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Жидкостное химическое травление

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Eaeoaeneee Oeeeae

Iineianeiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai

Oaoie/aneiai Oieaa?neoaoa

ei. I. Y. Aaoiaia

Io/ao ii oaoiieiae/aneie i?aeoeea

ia oaio:

“ AEeaeeinoiia oeie/aneia o?aaeaiea “

nooaeaio: Oeiioaaa A. TH.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Ia?aiiiia A. A.

1996 a.

a. Eaeoaa.

Niaea?aeaiea.

no?.

1. Aaaaeaiea. 3

1.1. Oa?iiaeeiaieea o?aaeaiey. 5

1.2. Iauea i?eioeeiu eeiaoeee o?aaeaiey. 8

1.3. Oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoaieci o?aaeaiey. 9

2. AEeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea. 11

2.1. O?aaeaiea SiO2. 11

2.2. O?aaeaiea e?aiiey. 14

2.3. O?aaeaiea iiiaineieiuo no?oeoo?. 19

2.4. O?aaeaiea aethieiey. 20

2.5. O?aaeoaee aeey aethieiey. 21

2.6. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia o?aaeaiea. 23

3. I?aeoe/aneea aniaeou aeeaeeinoiiai oeie/aneiai 23

o?aaeaiey.

3.1. Ae?oaea oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aaeaiey. 24

4. Caeeth/aiea. 25

5. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 26

Aaaaeaiea.

O?aaeaiea eniieuecoaony aeey naeaeoeaiie (oeie/aneie) i?i?eniaee
aeeoooceiiiuo ianie, oi?ie?iaaiey eciee?othueo eee i?iaiaeyueo iaeanoae,
a i?ioeanna eioi?iai aauanoai a iaeanoe, iiaeaa?aaaiie o?aaeaieth,
oeie/anee i?aia?acoaony a ?anoai?eiia eee eaoo/aa niaaeeiaiea. A
eeoia?aoee o?aaeaiea i?eiaiyaony a iniiaiii aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
aeeoooceiiiuo ianie a neia oa?ie/anee ieeneaiiiai e?aiiey eee aeey
oaeaeaiey iaoa?eaea /a?ac ieia a aeeyeaeo?eea i?e ecaioiaeaiee
iaoaeee/aneeo eiioaeoia. Iaoaeee/aneay ?acaiaeea oi?ie?oaony iooai
naeaeoeaiiai oaeaeaiey i?iiaaeooeia (ia?auaiey ecia?aaeaiey);
oioioaaeiiu oaeaea ecaioaaeeaathony o?aaeaieai iaoaeee/aneeo ieaiie.
Caaea/a eiaeaia?a-oaoiieiaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue ia?aiin
ecia?aaeaiey n ?acenoiie ianee a iiaeeiaeeo n ieieiaeueiui ioeeiiaieai
?acia?a (A) e aeiioneii ((O) (ni. ?en. 1). Ec ?enoiea aeaeii, /oi
noiia?iia eciaiaiea ?acia?a i?e eeoia?aoee A iaoneiaeaii eneaaeaieai
ecia?aaeaiey a ?acenoiie ianea ((0.1 iei), ooiaeii ?acia?a a ?acenoa
((0.5 iei) e ooiaeii ieii/aoaeueiiai ?acia?a a i?ioeanna o?aaeaiey (1.0
iei n aeiioneii a (1.0 iei.

?en. 1. Eciaiaiea ?acia?ia i?e ia?aiina ecia?aaeaiey

ec ?acenoa a iiaeeiaeeo n iiiiuueth ecio?iiiiai o?aaeaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io e?enoaeee/iinoe ieaiee e oeaeinoiinoe ?acenoa
(ionoonoaea ioneiaiee i?e aeeaeeinoiii e y?icee i?e ieaciaiiii
o?aaeaiee) ooiae ?acia?a iiaeao aeinoeaaoue oieueiu ieaiee D e aeaaea
i?aauoaoue aa. Ecio?iiiia aeeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea, aeey eioi?iai
oa?aeoa?ii aieueoia aieiaia iiaeo?aaeeaaiea (L), i?eoeinue caiaieoue
aacioaciui aiecio?iiiui o?aaeaieai, aeey eioi?iai D/L((1 (?en. 2).

Ecio?iiiia o?aaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo iaoii?yaei/aiii, n iaeeiaeiaie
nei?inoueth ii anai i?ino?ainoaaiiui iai?aaeaieyi – L e D. Aiecio?iiiia
o?aaeaiea i?iyaeyaony i?e iaeioi?uo ioeeiiaieyo io ecio?iiiiai
i?ioeanna. AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau aeoaeia o?aaeaiey (D) auea iiiai aieueoa
aaee/eiu aieiaiai iiaeo?aaeeaaiey (L). Iineieueeo o?aaeaiea a
aa?oeeaeueiii iai?aaeaiee i?e aeinoeaeaiee aeoaeiu D i?ae?auaaony,
ia?ao?aaeeaaiea ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei nei?inoueth oaeaeaiey iaoa?eaea a
aieiaii iai?aaeaiee. Noaiaiue aiecio?iiee iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
ioiioaiea L/D, e aa aaee/eia caaeneo io iiiaeo oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia.
AEeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony a iniiaiii noaoe/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeia aaeaacee e noaiaie caaeoaeaiiinoe ?acenoa, ninoaaa
o?aaeoaey e o.i. I?e nooii o?aaeaiee noaiaiue aiecio?iiee ai iiiaii
caaeneo io oaeeo aeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, eae iiuiinoue ?ac?yaea,
aeaaeaiea e nei?inoue y?icee ?acenoa. Aaee/eia aieiaiai iiaeo?aaeeaaiey
a neo/aa aeeaeeinoiiai o?aaeaiey caaeneo io i?aaeoanoaothueo noaaeee
ia?aaioee – iiaeaioiaee iiaa?oiinoe e oa?iicaaeoaeeaaiey.

?en. 2. Aiecio?iiiia (neaaa) e ecio?iiiia (ni?aaa)

o?aaeaiea. R-?aceno, S-iieeiaeea.

