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2

?inneeneay aeaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau

i?e I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Neae?neay aeaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau

Oaeoeueoao ainoaea?noaaiiiai e

ioieoeeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey

Eaoaae?a Ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa

AeEIEIIIAss ?AAIOA

Ia oaio: I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee
ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Nooaeaio a?oiiu 506 _____________ Eaoaoia I.A.

iiaeienue

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaiou_______________ Iaei?eei A.I.

iiaeienue

Eiinoeueoaiou: __________________ Oia?ai Y?ee Aeaeii,
o/?aaeeoaeue III “Ooae-Na?aen Ieiianioa”

___________________ Oniaa A.I., ia/aeueiee th?. ioaeaea
III “Ooae-Na?aen Ieiianioa”

Caaaaeothuee eaoaae?ie: ______________ Niaieueieeia A.A.

a. Iiaineae?ne

2000

IAEAAEAIEA:

AAAAeAIEA 3

AEAAA 1 6

Ia?aua Niaianoiua I?aaei?eyoey. Enoi?ey 6

NIAIANOIIA I?AAeI?EssOEA EEE EIIIA?*ANEAss I?AAIECAOeEss N AeIEAAUI
O*ANOEAI EIINO?AIIUO EIAANOEOeEE 9

AEAAA 2 12

I?AAIECAOeEIIII-I?AAIAUA OI?IU NIAIANOIUO I?AAeI?EssOEE 12

IAUAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA I?IOeANNA NICAeAIEss NIAIANOIIAI I?AAeI?EssOEss 19

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss ?AAENO?AOeEss I?AAeI?EssOEE N EIINO?AIIUIE
EIAANOEOeEssIE 25

O*?AAeEOAEUeIUA AeIEOIAIOU NIAIANOIIAI I?AAeI?EssOEss. 30

Eeeaeaeaoeey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey 31

A?aeo?aae 32

AEAAA 3 35

ACAEIIAeAENOAEA NIAIANOIUO I?AAeI?EssOEE N AINOAeA?NOAAIIUIE I?AAIAIE
AEANOE E OI?AAEAIEss IA OA??EOI?EE IIAINEAE?NEIE IAEANOE 35

Ii?yaeie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe 37

CAEETH*AIEA 40

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA 43

NIENIE I?EEIAEAIEE 46

AAAAeAIEA

Nia?aiaiiay eiaanoeoeeiiiay neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny a ?innee,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiiieaeniui aicaeaenoaeai ia iaa niaieoiiinoe
neaaeothueo iaaaoeaiuo oaeoi?ia.

Ai-ia?auo, nio?aiyaony oaiaeaioeey nie?auaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa a iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
oiiaeu, /oi iauaeoeaii iaecaaaeii a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae a i?ioeanna
niaiu ?aaeeiia aini?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiiai eaieoaea, eiaaea
ieaiiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey oaea ?ac?ooaia, a ?uii/iua
naii?aaoee?othueany iaoaieciu aua ia ca?aaioaee a iieioth ia?o.

Ai-aoi?uo, aiaeec eaieoaeueiuo iia?aoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iieacuaaao, /oi ?inney i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny e?oiiaeoei eiino?aiiui
iaooi-eiaanoi?ii, i?e/ai a ?iee aeiii?a aunooiatho eae ainoaea?noai, oae
e /anoiue naeoi?. Eiuie neiaaie, i?e ia?iiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
iio?aaiinoyo ?inneeneie yeiiiieee iaoeeiiaeueiue /anoiue eaieoae
i?aaeii/eoaao eiaanoe?iaaoueny a ca?oaaaeiua, i?aeiouanoaaiii
e?aoein?i/iua aeoeau. I?e yoii auaic ?inneeneiai eaieoaea, aeeth/ay
inouanoaeyaiue a i?ioeaii?aaiuo oi?iao, niiinoaaei n ?acia?aie caiaaeiie
oeiainiaie iiiiue, ieacuaaaiie iaoae no?aia, eee aeaaea i?aauoaao eo.

A-o?aoueeo, ionoonoaoao noeioe aeey o?ainoi?ie?iaaiey a eiaanoeoeee
ia?iiiuo naa?aaeaiee ?inneeneiai ianaeaiey. Aieueoay eo /anoue
aeeaaeuaaaony a eiino?aiioth aaethoo, ia nicaeaaay ?ano?nia aeey
eiaanoe?iaaiey a iaoeeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo, /oi icia/aao i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aani?ioeaioiiai e?aaeeoa no?aia i?ienoiaeaeaiey aaethou, o.a.
eiaanoe?iaaiea aia?eeaineie a ia ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ianiio?y ia i?eeaaaaiua oneeey, ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ia
oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ie?iauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iioieia
a iieueco iaoae no?aiu, iauai i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a
?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo iacia/eoaeai, a neeo /aai ?inney i?iaeieaeaao
inoaaaoueny ia ia?eoa?ee eioa?ania no?aoaae/aneeo eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoi?ia. Oaeei ia?acii, no?aia ia?aaeeaaao oyaeaeaeoee
eiaanoeoeeiiiue e?ecen, yaeythueeny aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae
iaoeeiiaeueiiai iauayeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey a aeaiiie ?aaioa yaeythony niaianoiua
i?aaei?eyoey e eo aeayoaeueiinoue ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Cia/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee eae iaeiiai ec iai?aiaiiuo oneiaee
yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey no?aiu ninoieo a oii, /oi a ia?eiae ieceie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe, eiaaea ie oaaea?aeueiue e
ianoiue athaeaeaou, ie naie yeiiiie/aneea aaaiou ia ?aniieaaatho
aeinoaoi/iui eiaanoeoeeiiiui iioaioeeaeii, ca?oaaaeiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey
iiaoo nua?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaea?iecaoeee ?inneeneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii yoiio oaaee/aiea i?eoiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee
aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue iaeeaeaieth yeiiiieee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
auaiaeo aa ec e?ecena.

Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, eae iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo niiniaia i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo.

A ?innee niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey (NI) noaee ?acaeaaoueny ?aiueoa anao
oi?i i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. Iaeiaei i?ioeann nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NI ia oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu yaii ia ioaa/aao oai
caaea/ai, eioi?ua iie i?ecaaiu ?aoaoue. Neeoeii aieueoay eo /anoue
aeaenoaoao nae/an ia a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa aunieiea/anoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a a oi?aiaea, iin?aaeie/anoaa, noa?a oneoa e o.i.
Nicaeaaony iiiai iaeeeo niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee n iacia/eoaeueiie aeieae
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. E niaeaeaieth, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue, eeeiao, a
eioi?ii auioaeaeaiu ?aaioaoue oaeea eiiiaiee iaeuecy iacaaoue
aeaaii?eyoiui. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
ianiaa?oainoaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu, iaeiaiiaeiaeaieai, aunieie
noaiaiueth ?enea aeey oao, eoi ?aoee ?aaioaoue ia ?inneeneii ?uiea
(iiiaea e?oiiua eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u auioaeaeaiu aeaaea no?aoiaaoue
naay io iieeoe/aneeo e eiuo ?eneia, aucaaiiuo ianoaaeeueiie ianoaiiaeie
a iaoae iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiao).

“A naith i/a?aaeue o/anoea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ?innee iaia?oaeeaaao
?yae io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee aeieain?i/iiai oa?aeoa?a. A eo /enea
i?ei?eoaoiia aieiaiea caiaaeiuo eiaanoi?ia e aeiau/a e yenii?oo
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, /oi niinianoaoao en/a?iaieth
iaaiciaiiaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee e aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiiio ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee
no?aiu e ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia. Neaainoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ?O nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey a no?aia
iaeiyooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, neeueii caa?yciythuaai ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo.”1

Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony aeooaeueiinoue oaiu aeeieiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey e aai
i?aaeiaoa – i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe NI a ?innee.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa auee eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu, nia?aiiua a oiaea
i?ioiaeaeaiey i?aeoeee a iaeiii ec e?oiiuo NI, a oaeaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, i?eiaieiua a yoie ___________________

1 Aann E.A. Iiiu?aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e iieeoeea i?ioaeoeeiiecia
a ?innee.// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. -1999 ?6. n.12.

iaeanoe, iaoa?eaeu, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua eiieoaoii ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei e
iaae?aaeiiaeueiui naycyi aaeieieno?aoeee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe, a oaeaea
ioaeeeaoeee ii yoiio aii?ino. Iaoiaeii aeaiiie ?aaiou aoaeao neoaeeoue
iaiauaiea e aiaeec yoeo eaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea nianoaaiiiai iiuoa aaoi?a,
eioi?ue ?aaioaao a iaeiii ec e?oiiuo iiaineae?neeo NI.

AEAAA 1

Ia?aua Niaianoiua I?aaei?eyoey. Enoi?ey

Ii?iaoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e eiino?aiiuo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia a iaoae no?aia
inouanoaeyaony n ia/aea 20-o aa. Aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey niaoaiiuo
oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee auea caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaia a ?NON?
aeae?aoii “Ia iniiaiuo /anoiuo eiouanoaaiiuo i?aaao, i?eciaaaaiuo a
?NON?, io?aiyaiuo aa caeiiaie e caueuaaiuo aa noaeaie” io 22 iay 1922
a., niaeanii eioi?iio eiino?aiiua eiiiaiee iiaee nicaeaaaoue a ?innee
nianoaaiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea e caieiaoueny ia aa oa??eoi?ee
ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaeaie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a iaoae no?aia i?ioei ianeieueei
yoaiia.

Ia?aue yoai – eae oi?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eniieueciaaeinue oaea a ia?aua aiaeu
niaaoneie aeanoe. Nianoaaiii, eiioeanneiiiua i?aaei?eyoey e
nicaeaaaeenue eae niaoaiiua oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa n i?enoonoaeai
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.

Aoi?ui yoaiii niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a iaoae no?aia noaee
70-80-a aa. A yoi a?aiy a NNN? ia/aeinue inaiaiea eeoeaiceiiiie oi?aiaee
n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie. Ia/aeny yoai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa, eiaaea a ea/anoaa iauaeoia eiaanoe?iaaiey noaea
aunooiaoue eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue.

“Eeoeaiceiiiia nio?oaeie/anoai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eiiia?aoeey
iicaieeee iaeiieoue ii?aaeaeaiiue iiuo ?aoaiey neiaeiuo eiiia?/aneeo
aii?inia, aicieeathueo a i?aeoeea niaaoneeo aiaoiaoi?aiauo i?aaiecaoeee,
e iiaeaioiaeee aaco aeey ia?aoiaea e aieaa aunieie oi?ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa – niaianoiiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao.”1

O?aoee yoai niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aaaeao naie ion/ao n 1986
a., eiaaea iinoaiiaeaiea OeE EINN e Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? io 19
aaaonoa 1986 a. ?991 ia?yaeo n aeaeueiaeoei eniieueciaaieai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee i?aaeoniio?aei
nicaeaiea ia oa??eoi?ee NNN? NI n o/anoeai oe?i eaieoaeenoe/aneeo e
?acaeaathueony no?ai. Iaeiaei aeey aeaiiiai yoaia niaianoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Niaaoneii Nithca auee oa?aeoa?iu aeaa
neaaeothueo iiiaioa. Ai-ia?auo, ana NI ___________________

2 Aoaeee A.A. NI a ?innee: I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua aniaeou: Iaoiae.
iiniaea. I., 1993. N 24.

nicaeaaaeenue ia ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, eae i?aaeienuaaeinue a
auoaiacaaiiii iinoaiiaeaiee, a eneeth/eoaeueii ca ?oaaaeii. Ai-aoi?uo,
ia?aie/eaaeanue i?aaeiaoiay noa?a i?aaiecaoeee NI: iie aeaenoaiaaee
oieueei a oi?aiaea e ?uaieianoaa.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai ia/aeny a 1987 a.

Aaoa?aiu niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iiyaeaiea
NI a NNN? noaei ?acoeueoaoii iaiai?ee aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y I.N.
Ai?aa/aaa. Aua a ia?aie iieiaeia 1986 aiaea a iaeiii ec naieo
eioa?aueth ia Caiaaea Ai?aa/aa neacae i aioiaiinoe Nithca ?acaeaaoue
niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai.

Yoi nainaoeeiiiia cayaeaiea Ai?aa/aaa auei caoeene?iaaii e iiaeoaa/aii
eiino?aiiuie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. A Ieienoa?noai aiaoiae
oi?aiaee aucaaee anao, eoi eiae oioue eaeea-oi eiiia?aoeeiiiua
niaeaoaiey n eiino?aiiuie eiiiaieyie. Ei iauynieee, /oi oaeia
niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaeeiaeeee /oi-eeai i?eaeoiaoue.
Ioaeaeueii i?iaiaeeeenue niaanaaeiaaiey ia oo aea oaio n eiino?aiiuie
ia?oia?aie niaaoneeo i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aiia?ao oiaea ia aacaeaenoaiaae, e 13 yiaa?y 1987 aiaea auoae oeac
I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? e iinoaiiaeaiea Niaieia “I niaianoiii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e niaianoiuo oicyenoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaieyo”. Yoio
aeieoiaio i?aaeiieaaae oe?ieea eueaiou ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth e
oaiiaeaiiui nai?ai aeey NI, /oi iaiaei iiniinianoaiaaei niaianoiiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao ii iaa noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu NNN?.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a no?aio ?aoaiea
I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa e Niaieia auei i/aiue neeueiui.

Ia?aia NI auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii a ethea 1987 aiaea , iii auei
i?eaaeoeeneei e caieiaeinue ea?oiiiie oiaeiaeie.

N?aaeiee oeeee niaeaniaaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo e eiuo aeieoiaioia NI a
ia?aua aiaeu eo nouanoaiaaiey ninoaaeye 9-10 ianyoeaa. O?aaiaaeenue aecu
Ieioeia, Aineiio?oaea, Ainieaia, EAA. I?e/ai nieneaoaeue ?ac?aoaiey
aioo?e eaaeaeiai aaaeiinoaa aeieaeai aue i?ieoe aua iiiaeanoai
“iiaeuinoaioeee”. A Ainieaia, iai?eia?, o?aaiaaee niaeaniaaiey a /aou?ao
?aciuo ioaeaeao. Ii ecaanoai neo/ae, eiaaea NI auei nicaeaii e
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii ca iaeei aeaiue. ?aaeaeea Aaiaee i?eacaeae n
ioeoeeaeueiui aeceoii a Iineao, e e aai i?eacaeo ?aoaii auei naeaeaoue
nth?i?ec – niaaonei-eiaeeeneia NI. Oae ia E?aniie I?ania iiyaeeny
?anoi?ai “Aeaee”, eioi?ue aeea e aei neo ii?.

