, eae iiaaeaaae iai caeii.

Iiea Eaiieae aea?aeae Oa?iiieeueneee i?ioiae, nithciue a?a/aneee oeio
?aniieaaaeny o naaa?iie ieiia/iinoe ino?iaa Aaaae, aeec iuna A?oaieney.
Nithciue oeio, ian/eouaae 271 o?ea?o, o Aoei auei aieueoeinoai 127
o?ea?. Eiiaiaeothuee nithciui oeioii aue nia?oaiaoe Aa?eaeaae, ii oae
eae aoeiyia aunoaaeee iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai noaeia, oi Oaienoiee a
nouiinoe ea?ae aeaaioth ?ieue a ?oeiaiaenoaa iia?aoeeyie. Ia ii?a
n?aaeaiea ?anoyioeinue ia oeaeuo o?e aeiy e ieii/eeinue, a nouiinoe,
aac?acoeueoaoii. A?aeai ia oaeaeinue ioa?ineoue ia?nia e i?eeoe ia
iiiiuue caueoieeai Oa?iiiee, ii e ia?nu ia niiaee ?aca?iieoue a?a/aneee
oeio. Ii, ia /aoa??oue aeaiue eiaaea a?aee a A?oaiecee ociaee, /oi
nooiiooiue ia?aaeiaie iiee Eaiieaea iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea, eiiaiaeothuea
oeioii i?eiyee ?aoaiea, ionooiaoue, iioiio /oi oeio iia iiianoue a
ie?oaeaiea. Iauaaeei?iiue oeio iieacae naay a aith n oi?ioae noi?iiu,
eioi?ue aue ia ?iaia n ia?neaeneei oeioii, e eiaaea a?aee ionooiaee
ia?nu iiaiyeenue eo i?aneaaeiaaoue.

A?a/aneay a?iey ia iiaea aua e aeoiaoue i oii, /oiau aeaoue aie a
ioe?uoii iiea iiiai/eneaiiiio a?aao; oaeia i?aaei?eyoea iiaei
ieii/eoueny eeoue ii?aaeaieai. Aieioue aei Enoieeneiai ia?aoaeea ia auei
neeueiie iiceoeee, i?eaiaeiie aeey aeeeoaeueiie iai?iiu; ia ia?aoaeea
iaeiiiiianoeu niaoii aicaiaeeee a yoi a?aiy eeieth oe?aieaiee.

Aaioey aani?aiyonoaaiii i?iionoeea ia?nia. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei, iiaoaeeaoeo
aaioeeneeo a?enoie?aoia noaoue ia noi?iio ia?nia, auea iaaeaaeaea, /oi
i?e iiaeaea?aeea ia?neaeneeo aiene ei oaeanony eaaei ni?aaeoueny n
ia?iaeiui aeaeaeaieai. Ai?i/ai, aue e ?yae ae?oaeo i?e/ei. Aaioey auea
?aniieiaeaia a oie iaeanoe N?aaeiae A?aoeee, eoaea i?aaeaea anaai
aeieaeiu auee aoi?aiooueny ia?nu, a a?aaeaneia iaoanoaea auei iniaaiii
no?aoii aeey aaioeeoeaa, auaoeo ii aieueoae /anoe caieaaeaeueoeaie.
Aeaeaa, oaea iaeei oio oaeo, /oi caeeyoua a?aae aaioeeoeaa — aoeiyia
aicaeaaeyee ai?ueao n ia?naie, neeiiee aaioeeoeaa noaoue ia noi?iio
ia?nia.! Any N?aaeiyy A?aoeey auea ioe?uoa aeey a?aaa, ia?neaeneay a?iey
aeaeaaeanue ii no?aia, ?ac?ooay e naeeaay ana ia naiai iooe. Ia
iino?aaeae eeoue aiaaoaeoee Aeaeueoeeneee o?ai: Ena?en neeoeii oi?ioi
iiieiae aai cia/aiea e oeaiee aai aeaaieoiea neiiaoee e ia?nai. Anai
aea, eoi ia aeaeae iiae/eieoueny ia?nai, ia inoaaaeinue ae?oaiai
auoiaea, eae aaaeaoue ec no?aiu, nia?aa ana, /oi iiaeii auei caoaaoeoue
n niaie.