Eniieuecoy aeeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea eee iaaeaaii ?ac?aaioaiiue e aiea
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiue iaoiae ieaciaiiiai nooiai o?aaeaiey, iiaeii
oi?ie?iaaoue ?acee/iua i?ioeee a ieaieao. AEeaeeea o?aaeoaee aeatho
ecio?iiiua eee neioaiiua i?ioeee . Neioaiiue i?ioeeue e?ay eo/oa
iiaeoiaeeo aeey iineaaeothuaai iaianaiey iieinoe iaoaeea iiia?ae oaeie
nooiaiueee.

Oe?eia eeiee a neiiiaine?iaaiiie ianea I, iei

?en. 3. Naycue eiiiainaoeee (oiaiueoaiea ?acia?ia ieii a ianea),

iaiaoiaeeiue i?e ecio?iiiii e aiecio?iiiii (D/L>2) o?aaeaiee.

Aeey eiiiainaoeee iiaeo?aaa i?e ecio?iiiii aeeaeeinoiii o?aaeaiee
?acia?u yeaiaioa ia oioioaaeiia neaaeoao oiaiueoaoue. Ia ?en. 3
iieacaia eiiiainaoeey ?acia?a ieii a oaaeiia aeey ?aciuo noaiaiae
aiecio?iiee o?aaeaiey. Aeey iau/iiai ecio?iiiiai o?aaeaiey D/L ?aaii 1
(aac ?ac?ooaiey ?acenoa e i?e oi?ioae aaeaacee). Aeey oiai /oiau oe?eia
iieinu auea ?aaia (a, ?acia? ia?aianaiiiai a ?aceno ecia?aaeaiey (r
aeieaeai auoue iaiueoa ia oaeaiaiioth aaee/eio aieiaiai iiaeo?aaa (L):

(r=(a-2L. (1)

?en. 4. N?aaiaiea aeeaeeinoiiai (W) e ieaciaiiiai (?) o?aaeaiey.A iaieo
neo/ayo o?aaeaiea i?iecaiaeeony /a?ac ianeo Si3N4 oieueiie 0.25 iei.

aeey iieo/aiey 1-iei eeiee i?e oia?aiii aiecio?iiiii o?aaeaiee (D/L=3)
ecia?aaeaiea a ?acenoa neaaeoao aeaeaoue ia 0.2 iei iaiueoa 1 iei, a
oe?eia yeaiaioa ia oaaeiia (I) aeieaeia auoue oaaee/aia i?eia?ii ia
0.05-0.1 iei aeey eiiiainaoeee ooiaea ?acia?a i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?acenoiie
ianee. Anee aea D/L=10, oi iieina oe?eiie 1 iei iiaeao auoue
iiaeo?aaeaia /a?ac ?acenoiia ieii oe?eiie 0.7 iei. ?acieoea a
oa?aeoa?enoeeao eiiiainaoeee ?acia?a ecia?aaeaiey a ?acenoa aeey nooiai
e aeeaeeinoiiai o?aaeaiey Si3N4 ynii aeaeia ia ?en. 4.

Oa?iiaeeiaieea o?aaeaiey.

N oi/ee c?aiey oeiee i?ioeann o?aaeaiey iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue noaiie

oaa?aeay oaca+o?aaeoaeue(i?iaeoeou;

i?e yoii e oaa?aeie oaca ioiinyo e?aiiee, aai ieneaeu e ieo?eaeu e
iiiaea iaoaeeu. Aeey iaaeniaaeeiaiee aioo?e e?enoaeea iau/ii i?eiaiytho
Al e aai nieaau n Si e Cu, i?e/ai iniiaiui iaoa?eaeii aeey ia?aiai
o?iaiy iaoaeeecaoeee yaeyaony Al (oaae. 1). Neie ieneaeia e?aiiey iiaeii
au?aueaaoue oa?ie/anee, iaiineoue oeie/aneei niiniaii eee ?aniueaieai,
iiaeii oaeaea eaae?iaaoue eo oinoi?ii eee ai?ii. Iaoaeeu eniieuecothony
a aeaea /enouo eee ianneae?iaaiiuo ieaiie, nieaaia, iiiaineieiuo
no?oeoo? e eioa?iaoaeeeaeia. Iineieueeo e?aiiee nouanoaoao a aeaea
iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo eee iieee?enoaeee/aneeo ieaiie, aai no?oeoo?a, eae e
no?oeoo?a ae?oaeo e?enoaeee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, eiaao e aeeaeiee e
aeaeueiee ii?yaeie. Iineieueeo o?aaeaiea ia?aaiaeeo oii?yaei/aiiua
no?oeoo?u a iaoii?yaei/aiiua, oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea niia?aaeaiey i
iiaaaeaiee naiaiaeiie yia?aee (F nenoaiu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue eciaiaiey
eae yio?iiee +(S, oae e yioaeueiee (I (oaieiou ?anoai?aiey eee
enia?aiey)

(F=(I-O(S. (2)

Iai?eia?, ?aaeoeey o?aaeaiey aii?oiiai ieneaea e?aiiey yaeyaony
yiaeioa?ie/aneie, (I=+11 eeae/iieue:

SiO2(oa.)+6HF(ae.)(I2SiF6+2H2O. (3)

Oaaeeoea 1. Iaoa?eaeu iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie yeaeo?iieee.

I?iaiaeieee

Ag, Al, Au, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Ta, Ti,W

Iieoi?iaiaeieee Si, Ge, GaAs

Aeeyeaeo?eee

SiO2, Si3N4, ?aceno, iieeeieae

I?aiaeieaiea ei?ioeiaeaenoaothueo nee a aioi?iii oaa?aeii oaea
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii yio?iiee. Iaaieueoea aeaoaeou, oaeea, eae
iai?yaeaiea, aeaoi?iaoeey, i?eianiua o?iaie, oaeaea ieacuaatho aeeyiea
ia nei?inoue o?aaeaiey. A e?enoaeee/aneii e?aiiee nei?inoue o?aaeaiey
ieineinoae n iaeuie eiaeaenaie Ieeea?a ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii naiaiaeiuo
naycae e e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneie i?eaioaoeeae (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoea 2. Aeeyiea i?eaioaoeee ia o?aaeaiea e?aiiey.