”23 oaa?aey 1988 aiaea nia?aeenue aaia?aeueiua aee?aeoi?a 23 NI, anao,
eioi?ua auee

e oiio a?aiaie ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a NNN?. Iie ia?aciaaee niaao aee?aeoi?ia
NI, eioi?ue iioii i?aia?aciaaeny a Annioeeaoeeth niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee
e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iauaaeeiaiee.”1 Iaeioi?ua aini?aaei?eyoey
niaoeeaeueii o/?aaeaeaee i?e naaa NI, /oiau

iieueciaaoueny iaeaa/aiiui ?aaeeiii ioi?ieaiey aec. Ana yoi ii aieueoae
/anoe oei ia iieueco.

A ieoya?a 1990a. I?aceaeaio NNN? ecaeae Oeac ” Ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo a NNN?”, a a aeaeaa?a oiai aea aiaea Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN?
i?eiye “Iniiau caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
NNN?”, eioi?ua iineoaeeee i?aaiaie aacie aeey i?eiyoey caeiiia ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a oeaeii ?yaea nithciuo ?anioaeee, a oii /enea
caeiia ” Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?NON?” io 4 ethey 1991 a.,
yaeythuaainy a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aeieoiaioia a yoie
iaeanoe.

Naaiaeiy NI eae th?eaee/aneay oi?ia i?aaei?eyoey ia nouanoaoao.
Aieueoeinoai NI ia?a?aaeno?e?iaaeenue a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa e iauanoaa
n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

________________

1 Aa?aa? I. Ia?aua NI, eee i?ienoiaeaeaiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.
//Ecaanoey. – 1995. – 18 ai?aey – n.14.

NIAIANOIIA I?AAeI?EssOEA EEE EIIIA?*ANEAss I?AAIECAOeEss N AeIEAAUI
O*ANOEAI EIINO?AIIUO EIAANOEOeEE

Aiaeec ie?iaiai iiuoa iieacuaaao, /oi o/?aaeaeaiea ia oa??eoi?ee
i?eieiathuaai ainoaea?noaa (no?aiu-?aoeeieaioa) eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee n o/anoeai eiaanoeoeee, i?ienoiaeyueo ec ca?oaaaeiuo
ainoaea?noa (no?ai-aeiii?ia eee eiaanoi?ia), yaeyaony iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiie e yooaeoeaiie oi?iie nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Nicaeaiea oe?i n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai e ianoiiai eaieoaeia (a iaoai
iiieiaiee – niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, NI) iau/ii eniieuecoaony aeey
?aaeecaoeee eiinieeaee?iaaiiuie oneeeyie i?iaeoia, eioi?ua ia iiae neeo
iaoeeiiaeueiui eiiiaieyi.

“Iiiyoea “niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea” (aiae.- joint venture) a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai
iaiieiyaony ?acee/iui niaea?aeaieai. A nia?aiaiiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
i?aeoeea yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa e a aeaeiauo e?oaao niaianoiui
i?aaei?eyoeai iacuaatho ii/oe ana oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa, oaeoe/anee ioiaeaeanoaeyy eiaanoeoeeiiioth e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. “1

Nicaeaiea eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee niaianoiiai aaaeaiey inouanoaeyaony
iooai: niaianoiiai o/?aaeaeaiey ianoiie e eiino?aiiie oe?iaie iiaiai
i?aaei?eyoey, i?eia?aoaiey eiino?aiiie oe?iie iay (aeiee) a i?aaei?eyoee
ianoiie eiiiaiee, iieoiee ianoiie oe?iie iay a i?aaei?eyoee, iieiinoueth
i?eiaaeeaaeauai eiino?aiiiio noauaeoo.

“Caeii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?NON?” io 4 ethey 1991 a., eiay a
aeaeo oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, a nicaeaiee eioi?uo i?eieiatho o/anoea
eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u, oiio?aaeye a ea/anoaa neiiieiia aeaa oa?ieia –
“i?aaei?eyoea n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee” e “niaianoiia
i?aaei?eyoea”. Niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi ”i?aaeeueiaa auei au
ia?aie/eoueny oieueei ia?aui, iineieueeo aoi?ie ia oeacuaaao ia
eiino?aiiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea eiaanoeoeee, ia aaca eioi?uo o/?aaeaeaii
i?aaei?eyoea, a aiai?eo eeoue i oii, /oi a ea/anoaa o/?aaeeoaeae
i?aaei?eyoey aunooiatho ianeieueei (aieaa iaeiiai) eeoe, ia aeaeay i?e
yoii aeoeaioa ia eiino?aiiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
nio/?aaeeoaeae”.1

____________________

1. A. Ai?aoiia Niaianoiue aecian: noaiu e iaoiaeu aeaeiaiai ia?oia?noaa.
//Eiinoeueoaio aee?aeoi?a. -1996 ? 6. n.30.

Aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea iiaaeoaai A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, ii iiaieth A.A. Aoaeeea, aaoi?a eiea “A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea eiii?oa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea” e “NI a ?innee:
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua aniaeou”, iio?aaiaaei ia?aniio?a
oa?ieiieiae/aneie aacu, niaea?aeauaeny a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo.

Aeaenoaiaaaoee aei i?eiyoey iiaiai AE ?O caeii ?NON? “I i?aaei?eyoeyo e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe” ?ani?ino?aiye iiiyoea i?aaei?eyoey
ia eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee anao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i.
I?aaei?eyoeai oiaaea eiaiiaaeenue oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa, oicyenoaaiiua
oiaa?euanoaa, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua /anoiua i?aaei?eyoey, ainoaea?noaaiiua e
ioieoeeiaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u. Iaeiaei a
nayce n ioiaiie yoiai caeiia e aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea *anoe ia?aie AE ?O,
oa?ieiii “i?aaei?eyoea” noaee iaicia/aoue ia ethaua oicyenoaothuea
noauaeou, a oieueei oa eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, a iniiaa eioi?uo
eaaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiay e ioieoeeiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue (oieoa?iua
i?aaei?eyoey). ”Ii yoiio a niaoeeaeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo neaaeoao aiai?eoue ia i i?aaei?eyoeyo n
aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee eee niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
a i eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee.”2

” Eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee
– yoi iauaaeeiaiea eiaanoeoeee a oi?ia th?eaee/aneiai eeoea,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaoi e aieaa eeoeai (oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei),
iaeii ec eioi?uo yaeyaony eiino?aiiui, a oaeaea eiino?aiiiio
ainoaea?noao eee eaeie-eeai iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee,
i?iecaaaeaiiia ia oa??eoi?ee i?eieiathuaai ainoaea?noaa
(no?aiu-?aoeeieaioa) aeey inouanoaeaiey eiiia?/aneie
(i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie) aeayoaeueiinoe.”3

Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii caeanue neoaeeo iaee/ea a /enea nianoaaiieeia
i?aaei?eyoey oioy au iaeiiai eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a, iiyoiio
i?aaei?eyoeai n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee i?eciaaony
o/?aaeaeaiiay ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee a niioaaonoaee n iaoeeiiaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, eiathuay ia iaiaa aeaoo
o/?aaeeoaeae, oioy au iaeei ec eioi?uo yaeyaony eiino?aiiui eeai
i?e?aaiaiiui e eiino?aiiiio eiaanoi?o. Eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee,
o/?aaeaeaiiua ca ?oaaaeii n ___________________

1 Aoaeee A.A. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eiii?oa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1996. N. 48.

2 Oai aea.

3 Iiaeieueneay E.A. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey
//Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii. – 1996. – ?9 – n.56.

o/anoeai ?inneeneiai eaieoaea, eiaiothony ia niaianoiuie, a ca?oaaaeiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie. Eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee n aeieaaui o/anoeai
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea – ?inneeneea th?eaee/aneea eeoea.

“Ainoaea?noaaiiue noaa?aieoao iicaieyao eaaeaeiio ainoaea?noao
naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue th?eaee/aneee ?aaeei eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee ia naiae oa??eoi?ee, iiyoiio aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth,
ii?aaeaeythuae i?aaiaie ?aaeei NI, neaaeoao i?eciaoue i?ei?eoao
iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?aae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ainoaea?noa, iiaeaeaiiuie eioi?uo yaeythony eiino?aiiua o/?aaeeoaee NI.
Iiyoiio NI iieuecothony iaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaiaui ?aaeeiii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?aaiioiioaiey, a
ea/anoaa eioi?uo neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eiiia?/aneoth i?aaiecaoeeth n
aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ineiaeiaiu i?enoonoaeai
eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa. Ecuyoey ec iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aaeeia inouanoaeaiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iiaoo auoue
onoaiiaeaiu oieueei oaaea?aeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.”1

___________________

1. Aann E.A. Iiiu?aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e iieeoeea
i?ioaeoeeiiecia a ?innee.// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. -1999 ?6. n.12.

AEAAA 2

I?AAIECAOeEIIII-I?AAIAUA OI?IU NIAIANOIUO I?AAeI?EssOEE

Naaaeaiey ia i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia ethaie eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee – aaaeiaeoay /anoue aa o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, aac
eioi?ie iaaiciiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey oicyenoaothuaai
noauaeoa e ioi?ieaiea aai eae th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. I?eia?ii oiai, eae
oa eee eiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa
o/eouaaaony a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iiaeao neoaeeoue iinoaiiaeaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 7 aeaeaa?y 1994 a. ? 1355,
niaeanii eioi?iio i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony e?eoa?eai iiauoaiiuo o?aaiaaiee e eiio?iey ni
noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa e aa iineoaeth. A niioaaonoaee n i. 3 iinoaiiaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou, eiathuea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaoth oi?io
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ioe?uoiai oeia, iiaeeaaeao aaeaaiaeiie
aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ea.

Aeoiaaony, ”iiae i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iie eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee eae yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa neaaeoao iiieiaoue eiiieaen
yeiiiie/aneeo, th?eaee/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oaiiiaiia:
onoaiiaeaiioth a a?aaeaeaineii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
e io?aaeaaioth a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee
niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia noaoona o/?aaeeoaeae eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee e
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia eiouanoaa, ia aaca eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony onoaaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, a oaeaea ii?yaeie oi?aaeaiey aai
aeayoaeueiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeyie”.1

Aei i?eiyoey Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo aieueoeinoai niaaoneeo
NI ia?aciaaeinue a oi?ia aeeceie, eeai yeaeaaeaioiie, nia?aiaiiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?a/aiue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, a eioi?uo
iiaoo o/?aaeaeaoueny eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee n aeieaaui o/anoeai
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, a oaeaea niaea?aeaiea e o?aaiaaiey,
i?aaeuyaeyaiua a oie eee eiie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia,
onoaiaaeeaathony a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
oaaea?aoeee. Niaeanii iiaaeoaio AE, eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee (a oii
/enea n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee) iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny
eae oicyenoaaiiua oiaa?euanoaa (iieiua oiaa?euanoaa eee oiaa?euanoaa ia
aa?a), eeai eae oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa (aeoeeiia?iua ___________________

1 Aiae?eaiiaa TH.A. NI eae oi?ia i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee:
Aaoi?aoa?ao. aeen. e.y.i. Ain. Aeaae. Oi?aaeaiey. I., 1999. N.14.

iauanoaa, iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eee iauanoaa n
aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth), eeai eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
eiiia?aoeau. Eiaiii yoei ia?a/iai, a ia oai, eioi?ue niaea?aeeony a
Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo e i?eaioe?iaai ia iuia ioiaiaiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeieaeiu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny o/?aaeeoaee eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee n o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ?aoay aii?in ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia nicaeaaaaiiai eie th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaoy a niioaaonoaee n iiaaeoei a?aaeaeaineei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (no.66 AE ?O), o/?aaeeoaee NI iiaoo nicaeaaaoue eo a
iaeiie ec neaaeothueo oi?i:

– anee i?eiyoi ?aoaiea o/?aaeeoue NI eae oicyenoaaiiia oiaa?euanoai, oi
yoi iiaeao auoue eeai iieiia oiaa?euanoai, eeai oiaa?euanoai ia aa?a
(eiiiaiaeeoiia oiaa?euanoai);

– anee NI o/?aaeaeaaony eae oicyenoaaiiia iauanoai, oi yoi iiaeao auoue
aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai, iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eee
iauanoai n aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth;

– anee i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia eniieueciaaiee eiiia?aoeaiie oi?iu NI, oiaaea
iii aeieaeii o/?aaeaeaoueny eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiiia?aoea.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia?a/aiue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, niaea?aeaueeny a AE ?O yaeyaony
en/a?iuaathuei.

Oai?aoe/anee aiciiaeii o/?aaeaeaiea NI a ethaie ec ia?a/eneaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, iaeiaei a ?aaeueiie oicyenoaaiiie
i?aeoeea ia ana iie eniieuecothony aecianiaiaie n iaeeiaeiaie noaiaiueth
eioaineaiinoe.

Niaianoiui i?aaei?eyoeai a oi?ia iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa a niioaaonoaee n
i.1 no. 69 AE ?O i?eciaaony oicyenoaaiiia oiaa?euanoai, o/anoieee
eioi?iai (iieiua oiaa?eue), a oii /enea eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?, niaeanii
caeeth/aiiiio iaaeaeo ieie aeiaiai?o caieiathony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth io eiaie oiaa?euanoaa e ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aai
iaycaoaeuenoaai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei ei eiouanoaii.

NI, o/?aaeaeaiiia eae iieiia oiaa?euanoai, ia eiaao onoaaa, a ana
aii?inu aai aeayoaeueiinoe ?aoathony o/?aaeeoaeyie a ?aieao
niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaiai?a (no. 70 AE ?O). Ia i?aeoeea aeaiiay
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia i?eiaiyaony aeey NI, nicaeaaaaiuo ia
ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie, aeey ?aoaiey eieaeueiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
i?iaeaiu, iai?eia?, i?iiuoeaiiiai inaiaiey ioaeaeueiiai ia?niaeoeaiiai n
oi/ee c?aiey iieo/aiey i?eauee ecia?aoaiey.