Aoeiu a oi a?aiy aua ia auee niaaeeiaiu noaiaie n Ie?aai. A neo/aa
inaaeu ianaeaiea ai?iaea iaecaaaeii auei au ia?a/aii ia aieiaeioth
nia?oue. Aoeineee ia?iae e aoeineia i?aaeoaeuenoai a yoio e?eoe/aneee
iiiaio auioaeaeaiu auee i?eeoe e ?aoaieth inoaaeoue iai?eyoaeth e
ai?iae, e no?aio.]

Aua ?aiaa a Aoeiao auea iauyaeaia anaiauay aiienoey e anai,
iiaeaa?aiooui ino?aeecio, auei ?ac?aoaii aa?iooueny ia ?iaeeio. Iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii a?aiiaaa, a ii?yaeea, aac iaieee e caiaoaoaeuenoaa,
i?ioaeaea yaaeoaoeey ianaeaiey. Eaaeaeue ooiaeyuee iieo/ae io a?aiiaaa
iaaieueoia iiniaea. Ioae/eiu iai?aaeyeenue ai oeio, noa?eee, aeaiueiu e
aeaoe n ?aaaie e eiouanoaii, auee ia?aaacaiu ia Naeaiei, ia Yaeio e a
O?acaio Eiaaea ia?neaeneay eiiieoea iiyaeeanue a aeaeo Aoei, ai?iae aue
iono. Oieueei iaaieueoay eo/ea oaiaoeeia, ?aoeaoeony oia?aoue, canaea ca
aea?aayiiuie noaiaie ae?iiiey. Ia?nu aac o?oaea iieii/eee n ieie; ai?iae
aue ?ac?ooai e niaeaeai, any Aooeea iiaeaa?aeanue ?aci?aieth.
Ia?neaeneee oeio a?inee yei?ue o aoeineie aaaaie Oaea?.

Iiaeaioiaea e ii?neie aeoaa

(Oai a?aiaiai a?a/aneee nithciue oeio nia?aeny o Naeaieia. Iioa?e,
iiianaiiua o A?oaieney, auee iiiieiaiu io/anoe iooai ii/eiee
iino?aaeaaoeo ei?aaeae, io/anoe aeaaiaea?y i?eauoeth iiaee?aieaiee ec
Yaeiu e Iaeiiiiiana. Iiiuoea Oaienoieea iiaoaeeoue eiieeoeaa,
iaoiaeeaoeony a ia?neaeneii oeioa, ia?aeoe ia noi?iio a?aeia ia
oaeaeanue; oieueei 4 ei?aaey, iai?aaeaiiua Iaeninii ii i?eeaco oea?y
aeey iiaeaea?aeee ia?neaeneiai oeioa, i?eieioee e a?aeai.] Anaai, ii
neiaai Ynoeea, i?eieiaaoaai o/anoea a iineaaeiaaaoai n?aaeaiee,
a?a/aneee oeio ian/eouaae 310 ei?aaeae, ec ieo 110 aoeineeo Iiceoeey,
caiyoay a?aeaie o Naeaieia, auea i?aainoiaeia: iia ia oieueei iicaieyea
caueuaoue ino?ia, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeeinue iiiaeanoai aoeineeo
aaaeaioeaa, ii e i?aiyonoaiaaoue nooiiooiie a?iee ia?nia i?iaeaeaaoueny
e oe?aieaieyi ia Ei?eioneii ia?aoaeea. Ana aea, ii ?anneaco Aa?iaeioa,
iiiaea no?aoaae i?aaeeaaaee ionooieoue e oeeiieoueny io aiy. Oai ia
iaiaa iiaaaeeei iiaiea Oaienoieea.; Oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeii auei
iinoa?aoueny iaiaaeeaiii aoyiooue ia?nia a n?aaeaiea.