E?enoaeeia?aoe/aneay ieineinoue Ioiineoaeueiia /enei naiaiaeiuo naycae
Ioiineoaeueiay nei?inoue o?aaeaiey

(111)

(110)

(100)

0.58

0.71

1.00

0.62

0.89

1.00

Ia?aoiae iaoaeea eee e?aiiey a ?anoai?eiia ninoiyiea aeeth/aao a naay
eiiecaoeeth iaoaeea (ii?aaeaeyaioth iioaioeeaeii eiiecaoeee) e ia?aiin
yeaeo?iia e niioaaonoaothuaio ainnoaiiaeoaeth n aunieei n?iaenoaii e
yeaeo?iio

I(oa.) (In+(ae.)+ne. (4)

?aaeoeey yoa o?aonoaaeeeiay:

I(oa.) (I(aac) noaeeiaoeey, (5)

I(aac) ( In+(aac)+ne eiiecaoeey, (6)

In+(aac)+I2I ( In+(ae.) aeae?aoaoeey. (7)

Eciaiaiea yioaeueiee i?e noaeeiaoeee e eiiecaoeee iieiaeeoaeueii
(yiaeioa?ie/aneea ?aaeoeee), ii aeae?aoaoeey yecioa?ie/ia
(io?eoeaoaeueiia (I). I?e aacioaciii o?aaeaiee aeey ?aniueaiey iaoaeea
iooai aai noaeeiaoeee eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey /anoeoe o?aaeoaey (yia?aey
o?aaeaiey) aeieaeia ia?aaeaaaoueny iaoaeeo ec aaciaie oacu. I?e
iia?oaeaiee iaoaeee/aneiai ia?acoea a ?anoai?, niaea?aeauee aai
nianoaaiiua eiiu (o?aaiaiea 4), eiiu iaoaeea ia?aoiaeyo a ?anoai? (?en.
5), e ia?acaoe i?eia?aoaao io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yae. Iaoae ia?acoao, oaeei
ia?acii, naie nianoaaiiue aiiae. e eiiu In+ i?eoyaeaathony e iaio,
oi?ie?oy aeaieiie yeaeo?e/aneee neie (neie Aaeueiaieueoea). ?aciinoue
iioaioeeaeia a iai iacuaaaony

?en. 5. Aeaieiie neie Aaeueiaieueoea ia a?aieoea iaoaeea a ?aaiiaanee n
eiiaie iaoaeea a aeeaeeie oaca (I+) e aieiiaie (O-).

aaniethoiui yeaeo?iaeiui iioaioeeaeii. Noaiaea?oiua ieeneeoaeueiua e
ainnoaii-aeoaeueiua iioaioeeaeu iiaeii iaeoe a eeoa?aoo?a ii
yeaeo?ioeiee. Ia eaoiaea i?ienoiaeeo o?aaiiaaoeaath-uaa ieeneaiea, e
eaoiaeioth ?aaeoeeth a ?anoai?a iiaeii caienaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

ne+ Xn- (Xn. (8)

eoiaiaia i?e?auaiea naiaiae-iie yia?aee, (F, ninoaaeyao

(F=-nO(A, (9)

aaea (A anoue ?aciinoue aiiaeiiai e eaoiaeiiai iioaioeeaeia, aO-/enei
Oa?aaeay. Aaee/eia eciaiaiey naiaiaeiie yia?aee caaeneo io:

1) /enoiou iaoaeea, aai e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u, iaee/ey iai?yaeaiee,
iaoiaea inaaeaeaiey e ninoaaa i?eianae;

2) aeoeaiinoe eiiia iaoaeea a ?anoai?a;

3) eiiiie neeu yeaeo?ieeoa;

4) oaiia?aoo?u;

5) ninoaaa ?anoai?eoaey.

I?e o?aaeaiee aeeyeaeo?eeia ia?aiina yeaeo?iiia ia i?ienoiaeeo, e
?aaeoeee a yoii neo/aa eiatho eeneioii-iniiaiue oa?aeoa?:

SiO2+6HF (H2SiF6+2H2O, (10)

SiO2+CF4(aac) (SiF4+CO2. (11)

Si(O-naycue caiaiyaony naycueth Si(F. Iineieueeo yia?aee naycae Si(O e
Si(F aeecee, ciae eciaiaiey yio?iiee ii?aaeaeyao, i?ieaeao ?aaeoeey eee
iao.

Iauea i?eioeeiu eeiaoeee o?aaeaiey.

Aaoa?iaaiiua oaa?aeioaciua ?aaeoeee cao?aaeaatho ?acee/iua ?acaeaeu
oeiee, iaoaieee e oeceee. Oeie/iue i?ioeann aeeth/aao a naay
neaaeothuoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaeoeee:

1) ia?aiin ?aaaaioa;

2) aaeni?aoeey ?aaaaioa (Iads;

3) ?aaeoeey ia iiaa?oiinoe (F;

4) aeani?aoeey i?iaeoeoia (Ivap;

5) ia?aiin i?iaeoeoia.

Naiue iaaeeaiiue yoai ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue ?aaeoeee. A ?aaeoeeyo
iecoaai ii?yaeea

Nei?inoue=k ioeaaie ii?yaeie, (12)

Nei?inoue=kE ia?aue ii?yaeie. (13)

nei?inoue caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee o?aaeoaey (A) oieueei a neo/aa
?aaeoeee ia?aiai ii?yaeea. I?e auai?a oie eee eiie ?aaeoeee o?aaeaiey
noa?athony inoaiiaeoueny ia i?ioeanna n iaeiaiueoei eiee/anoaii
ia?aiao?ia e i?aeiouanoaaiii eeiaeiuie nei?inoyie o?aaeaiey.
AEaeaoaeueii oaeaea eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiey aiecio?iiee
?aaoee?iaaieai oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e aunieoth naeaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
(o. a. ionoonoaea aicaeaenoaey o?aaeoaey ia ?aceno eee neie,
iaoiaeyueeny iiae no?aaeeaaaiie ieaieie). A ?aaeoeeyo ioeaaiai ii?yaeea
neaaia iaaaeiaiea o?aaeoaey ianouanoaaiii. Iaeiaei a ?aaeoeeyo ia?aiai
ii?yaeea iu ia eiaai aeinoaoi/iiai ecauoea o?aaeoaey, e ii iiaeao
neeueii enoiueoueny i?e caa?ocea aeanyoe eee aieaa ieanoei. A ?aaeoeeyo
i?inoiai ii?yaeea caaeneiinoue oieueiu no?aaeaiiie ieaiee (eee eiaa?eoia
oieueiu) io a?aiaie eeiaeiay. Iiyoiio ieii/aiea ?aaeoeee iiaeao
eiio?iee?iaaoueny e oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoueny yeno?aiieyoeeae.