Yoa i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia o?aaoao iniauo, aeiaa?eoaeueiuo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie, iineieueeo neeoeii aaeeee ?ene,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue oiaa?euae. A niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a i iieiii oiaa?euanoaa
o/anoieee NI, ia?aciaaiiiai a yoie oi?ia, nieeaea?ii ianoo
noaneaeea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue anai naiei eiouanoaii (a ia oieueei oai,
eioi?ia ninoaaeyao aeeaae a neeaaei/iii eaieoaea) ii iaycaoaeuenoaai
oiaa?euanoaa (iaia?aie/aiiay e nieeaea?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue), a nayce n
/ai iieiia oiaa?euanoai ia?aaeei eiaiotho oiaa?euanoaii n iaia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeioi?uo no?ai, aeeth/ay
?inneeneoth Oaaea?aoeeth, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeuyaeaiey
i?aoaicee e e auaoei o/anoieeai iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa. *anoue 2 no. 75 AE
?O iaiaa?eaaao, /oi o/anoiee, auauaoee ec oiaa?euanoaa, ioaa/aao ii anai
iaycaoaeuenoaai, aicieeoei aei iiiaioa aai auauoey, ia?aaia n
inoaaoeieny o/anoieeaie. Aeaiiay iaycaiiinoue nio?aiyaony a oa/aiea
aeaoo eao ni aeiy ooaa?aeaeaiey io/aoa i aeayoaeueiinoe oiaa?euanoaa a
oio aiae, a eioi?ii ioaao/ee auaue ec oiaa?euanoaa.

NI a oi?ia oiaa?euanoaa ia aa?a (eiiiaiaeeoiiai oiaa?euanoaa) i?eciaaony
oicyenoaaiiia oiaa?euanoai, a eioi?ii ia?yaeo n o/anoieeaie,
inouanoaeythueie io eiaie oiaa?euanoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue e ioaa/athueie io eiaie oiaa?euanoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e ioaa/athueie ii iaycaoaeuenoaai
oiaa?euanoaa naiei eiouanoaii (iieiuie oiaa?euaie), eiaaony iaeei eee
ianeieueei o/anoieeia – aeeaae/eeia (eiiiaiaeenoia), eioi?ua ianoo ?ene
oauoeia, naycaiiuo n aeayoaeueiinoueth oiaa?euanoaa, a i?aaeaeao noii
aianaiiuo eie aeeaaeia e ia i?eieiatho o/anoey a inouanoaeaiee
oiaa?euanoaii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe (no. 82 AE ?O). Oaeei
ia?acii, i?aaiaie noaoon iieiuo oiaa?euae e eiiiaiaeeoenoia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaiaeeiaeiauie i?aaiii/eyie ii oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie
i?aaei?eyoey e ?acee/iui iauaiii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acoeueoaou aai
?aaiou. Anee ia?aua iaaeaeaiu aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie ii oi?aaeaieth NI,
oi e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acoeueoaou naiae aeayoaeueiinoe auoa
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eiiiaiaeenoia, aeaeaae?iaaaoeo ei i?aaa.

*oi aea eanaaony o/anoey a i?eaueyo NI, oi ?acee/ey a noaoona iieiuo
oiaa?euae e eiiiaiaeenoia ia o/eouaathony, iineieueeo aeaaiui iiiaioii.
Io eioi?iai caaenyo ?acia?u aeeaeaeaiaeia, neaaeoao n/eoaoue ?acia?
aeeaaea eaaeaeiai o/anoieea a ia?aciaaiea neeaaei/iiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey.

?anniio?aiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia NI iniaaiii oaeiaia aeey
eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a, ?aoeaoaainy aeiaeeoue eaieoae ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ea/anoaa eiiiaiaeeoenoa. Ca?oaaaeiiai
aecianiaia aeaaiui ia?acii eioa?anoao aeiey i?eauee, e ii aa iieo/eo eae
eiiiaiaeeoeno. Aii?inu oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe NI aai iau/ii ia
eanathony, eai ii ia iiaeao iinoiyiii iaoiaeeoueny ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
e ia naaaeou a oiieinoyo e i?ioeai?a/eyo ?inneeneiai oicyenoaaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aeoeee. ?eneioa aeiaeeoue
naie n?aaenoaa a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo, eiino?aiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee,
ouaoaeueii aua?aa naaa ?inneeneiai ia?oia?a e iiaeienaa o/?aaeeoaeueiue
aeiaiai?, ii?o/atho aaaeaiea oaeoueo aeae ?inneeneei o/anoieeai,
aunooiathuei a ea/anoaa iieiuo oiaa?euae, ia aieeay a iaei/e
iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe naieo ?inneeneeo eieeaa ii oi?aaeaieth
aeaeaie NI e ia?aie/eaaynue eiio?ieai ?aoaiey i?eioeeieaeueiuo aii?inia.

Iaeaieaa /anoi o/?aaeeoaee a ea/anoaa i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu NI
ecae?atho oi?io iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

A neeo iniaaiiinoae, eanathueony i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?a
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, yoa oi?ia iaeaieaa i?aaeii/eoaaia
a ?innee ia oieueei o/?aaeeoaeyie NI, ii e ae?oaeie aecianiaiaie.
Iauanoaii n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth i?eciaaony o/?aaeaeaiiay
iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie eeoeaie eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, onoaaiue
eaieoae eioi?ie ?acaeaeai ia aeiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/?aaeeoaeueiuie
aeieoiaioaie ?acia?ia; o/anoieee oaeiai iauanoaa ia ioaa/atho ii aai
iaycaoaeuenoaai e ianoo ?ene oauoeia, naycaiiuo n aeayoaeueiinoueth
iauanoaa, a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe aianaiiuo eie aeeaaeia (no. 87 AE ?O).

?acee/ea iaaeaeo iieiui oiaa?euanoaii e iauanoaii n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth caeeth/aaony a ionoonoaee aeaeaiey o/anoieeia
iineaaeiaai ia iieiuo oiaa?euae e eiiiaiaeeoenoia e a iaoneiaeaiiie yoie
iaeii?iaeiinoueth oa?aeoa?a eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie
oiaa?euanoaa. Iauay noiia aeieae anao o/anoieeia NI a oi?ia iauanoaa n
ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e neoaeeo i?aaeaeii eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie. NI, iaeiiea a ?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe oauoeia naa?o yoiai i?aaeaea, ia noaaeo naieo o/anoieeia
ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eo eiiiainaoeee e?aaeeoi?ai a iieiii iauaia.

Neaaeothuei ioee/eai iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth io
iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa yaeyaony oi, /oi o/anoieee ia?aiai ia iaycaiu ee/ii
o/anoaiaaoue a aeayoaeueiinoe NI, o. a. iiaoo aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa
?aiouea, nouanoaoy ia aeeaeaeaiaeu. Iie aianee naie aeeaae a eaieoae
iauanoaa, e ia yoii eo o/anoea a aai aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao caeii/eoueny,
a oi a?aiy eae iieiua oiaa?eue iaycaiu oi?aaeyoue aeaeaie,
i?aaenoaaeyoue NI ia?aae eiio?aaaioaie i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie.

Niaianoiui i?aaei?eyoeai a oi?ia iauanoaa n aeiiieieoaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth “i?eciaaony o/?aaeaeaiiia ianeieueeeie (aeeth/ay
eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a) eeoeaie oicyenoaaiiia iauanoai, onoaaiue
eaieoae eioi?iai ?acaeaeai ia aeiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/?aaeeoaeueiuie
aeieoiaioaie ?acia?ia; o/anoieee oaeiai iauanoaa nieeaea?ii ianoo
noaneaeea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai naiei eiouanoaii
a iaeeiaeiaii aeey anao ?acia?a, e?aoiii noieiinoe eo aeeaaeia,
ii?aaeaeyaiii o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie iauanoaa. I?e aaie?ionoaa
iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia aai ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii iaycaoaeuenoaai iauanoaa
?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo inoaeueiuie i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo aeeaaeai, anee
eiie ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia i?aaeoniio?ai
o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie iauanoaa”.1

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 96 AE ?O aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii i?eciaaony
oicyenoaaiiia iauanoai, onoaaiue eaieoae eioi?iai ?acaeaeai ia
ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeoeee; o/anoieee AI (aeoeeiia?u) ia ioaa/atho ii
aai iaycaoaeuenoaai e ianoo ?ene oauoeia, naycaiiuo n aeayoaeueiinoueth
iauanoaa, a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei aeoeee.

Aoaeee A.A. n/eoaao, /oi Aeoeeiia?iay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeiaiaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie i?e nicaeaiee eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee, ninoaa eioi?uo ineiaeiai o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa.
”Aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia iaoaeiaia aeey NI, yaeythueony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, iineieueeo aeoeee aeoeeiia?iuo ioe?uoiai
oeia iiaoo naiaiaeii iaiaieaaoueny e i?iaeaaaoueny, iieoiaoueny e
io/oaeaeaoueny eiuie niiniaaie eai oaiaeii, eiio oaiaeii e a eaeii
oaiaeii eiee/anoaa, o. a. ninoaa o/anoieeia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa
ianoaaeeai”. Ii i.1 no. 7 Oaaea?aeueiiai Caeiia io 26 aeaeaa?y 1995 a.
? 208-OC ”Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao” aeaneo, /oi iauanoai iiaeao auoue
eae ioe?uoui oae e cae?uoui, /oi io?aaeaii a aai onoaaa e oe?iaiiii
iaeiaiiaaiee.

Iauanoai, aeoeee eioi?iai ?ani?aaeaeythony oieueei n?aaee aai
o/?aaeeoaeae eee eiiai, ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe, i?eciaaony
cae?uoui iauanoaii. Oaeia iauanoai ia ai?aaa i?iaiaeeoue ioe?uooth
iiaeieneo ia auioneaaiua ei aeoeee eeai eiui ia?acii i?aaeeaaaoue eo
aeey i?eia?aoaiey iaia?aie/aiiiio e?oao eeoe. *enei aeoeeiia?ia
cae?uoiai iauanoaa ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue iyoeaeanyoe. A neo/aa anee
/enei aeoeeiia?ia cae?uoiai iauanoaa i?aauneo onoaiiaeaiiue ianoiyuei
ioieoii i?aaeae, oeacaiiia iauanoai a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea aeieaeii
i?aia?aciaaoueny a ioe?uoia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai. Anee /enei aai
aeoeeiia?ia ia oiaiueoeony aei onoaiiaeaiiiai ianoiyuei ioieoii
i?aaeaea, iauanoai iiaeeaaeeo eeeaeaeaoeee a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.

Aeoeeiia?u cae?uoiai iauanoaa eiatho i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai
i?eia?aoaiey ____________________

1. no. 95 AE ?O.

aeoeee, i?iaeaaaaiuo ae?oaeie aeoeeiia?aie yoiai iauanoaa, ii oeaia
i?aaeeiaeaiey ae?oaiio eeoeo. Onoaaii iauanoaa iiaeao auoue
i?aaeoniio?aii i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai iauanoaa ia i?eia?aoaiea aeoeee,
i?iaeaaaaiuo aai aeoeeiia?aie, anee aeoeeiia?u ia eniieueciaaee naia
i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai i?eia?aoaiey aeoeee.

Oi/aony iieiinoueth niaeaneoueny n oaie aaoi?aie, eioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi
naie aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe neoaeeo oi?ioei noeioeii aeey
i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee: ” i?eaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia ia eiaao aica?aoiiai oa?aeoa?a e aeaao aieueoa
aiciiaeiinoae, /ai e?aaeeo, iiyaeythony iiaua oi?iu aeioiaea –
aeeaeaeaiae, o/?aaeeoaeueneay i?eaueue”.1 I?eia?ii,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuei iiioey?iinoue, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu AI
iiaeao neoaeeoue oi, /oi ii Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe Niaianoiua
i?aaei?eyoey o/?aaeaeathony a iniiaiii a oi?ia AI.

I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi a ia?aua 4 – 5 eao iinea i?eiyoey caeiiia,
?ac?aoathueo eiino?aiiia eiaanoe?iaaiea a ?innee, aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa
ioe?uoiai e iniaaiii

cae?uoiai oeia nicaeaaaeenue e?aeia iaaeeaiiuie oaiiaie. ”Iaaeaeo oai,
eiaiii yoe i?aaei?eyoey a neeo eo aieueoae onoie/eainoe, noaaeeueiinoe e
iaeiiaoe, aieaa e?oiiuo aaaa?eoia (iauai iniiaiuo oiiaeia, /eneaiiinoue
caiyouo e ae?.) niiniaiu nouanoaaiii

iiauneoue eiino?aiiia i?enoonoaea a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea”.2
Niia?acoynue ni no. 197 AE ?O, eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae n o/anoeai
eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa a oi?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiia?aoeaa (a?oaee)
i?eciaaony aeia?iaieueiia iauaaeeiaiea a?aaeaeai (a oii /enea
yaeythueony iiaeaeaiiuie eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa) ia iniiaaiee /eainoaa
aeey niaianoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eee eiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iniiaaiiie ia eo ee/iii o?oaeiaii e eiii o/anoee e iauaaeeiaiee aai
/eaiaie eiouanoaaiiuo iaaauo aciinia.

N o/aoii anaai neacaiiiai i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui aeaoue neaaeothuaa
iiiyoea niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey. ”Iiae eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae n
aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa iiieiaaony naiinoiyoaeueii
oicyenoaothuee noauaeo, iaeaaeathuee noaoonii th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a
niioaaonoaee n ?inneeneei a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, niaianoii
o/?aaeaeaiiue ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a ?inneeneeie e eiino?aiiuie (eeai
i?e?aaiaiiuie e eiino?aiiui a neeo caeiia) oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie
eeoeaie, a oaeaea eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie a i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia oicyenoaaiiiai iauanoaa,
___________________

1 Aiae?eaiiaa TH.A. NI eae oi?ia i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee:
Aaoi?aoa?ao. aeen. e.y.i. Ain. Aeaae. Oi?aaeaiey. I., 1999. N.14.

2 Oaeaaeineay A.Ae. I?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii a ?innee. I.:
Oeinoaoeioi?i., 1995. N. 69.2

oicyenoaaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiia?aoeaa aeey
eniieueciaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aeeaaeia naieo o/?aaeeoaeae a i?ioeanna
eiiia?/aneie (i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie) aeayoaeueiinoe.”1

____________________

1 Aoaeee A. A. NI a ?innee: I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua aniaeou: Iaoiae.
iiniaea. I., 1993. N.65.

IAUAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA I?IOeANNA NICAeAIEss NIAIANOIIAI I?AAeI?EssOEss

A neeo aeaenoaey i?eioeeia iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aaeeia, i?aaenoaaeyaiiai
eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi, niaeanii no.12 e 13 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyie
o/?aaeaeathony a ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiii aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n ioiaiie caeiia ?NON? “I
i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe” yoio ii?yaeie
cae?aieyaony a AE ?O) n o/aoii aeiiieiaiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, e ooieoeeiie?otho a
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?iao, i?aaeoniio?aiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?innee.