Oai a?aiaiai a?a/aneee nithciue oeio nia?aeny o Naeaieia. Iioa?e,
iiianaiiua o A?oaieney, auee iiiieiaiu io/anoe iooai ii/eiee
iino?aaeaaoeo ei?aaeae, io/anoe aeaaiaea?y i?eauoeth iiaee?aieaiee ec
Yaeiu e Iaeiiiiiana. Iiiuoea Oaienoieea iiaoaeeoue eiieeoeaa,
iaoiaeeaoeony a ia?neaeneii oeioa, ia?aeoe ia noi?iio a?aeia ia
oaeaeanue; oieueei 4 ei?aaey, iai?aaeaiiua Iaeninii ii i?eeaco oea?y
aeey iiaeaea?aeee ia?neaeneiai oeioa, i?eieioee e a?aeai. Anaai, ii
neiaai Ynoeea, i?eieiaaoaai o/anoea a iineaaeiaaaoai n?aaeaiee,
a?a/aneee oeio ian/eouaae 310 ei?aaeae, ec ieo 110 aoeineeo Iiceoeey,
caiyoay a?aeaie o Naeaieia, auea i?aainoiaeia: iia ia oieueei iicaieyea
caueuaoue ino?ia, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeeinue iiiaeanoai aoeineeo
aaaeaioeaa, ii e i?aiyonoaiaaoue nooiiooiie a?iee ia?nia i?iaeaeaaoueny
e oe?aieaieyi ia Ei?eioneii ia?aoaeea. Ana aea, ii ?anneaco Aa?iaeioa,
iiiaea no?aoaae i?aaeeaaaee ionooieoue e oeeiieoueny io aiy. Oai ia
iaiaa iiaaaeeei iiaiea Oaienoieea. Oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeii auei iinoa?aoueny
iaiaaeeaiii aoyiooue ia?nia a n?aaeaiea.

Aa?iaeio ia?aaeaao ?anneac, aoaeoi Oaienoiee i?aaei?eiye eiaeee oaa,
eioi?ue e ?aoee aeaei. Ii iineae e ia?neaeneiio oea?th naiaai ?aaa n
iniaui ii?o/aieai ia?aaeaoue Ena?eno io eiaie Oaienoieea, yeiau
iano?iaiiiai ni/oanoaaiii e ia?nai, /oi n?aaee a?aeia oea?eo iieiaeoaa
oiuiea e ?aca?iae e /oi iie aioiau a no?aoa ?acaaaeaoueny; iiyoiio noieo
oieueei ia?nai iaiaaeeaiii aoaeiaaoue a?aeia, e iiaaaea ei iaania/aia.
Ena?ena aea, oaa?aiiiai a naiae neea, i/aaeaeii, i?aeueuaea
aiciiaeiinoue iaeiei oaea?ii ieii/eoue aieio: iiae A?oaieneai a?a/aneee
oeio oneieuecioe, oaia?ue iiaeii auei ie?oaeeoue aai ni anao noi?ii.
A?a/aneee oeio noiye a aoooa, aeoaiei a?acuaathuaeny a ainoi/iia
iiaa?aaeuea ino?iaa o ai?iaea Naeaieia. Oceee i?ieea iaaeaeo ino?iaii
Naeaieiii e iaoa?eeii ia thaa ii/oe caie?aao ino?iaie Ineooaeey; caeanue
aaeieue aa?aaia Aooeee a o?e ?yaea auno?ieeenue ia?neaeneea ei?aaee, ia
ino?ia aea aue aunaaeai neeueiue aeanaio. E caiaaeiiio auoiaeo ec
i?ieeaa, e Iaaa?ai, Ena?en iai?aaee aniiiiaaoaeueiue io?yae ei?aaeae,
eioi?ue io?acae a?aeai aiciiaeiinoue ionooieaiey. Nooiiooiay a?iey
ia?nia auea noyiooa e aa?aao, a oueo aeaaiuo nee oeioa; nai Ena?en
iaoiaeeeny ia aunieie ai?a, /oiau iaaethaeaoue ca n?aaeaieai.