?anniio?ei iaoaieci ia?aiina aeey aeaoo iniiaiuo oeiia ?aaeoeee –
aeeoooceiiii-eiio?iee?oaiuo e ia?aie/aiiuo nei?inoueth ?aaeoeee. Aiiaua
aiai?y, a i?ioeanna o?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue aiaea/aiu ana o?e aa?aaaoiuo
ninoiyiey aauanoaa:

1) oaa?aeay oaca ( ne?uoay oeie/aneay yia?aey e oece/aneay no?oeoo?a
ieaiee;

2) aeeaeeay oaca ( ia?aiin eiiia a aeeaeeii aeeyeaeo?eea, iaeaaeathuai
aunieie ayceinoueth;

3) aaciia?aciay oaca ( oaiini?aoeey, ?aeiiaeiaoeey, eiiecaoeey e
n?aaeiee naiaiaeiue i?iaaa aaciauo /anoeoe i?e iiieaeaiiii aeaaeaiee.

Oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoaieci o?aaeaiey.

Ia?aoiae io oaa?aeie oacu e aeeaeeie eee aaciia?aciie

oaa?aeay ieaiea+ o?aaeoaeue (k( i?iaeoeou (14)

caaeneo io aeeooocee acaeiiaeaenoaothueo aauanoa

SiO2(oa.)+6HF(aeeaee.) ( H2SiF6+2H2O, (15)

SiO2+CF4 ( SiF4+CO2. (16)

Ionoue r anoue niioiioaiea iiey?iuo iauaiia

r=(m/d)/(M/D), (17)

?en. 7. I?iaeoeo (?) iieiinoueth iie?uaaao o?aayuothny iiaa?oiinoue e
aeiee?oao aeinooi e iae ?aaaaioa (R).Iniiaiua aeeoooceiiiua iiaeaee
auee ?ac?aaioaiu Oeeii. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiui yaeyaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi i?ioeannu aeeooocee e oaieii?iaiaeiinoe iienuaathony iaeiei e
oai aea oeiii o?aaiaiee. Ia iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea nouanoaoao
a?aieoea eiioeaio?aoeee (?en. 8). Eiee/anoai aauanoaa dM,
aeeoooiaee?othuaa /a?ac iiia?a/ioth ieiuaaeeo S ca a?aiy dt,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii S e, enoiaey ec ?acia?iinoe dM, a?aaeeaioo
eiioeaio?aoeee dC/dx a oi/ea x ia iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea ieiuaaeueth
S

dM/dt=-DSdC/dx, (18)

aaaeao e oaaee/aieth S. I?e eiiii-ieaciaiiii eee ?aaeoeaii-eiiiii
o?aaeaiee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue y?icey ?acenoa. Ec niioiioaiey
Yeiooaeia-Noiena neaaeoao. /oi eiyooeoeeaio aeeooocee D caaeneo io
ayceinoe (():

D=RT/(, (19) dM/dt=nei?inoue o?aaeaiey (

(D (1/(, (20) (D=constT, (21) (=exp(Evis/RT), (22)

Evis=Eetch. (23)

?acee/atho o?e iniiaiuo oeia oaa?aeioaciiai o?aaeaiey :

1) oeie/aneee i?ioeann ia iiaa?oiinoe eaeao iaaeeaiii, e iaaethaeaaiay
nei?inoue yaeyaony nei?inoueth iiaa?oiinoiiai i?ioeanna [r>1, o?aaiaiea
17];

2) oeie/aneee i?ioeann ia iiaa?oiinoe ianoieueei auno?, /oi eiiaaeoeey
e aeeooocey ia iiaoo iaania/eaaoue aeinoaoi/iie eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaaaioa
o iiaa?oiinoe, r>1. Iaaethaeaaiay nei?inoue yaeyaony nei?inoueth
ia?aiina (aeeooocee) e iiaa?oiinoe;

3) nei?inoue aeeooocee e oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee iaeiiai ii?yaeea
(iio?aaeaiea ?aaaaioa a ?aaeoeee niecia?eii n aai ia?aiinii a
?acoeueoaoa aeeooocee), iaeiaei eiioeaio?aoeey ?aaaaioa ia iiaa?oiinoe
ia nieaeaaony ia noieueei , /oiau naea?aeeaaoue ?aaeoeeth. I?inoaeoee
i?eia? o?aaiaiey aeey nei?inoe – i?ioeann oeia (1)

dM/dt= k1SC, (24)

aaea S – ieiuaaeue iiaa?oiinoe, N – eiioeaio?aoeey o?aaeoaey. Caeanue
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi nei?inoue eiaao ia?aue ii?yaeie ii ioiioaieth e
eiioeaio?aoeee o?aaeoaey, e ia o/eouaaaony i?iiaaeooi/iia iiaeiuaiea e
aeeyiea ia?iaiinoae iiaa?oiinoe.

A ?aaeoeeyo oeia (2) iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue yooaeoeaioth oieueio (()
neiy a?aaeeaioa eiioeaio?aoeee (?en. 8) e i?eiaiyoue caeii Oeea
[o?aaiaiey 18 e 19]:

dM/dt=DSC/(=k2SC. (25)

A i?ioeannao oeia (3) i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eiioeaio?aoeey o?aaeoaey ia
iiaa?oiinoe ?aaia Ns (s-(surface():

dM/dt=k1SCs=k2S(C-Cs). (26)

Anee ?aciinoue yooaeoeaiuo ieiuaaeae o/eouaaaony a k1, oi

dM/dt=k1k2SC/(k1+k2)=k3SC (27)

O?aaiaiey (24), (25), (26) oi?iaeueii i?aaenoaaeytho iaeii e oi aea
o?aaiaiea, e iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieaaaoue yenia?eiaioaeueiui
e?eoa?eai aeey ?acee/aiey o?ao iienaiiuo oeiia o?aaeaiey. Iaeioi?ua
ioee/ey i?eaiaeyony ieaea.

Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie ?aaeoeee, eiio?iee?oaiie aeeoooceae, yaeythony:

1) Yia?aey aeoeaaoeee caaeneo io ayceinoe e ?aaia 1-6 eeae/iieue
[o?aaiaiea 23].