A niioaaonoaee ni no.13 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo: niaianoiia
i?aaei?eyoea ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee iiaeao auoue nicaeaii n
eniieueciaaieai ?acee/iuo niiniaia. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony
o/?aaeaeaiea NI n nicaeaieai iiaiai TH?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aeiaiai? i /ai
iiaeienuaaao n?aaee i?i/eo o/anoieeia eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?. I?aaiaie
oi?iie, iiin?aaeothuae aeaenoaey eiaanoi?ia, a yoii neo/aa aoaeao
o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai? (no.52 AE ?O). Aoi?ie niinia i?eniaaeeiaiey
eiino?aiiiai eeoea e nouanoaothuaio ?inneeneiio th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo,
eiaaea eiino?aiiue eiaanoi? i?eia?aoaao aeieth o/anoey (iae, aeoeeth) a
?aiaa o/?aaeaeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee aac eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Eiaaea eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, ?aiaa o/?aaeaeaiiay aac o/anoey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, o?ainoi?ie?oaony a oi, /oi eiaioaony niaianoiui
i?aaei?eyoeai, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo iaee/ea aeaoo aiciiaeiinoae
oaeie o?ainoi?iaoeee.

Eiino?aiiue o/anoiee iiaeao i?eniaaeeieoueny e ?inneeneei o/?aaeeoaeyi e
noaoue nio/?aaeeoaeai – a yoii neo/aa aeaenoaey eiino?aiiiai o/anoieea
NI iiin?aaeothony aeiaiai?ii i?eniaaeeiaiey niaeanii no. 428 AE ?O.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa, eanathuainy oao eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?uo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeoniio?aiu ia oieueei o/?aaeeoaee, ii e eiua
ia?oia?u, o. a. Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao,
o/anoieeaie eioi?uo yaeythony o/?aaeeoaee e aeoeeiia?u, aeoeeth iiaeao
i?eia?anoe eiino?aiiue a?aaeaeaiei e i?e yoii ia noaoue o/?aaeeoaeai
eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee. Ieeaeiai aeiaiai?a i?eniaaeeiaiey, a yoii
neo/aa, ia caeeth/aaony – ioiioaiey iiin?aaeothony naeaeeie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee oeaiiie aoiaae eee na?oeoeeaoa.

Ecaanoii, /oi ?acieoea iaaeaeo ?yaeiaui aeoeeiia?ii e o/?aaeeoaeai
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa i/aiue aaeeea; iauaiu i?aainiiniaiinoe ia?aiai e
aoi?iai nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aicieeaao aii?in:
noaiao ee niaianoiui i?aaei?eyoeai ?inneeneay eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey,
o/?aaeaeaiiay a oi?ia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, anee ianeieueei aa aeoeee
i?eia?ae eiino?aiiue noauaeo? Aoeaaeueii oieeoy no. 13. Caeiia ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, ia aeaiiue aii?in neaaeoao ioaaoeoue
iieiaeeoaeueii. Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa aicieeaao ianna i?iaeai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeoeeiia?iiai NI. Iiyoiio, a oiiiyioooth noaoueth
oeaeaniia?acii aianoe eciaiaiey neaaeothuaai niaea?aeaiey:
“Aeaenoaothuay ?inneeneay eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey i?eia?aoaao noaoon
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a oii
neo/aa, anee i?eia?aoaiea aeiee o/anoey (aeoeee) a iae nii?iaiaeaeaaony
i?eia?aoaieai eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ii noaoona nio/?aaeeoaey yoie
i?aaiecaoeee.”1

Aiciiaeai e eiie aa?eaio, caeinoaiaaiiue ec ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa. ” Oae,
iai?eia?, a NOA oi?iaeueii i?eciathony i?yiui ca?oaaaeiui
eiaanoe?iaaieai anyeea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, anee a ?acoeueoaoa eiaanoi?
aoaeao ?aniieaaaoue oioy au 10% nianoaaiiinoe ca?oaaaeiie oe?iu.”2

“A iaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo
oaeaea auei au oeaeaniia?acii onoaiiaeoue anee ia ieaeithth ieaieo
eiino?aiiiai o/anoey a eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ethaie
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu, ca eioi?ie i?aaei?eyoea i?iaeieaeaao
nio?aiyoue ?aaeei “iau/iiai” e ia ?anniao?eaaaony caeiiii eae
niaianoiia, oi oioy au aeey NI a oi?ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa oio
ieieiaeueiue i?aaeae o/anoey eiino?aiiuo aeoeeiia?ia (i?ioeaio
i?eia?aoaiiuo aeoeee), eioi?ue aeaao i?aai eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee
eiaiiaaoueny NI e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieueciaaoueny oaie, ionoue ia
i/aiue iiea nouanoaaiiuie eueaioaie, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu a noa?a
eiino?aiiie eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A neo/aa anee eiino?aiiue
aeoeeiia? ia noae nio/?aaeeoaeai, eeai ia i?eia?ae noaoona
no?aoaae/aneiai eiaanoi?a i?aaei?eyoey, iineaaeiaa ia aeieaeii
n/eoaoueny niaianoiie eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae.”3

Caeiiiaeaoaeue i?eaeaao aaaeiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
niiniao, eioi?ui nicaeaaony NI. Oae, anee eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?
i?eia?aoaao aeieth o/anoey a oaea aeaenoaothuae ___________________

1 Aoaeee A.A. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eiii?oa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1996. N. 67.

2 Eeiaea?oaae I.O. yeiiiieea ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae. I, 1992. N. 461.

3 ?oaeaoaaneee A., Eueaia A., Oo?uee I., Aa?iooue eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a
ia oieueei ioaeii, ii e iiaeii.// Eiaanoeoeee a ?innee, ?1 1999 a. n.10

eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, caeii i?aaeinoaaeyao aio aieueooth naiaiaeo
iaiaa?a naieie eiaanoeoeeyie, /ai a neo/aa, eiaaea eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?
i?eia?aoaao aeieth o/anoey a iaaeaenoaothuai ?inneeneii i?aaei?eyoee, ii
iiaeao iieaoeoue aa ia oieueei a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, ii e a ?oaeyo
iieo/aiiuo a ea/anoaa aeioiaea, ia oa??eoi?ee i?eieiathuaai
ainoaea?noaa.

“O/?aaeaeaiea NI – yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo e iineaaeiaaoaeueii
inouanoaeyaiuo th?eaee/aneeo aeaenoaee o/?aaeeoaeyie, aeeth/athuay a
naay i?eiyoey o/?aaeeoaeyie ?aoaiey i nicaeaiee eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee; i?iaaaeaiey a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo ainoaea?noaaiiie
yenia?oecu eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa oicyenoaaiiiai iauanoaa
(oiaa?euanoaa) n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee; caeeth/aiea
o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a e ooaa?aeaeaiea onoaaa; ainoaea?noaaiioth
?aaeno?aoeeth iiaiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a aaeieieno?aoeee noauaeoa ?O
eee eiii oiieiiii/aiiii ia oi i?aaia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe;
oi?ie?iaaiea onoaaiiai (neeaaei/iiai) eaieoaea ia oneiaeyo e a ?acia?a,
onoaiiaeaiiuo o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie.”1 A ?aieao yoeo noaaeee
o/?aaeeoaee inouanoaeytho:

– iiaeaioiaeo i?iaeoa niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey (aecian-ieaia
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa NI), iiene caeioa?aniaaiiuo eiino?aiiuo
ia?oia?ia e iai?aaeaiea ei niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaeeiaeaiey;

– i?iaaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia n iioaioeeaeueiui eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ii e
ninoaaeaiea i?ioieiea iaia?aiee;

– iiaeaioiaeo, niaeaniaaiea e iiaeienaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia
NI;

– ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth NI.

Iai?aaeyy eiino?aiiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi i?aaeeiaeaiey i
nio?oaeie/anoaa, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aua iaeii aaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai.
Niaeanii no. 14, 16, Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo ia/aei
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?yaea neo/aaa nii?yaeaii n
yenia?oecie i?iaeoia NI. Oae anee nicaeaiea NI o?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey
e?oiiiianooaaiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa eeai ?aeiino?oeoeee aeaenoaothuaai
i?aaei?eyoey, a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea i?iaiaeeony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay
no?ieoaeueiay yenia?oeca. Niaoeeaeueiue iiaecaeiiiue aeo aeaoaeece?iaae
iacaaiiua ii?iu Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo. A niioaaonoaee n
Ii?yaeeii i?iaaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie yenia?oecu i?iaeoia
no?ieoaeuenoaa iauaeoia n i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea,
ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai Ieienoa?noaa no?ieoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io 16 oaa?aey 1995 a. ? 18-18 ainoaea?noaaiiie
___________________

1 Aaeniai Ae., Aieoaaaa AE. Niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee:
iiuo e i?iaeaiu //Yei.-1996.-?8, n129.

yenia?oeca iiaeeaaeao e?oiiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou no?ieoaeuenoaa n
eniieueciaaieai eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e
athaeaeaoa noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea i?iaeou
iioaioeeaeueii iianiuo e oaoie/anee iniai neiaeiuo iauaeoia iacaaeneii
io enoi/ieea eo oeiaine?iaaiey.

A iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie o?aaoao iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothuaai caeeth/aiey
naieoa?ii-yieaeaieieiae/aneeo neoaea e i?iaaaeaiey yeieiae/aneie
yenia?oecu. Ana aeaeu yenia?oec e auaea/a ?ac?aoaiee inouanoaeythony a
iauai, ii?yaeea a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, yeieiae/aneia
aicaeaenoaea eioi?uo iiaeao cao?iiooue oa??eoi?eth aieaa /ai iaeiiai
noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, yeieiae/aneay yenia?oeca i?iaiaeeony
niaianoiie eiienneae, nicaeaaaaiie ia ia?eoaoiuo ia/aeao
niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiaie caeioa?aniaaiiuo Noauaeoia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Yenia?oeca eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ?aoaao aeaaiui ia?acii yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie a ?yaea
neo/aaa nii?yaeaii eiaanoeoeeiiiia nio?oaeie/anoai n o/anoeai
eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa. Iaeiaei a ?aieao yenia?oecu eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia i?aaenoaaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui oaeaea ?aoaoue aii?inu,
eanathueany iaania/aiey ia oieueei yeieiae/aneeo eioa?ania, ii e
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe no?aiu a oeaeii.

Ia aeaiiii yoaia nicaeaiey NI oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii cai?ineoue o
eiioe?iu-i?aoaiaeaioa aeieoiaioaeueiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa i i?aaiaii
noaoona e oeiainiaie ninoiyoaeueiinoe – auienee ec oi?aiaiai ?aano?a aa
no?aiu, aoaeeoi?neia caeeth/aiea eee ni?aaeo ianeoaeeaathuaai aaiea i
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe oe?iu.

Iieo/ea iieiaeeoaeueiue ioaao ia i?aaeeiaeaiea i nio?oaeie/anoaa, iiaeii
i?enooiaoue e ia?aaiai?ai, eoiaii eioi?uo aeieaeia noaoue
aeieoiaioaeueiay oeenaoeey (a i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo) iaithaeiiai
aeaeaiey ia?oia?ia nicaeaoue NI a eca?aiiie eie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe;
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa, o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a
e onoaaa NI; niaeaniaaiey a?aiaie e ianoa iiaeienaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia NI. I?eaeaoay eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia aeey ia?aaiai?ia a
?inneth, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aeey iaeioi?uo oa??eoi?ee no?aiu
onoaiiaeai iniaue ii?yaeie eo iinauaiey eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie.
Aeaiiua aii?inu o?aaoee?iaaiu iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 4
ethey 1992 a. ?470 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ia?a/iy oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee n ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiui iinauaieai aeey eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai”
(n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie io 17 iiya?y 1994 a.). ”I?e ninoaaeaiee
i?ioieiea nio/?aaeeoaee NI aeieaeiu ecaaaaoue aeeth/aiey iaycuaathueo
oi?ioee?iaie oeia “noi?iiu i?aaei?eioo”, “noi?iiu iaycothony”,
“iinoaayo” e o. ae. ”1 Aeaei a oii, /oi a caiaaeiie th?eaee/aneie e
aeaeiaie i?aeoeea ethaie ienueiaiiue aeieoiaio iacaaeneii io aai
iacaaiey iiaeao auoue i?eciai nicaeathuei iaycaoaeuenoaa aeey noi?ii,
aai iiaeienaaoeo, anee aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea iaia?aiey noi?ii caeeth/eoue
naeaeeo e auiieiyoue aa oneiaey (naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, caiene
aanaae e o.ae.). ?inneeneee o/anoiee, i?iyaea iainoi?iaeiinoue a
oi?ioee?iaeao i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo, iiaeao naycaoue naay oaeeie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie, eioi?ua aio iaauaiaeiu, eee, n/eoay naay naiaiaeiui io
iaauaiee, aeaaea ia aoaeao ciaoue i oii, /oi n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee
c?aiey ii oaea noae iaycaiiui eeoeii. Iiyoiio ” a i?ioieiea i
iaia?aieyo aeaeaoaeueii iia?e?iaaoue oi?ioee?iaeaie oeia: “noi?iiu
i?eioo ai aieiaiea”, “?anniio?yo”, “eco/ao aiciiaeiinoue” e o.ae., o.
a. iaiaoiaeeii any/anee iiae/a?eeaaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oa?aeoa? yoiai
aeieoiaioa. Aeey aieueoae aa?aioee a iineaaenoaee, i?e iiaeienaiee
o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a, a iaai iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue ioieo i oii,
/oi ana i?aaeuaeouea niaeaoaiey e iaia?aiey noi?ii ia aeaenoaotho n
iiiaioa iiaeienaiey aeiaiai?a.”2

Ia?aaeei eiino?aiiue o/?aaeeoaeue NI ianoaeaaao ia oii. *oiau eoiae
ia?aaiai?ia auee caoeene?iaaiu ia a i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo, a a
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii aeiaiai?a ia o/?aaeaeaiee NI. TH?eaee/aneay
aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/aiey oaeiai ?iaea niaeaoaiee a ?inneeneie
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea aicieeea n i?ieiiae?iaaieai ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca
NN? e ?anioaeee” (1991 a.), eioi?ua ia?yaeo n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauie aeiaiai?aie i?aaeoniio?aee e yoio. A neeo no. 429
aeaenoaothuaai AE ?O, ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio aeiaiai?o noi?iiu iaycothony
caeeth/eoue a aoaeouai aeiaiai? ia niaa?oaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo

th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo aeaenoaee (i ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa, auiieiaiee ?aaio
e ae?.) ia oneiaeyo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeiaiai?ii.