?aiiei oo?ii 28 naioya?y 480 a. aei i. y. a?a/aneee oeio a aiaaii
ii?yaeea, eiay ia eaaii oeaiaa aoeineea ei?aaee, ia i?aaii — nia?oaineea
e yaeineea, ia?aue aeaeioeny ia ia?nia. Caaycaeny iaeanoi/aiiue aie. N
iaiau/aeiui oii?noaii e o?aa?inoueth n?aaeaeenue ia?neaeneea ii?yee. Ii
anei?a n?aaee ia?nia ia/aeinue caiaoaoaeuenoai; a oceii e iaeeii i?ieeaa
caaeiea ?yaeu ei?aaeae noaniyee aeaeaeaiea ia?aaeieo. Iai?aniu auee
oneeey iiuoiuo oeieeeeneeo ii?yeia — iiae iaoeneii a?a/aneeo noaeia
ia?iiiue ia?neaeneee oeio naeeny a aanii?yaei/ioth eo/o. N o?aneii
a?acuaaeenue ae?oa a ae?oaa ei?aaee, naaeeeenue ia iaeue e aeaee ai
iiiaeanoaa. A yoi aea a?aiy A?enoeae, ainiieueciaaaoeeny aiienoeae e
iaeaioia aiy aa?ioaoeeny ia ?iaeeio, aunaaeeeny n io?yaeii aoeineeo
aiieeoia ia Ineooaeeth e ia?aaee iaoiaeeaoeeny oai aeanaio ia?nia. E
ianooieaieth ii/e ana auei eii/aii: ia?iiiue ia?neaeneee oeio aue
?aca?iieai e ii/oe iieiinoueth oie/oiaeai. Ooeaeaaoea ei?aaee auee ia
niiniaiu e eaeei-eeai na?ueaciui iia?aoeeyi ia ii?a. Nicaeaiiue
aoeiyiaie oeio ionoiye iacaaeneiinoue A?aoeee.

Yoa iiaaaea eiaea aieueoia cia/aiea: oaia?ue a?aee iiaee eaaei i?a?aaoue
eiiioieeaoeee ia?neaeneie a?iee, iieacaoue ae?oaei iieenai, /oi ia?aae
ia?neaeneie aea?aeaau eeaiyoueny ia ioaeii; iianaynue yoiai, Ena?en n
/anoueth aiene ooae ec A?aoeee, inoaaea oai cia/eoaeueiua neeu iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Ia?aeiiey. Naeaieineee aie aue ia?aui ia?aeiiiui iiiaioii
a oiaea iiaie aiaiiie eaiiaiee.

Aienei ia?nia ceiiaaei a Oannaeee e oa?iaeaei iiaui aoi?aeaieai a
Aooeeo. Ianoaiiaea o?aaiaaea io a?aeia ia?aoiaea a eiio?ianooieaiea,
i?aaeiinueee oniaoa eioi?iai nicaeaea Naeaieiianeay iiaaaea, eeoeaoay
nooiiooioth a?ieth ia?nia aiciiaeiinoe iie?aoueny ia naie oeio. A
ioiioaiee no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia o a?aeia ia auei aaeeinoaa: aoeiyia
o?aaiaaee io nia?oaioeaa auaeaeaiey e?oiiuo nee aeey ia?aoiaea a
eiio?ianooieaiea i?ioea Ia?aeiiey, nia?oaioeu aea, oeeiiyynue io o/anoey
a n?aaeaiee, ianoaeaaee ia i?aaiecaoeee ii?neiai iioiaea e Aaeeaniiioo n
oeaeueth i?a?aaoue eiiioieeaoeeth ia?neaeneiai aienea e yoei auioaeeoue
Ia?aeiiey e ionooieaieth aac aiy.