2) Nei?inoue ?aaeoeee oaaee/eaaaony i?e ia?aiaoeaaiee ?aaaaioa.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao yooaeo aaoieaoieeca NO i?e o?aaeaiee e?aiiey a
HNO3. I?iaeoeou yoie ?aaeoeee (NO) niinianoaotho aa aea ?acaeoeth.
Eioaineaiia ia?aiaoeaaiea i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth nei?inoe ?aaeoeee.

3) Ana iaoa?eaeu iacaaeneii io i?eaioaoeee e?enoaeee/aneeo ieineinoae
o?aayony n iaeeiaeiaie nei?inoueth.

4) Yia?aey aeoeaaoeee i?e ia?aiaoeaaiee ?anoao. Eneeth/aieai yaeyaony
o?aaeaiea e?aiiey a HNO3 ((H=100 eeae/iieue), a oiaea eioi?iai
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oaiea, auaeaeyaiia a ?acoeueoaoa
yecioa?ie/aneie ?aaeoeee, i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth nei?inoe aeeooocee e
nei?inoe o?aaeaiey. Ia?aiaoeaaiea a yoii neo/aa i?eaaei au e
oiaiueoaieth nei?inoe o?aaeaiey ec-ca aeenneiaoeee oaiea.

Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie i?ioeannia, eiio?iee?oaiuo nei?inoueth
oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee [o?aaiaiea 24], yaeythony:

1) caaeneiinoue nei?inoe ?aaeoeee io eiioeaio?aoeee o?aaeoaey;

2) ionoonoaea caaeneiinoe nei?inoe io ia?aiaoeaaiey;

3) yia?aey aeoeaaoeee ninoaaeyao 8-20 eeae/iieue.

AEeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea.

I?e aeeaeeinoiii o?aaeaiee iaoaeeia i?ienoiaeyo
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee, a a neo/aa iai?aaie/aneeo
ieneaeia – ?aaeoeee caiauaiey (eeneioii-iniiaiua).

O?aaeaiea SiO2.

Aioi?iue eee ieaaeaiue eaa?oe,- yoi iaoa?eae, a eioi?ii eaaeaeue aoii
e?aiiey eiaao oao?ayae?e/aneia ie?oaeaiea ec /aou?ao aoiiia eenei?iaea.
A noaeeiia?aciuo iaoa?eaeao iiaoo ninouanoaiaaoue eae e?enoaeee/aneay,
oae e aii?oiay oacu. Iaiueaiiue eaa?oe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aii?oiue SiO2
ec oyo?ayae?ia SiO4. A i?ioeanna ?aaeoeee o?aaeaiey yeaiaioa?iue ooi?
iiaeao eaaei caiauaoue aoii I a SiO2, oae eae ooi? iaeaaeaao iaiueoei
eiiiui ?aaeeonii (0.14 ii), /ai Si(O (16 ii). Yia?aey nayce Si(F a 1.5
?aca i?aauoaao yia?aeth nayce Si(O. Ieaea ia?a/eneaiu iniiaiua
aeinoieinoaa aii?oiuo ieaiie SiO2, i?eiaiyaiuo a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie
yeaeo?iieea:

1) oi?ioay aeeyeaeo?e/aneay ecieyoeey;

2) aa?uea? aeey eiiiie aeeooocee e eiieaioaoeee;

3) ieceea aioo?aiiea iai?yaeaiey;

4) aunieay noaiaiue no?oeoo?iiai niaa?oainoaa e iaeii?iaeiinoe ieaiee;

5) eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa eiioi?iiuo iie?uoee, aeeth/ay e iie?uoey
nooiaiae;

6) aunieay /enoioa, iaeii?iaeiay ieioiinoue e ionoonoaea neaiciuo ii?.

Aii?oiue SiO2 ?acee/iuo oeiia iieo/atho iaoiaeaie oeie/aneiai
inaaeaeaiey ec ia?iaie oacu, ?aniueaiey, ieeneaiey a ia?ao aiaeu.

Ec-ca aioo?aiieo iai?yaeaiee ieneaeu, inaaeaeaiiua ?acee/iuie niiniaaie,
eiatho ?acee/ey a no?iaiee aeeaeiaai ii?yaeea, eioi?ua aeeytho ia
nei?inoue o?aaeaiey (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoea 3. Nei?inoe o?aaeaiey SiO2 a aooa?iii ?anoai?a (7;1) HF.

Iaoiae iieo/aiey ieneaea Ioiineoaeueiay nei?inoue

o?aaeaiey (iei/iei)

Oa?iiieeneaiea a ia?ao aiaeu1)

Aiiaeiue ?ino

Ie?ieeoe/aneee

?aniueaiea

Eaae?iaaiiue ieneae

1.0

8.5

3-10

0.5

3-5

1) I?eia?ii 0.1 iei/iei (20iN).

O?aaeaiea SiO2 a aiaeiii ?anoai?a HF /a?ac oioi?acenoioth ianeo
i?ioaeaao ecio?iiii aeaaiaea?y yooaeoo iiaeo?aaeeaaiey, eioi?ue
oneeeaaaony /anoe/iui ioneaeaaieai ?acenoa. Ii/oe aiecio?iiiua
aa?oeeaeueiua i?ioeee iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu i?e eniieueciaaiee oaa?aeie e
naiaiaeiie io iai?yaeaiee ianie ec Si3N4 (?en. 9). Einua e?iiee
iieo/atho i?e eniieueciaaiee 30:1 (ii aano) ?anoai?a NH4F a HF.
Oooaeoaiea aaeaacee ?acenoa eee, iaiai?io, aai oi?ioaa noeaieaiea
(Si3N4) n iiaa?oiinoueth SiO2 iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth o?ao
?acee/iuo i?ioeeae o?aaeaiey. Oeiey o?aaeaiey SiO2 aeeth/aao
ioeeaioeeueiia aicaeaenoaea ooi?eaeiuo a?oii ia nayce Si(O. A aooa?iii
?anoai?a HF (7 /anoae 40-i?ioeaioiie NH4F e iaeiie /anoe
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie HF) aeiieie?otho aeaa oeia /anoeoe:

?en. 9. i?ioeee iieo/aiiua i?e eniieueciaaiee aeeaeeinoiiai o?aaeoaey
6:1 NH4/HF n ?acee/iuie ianeaie: a-ianea Si3N4; a-oioi?acenoiay ianea. A
neo/aa (a) o?aaeaiea a niane 30:1 NH4F/HF i?iaiaeeeinue /a?ac ianeo
oioi?acenoa.