Iaaiai?ea iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa NI e
o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, oneiaeaoenue, eoi aoaeao ninoaaeyoue eo a
ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee, aaea e eiaaea ninoieony i/a?aaeiay ano?a/a
ia?oia?ia, aeieoiaioaeueii cae?aiea yoi a i?ioieiea, iiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue
e neaaeothuae noaaeee – iiaeaioiaea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa NI.

Caoai neaaeothuay noaaeey o/?aaeaeaiey NI – iiaeienaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia. Iau/ii eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?iaeo, i?iaeo aeiaiai?a i
niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie ___________________

1 Iiaeieueneay E.A. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua aeieoiaiou NI.//Oi?aaeaiea
ia?niiaeii. -1996. -?9 n57.

2 Oai aea.

aeayoaeueiinoe e nicaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee (o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a) e onoaaa NI ninoaaeyao
caeioa?aniaaiiay noi?iia. Niaeaniaaa oeacaiiua aeieoiaiou, iiaeii
i?enooiaoue e eo iiaeienaieth. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (a
oii /enea e ?inneeneei), anee a aeiaiai?a i?yii ia oeacaia aeaoa ia/aea
aai aeaenoaey, ii anooiaao a neeo n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey oi?aaiii/aiiuie
eeoeaie eeai n eaeie-oi ae?oaie aeaou, i eioi?ie iiaeii iieo/eoue
i?aaenoaaeaiea ec niaea?aeaiey aeiaiai?a. Eia/a aiai?y, anee eiia
niaoeeaeueii ia iaiai?aii noi?iiaie, aeiaiai? iiaeao anooieoue a
aeaenoaea e aei ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee NI. Anee aea i?e
?aaeno?aoeee NI auynieony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeth/aiey iii?aaie, eciaiaiee
a oaeno aeiaiai?a (ia /ai, iai?eia?, aoaeao ianoaeaaoue i?aai,
inouanoaeythuee ?aaeno?aoeeth), oi noi?iiai i?eaeaony niiaa i?iaiaeeoue
ia?aaiai?u, niaeaniauaay yoe iii?aaee. A neo/aa ?anniaeaniauaaiey n?ieia
?aaeno?aoeee NI e anooieaiey a aeaenoaea o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a
iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie iiaoo aicieeiooue eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee. Iai?eia?.
Eiino?aiiue o/?aaeeoaeue, ia aeiaeeaeaynue ?aaeno?aoeee NI, ia/ae
iinoaaee a ?inneth iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoneiaeaiiiai aeiaiai?ii a ea/anoaa
aai aeeaaea a onoaaiue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey. Anee aicieeioo caaea?aeee a
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee NI aaeaeo ia?a?aaioee eee aeiiieiaiee ii
o?aaiaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia,
eiino?aiiue o/?aaeeoaeue ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue eiiiainaoeee oauoeia,
aucaaiiuo i?inoiai iinoaaeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. A oaeea i?inoie
iaecaaaeiu, iineieueeo aei iiiaioa ?aaeno?aoeee NI ia iiaeao ia/eiaoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, oae eae th?eaee/anee aua ia
nouanoaoao.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiiai aei ?aaeno?aoeee NI neaaeoao i?iaanoe
ia?aoe?iaaiea aeiaiai?a (i?inoaaeaiea eieoeeaeia noi?ii ia eaaeaeie
no?aieoea oaenoa aeiaiai?a, /oi nayaeao eo aeiaiai?iuie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie), a onoaa e aeiaiai? iiaeienaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia?aae ?aaeno?aoeeae NI, eiaaea ono?aiaiu ana caia/aiey th?eaee/aneie
neoaeau ?aaeno?e?othuaai i?aaia.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss ?AAENO?AOeEss I?AAeI?EssOEE N EIINO?AIIUIE
EIAANOEOeEssIE

Iiaeienaa o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou NI, o/?aaeeoaee iiaoo i?enooiaoue e
aai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecioei naeeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaiauo ?aaeeiia, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo ii?yaeie
ia?aciaaiey oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie. A
NNN? nouanoaiaae ?ac?aoeoaeueiue ii?yaeie nicaeaiey niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ii eioi?iio ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aciaaiea NI aeaaaei
niioaaonoaothuaa ieienoa?noai eee aaaeiinoai, i?e/ai ioeac a aea/a
oaeiai niaeaney iaeuecy auei inii?eoue. Oaia?ue ii?yaeie ia?aciaaiey NI
noae ?aaeno?aoeeiiiui. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aii?in i nicaeaiee NI ?aoatho
oieueei aai o/?aaeeoaee e ieeoi ia a i?aaa cai?aoeoue ei i?aaieciaaoue
NI. Ca ainoaea?noaii aea inoaaony iaycaiiinoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue oaeo
iiaiai noauaeoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iauee ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, onoaiiaeaiiue no. 51 AE
?O, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui th?eaee/aneia eeoei iiaeeaaeeo
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee a i?aaiao thnoeoeee, i?eiaieoaeueii e NI
nouanoaaiii ooi/iai niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. I?aaeei
?aaeno?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
?aaeaiaioe?oaony no. 16-18 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo e
anooieaoei a aeaenoaea n 1 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?NON? io 28 iiya?y 1991 a. ?26 “I ?aaeno?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”. 8 ethey 1994 a. auei i?eiyoi
Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee noauaeoia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ooaa?aeaeaiiia oeacii I?aceaeaioa
?O io 8ethey 1994 a. ?1482 ” Ia oii?yaei/aiee ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”, eioi?ia niaea?aeeo i?aaeea, ?ani?ino?aiythueany e ia
niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey.

N 1994 a., o.a. n iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie
iaeaou, NI n onoaaiui eaieoaeii aei 100 oun. ?oa. ?aaeno?e?othony a
i?aaiao ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
(?anioaeee a ninoaaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, e?aaa, iaeanoae, aaoiiiiiie
iaeanoe, aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaia, ai?iaeia oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey). NI,
onoaaiue eaieoae eioi?uo i?aauoaao 100 oun. ?oa., a oaeaea eiaanoeoeee,
eioi?ua aoaeoo ?aaioaoue a oaea-, aaci-, iaooaaeiauaathuae e
ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe (iacaaeneii io ?acia?a eo onoaaiuo
eaieoaeia) ?aaeno?e?othony a ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaoa.

Iicaeiaa a ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie auei aianaii nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea. I?e
?aaeno?aoeee o/eouaaaony oaeia aaaeiia iiiyoea eae iauai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a onoaaiii eaieoaea i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, a
niioaaonoaee n iiaaeoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ainoaea?noaaiiay
?aaeno?aoeeiiiay iaeaoa i?e Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee inouanoaeyao ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie iacaaeneii io eo iauaia
a onoaaiii eaieoaea, inouanoaeythueo aeayoaeueiinoue a
iaooaaaciaeiauaathuae io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa; ainoaea?noaaiioth
?aaeno?aoeeth eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie, iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a onoaaiii eaieoaea
eioi?uo i?aauoaao 100 oun. ?oaeae; ?aaeno?aoeeth eciaiaiee a
o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a noauaeoao ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, a neo/aa, anee iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a onoaaiii
eaieoaea i?aauoaao 100 oun. ?oa.; ?aaeno?aoeeth eeeaeaeaoeee e
eneeth/aiea ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aano?a eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie; ?aaeno?aoeeth oeeeaeia eiino?aiiuo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aeaiiue
ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee cae?aieai Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io 5 naioya?y 1998 a. N 1034 “I ia?aaea/a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaou i?e Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a aaaeaiea Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”, Onoaaii Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaou i?e
Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ooaa?aeaeaiiui I?eeacii
Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 29 aeaeaa?y 1998 a.
N 192.

Niaeanii Caeiio ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo e Iieiaeaieth i ii?yaeea
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe aeey ?aaeno?aoeee NI o/?aaeeoaee i?aaenoaaeytho a
niioaaonoaothuee i?aai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou:

o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou nicaeaaaaiiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea;

ienueiaiiia cayaeaiea i?iecaieueiie oi?iu n i?inueaie i?iecaanoe
?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaei?eyoey;

aeieoiaio i niaeaniaaiee n aaeieieno?aoeeyie noauaeoia
Oaaea?aoeee (i?eaeiae eee eiiey, caaa?aiiay iioa?eaeueii eee ianoiuie
i?aaiaie aeanoe);

iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiua eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia o/anoieeia NI
(th?eaee/aneeo eeoe), a aeey ?inneeneie noi?iiu – iioa?eaeueii
caaa?aiiua eiiee ?aoaiey i nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey – nianoaaiieea
eiouanoaa (eee oiieiiii/aiiiai ei i?aaia), aunooiathuaai a ea/anoaa
o/?aaeeoaey NI;

iieiaeeoaeueiia caeeth/aiea niioaaonoaothueo yenia?oec (anee oaeiaua
o?aaothony ii caeiio).

O/?aaeeoaeyi – th?eaee/aneei eeoeai aeiiieieoaeueii e ia?a/eneaiiui
aeieoiaioai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue:

– aeieoiaio i oeiainiaie aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a,
auaeaiiue aai aaieii eee eiui e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaui o/?aaeaeaieai
(i?eaeiae aaieianeie ni?aaee n iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiie eiieae ia?aaiaea
ia ?onneee ycue, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii caaa?aiiiai iiaeienueth ?oeiaiaeeoaey
e ia/aoueth i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeaoae ia?aaiae, e iiaeienueth e
ia/aoueth iaeiiai ec ?inneeneeo nio/?aaeeoaeae NI);

-auienea ec oi?aiaiai ?aano?a no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiino?aiiiai
o/anoieea NI (eeai eiiai yeaeaaeaioiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa noaoona
eiaanoi?a a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii no?aiu aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey, a?aaeaeainoaa eee iinoiyiiiai
ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa). I?aaeinoaaeyaiue ia eiino?aiiii ycuea i?eaeiae
iioa?eaeueii caaa?yaony a no?aia eiino?aiiiai o/?aaeeoaey, caoai
inouanoaeyaony ioeoeeaeueii caaa?aiiue ia?aaiae ia ?onneee ycue a
eiinoeuenoaa (yoie no?aiu a ?innee eee ?inneeneii a no?aia ca?oaaaeiiai
ia?oia?a) n iineaaeothuei iioa?eaeueiui caaa?aieai ?O e oaeinoiaa?aieai
aai iaeiei ec ?inneeneeo o/?aaeeoaeae. A ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai
i?aaeinoaaeythony aeaa aeieoiaioa – e oi?aiaue ?aano?, e ia?aaiae.
I?aaeinoaaeyaony aaeaaiaeii, aeey no?ai – o/anoieoe Aaaaneie
eiiaaioeee io 5.10.61 aiciiaeii i?inoaaeaiea ooaiia – aiinoeey.

Anee n ?inneeneie noi?iiu a ea/anoaa nio/?aaeeoaey NI aunooiaao
a?aaeaeaiei, e?iia auoaoeacaiiuo aeieoiaioia ii ia i?aaenoaaeyao ie/aai,
a anee nio/?aaeeoaeai aunooiaao ia?inneeneia oece/aneia eeoei, iii
aeieaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naie “ianii?oiua aeaiiua” ia ycuea i?eaeiaea n
caaa?aiiui ia?aaiaeii ia ?onneee ycue e aaieianeoth ni?aaeo,
ninoaaeaiioth ii oeacaiiui i?aaeeai.

Ia?a/aiue aeieoiaioia iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeno?aoeee NI, onoaiiaeai
I?eeacii Ieiyeiiiieee ?O io 07.02.96 N 2 “I ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”, /. 3 no. 16 Caeiia
ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, a oaeaea i. 1 Iieiaeaiey i ii?yaeea
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei e ?anoe?eoaeueiiio
oieeiaaieth ia iiaeeaaeeo.

Niaeanii i. 5 Iieiaeaiey i ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey
inouanoaeyaony ia iicaeiaa o?ao aeiae ni aeiy i?aaenoaaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia eeai a oa/aiee 30 eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae io aeaou
ii/oiaiai ioi?aaeaiey, oeacaiiie a eaeoaioeee ia ionueea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
e eiuo o?aaoaiuo aeieoiaioia. Caeii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo
onoaiaaeeaaao eiie n?ie: i?aai, inouanoaeythuee ?aaeno?aoeeth NI, iaycai
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue NI eee niiaueoue cayaeoaeth i i?e/eiao ioeaca a
oa/aiea 21 aeiy n iiiaioa iiaea/e cayaeaiey e anao iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia. Aeoiaaony, /oi i?e ?aoaiee aeaiiiai aii?ina aeieaeia
?aaioaoue ii?ia Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay
aieueoee n?ie aeey ?aaeno?aoeee. Aeiiieieoaeueiia a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii
?aaeno?e?othuaio i?aaio oioy au aeey oiai, /oiau i?iaa?eoue oaeo
eiino?aiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiaanoeoeee, aeeaaeuaaaiuo a
?aaeno?e?oaioth eiiia?/aneoth i?aaiecaoeeth aa eiino?aiiui
nio/?aaeeoaeai eee oaaaeeoueny a aeinoiaa?iinoe aeieoiaioia,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo eiino?aiiuie o/anoieeaie NI.

”Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeae i?aaei?eyoey n aeieaaui o/anoeai
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee yaeyaony aeo eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, eioi?ui i?iaa?yaony niioaaonoaea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao o/?aaeeoaeueiuo e eiuo i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ia
?aaeno?aoeeth aeieoiaioia e niaea?aeaueony a ieo naaaeaiee, n iiiaioa
auianaiey eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoey n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee i?eia?aoaao i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai eeoea e iieiiii/ey
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa o/anoieea a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa.”1

?aaeno?aoeey NI inouanoaeyaony iooai i?enaiaiey aio i/a?aaeiiai iiia?a
a aeo?iaea ?aaeno?aoeee e i?inoaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiie iaaeiene (ooaiia) n
iaeiaiiaaieai ?aaeno?e?othuaai i?aaia, iiia?ii e aeaoie ia oeooeueiii
eenoa onoaaa, ne?aieyaiuo iiaeienueth aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea,
ioaaonoaaiiiai ca ?aaeno?aoeeth. I?aaei?eyoeth auaeaaony naeaeaoaeuenoai
i ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?acoea. I oaeoa
?aaeno?aoeee ioaeeeoaony ecaauaiea a ianoiie ia/aoe, aiineony caienue a
Ainoaea?noaaiiue ?aano? i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaaaaiuo a niioaaonoaee n
Caeiiii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, e niiauaaony iaeiaiaui e oeiainiaui
i?aaiai ii ianoo

iaoiaeaeaiey NI.