A 479 aiaeo aei i. y. ia?neaeneia aienei aiiaue aoi?aeinue a Aooeeo e
caiyei Aoeiu. Ia yoio ?ac o a?aeia neiaeeeanue aeaaii?eyoiay ianoaiiaea
aeey ia?aoiaea a eiio?ianooieaiea. Ai-ia?auo, nia?oaioeu, iianaynue
caeeth/aiey aoeiyiaie naia?aoiiai ie?a n ia?naie, aunoaaeee e?oiiua
neeu, e nithciay a?a/aneay a?iey eiaea 8 ouny/ aiieeoia e oaeia aea
/enei eaaei aii?oaeaiiuo iaoioeioeaa. Ai-aoi?uo, eiieeoeu niiaueee, /oi
iie aioiau ieacaoue iiaeaea?aeeo a?aeai ia ii?a; neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ianoaiiaea auea aeaaii?eyoiie e aeey ia?aoiaea a eiio?ianooieaiea i?ioea
ia?neaeneiai oeioa. I?eiyoue a?aeaie no?aoaae/aneee ieai caeeth/aeny a
oii, /oiau iaianoe ia?nai ii?aaeaiea ia nooa e ia ii?a. Aeey ?aoaiey
yoeo caaea/ a?a/aneay a?iey nin?aaeioi/eeanue o Ieaoae, a oeio aeaeioeny
e aa?aaai Iaeie Acee. A iaeei e oio aea aeaiue i?iecioei aeaa aiy: aie a
Aaioee i?e Ieaoayo e ii?neie aie o aa?aaia Iaeie Acee o iuna Ieeaea,
eioi?ua ?aoeee enoiae aieiu a iieueco a?a/aneeo iieenia.

“Iaeii ynii, /oi ia?nu /oanoaiaaee naia oaeoe/aneia i?aainoiaenoai iaae
a?aeaie, a yoe iineaaeiea ia ?aoaeenue i?eiyoue aie a ioe?uoii iiea. Ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii ianoiyoaeuenoaa neeaaeuaaeenue aeey
a?aeia aeaaii?eyoiaa, iineieueeo /anoue yeeiaaea ei?aaeae, n?aaeaaoeony
i?e Naeaieia, a eiaiii /anoe aoeiyi, iaaa?oeaa, yaeiyi e ei?eioyi, ianee
oaia?ue neoaeao ia nooa. Iiyoiio oaia?ue iiaeii auei caiyoue iiceoeeth o
Ieaoae, i?ee?uaaaooth Aooeeo, ia /oi aiae oiio iacaae aua ia
iaaeayeenue. O/eouaay, /oi aeey ei?aaeae ana aua o?aaiaaeanue /anoue
ethaeae, ii a oi aea a?aiy ia nooa a?aee iai?yaaee ana naie oneeey, iu
iiaeai i?eiyoue, /oi nia?oaioeu e aoeiyia eiaee oai i?eaeeceoaeueii ii 5
000 aiieeoia, ana inoaeueiua aianoa — i?eia?ii noieueei aea, neieueei
nia?oaioeu e aoeiyia, o. a. aienei ian/eouaaei i?eia?ii 20 000 aiieeoia,
a aianoa n oaeei aea /eneii iaaii?oaeaiiuo ninoaaeyei ianno a 40 000
/ae. Neeu ia?nia n iiaeaeanoiuie ei a?aeaie auee i?eaeeceoaeueii oaeeie
aea. Anee au Ia?aeiiee ?aniieaaae cia/eoaeueiui eee oai aieaa aeaieiui
i?aainoiaenoaii a neeao, ii ia noiye au iaiiaeaeaeii ia ?aea Aciia, a n
iieiaeiie naiae a?iee iaioae au a?aeia /a?ac iaeii ec ainoi/iuo ouaeee
Eeoa?iia e io?acae au ei iooe iiaeaica eee oaea?ee au ei a oue, a oi
a?aiy eae ae?oaie /anoueth a?iee ii neiaae au eo n o?iioa”41.