HF (k1( H+ + F-, k1=10-3, (28)

HF+F- (k2( HF-2, k2=10-1. (29)

Iniiaiie /anoeoeae a aooa?iii ?anoai?a HF yaeyaony HF-2. Yoa nenoaia
/oanoaeoaeueia e ia?aiaoeaaieth e, nei?aa anaai, yaeyaony
aeeoooceiiii-eiio?iee?oaiie. Ia ?en. 10 iieacaia eeiaeiay caaeneiinoue
nei?inoe ?anoai?aiey io eiioeaio?aoeee HF-2 e HF. Oaeei ia?acii,
nei?inoue oiaiueoaiey oieueiu SiO2 ?aaia

d(SiO2)/dt=A(HF)+B(HF-2)+C, (30)

Ia?acaaaeaiiue ?anoai? HF aeennioeee?oao oieueei aei 10-3, e nei?inoue
o?aaeaiey a iai i?eia?ii a 4 ?aca iaiueoa (0.925 iei/iei).
Ia?acaaaeaiiue ?anoai? HF yaeyaony oaeaea oi?ioi i?iieeathuei aauanoaii,
e iiyoiio ii eaaei aeeoooiaee?oao neaicue ?acenoioth ieaieo, nicaeaaay a
iae eaiaeu e neo/aeiua ioneiaiey io iiaeeiaeee.

Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi aoaea aeooi?eaeiui eiiii iiaa?oiinoe
aeeieneaea e?aiiey aeeth/aao i?iiaaeooi/iia ninoiyiea

Ai acaeiiaeaenoaee HF n ieneaeii e?aiiey o/anoaotho, aa?iyoii,
iiaa?oiinoiua ninoiyiee

A eiioea eiioeia ooi? caiauaao eenei?iae. Aoiiu aiaei?iaea
i?eniaaeeiythony e aoiio eenei?iaea ia iiaa?oiinoe SiO2, a a
eii?aeeiaoeeiiioth noa?o SiF4 aeeth/athony aeaa eee aieaa eiiia ooi?a,
oae /oi a ?anoai?a ia?acoaony SiF62-. Ieii/aoaeueii ?aaeoeey o?aaeaiey
iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae

6HF + SiO2 ( H2SiF6 + 2H2O (31)

Iaia?oaeaii, /oi i?e aeiaaaeaiee NH4F e H2F6 e aooa?iiio ?anoai?o HF
nei?inoue o?aaeaiey oaaee/eaaaony aeaaiaea?y ia?aciaaieth HF2-. I?e yoii
iaeaieeaaiea H2SiF6 eiieo?e?oao n i?ioeannii ia?aciaaiey inaaeea
(NH4)2SiF6 :

H2SiF6 + NH4F ( (NH4)2SiF6 + HF (32)

Aeiaaaeaiea aieaa neeueiuo ioeeaioeeueiuo aauanoa (NH4Cl, -Br, -I)
aaaeao e oaaee/aieth nei?inoe (oaae. 4), /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
?acaeoee i?ioeanna /a?ac ioeeaioeeueiia niauaiea.

Oaaeeoea 4. Aeeyiea aaeiaaia ia nei?inoue o?aaeaiey SiO2.

Aooa?iue eii Nei?inoue o?aaeaiey (ii/nae)

F-

Cl-

Br-

I-

1.0

2.0

2.3

3.3

O?aaeaiea e?aiiey.

O?aaeaiea e?aiiey aeeth/aao noaaeeth ieeneaiey

Si + [O] ( SiO2 + 14eeae/iieue (33)

e iineaaeothuaa o?aaeaiea SiO2 :

6HF + SiO2 ( H2SiF6 + H2O – 11eeae/iieue (31)

A o?aaeoaea HF/HNO3 i?ienoiaeeo ?aaeoeey

Si+2HNO3+6HF ( H2SiF6+2HNO3+ 2H2O+125eeae/iieue (34)

?en. 11. Caaeneiinoue nei?inoe o?aaeaiey dM/dt io aaee/eiu 1000/O i?e
o?aaeaiee Si a HNO3/HF.

?en. 12. Caaeneiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey ayceinoe ia nei?inoue o?aaeaiey
(((dM/dt) io oaiia?aoo?u ey o?aaeaiey Si i?e eniieueciaaiee eaaeyiie
oenoniie eeneiou a ea/anoaa caaonoeoaey.

I?e ecio?iiiii o?aaeaiee e?aiiey eniieuecothony ianee ec iao?aayueony
iaoaeeia Si3N4 eee SiO2 (eiiaaea aeey iaaeoaieiai o?aaeaiey). ?aceno
eniieuecoaony ?aaeei, oae eae HF(HNO3 auno?i i?iieeaao /a?ac ieaieo.
Aeey o?aaeaiey e?aiiey eniieueciaaeenue oaeaea uaei/iua o?aaeoaee

Si + 2OH- + H2O ( SiO2 + 2H2 (35)

Yoeeaiaeeaiei, aeae?acei e OH- aeaenoaotho eae ieeneeoaee, a ie?ieaoaoei
e nie?ou – eae eiiieaeniia?acothuea aaaiou aeey SiO3+. E?iia oiai,
aiaei?iae iiaeao caiaaeeeoue o?aaeaiea iieee?aiiey. Aeey oaeaeaiey H2 n
iiaa?oiinoe aeiaaaeytho IAA.

?en. 13. i?aeiouanoaaiiia o?aaeaiea e?aiiey aaeieue

e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee e .