Eae o/anoiee a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa e noauaeo i?aaa NI aicieeaao eiaiii
n iiiaioa, oeacaiiiai a naeaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iiaaeoaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai /aoei cae?aieyao iniiaaiey, ii eioi?ui
i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ai?aaa ioeacaoue
o/?aaeeoaeyi a ?aaeno?aoeee NI. A niioaaonoaee ni no. 51 AE ?O eie
yaeythony ia?ooaiea ___________________

1 Aoaeee A.A. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eiii?oa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1996. N. 96.

onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii ii?yaeea ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea eee
ianiioaaonoaea aai o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia caeiio. AE ?O
niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eioe, /oi ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee ii iioeaai
iaoeaeaniia?aciinoe nicaeaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea ia aeiioneaaony.

Ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee eeai ioeeiiaiea io iaa iiaoo auoue iaaeaeiaaiu
o/?aaeeoaeyie a noae (a?aeo?aaeiue noae) i?aaeuyaeaieai enea (i
i?eciaiee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui aeoa i?aaia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
i?eioaeeoaeueiie ?aaeno?aoeee) a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii a?aaeaeaineei e
a?aeo?aaeiui i?ioeannoaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. A niioaaonoaee ni no. 16 AE ?O o/?aaeeoaeyi iiaoo auoue ii
noaeo aiciauaiu oauoee, i?e/eiaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee
(ioeaca a ?aaeno?aoeee NI) eee aacaeaenoaey (oeeiiaiey io inouanoaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee) ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Yoe oauoee
iiaoo caeeth/aony a iaiieo/aiiuo eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aeioiaeia, eioi?ua ii iieo/eee au i?e iau/iuo
oneiaeyo a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa, o.a. aoaeo/e naiaa?aiaiii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiie e aeiiouaiiie e inouanoaeaieth onoaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (no. 15 AE ?O).

O*?AAeEOAEUeIUA AeIEOIAIOU NIAIANOIIAI I?AAeI?EssOEss.

Niaeanii no. 15 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, o/?aaeeoaeueiua
aeieoiaiou i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aeieaeiu
ii?aaeaeyoue i?aaeiao e oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ninoaa
o/anoieeia, ?acia? e ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey onoaaiiai oiiaea, ?acia?
aeieae o/anoieeia, no?oeoo?o, ninoaa e eiiiaoaioeeth i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey,
ii?yaeie i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, ia?a/aiue aii?inia, o?aaothueo aaeeiiaeaney,
ii?yaeie eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey. E?iia oiai, a o/?aaeeoaeueiua
aeieoiaiou iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu e ae?oaea iieiaeaiey, ia i?ioeai?a/auea
aeaenoaothuaio ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON? caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e io?aaeathuea
iniaaiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeeaaeu a onoaaiue oiiae i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
ioeaieaathony ii niaeaniaaieth iaaeaeo aai o/anoieeaie ia iniiaa oeai
ie?iaiai ?uiea. I?e ionoonoaee oaeeo oeai noieiinoue aeeaaeia
ii?aaeaeyaony ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe o/anoieeia. Ioeaiea iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny eae aaethoa NNN?, oae e a eiino?aiiie aaethoa n
ia?an/aoii noieiinoe aeeaaea a ?oaee ii eo?no Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea ?O,
i?eiaiyaiiio ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo iia?aoeeyo.

Ii niaoeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo (a
/anoiinoe, no. 15 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo) ia oeacuaaao,
eaeea o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou aeieaeii eiaoue niaianoiia
i?aaei?eyoea. N o/aoii oiai, /oi i?aaiaie ?aaeei eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee iiae/eiyaony
a?aaeaeaineiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ioaao ia
aii?in i niaea?aeaiee iaeaoa o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia NI neaaeoao
eneaoue a ?inneeneii A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena.

Niaeanii no. 52 AE ?O th?eaee/aneia eeoei aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee onoaaa
eeai o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a. ?ieue e iaai? o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia NI a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa iaiaeeiaeiau e caaenyo io
eca?aiiie o/?aaeeoaeyie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu naiae
eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee. Oae, a neo/aa, eiaaea NI o/?aaeaeaaony a
oi?ia iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa, onoaa ea?aao aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue, aai
iiaeao aiiaua ia auoue, e th?eaee/aneia eeoei ?aaeno?e?oaony aac onoaaa.
Anee o/?aaeeoaee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaa NI a oi?ia iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa, ?aoao
?ac?aaioaoue e onoaa, oi ii aoaeao neoaeeoue naiaai ?iaea “i?aaeeaie
aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea”, eioi?ua iiaeii eciaiyoue a ethaia a?aiy aac
?aaeno?aoeee anaai iaeaoa noaooniuo aeieoiaioia.

Aeey NI a oi?ia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie eee aeiiieieoaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth iaiaoiaeeiu iaa aeieoiaioa – e aeiaiai?, e onoaa.
Anee NI o/?aaeaeaaony a oi?ia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, oi iiaaeoaa
a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eia/a /ai ?aiueoa, ?aoeei aii?in ia
o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. A niioaaonoaee n i. 14 Iieiaeaiey ia
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia
?NON? io 25 aeaeaa?y 1990 a., o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa i?eciathony cayaea ia ?aaeno?aoeeth, i?ioieie
o/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey e onoaa. I?e yoii cayaea ia ?aaeno?aoeeth
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ia i?eciaaaeanue a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui
aeiaiai?ii. Niaeanii no. 98 AE ?O o/?aaeeoaeueiui aeieoiaioii
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyaony aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee, yaeyaony onoaa. Aeiaiai?, caeeth/aaiue iaaeaeo
o/?aaeeoaeyie aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, aeey ?aaeno?aoeee ia o?aaoaony.

I?eiaiyy a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua ii?iu noaoae AE ?O i?e eiino?oe?iaaiee
niaea?aeaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia NI, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi
o?aaiaaiey e yoei aeieoiaioai onoaiaaeeaathony a i. 3 Iieiaeaiey i
ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Niaeanii o?aaiaaieyi aeaiiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa onoaa
aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue naaaeaiey ia i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia,
iaeiaiiaaiee, ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, ?acia?a aai onoaaiiai
eaieoaea (oiiaea), ninoaaa, ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey e eiiiaoaioeee aai
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey, ii?yaeea ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee e
ia?aciaaiey oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey, ii?yaeea e oneiaeyo ?ai?aaiecaoeee e
eeeaeaeaoeee.

A o/?aaeeoaeueiii aeiaiai?a aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny naaaeaiey i
iaeiaiiaaiee (eiaie) e th?eaee/aneii noaoona o/?aaeeoaeae, eo
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee (ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa), ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
(aeey th?eaee/aneeo eeoe) eee ee/iinoe (ianii?oiua aeaiiua – aeey
oece/aneeo eeoe), ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea nicaeaaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey,
aeieyo o/anoey (iayo, eiee/anoaa aeoeee) o/?aaeeoaeae a onoaaiii
eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey, ii?yaeea e niiniaao aianaiey aeeaaeia (iieaou
aeoeee).

Eeeaeaeaoeey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey

Niaeanii no.19 Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, eeeaeaeaoeey
i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie inouanoaeyaony a neo/ayo e
ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeey niioaaonoaothueo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i
i?aaei?eyoee.

I?e ionoonoaee ii enoa/aiee aiaea iinea ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aeieoiaioaeueiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oaeoa
aianaiey eaaeaeui ec o/anoieeia ia iaiaa 50 i?ioeaioia oeacaiiuo a
o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao aeeaaeia a onoaaiie oiiae i?aai,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaaoee aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, i?eciaao aai ianinoiyaoeiny e
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i aai eeeaeaeaoeee. Eioi?iaoeey ia yoii ioaeeeoaony a
ia/aoe.

?aaeno?aoeey eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
inouanoaeyaony ca?aaeno?e?iaaaoei aai i?aaiii ia iniiaaiee aeoa
eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie eiiennee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiiai aoaeeoi?neie
i?aaiecaoeeae eeeaeaeaoeeiiiiai aaeaina. Niiauaiea i eeeaeaeaoeee
ioaeeeoaony a ia/aoe.

Inoaaoaany iinea ?an/aoia n athaeaeaoii e oaeiaeaoai?aiea o?aaiaaiee
e?aaeeoi?ia eiouanoai Iauanoaa ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo aeoeeiia?aie ii
eo ?aoaieth, a a neo/aa, eiaaea niaeaoaiea ia aeinoeaiooi –
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo aeieyi a Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa.

A?aeo?aae

Na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee yaeyaony ia
oieueei ia?acaeoia, ai iiiaii i?ioeai?a/eaia e iaiieiia (i?iaaeueiia)
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ii e any aeaenoaothuay a ?innee noaeaaiay nenoaia.
?ac?aaaouaay e i?eieiay ?acee/iua ia?u ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeeiaoa, eie i?aaeei, ii yoo noa?o ia ia?auatho
ieeaeiai aieiaiey. Iaaeaeo oai, a i?aeoeea ?aaiou eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a
a ?innee yoa /anoue caieiaao aaeaa ee ia eueaeioth aeieth aai oneeee ii
aoiaeaeaieth a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo.

?anniio?ei ii?yaeie ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia niaeanii caeiio ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo:

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua nii?u, a oii /enea nii?u ii aii?inai ?acia?a,
oneiaee eee ii?yaeea auieaou eiiiainaoeee, ?ac?aoathony a Aa?oiaiii
noaea ?NON? eee Aunoai a?aeo?aaeiii noaea ?NON?, anee eiie ii?yaeie ia
i?aaeoniio?ai iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii, aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee
?NON?.

Nii?u eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia e i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie n ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie ?NON?, i?aaei?eyoeyie,
iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e ae?oaeie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie ?NON?,
nii?u iaaeaeo eiaanoi?aie e i?aaei?eyoeyie n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
ii aii?inai, naycaiiui n eo oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, a oaeaea
nii?u iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie e
naiei oaeei i?aaei?eyoeai iiaeeaaeao ?anniio?aieth a noaeao ?NON? eeai
ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe noi?ii a o?aoaeneii noaea, a a neo/ayo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, – a i?aaiao ii ?anniio?aieth
oicyenoaaiiuo nii?ia.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii, aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee,
iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny ia?auaiea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui n?aaenoaai
?ac?aoaiey nii?ia, aicieeathueo a nayce n inouanoaeaieai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A /anoiinoe onoaaii niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaiiiai a
i?aaiecaoeeiiii i?aaiaie oi?ia Cae?uoiai Aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, iiaeao
auoue i?aaeoniio?ai oaeie niinia ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia:

A neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey nii?ia iaaeaeo Aeoeeiia?aie, eeai iaaeaeo
Aeoeeiia?aie e Iauanoaii, naycaiiuo n eioa?i?aoaoeeae eee i?eiaiaieai
Onoaaa Iauanoaa, i?aaeaea anaai Noi?iiu iuoathony ?ac?aoeoue ?aciiaeaney
iooai ae?oaeaneeo eiinoeueoaoeee. Anee ?aciiaeanea ia iiaeao auoue
oeaaeaii oaeei niiniaii a oa/aiea 30 aeiae iinea ia?aie eiinoeueoaoeee,
ethaay noi?iia – o/anoieoea nii?a, iiaeao ia?aoeoueny a A?aeo?aaeiue
Einoeooo Oi?aiaie Iaeaou a. Noieaieueia. Enoaoe a nii?a iacia/aao
iaeiiai a?aeo?a a oa/aiea 30 aeiae iinea yoiai. Anee ioaao/ee ia
iacia/aao a?aeo?a, A?aeo?aaeiue Einoeooo Oi?aiaie Iaeaou a. Noieaieueia
iacia/aao aoi?iai a?aeo?a. Aeaa, oaeei ia?acii, iacia/aiiuo a?aeo?a
auae?atho o?aoueaai a?aeo?a. A?aeo?aaeiua i?ioeaaeo?u i?iaiaeyony ia
aiaeeeneii ycuea a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie a?aeo?aaeiiai
?acae?aoaeuenoaa UNCITRAL. I?eiaieiui i?aaii yaeyaony i?aai ?innee.

E niaeaeaieth ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ?inneeneia noaeii?iecaiaenoai
caaeneo aieueoa io ee/iinoe noaeuee, a ia io ii?iu i?aaa . Nieioue e
?yaeii ii aeaeai, aicieeoei ec iaeeiaeiaie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee,
a?aeo?aaeiuie noaeaie i?eieiathony ?aciua ?aoaiey. I?e yoii nnueea ia
nouanoaothuaa a i?ie-oeea noaeaaiia ?aoaiea n iaeeiaeiaie aeeniiceoeeae
i?eiaiyaiie ii?iu ia aiciiaeia — eaaeaeue noae euao naie aa?eaio
?ac?aoaiey nii?i, e ia?aaeei ii nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io ?iaenoaaiiiai
n oi/iinoueth aei iaiai?io. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai, ca caueoie naieo
eioa?ania eiaanoi?ai i?eoiaeeony ia?auaoueny a noaeu aunoae einoaioeee,
/oi aaaeao e cia/eoaeueiiio caoyaeaaieth i?ioeanna ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia.

I?eoiaeeony oieueei niaeaeaoue, /oi ?inneeneay i?aaiaay aeieo?eia,
iieiinoueth aini?eiyoay io niaaoneie nenoaiu, ia i?eciaao einoeooo
i?aoeaaeaioa — oioy au a ea/anoaa a?aoiaioa a noaeaaiuo i?aieyo nii?yueo
noi?ii. Iaeiaei, anee aeey ioa/anoaaiiuo “iieueciaaoaeae” i?aaiaie
nenoaiie yoi, iyaei aiai?y, ianiaa?oainoai eee iaoaeianoai noaei
i?eau/iui, oi aeey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia iii neoaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiui
iioeaii a ioeaca io aeiaeaiee a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo.