Iniaaiiinoe aiy o Ieaoae, i?ienoaaeoaai a 479 aiaeo aei i. y.,
caeeth/aeenue a neaaeothuai: a?aee, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey neeu naiae
oaeaiae, no?aieeenue i?aaeaea anaai aeaoue iai?iieoaeueiue aie e
aucaaoue yoei Ia?aeiiey ia ianooieaiea. Ia?nu, iaaei iieaaaoue, ia eiaee
cia/eoaeueiiai /eneaiiiai i?aainoiaenoaa, /oi e ii?aaeaeyei inoi?iaeiua
aeaenoaey Ia?aeiiey, ia ?aoaaoaainy aoaeiaaoue a?aeia. A ninoaaa
ia?neaeneiai aienea auee e io?yaeu a?a/aneeo “iieenia, i?eciaaoeo
aeanoue ia?nia.

A?a/aneay a?iey iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai nia?oaioea Iaanaiey ?aniieiaeeeanue
ia neeiiao Eeoa?iia, ia aa?aao iaaieueoie ?aee Acii. Ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
aa?aao a oe?aieaiiii eaaa?a iaoiaeeeinue ia?neaeneia aienei. *oiau
aucaaoue Ia?aeiiey ia ianooieaiea, Iaanaiee auaeaeioeny ia aunioo e
naiie ?a/ea Acii; ia i?aaii oeaiaa noaee nia?oaioeu, ia eaaii — aoeiyia,
a oeaio?a — io?yaeu inoaeueiuo a?a/aneeo iieenia. Ia?aeiiee oaeaea auoae
ec naiaai eaaa?y e ?aniieiaeee naia aienei aeey aiy: ia i?aaii e?uea
i?ioea aoeiyi iaoiaeeeenue io?yaeu a?aeia, a oeaio?a — ieaeyia e
aaeo?yia, ia eaaii e?uea i?ioea nia?oaioeaa — ia?nu.

Ia?aeiiee, ia ?aoaynue aoaeiaaoue a?aeia, i?eeacae naiei eo/ieeai ia
iiaeioneaoue eo e ?aea a?aoue aiaeo; anaaeieee, auneaiiua a oue
a?a/aneiai ?aniieiaeaiey, oie/oiaeeee enoi/iee, ec eioi?iai a?aee a?aee
aiaeo. Iooue iiaeaica i?iaeiaieuenoaey a?a/aneie a?iee oaeaea aue
i?a?aai. Iiyoiio a?aee ?aoeee ii/ueth ionooieoue e ai?iaeo Ieaoayi,
/oiau caiyoue oai aieaa oaeiaioth iiceoeeth. Ia?auie ia iiaoth iiceoeeth
?aoaii auei aeaeiooue io?yaeu oeaio?a, ca ieie iooiaeeee aoeiyia;
nia?oaioeu iieo/eee caaea/o i?ee?uoue ionooieaiea.

Ia?aue yoai aiy — ionooieaiea a?a/aneeo io?yaeia oeaio?a e ia?aoiae
ia?nia a ianooieaiea.

Ii/ueth oeaio? aiaaiai ii?yaeea a?aeia aeaeioeny e Ieaoayi, a ia
?annaaoa ia/aee ionooiaoue e aoeiyia. Caiaoea ionooieaiea a?aeia,
Ia?aeiiee ?aoee aoaeiaaoue eo neeaie naiae eiiieoeu. Ii ca eiiieoeae,
iieaaay, /oi a?aee aaaoo, ono?aieeanue e ia?neaeneay iaoioa. I?aaeaea
anaai aoaeiaai aue a?uea?aa?ae nia?oaioeu, eioi?ua ia?aoeeenue ca
iiiiuueth e aoeiyiai. Ii a yoi aea a?aiy nithcieee ia?nia aoaeiaaee
aoeiyi. Aie caaycae ii anaio o?iioo.

Aoi?ie yoai aiy—eiio?aoaea nia?oaioeaa, ?aoeaoay enoiae aiy.