Uaei/iua ?aaaaiou yaeythony a iniiaiii aiecio?iiiuie o?aaeoaeyie n
i?aeiouanoaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneea ieineinoe n
iaeuie eiaeaenaie. Ieioiinoue naiaiaeiuo naycae (aeaoaeoia,
iaoneiaeaiiuo naiaiaeiuie iacaaa?oaiiuie naycyie a?aie/iie
e?enoaeee/aneie ieineinoe) aeey yoeo ieineinoae iaoiaeeony a niioiioaiee
1.00 : 0.71 : 0.58. I?e/eia auai?a (100) – i?eaioe?iaaiiiai n?aca
e?aiiey aeey aiecio?iiiiai o?aaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi yoi
aaeeinoaaiiay ec iniiaiuo ieineinoae, a eioi?ie ieineinoe (110), (111),
(100) e (211) ia?anaeathony n ?aaoey?iie neiiao?eae. Iiyoiio yoa
i?eaioaoeey iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueia i?e o?aaeaiee aeoaieeo eaiaaie a
e?aiiee. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aaiiao?ey iiaa?oiinoe, nicaeaaaaiie
ecio?iiiui o?aaeaieai, aoaeao caaenaoue io aaiiao?ee ia?aiia/aeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe, oae eae auioeeua iiaa?oiinoe ia?aie/eaatho auno?i
o?aayueany ieineinoe, a iaaeeaiii o?aayueany ieineinoe inoaiaaeeaathony
ia aiaiooie iiaa?oiinoe. A iai?aaeaiee nei?inoue o?aaeaiey a 100
?ac auoa, /ai a iai?aaeaiee . Ia ?en. 13 iieacai i?eia?
i?aeiouanoaaiiiai o?aaeaiey 54i- ie eaiaaee a ia?ana/aiee 110/100/111
nianueth KOH ecii?iiaiiea i?e 85iN. KOH e ecii?iiaiie yaeythony
o?aaeoaeyie n niioiioaieai nei?inoae o?aaeaiey 55:1 aeey iai?aaeaiee
e .

I?e aeiaaaeaiee e o?aaeoaeth nie?oia, eioi?ua aaeni?ae?othony
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ieineinoe (111), iiaeii inouanoaeoue aiecio?iiiia
o?aaeaiea a ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo. Nei?inoue o?aaeaiey eeieoe?oaony
aeeoooceae n yia?aeae aeoeaaoeee 4 eeae/iieue, oae eae uaei/ue aeieaeia
aeeoooiaee?iaaoue neaicue aa?uea? ec eiiieaenia e?aiiey.

?en. 14. Aiecio?iiiia (a) e ecio?iiiia (a) aeeaeeinoiia

o?aaeaiea yieoaeneaeueiiai e?aiiey.

Ae?oaie o?aaeoaeue aeey iiii- e iieee?enoaeee/aneiai e?aiiey ninoieo ec
yoeeaiaeeaieia e ie?ieaoaoeia e eiaao yia?aeth aeoeaaoeee 8 eeae/iieue:

2NH2(CH2)2NH2+Si+3((OH)2 (

( 2H2+Si((O2)3+2NH2(CH2)3NH3 (36)

I?e aeiaaaeaiee e ?aaaaioai 1000 ppm (1 ppm=1/anoue ia ieeeeii)
a?iiaoe/aneiai ie?aceia aeinoeaaeinue oaaee/aiea yia?aee aeoeaaoeee aei
11 eeae/iieue e naeaeoeaiinoe o?aaeaiey ieineinoae (100) e (111) n 10
aei 20. O?aaeaiea e?aiiey i?eiaiyaony oaeaea n aeeaaiinoe/aneeie oeaeyie
aeey auyaeaiey oi/a/iuo i?ieieia SiO2. E?aiiee, eaae?iaaiiue ai?ii,
o?aaeony iaaeeaiiaa iaeaae?iaaiiiai e?aiiey.

Oaaeeoea 5. Ecio?iiiia e aiecio?iiiia o?aaeaiea e?aiiey.

O?aaeoaeue

Nei?inoue o?aaeaiey, iei/iei

Iiaeo?aaeeaaiea (iei/noi?iio)1)

PS ES BS PS ES BS

Ecio?iiiue2)

Ecio?iiiue3)