Ai iiiaeo niaeaoaieyo e aeiaiai?ao, caeeth/aaiuo ca?oaaaeiuie
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie n ?inneeneeie ia?oia?aie, ?ac?aoaiea nii?ia
ia?aiineony a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaeu eee noaeu eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa.
Oaeia ia?auaiea, aiiaua aiai?y, ia i?ioeai?a/eo iniiaiiieaaathuei
i?eioeeiai ?inneeneie i?aaiaie nenoaiu e i?eiyoui a iae caeiiai, e
i?eia?o — Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeey i?iaii?eiaie-oaeueiie
i?aeoeee nicaeaao ia?iiiua, iiae/an iai?aiaeieeiua o?oaeiinoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, a?aaeii neacuaaaony ia iauai ?aaeeia eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaaei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi io yoiai no?aaeaao i?aaeaea
anaai ?inneeneay noi?iia — a oii neo/aa, anee eiaanoi? yaeyaony
ioaao/eeii ii i?aoaiceyi naieo ?inneeneeo ia?oia?ia, ii iieo/aao
aiciiaeiinoue oeeiieoueny io yoeo i?aoaicee aac anyeiai noaeaaiiai
?anniio?aiey e ?aoaiey.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi eiaiii a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ioiioaieyo neaaeoao
aaanoe, a oeaeyo eiiiainaoeee iaiieiioeaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou i?aoea-aeaioiiai i?aai, iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeey
?innee. Aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii Aunoaio a?aeo?aaeiiio noaeo ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, ia iniiaaiee ?anniio?aiey e iaiauaiey i?aeoeee ?aaiou
a?aeo?aaeiuo noaeia ii ?ac?aoaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo nii?ia, i?eiyoue
?acaa?iooia Iinoaiiaeaiea, a eioi?ii cae?aieyaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
“anyeia ?aoaiea a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ethaie einoaioeee yaeyaony
yenoa??eoi?eaeueiui e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii ethaui o/anoieeii
i?ioeanna noaeii?iecaiaenoaa a ea/anoaa iniiaaiey aeey ?anniio?aiey aai
eae ?aoathuaai a?aoiaioa a naith iieueco”1. Eia/a aiai?y, a a?aeo?aaeiii
i?ioeanna iiaeii nnueaoueny ii i?aoeaaeaio eae iiaeaeue ?ac?aoaiey oie
eee eiie neooaoeee, eiathuoth aeey noaea iaycaoaeueioth neeo. Noae,
i?ioiaeyuee, neaaeai, a Iineaa, ia iiaeao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, ioee/iia io
?aoaiey, i?eiyoiai ii aiaeiae/iiio aeaeo, neaaeai, noaeii
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa eee ethaiai ae?oaiai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee.

Oaeie iiaeoiae nua?aao aaaeioth ?ieue ia oieueei a onei?aiee
a?aeo?aaeiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, ii e a noaaeeecaoeee anae i?aaiaie
nenoaiu a oeaeii, naeaeaao aa aieaa yooaeoeaiie. A oi aea a?aiy yoi
cia/eoaeueii oneeeo ioaaonoaaiiinoue a?aeo?aaeiuo noaeia ca ea/anoai
i?eieiaaiuo ?auaiee — aaaeue ethaia ?aoaiea, a oii /enea e oi, eioi?ia
iniiaaii ia i?aoeaaeaioa, iiaeao auoue ii?ioanoiaaii, e, a neo/aa
oaeiaeaoai?aiey i?ioanoa, aoaeao ioiaiyoueny ia i?inoi oi eee eiia
?aoaiea, a iiaeaeue ?ac?aoaiey eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. Iaaa?iia, eiaao
niune ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue Aunoaio a?aeo?aaeiiio noaeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ia ia?auo ii?io ioneaaeeaaoue e iaiauaoue i?aeoeeo i?eiyoey noaeaaiuo
?aoaiee ii iniiaaiee- i?aoeaaeaioa n oai, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue
aiciiaeiiai ia?aeina, o/eouaay, /oi a i?ie-oeea noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee, eae
auoa ioia/aii, iiaeii iaeoe naiua ?acee/iua aa?eaiou, aieioue aei
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo, iiaeii aoaeao “iiaeia?aoue” iiaeoiaeyuee i?aoeaaeaio
aeey ioaeae o/anoieea iiaiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa.

___________________

1 ?oaeaoaaneee A., Eueaia A., Oo?uee I., Aa?iooue eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a
ia oieueei ioaeii, ii e iiaeii.// Eiaanoeoeee a ?innee, ?1 1999 a. n.10

AEAAA 3

ACAEIIAeAENOAEA NIAIANOIUO I?AAeI?EssOEE N AINOAeA?NOAAIIUIE I?AAIAIE
AEANOE E OI?AAEAIEss IA OA??EOI?EE IIAINEAE?NEIE IAEANOE

A niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai Aeaau Aaeieieno?aoeee Iiaineae?neie
iaeanoe ? 385 io 02.07.96, a oaeaea ia iniiaaiee Caeiia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”,
A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee, Oeacii I?aceaeaioa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Ia oii?yaei/aiee ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”
io 08.07.94. ?1482 e Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?NON? io 28.11.92.
?26 ” I ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie” auei
iinoaiiaeaii:

ii?o/eoue eiieoaoo ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei e iaae?aaeiiaeueiui naycyi
aaeieieno?aoeee iaeanoe inouanoaeyoue ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee
a eioi?ua ia i?aauoaao 100 oun. ?oaeae;

ooaa?aeeoue Ii?yaeie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe;

i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaaaaiua ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe, iauai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a eioi?ua i?aauoaao 100 oun. ?oaeae. ?aaeno?e?othony a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaoa i?e Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee ?O
iinea niaeaniaaiey ?aaeno?aoeee a eiieoaoa ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei e
iaae?aaeiiaeueiui naycyi aaeieieno?aoeee iaeanoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, aei ethiy 1999 aiaea acaeiiaeaenoaea NI n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey (Aaeieieno?aoeeae
Iiaineae?neie Iaeanoe) caeeth/aeinue oieueei a oii, /oi Aaeieieno?aoeey,
a eiaiii eiieoao ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei e iaae?aaeiiaeueiui naycyi,
inouanoaeye ?aaeno?aoeeth niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Eiio?ieue aea
naiaeeeny e oiio, /oi anee, i?e ionoonoaee ii enoa/aiee aiaea iinea
?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aeieoiaioaeueiiai
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oaeoa aianaiey eaaeaeui ec o/anoieeia ia iaiaa 50
i?ioeaioia oeacaiiuo a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao aeeaaeia a onoaaiie
oiiae oi eiieoao ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei e iaae?aaeiiaeueiui naycyi
aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea i?eciaaae ianinoiyaoeiny e i?eieiae ?aoaiea i aai
eeeaeaeaoeee.

31 iay 1999 aiaea, /a?ac iieoi?a aiaea iinea auoiaea a naao
Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O “I aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia?ao ii
noeioee?iaaieth aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe e i?eaea/aieth eiaanoeoeee a
yeiiiieeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” (io 19.12.97 N 1605) Iiaineae?neee
Iaeanoiie Niaao Aeaiooaoia Aoi?iai Nicuaa i?eiye caeii Iiaineae?neie
Iaeanoe “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie Iaeanoe “.

Aeaiiue caeii onoaiaaeeaaao ia?u e oneiaey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe e
iai?aaeai ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiieee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe
iooai noeioee?iaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo e
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei caeiiii ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe
inouanoaeythony neaaeothuea ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:

a) aaaaeaiea aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo iaeiaiauo noaaie e eueaio ii iaeiaai a
/anoe, ca/eneyaiie a iaeanoiie athaeaeao Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe e
athaeaeao oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aei?iaeiiai oiiaea;

a) eciaiaiea n?iea oieaou iaeiaia e nai?ia a iaeanoiie athaeaeao e
aiaathaeaeaoiue oa??eoi?eaeueiue aei?iaeiue oiiae Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe
a oi?ia ion?i/ee e ?ann?i/ee, i?aaenoaaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iaeiaiaiai
e?aaeeoa;

a) i?aaeinoaaeaiea noauaeoai eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eueaio ii
a?aiaea eiouanoaa, yaeythuaainy ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoueth
Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe e iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia;

a) i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiaanoi?ai athaeaeaoiuo e?aaeeoia ec n?aaenoa
iaeanoiiai athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia;

ae) i?aaeinoaaeaiea ii?o/eoaeuenoa a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa eiaanoi?a, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia;

a) iaania/aiea caeiaii eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa eiaanoi?a, aicieeathueo
a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia;

ae) eiaanoeoeee ca n/ao n?aaenoa iaeanoiiai athaeaeaoa.

I?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaatho aeey
noauaeoia eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eueaiou ii ianoiui iaeiaai,
nai?ai e ii?aaeaeytho eiua ia?u iiaeaea?aeee.

Caeiiii oaeaea onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
noauaeoia eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:

1. Noauaeou eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiatho i?aai ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo, onoaiiaeaiioth ianoiyuei Caeiiii i?e
oneiaee oniaoiiai i?ioiaeaeaiey eiieo?niiai ioai?a.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiay ianoiyuei Caeiiii,
ieacuaaaony n iiiaioa ecaeaiey ?anii?yaeaiey aeaau aaeieieno?aoeee
iaeanoe ii ?acoeueoaoai eiieo?niiai ioai?a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

A neo/ayo, eiaaea aeey ieacaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee o?aaoaony
i?eiyoea caeiia iaeanoe eee caeeth/aiea niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaiai?a,
iiaeaea?aeea ieacuaaaony ni aeiy anooieaiey a neeo caeiia eee aeiaiai?a

I?eia?iua oi?iu aeiaiai?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia?
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee, e ii?yaeie eo caeeth/aiey
?ac?aaaouaathony aaeieieno?aoeeae Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe e
ooaa?aeaeathony aeaaie aaeieieno?aoeee iaeanoe.

2. A neo/aa iaauiieiaiey noauaeoii eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Caeiiii “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie Iaeanoe “, a
oaeaea eiuie ii?iaoeaiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe, i?aai
ia ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo oo?a/eaaaony iinea ecaeaiey
niioaaonoaothuaai ?anii?yaeaiey aeaau aaeieieno?aoeee iaeanoe eee
aianaiey niioaaonoaothueo eciaiaiee a caeiiu iaeanoe.

Ii?yaeie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe

Niaeanii Iinoaiiaeaieth Aeaau Aaeieieno?aoeee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe io
02.07.96 a. ?385 ” I ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”, ia oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe
niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey nicaeathony e aeaenoaotho a oi?ia aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoa e ae?oaeo oicyenoaaiiuo iauanoa e oiaa?euanoa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

Niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao auoue nicaeaii eeai iooai aai
o/?aaeaeaiey, eeai a ?acoeueoaoa i?eia?aoaiey eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ii
aeiee o/anoey (iay, aeoeee) a ?aiaa o/?aaeaeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee aac
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee eee i?eia?aoaiey oaeiai i?aaei?eyoey
iieiinoueth.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey NI inouanoaeyaony i?e iaee/ee neaaeothueo
aeieoiaioia:

aeieoiaio, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee iieaoo ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeiu a ?acia?a,
onoaiiaeaiiii Iieiaeaieai “I noaaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ia ioaeaeueiua
aeaeu aeioiaeia, iaeiaa ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie”, i?eiyoiai ia o?aoueae nannee Iiaineae?neiai iaeanoiiai
Niaaoa aeaiooaoia io 02.06.94 a.;

ienueiaiiia cayaeaiea o/?aaeeoaeae n i?inueaie i?iecaanoe ?aaeno?aoeeth
nicaeaaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey;

iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiua eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia a aeaoo
yecaiiey?ao;

caeeth/aiea niioaaonoaothueo yenia?oec a i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii
neo/ayo

aeey ?inneeneeo niaaoneeo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe – iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiie
eiiee ?aoaiey nianoaaiieea eiouanoaa i nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey eee eiiee
?aoaiey oiieiiii/aiiiai ei i?aaia, a oaeaea iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiuo
eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia aeey eaaeaeiai o/anoaothuaai a
nicaeaiee niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey ?inneeneiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea;

aeieoiaioa i ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a, auaeaiiiai
ianeoaeeaathuei aai aaieii eee eiui e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaui o/?aaeaeaieai
(n caaa?aiiui ia?aaiaeii ia ?onneee ycue);

auienee ec oi?aiaiai ?aano?a no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey eee eiiai
yeaeaaeaioiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa th?eaee/aneiai noaoona eiino?aiiiai
eiaanoi?a a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii no?aiu aai
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey, a?aaeaeainoaa eee iinoiyiiiai ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa (n
caaa?aiiui ia?aaiaeii ia ?onneee ycue).

Ana aeieoiaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua eiino?aiiuie eiaanoi?aie, aeieaeiu
auoue oaeinoiaa?aiu eiiiaoaioiui i?aaiii no?aiu, a eioi?ie aeieoiaio aue
niaa?oai iin?aaenoaii i?inoaaeaiey ia eaaeaeue aeieoiaio “APOSTILLE”.

Eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u ec ainoaea?noa, ia yaeythueony o/anoieeaie
Aaaaneie eiiaaioeee, ioiaiythuae o?aaiaaiey eaaaeecaoeee eiino?aiiuo
ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia io 05.10.1961 aiaea, i?aaeinoaaeytho
aeieoiaiou, eaaaeeciaaiiua a eiinoeueneii o/?aaeaeaiee ?O.

Aeieoiaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua eiaanoi?aie ec ainoaea?noa – o/anoieeia
NIA, i?eieiathony aac eaeiai-eeai niaoeeaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey, anee
iie ecaioiaeaiu eee canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiu o/?aaeaeaieai eee niaoeeaeueii
ia oi oiieiiii/aiiui eeoeii a i?aaeaeao eo eiiiaoaioeee e ii
onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia e ne?aieaiu aa?aiaie ia/aoueth no?aiu, a eioi?ie
aeieoiaio aue niaa?oai.

?aaeno?aoeey niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee inouanoaeyaony a oa/aiea 21 aeiy n
iiiaioa iiaea/e cayaeaiey iooai i?enaiaiey i?aaei?eyoeth i/a?aaeiiai
iiia?a a aeo?iaea ?aaeno?aoeee iinooiathueo aeieoiaioia e i?inoaaeaiey
niaoeeaeueiiai ooaiia n iaeiaiiaaieai ?aaeno?e?othuaai i?aaia, iiia?ii e
aeaoie ia ia?aie no?aieoea onoaaa i?aaei?eyoey, ne?aieyaiiai iiaeienueth
aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca ?aaeno?aoeeth.

CAEETH*AIEA

Iiaeaiaey eoia aeaiiie ?aaioa, oioaeinue au naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu, enoiaey ec ia?eniaaiiuo auoa i?iaeai e iiuoa, iieo/aiiiai a
oiaea i?ioiaeaeaiey i?aeoeee e ?aaiou a iaeiii ec e?oiiuo iiaineae?neeo
NI.