Ia?nu canuiaee nia?oaineoth oaeaiao oo/ae no?ae, aneaaenoaea /aai
nia?oaioeu iiianee cia/eoaeueiua iioa?e. Eiaaea ia?nu ieacaeenue ia
aeenoaioeee ei?ioeiai oaea?a, Iaanaiee a?inee naith oaeaiao a eiio?aoaeo
e ii?ieeioe i?ioeaieea. Aica?auaaoeany a yoi a?aiy a?a/aneea io?yaeu
oeaio?a oneeeee oaeaiao nia?oaioeaa e i?eiyee o/anoea a i?aneaaeiaaiee
aaaeaaoeo a aanii?yaeea ia?nia. Iaeiia?aiaiii aoeiyia aeinoeaee oniaoa a
aith n a?a/aneeie nithcieeaie ia?nia.

O?aoee yoai aiy — iauaa i?aneaaeiaaiea ?acaeoiai ia?neaeneiai aienea ca
?aeo Acii e ooo?i oe?aieaiiiai eaaa?y ia?nia.

Ia?auie e ia?neaeneiio eaaa?th iiaeioee nia?oaioeu, ii eo iiiuoee
ai?aaoueny a eaaa?ue oniaoa ia eiaee. N iiaeoiaeii aoeiyi nii?ioeaeaiea
ia?nia auei neiieaii, e eaaa?ue ieacaeny a ?oeao a?aeia. Inoaoee
ia?neaeneiai aienea a aanii?yaeea aaaeaee e Aaeeaniiioo.

A aeaiue iiaaaeu a?aeia iaae ia?naie i?e Ieaoayo a?a/aneee oeio ?acaee
ia?neaeneee oeio o iuna Ieeaea. Iiaaaeu ia nooa e ia ii?a oaeoe/anee
?aoeee enoiae aieiu a iieueco a?a/aneeo iieenia, eioi?ui anei?a
oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue iiioeeneoth eiiioieeaoeeth. Oioy
a?aei-ia?neaeneay aieia’ e i?iaeieaeaeanue aua iiiai eao, enoiae aa aue
oaea i?aae?aoai. Ia?neaeneay aeaniioey ieacaeanue aanneeueiie a ai?ueaa
n iauaaeeiaiiuie a?a/aneeie iieenaie.

Iiaaaea A?a/aneeo iieenia a eeth/aaii ia?eiaea i?ioeainoiyiey n Ia?neae,
iiaeoaa?aeeea i?aainoiaenoai a?a/aneie oaeaiae, iaae e??aaoey?iie
eiiieoeae e ?aciio??noiie iaoioie a?aaa. Oiae eiiiaiee oaeaea iieaca,
/oi ii iiiaei no?aoaae/aneei ieaiai e oaeoeee, o aeaaiuo noi?ii
aicaeaaeythueo ai?ueao ca nii?ioeaeaiea Aoei e Nia?ou aicieeaee
i?ioeai?a/ey, e eacaeinue, /oi nithc a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia iiaeao
?acaaeeoueny ia aeacao, ii a iaueo eioa?anao ana i?ioeai?a/ey iaoiaeyo
nai? ?aoaiea.

Caneoaeeaaao ioaeaeueiiai aieiaiey a?a/aneee oeio, a iniaaiii
aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue a i?i aoeineiai yneaae?u caeiaeaiiie ia caaeieai
aei ia/aei eaiiaiee. Oeio aeae a?aeai oa aiciiaeiinoe aaaeaiey aieiu,
eioi?uo ia auei a ia?aie eiiiaiee, a eiaiii iiaaaea a?a/aneiai oeioa o
Nieiieia, e ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea ia ii?a, canoaaeee aeaaiua neeu
ia?nia iieeiooue Aaeeaineoth a?aoeeth.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A.A. ?acei. Enoi?ey aiaiiiai eneonnoaa. 1999a.

2. A.N. Na?aaaa. Enoi?ey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. NIa., 2002a. Ae.6.

3. Aain Aeaeuea?the “enoi?ey aiaiiiai eneonnoaa”, 1994a.

4. Aa?iaeio. Enoi?ey. Ia?aaiae e i?eia/aiey A.A. No?aoaiianeiai. 2002a.

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