Aeaenoaiaaaoee aei i?eiyoey iiaiai AE ?O caeii ?NON? “I i?aaei?eyoeyo e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe” ?ani?ino?aiye iiiyoea i?aaei?eyoey
ia eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee anao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i.
I?aaei?eyoeai oiaaea eiaiiaaeenue oicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa, oicyenoaaiiua
oiaa?euanoaa, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua /anoiua i?aaei?eyoey, ainoaea?noaaiiua e
ioieoeeiaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u. Iaeiaei a
nayce n ioiaiie yoiai caeiia e aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea *anoe ia?aie AE ?O,
oa?ieiii “i?aaei?eyoea” noaee iaicia/aoue ia ethaua oicyenoaothuea
noauaeou, a oieueei oa eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, nianoaaiieeii eioi?uo
yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Iiyoiio a niaoeeaeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo neaaeoao aiai?eoue ia i i?aaei?eyoeyo n
aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee eee niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
a i oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?euanoaao e iauanoaao n aeieaaui o/anoeai
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. I?yiay eiino?aiiay eiaanoeoeey –
i?eia?aoaiea eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ii ia iaiaa 10 i?ioeaioia aeiee,
aeieae (aeeaaea) a onoaaiii (neeaaei/iii) eaieoaea eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee, nicaeaiiie eee aiiaue nicaeaaaaiie ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a oi?ia oicyenoaaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa eee
iauanoaa a niioaaonoaee n a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A Oaaea?aeueiii caeiia “Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?O” ii?aaeaeaii
iiiyoea i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a onoaaiue eaieoae i?aaiecaoeee.
Iniiaie aeey i?eiyoey aeaiiiai iiiyoey yaeeny nei?aa anaai ca?oaaaeiue
iiuo. Oae, a NOA oi?iaeueii i?eciathony i?yiui ca?oaaaeiui
eiaanoe?iaaieai anyeea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, anee a ?acoeueoaoa eiaanoi?
aoaeao ?aniieaaaoue oioy au 10% nianoaaiiinoe ca?oaaaeiie oe?iu.
Iaoiaeynue ca iiaeiaiie “ieaieie”, i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii nio?aiyoue
?aaeei “iau/iiai” e ia ?anniao?eaaaony caeiiii eae niaianoiia. A
neo/aa, anee eiino?aiiue aeoeeiia? ia noae nio/?aaeeoaeai eeai ia
i?eia?ae noaoona no?aoaae/aneiai eiaanoi?a i?aaei?eyoey, iineaaeiaa ia
aeieaeii n/eoaoueny niaianoiie eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae.

A ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaii ia ii?aaeaeaii iiiyoea eiiia?/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee n o/anoeai eiino?aiuo eiaanoeoeee. A nayce n /ai
ionoonoaoao e?eoa?ee aeey i?enaiaiey oicyenoaothuaio noauaeoo noaoona
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey e, eae neaaenoaea, iniaiio ii?yaeeo
?aaeno?aoeee iiaeeaaeao i?aaei?eyoey, aeiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a
eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony ia a aeieyo (aieaa 10%), a a aaniethiouo
aaee/eiao.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue noauaeou Oaaea?aoeee iiaoo ?aaeno?e?iaaoue
oieueei niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey, aeiey eiino?aiiiai o/anoey a onoaaiii
eaieoaea eioi?uo ia i?aauoaao noa ouny/ ?oaeae, /oi ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii
3,5 ouny/e aeieea?ia NOA. Yoa noiia i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeicia/eoaeueiie.
O/?aaeeoaee auioaeaeaiu i?ioiaeeoue ?aaeno?aoeeth iiaiai th?eaee/aneiai
eeoea a noieeoea i?e aeiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee onoaaiii eaieoaea,
i?aauoathuai noi ouny/ ?oaeae, /oi nouanoaaiii oneiaeiyao e caiaaeeyao
i?ioeaaeo?o ?aaeno?aoeee. I?aaenoaaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui onoaiiaeoue
ieaieo, iinea eioi?ie i?aaei?eyoea n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aoaeao
iaycaii i?ioiaeeoue ?aaeno?aoeeth a ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie
iaeaoa i?e Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia o?iaia
oioy au 100 ouny/ aeieea?ia NOA. Aeaiiay ieaiea aeieaeia
eiaeaene?iaaoueny a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy eioeyoeee.

A ?innee iaei aieiaiey oaeaeyaony aii?inai ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaciianiinoe a ciia eioa?ania niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee “n oeaeueth ia
aeiiouaiey oneeaiey aeeyiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ia no?aoaae/anee
cia/eiua iai?aaeaiey e iaeaoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey.”1 Yenia?oeca
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
?aoaao aeaaiui ia?acii yeieiae/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu, n
eioi?uie a ?yaea neo/aaa nii?yaeaii eiaanoeoeeiiiia nio?oaeie/anoai n
o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai yeaiaioa. Iaeiaei a ?aieao yenia?oecu
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia i?aaenoaaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui oaeaea ?aoaoue
aii?inu, eanathueany iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe no?aiu a oeaeii.

A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao ia?aie/eoue aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a
aeayoaeueiinoue niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. I?eia?ii oaeiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
iiaeao neoaeeoue iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io
7 aeaeaa?y 1994 a. ? 1355 “Ia iniiaiuo e?eoa?eyo (nenoaia iieacaoaeae)
aeayoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, ii eioi?ui eo aooaaeoa?neay
oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiie aaeaaiaeiie aoaeeoi?neie
i?iaa?ea”, niaeanii eioi?iio iaee/ea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a onoaaiii
eaieoaea yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey i?iaaaeaiey
aaeaaiaeiie aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee. Anee aea eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey ia
niiaeao i?iaiaeeoue oaeoth aoaeeoi?neoth i?iaa?eo, oi a ioiioaiee iaa
aiciiaeiu naieoeee.

Oaeay ia?aie/eoaeueiay i?aeoeea ia oieueei ineiaeiyao aeeciue
niaianoiiio i?aaei?eyoeth, i?ioeai?a/eo aeaeea?aoeeyi aei ieieioia
nie?aoeoue aiaoaoaeuenoai a aeayoaeueiinoue eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia e
eeaa?aeeciaaoue eiaanoeoeeiiiue eeeiao a ?innee, ii i?aaenoaaeyaony
iacaeiiiie. Iacaaiiia iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia?ooaao (a /anoe aaaaeaiey aoaeeoa) oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io
27 naioya?y 1993 a. ?1466 “I niaa?oainoaiaaiee ?aaiou n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie”, eai onoaiiaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiie iaycaiiinoe aeey
noauaeoa i?aaa neaaeoao eaaeeoeoee?iaaoue eae ia?aie/aiea aai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eo auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiaeu i ianiaa?oainoaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, naycaiiiai n aeayoaeueiinoueth ia ?inneeneie
oa??eoi?ee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe n eiino?aiiui o/anoeai. Ainoaea?noai ia
niiaei nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiiai eeeiaoa aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeoue nouanoaaiiua aa?aioee eo nio?aiiinoe, ia
nicaeai aeaaii?eyoiue iaeiaiaue eeeiao.

__________________

1 Aann E.A. Iieeoeea a iaeanoe eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e eo ia?aie/aiee
a ?innee.// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. -1999 ?1. n.36.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA

Ii?iaoeaiua aeou

1. A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O.- I.: IIE Iiaeon, 1999. – 528 n.

2. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 9 ethey 1999 a. N 160-OC “Ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo a ?O” // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

3. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 22 ai?aey 1996 a. N 39-OC “I ?uiea oeaiiuo
aoiaa”// (n eciaiaieyie io 8 ethey 1999 a.)Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca
“Aa?aio”

4. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 26 aeaeaa?y 1995 a. N 208-OC “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoaao” (n eciaiaieyie io 24 iay 1999 a.) // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay
aaca “Aa?aio”

5. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 08.02.1998a. ?14-OC “Ia iauanoaao n
ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth” (n eciaiaieyie io 31 aeaeaa?y 1998 a.)
// Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

6. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?NON? io 28 iiya?y 1991 a. ?26 “I
?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”.//
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

7. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 7 aeaeaa?y
1994 a. ? 1355 “Ia iniiaiuo e?eoa?eyo (nenoaia iieacaoaeae)
aeayoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, ii eioi?ui eo aooaaeoa?neay
oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiie aaeaaiaeiie aoaeeoi?neie
i?iaa?ea”.// Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

8. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 19.12.97 N 1605 “I
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia?ao ii noeioee?iaaieth aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe e
i?eaea/aieth eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.//
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

9. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 ethey 1994 a. ?1482 ” Ia oii?yaei/aiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia
oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.// Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca
“Aa?aio”

10. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 27 naioya?y 1993 a. ? 1466 “I
niaa?oainoaiaaiee ?aaiou n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”.//
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

11. “Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee noauaeoia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe”.// Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca
“Aa?aio”

12. I?eeac Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaou i?e Ieienoa?noaa
yeiiiieee ?O io 7 oaa?aey 1996 a. N 2 “I ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”. //
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

13. Ienueii Ieithnoa ?O io 26.07.99. ?5893-Y? “I?aaeno?aoeee eiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”.

14. Iinoaiiaeaiea Aeaau Aaeieieno?aoeee Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe io
02.07.96 ? 385 “I ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee
n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”.// Eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay aaca “Aa?aio”

15. Caeii Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe io 31.05.99 N 59-IC “I ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie
iaeanoe”.// “Niaaoneay Neae?ue”, N 101, 04.06.99

Iao/iay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aiae?eaiiaa TH.A. NI eae oi?ia i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee:
aaoi?ao. Aeen. e.y.i.: Ain. Aeaae. Oi?aaeaiey. I., – 1999. – 25. N.

2. Aann E.A. Iiiu?aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e iieeoeea
i?ioaeoeeiiecia a ?innee.// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. -1999 ?6. n.12.

3. Aann E.A. Iieeoeea a iaeanoe eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e eo ia?aie/aiee
a ?innee.// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. -1999 ?1. n.36.

4. Aa?aa? I. Ia?aua NI, eee i?ienoiaeaeaiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea //
Ecaanoey.1995.-18 ai?.-n4.

5. Aiaoneaaneee I.I. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee i NI. -I., 1993.-155n.

6. Ai/a?ia A.A. Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio: o/aa. iiniaea. -NI a.. 1995.
-256n.

7. A?ucaaeei A. Aeiaiai? i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe // I?aai e
yeiiiieea. 1994. ? 14.

8. Aoaeee A.A. NI a ?innee: I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua aniaeou.: Iaoiae.
Iiniaea. I., 1993. -154n.

9. Aoaeee A.A. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eiii?oa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaeea. -Na?aoia, 1996.

10. Aoeaoia A.N. Yeiiiieea aiaoieo naycae ?innee: O/aai. Aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. -I., 1995.

11. Aaeniai Ae., Aieoaaaa AE. Niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee:
iiuo e i?iaeaiu //Yei.-1996.-?8, -n128-131.

12. Ai?aoiia A. Niaianoiue aecian: noaiu e iaoiaeu aeaeiaiai ia?oia?noaa
// Eiinoeueoaio aee?aeoi?a. -1996. -?6. -n30.

13. Aei?iieia I., Naieethoeia I. I?iaeaiu ioa/anoaaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo // I?aai e yeiiiieea.
-1993.-?1.

14. A?aiaaaa E.A., Iiaeineee Ae.TH. NI ia iooe e ?uieo // Oic. Iaoaieci
aiaoiayeiiii. Aeayoaeueiinoe: i?iaeaiu ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea. -I.,
1991.-n107-113.

15. Cueei E. Nii?u n o/anoeai i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
a i?aeoeea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiiia?/aneiai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea i?e OII
?O // Oicyenoai e i?aai. -1995. -?5.

16. Eenaeaa N. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee // AEo?iae
aeey aeoeeiia?ia. -1994.-?7. -n43.

17. Eociaoeiaa A.A. I?aaiecaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe n
o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.: Oai?ao. Eo?n. – I., 1994. – 154 n.

18. Eeiaea?oaae I.O. yeiiiieea ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae. I, 1992. – 485
n.

19. Eiaaiia A. Niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue: oi?iu, oeaee, iniaaiiinoe //
Oicyenoai e i?aai. -1995. -?6. -n140-143.

20. Iaiaaeaeiaio a noa?a oneoa. – I., 1995. – 387 n.

21. Iiiiaa A. Aiaeec caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ?aaoee?othueo
eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue // ?uiie Oeaiiuo Aoiaa. -1995.-?4.
-n27-34.

22. ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?O.- I., 1993. –
285 n.

23. ?iaeeiiia A.E. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai n o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee, eae oaeoi? oi?ie?iaaiey. -Aieaia?aae, 1996. – 76 n.

24. ?oaeaoaaneee A., Eueaia A., Oo?uee I., Aa?iooue eiino?aiiiai
eiaanoi?a ia oieueei ioaeii, ii e iiaeii.// Eiaanoeoeee a ?innee, ?1
1999 a. n.10

25. Niaei A.A. ?inney eae iioaioeeaeueiue ?uiie aeey i?eaea/aiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.// Ia?eaoeia a ?innee e ca?oaaaeii, ? 2 1999 a.
n.82

26. NI: i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea iniiau. I., 1995. – 132 n.

27. Oiaea?i, Ieeayeue I. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea: o/aaiee aeey aocia ii
yeiiiie/.niaoe. I.,1997.

28. Oae E. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey // Aii?. Yeii.
-1994. -?8. -n134.

29. Oiie/aa A.E. Iniiau aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe: O/aai.
iiniaea. -NIa.,1994.

30. Oaaaieoo O. Eae nicaeaaaeenue niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey a no?aiao NIA
// I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey. -1995. -?6. -n96-101.

31. Oaeaaeineay A. I?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii a ?innee. – I.:
Oeinoaoeioi?i, 1995.- n108.

32. O?oeaa N. Niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey eie ca?eaei ?onneie aeaiie?aoee //
?inney: aeanoue ia ianoao. -1997. -?10.-n10-15.

33. sseiaaiei A.A., Eiueeiaa A.TH. NI a NNN?: iiuo, i?iaeaiu,
ia?niaeoeau. -I.,1984.

NIENIE I?EEIAEAIEE

1. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?NON? io 28 iiya?y 1991 a. ?26 “I
?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie”.

2. Caeii Iiaineae?neie iaeanoe io 31.05.99 N 59-IC “I ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee Iiaineae?neie
iaeanoe”.

3. O/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai? III “Ooae – Na?aen Ieiianioa”

4. Naeaeaoaeuenoai ia I?aaiecaoeee Oia?ai Yioa?i?aecec, EEE.

5. Onoaa “Oia?ai Yioa?i?aecec, EEE”.

6. Onoaa III “Ooae – Na?aen Ieiianioa”

7. Naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?aaeno?aoeee “Ooae – Na?aen Ieiianioa”

8. Eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey, iiaeeaaeaueo aianaieth a onoaa III “Ooae –
Na?aen Ieiianioa”

9. Aeiaiai? eoiee – i?iaeaaee /anoe aeiee a onoaaiii eaieoaea.

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