Aiecio?iiiue4) 3

0.8

0.7 4

0.6

0.9 4

0.5

1.1 1.5d

1.0d

(0.1-1.0)d 1.5d

1.0d

SiO2/ Si3N4 e i?i?eniaaiiue /a?ac ?acenoioth ianeo. Nia/aea iiaeo?aaeeaaaony neie ieneaea, caoai oaeaeyaony W, e neie Si3N4 i?ioeee?oaony /a?ac ieneaeioth ianeo n o?aaoaiie oiiieiaeae. Eiii?iienniui ninoaaii aeey o?aaeaiey naiaeae/a ?aceno / Si3N4/ ai?ineeeeaoiia noaeei yaeyaony nianue 70% H3PO4, 29% aeeoea?eia e 1% HBF4 i?e oaiia?aoo?a 103iN. I?e aieaa aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo HBF4 iaaethaeaaony auno?ay y?icey ?acenoia KTFR e AZ-1350. O?aaeaiea aethieiey. AEeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea iaoaeeia aeeth/aao a naay iiiaea yeaeo?ioeie/aneea i?ioeannu. Oeie/aneay ?aaeoeey aucuaaao i?ioaeaiea oiea, i?e/ai iaoaee yaeyaony aiiaeii M ( Mn+ + ne. (38) Aieueoeinoai iaoaeeia iie?uoi anoanoaaiiui ieeneii. Aeey oaeaeaiey yoiai ianneae?othuaai neiy aeiaaaeyaony aniiiiaaoaeueiue o?aaeoaeue. Ecaanoii aieueoia /enei ?acee/iuo iai?aaie/aneeo ieeneeoaeae. Iaeaieaa i?inoua niaea?aeao I+. Iniiaiay caaea/a oeieea-oaoiieiaa caeeth/aaony a auai?a iiaeoiaeyuaai ieeneeoaey, oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai o?aaiaaieyi oa?iiaeeiaieee: (F = -nO(A, (39) aaea (F - naiaiaeiay yia?aey, (A - ?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia ieeneaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey (oaae. 8). Oaaeeoea 8. Iaoaeeu e ieeneeoaee. Iaoaee Ieeneeoaeue Iaoaee Ieeneeoaeue Al Zn Cr Ni F2 H2O2 MnO4- Cr2O72- Sn Cu Ag Au Br2 HNO3 Fe2+ I2 AEeaeeinoiia o?aaeaiea Al ecio?iiii e nii?iaiaeaeaaony ooiaeii e?ay i?ioeey o?aaeaiey (?en. 1) ia 1-2 iei. Aini?iecaiaeeiinoue ?acia?ia i?e o?aaeaiee ia?oee ieanoei ninoaaeyao (1 iei. No?oeoo?u iau/ii ia?ao?aaeaiu, oae eae iaoaeee/aneea ieaiee niaea?aeao aeaoaeou - ca?ia, i?aoeeieoaou, a oaeaea iiaeaa?aeaiu iai?yaeaieyi. Iaoaeeu i?e eiioaeoa ae?oa n ae?oaii eciaiytho naie yeaeo?ioeie/aneee iioaioeeae [ni. oi?ioeo (38)] (aaeueaaie/aneee yooaeo), /oi onei?yao eo nianoaaiiia o?aaeaiea e aaaeao e neeueiiio iiaeo?aaeeaaieth ieaeaeaaeauaai iaoaeee/aneiai neiy. Iai?eia?, neie Al a NaOH no?aaeeaaaony nai ii naaa ca 7 iei. I?e eiioaeoa n Pt/Au aai o?aaeaiea ieai/eaaaony /a?ac 1 iei. O?aaeoaee aeey aethieiey. O?aaeaiea aethieiey i?iaiaeeony a uaei/iie eee eeneioiie n?aaea. Oe?iei i?eiaiyaony o?aaeoaeue, ninoiyuee ec eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie H3PO4 (76%), eaaeyiie oenoniie eeneiou (15%), eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie acioiie eeneiou (3%) e aiaeu (5%) ii iauaio. Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi, i?ioeann ninoieo ec aeaoo noaaeee - oi?ie?iaaiey Al3+ e ia?aciaaiey AlPO4, eiio?iee?oaiuo nei?inoyie niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeoeee: Al2O3 (iaaeeaiii( Al (-3aHNO3( Al3+ (auno?i( (auno?i( Ieaiea (iaaeeaiii( ?anoai?eiue AlPO4. (40) Aiaea a oinoi?iie eeneioa i?aiyonoaoao ?anoai?aieth Al2O3, ii iia niinianoaoao ?anoai?aieth aoi?e/iiai i?iaeoeoa AlPO4. Neea oiea i?iii?oeeiiaeueia nei?inoe o?aaeaiey. Anee oie i?eeiaeai e aethieieth, oi ioia/aaony aiecio?iiey o?aaeaiey. Yia?aey aeoeaaoeee o?aaeaiey Al a H3PO4/HNO3 ?aaia 13.2 eeae/iieue, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aie/aiea i?ioeanna nei?inoueth ?anoai?aiey Al2O3 a H3PO4. Auaeaeyaiue aac anoue nianue I2, NO e NO2. Aaeni?aoeey aacia ia iiaa?oiinoe Al yaeyaony iinoiyiiie i?iaeaiie i?e eniieueciaaiee ayceeo o?aaeoaeae. Iocu?ueee niiniaiu caiaaeeyoue o?aaeaiea - iiae ieie ia?acothony ino?iaee iaaeio?aaeaiiiai iaoaeea, eioi?ua iiaoo caiueaoue aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiua i?iaiaeieee. Iaiaeeaeaiiui i?eiaia-ieai aaeni?aoeee iocu?ue-eia yaeeinue aa eniieue-ciaaiea aeey naeaaeeaaiey e?aaa i?ioeey i?e o?aaeaiee aeaeaciieea-eaauo ieaiie a HNO3 (?en. 17). Eae oieueei ia/eiaaony i?ioeann o?aa-eaiey, iocu?ueee ieene acioa niae?athony aaeieue aieiaie e?iiee. Aaeni?-ae?iaaiiue i?iiaaeooi/-iue i?iaeoeo NO2 aeaenoaoao eae neeueiue ieeneeoaeue i?e o?aaeaiee iaoaeea, e o?aaeaiea a aieiaii iai?aaeaiee onei?yaony. Aaeni?aoeey aacia ia aieiaie noaiea (?en. 17) eniieueciaaeanue oaeaea aeey nieaeaiey aieiaiai iiaeo?aaeeaaiey Al i?e aai o?aaeaiee a I3?I4. Nieaeaiea aeaaeaiey a eaia?a o?aaeaiey n 105 aei 103 Ia i?eaiaeeei e oiaiueoaieth iiaeo?aaeeaaiey n 0.8 aei 0.4 iei. A ?acoeueoaoa aaeni?aoeee iaeeeo iocu?ueeia aiaei?iaea ia aieiaie noaiea ia iae ia?aciauaaeny yooaeoeaiue aeeoooceiiiue aa?uea?. Aeey nieaeaiey aieiaiai iiaeo?aaeeaaiey Al n 1.0 aei 0. 25 iei auei i?aaeeiaeaii ianeieueei o?aaeoaeae (oaae. 9), niaea?aeaueo aeiaaaee naoa?icu (iieenie?oa) e IAA. Oaaeeoea 9. O?aaeoaee aeey aethieiey. O?aaeoaeue ?aceno1) I?eiaiaiea 1. Na3PO4, Na2CO3, K3FeCN6 2. K3FeCN6 3. H3PO4, HCLO4, H2O, IAA 4. H3PO4, HNO3, IAA, naoa?ica 5. HCl 6. HCl, HNO3, Cu(NO3)2 7. Uaei/ue, ecii?iiaiie 8. AeIO-i?iyaeoaeue AeOI, AE AE AeOI,AE AE AE Oiaiueoaiea iiaeo?aaeeaaiey aei 0.5 iei Ieieiecaoeey eiee/anoaa iocu?ueeia Oiaiueoaiea iiaeo?aaeeaaiey Iiaeo?aaeeaaiea 0.25 iei Ana aaeueaaie/anee inaaeaeaiiua iaoaeeu, aeeth/ay Al; o?aaeaiea ?aniueaieai yeaeo?ieeoa, ono?aiaiea iiaeo?aaeeaaiey Ono?aiaiea iaiaeii?iaeiinoe o?aaeaiey Al/Cu Oieaa?naeueiue o?aaeoaeue Al ?ac?ooaaony i?e aeinoaoi/iie eiioeaio?aoeee i?iyaeoaey 1) AE - oeeeeieao/oe n aceaeaie, ?acenou oeia KTFR; AeOI - iiaieae n oeiiiaeeaceaeaie, ?acenou oeia AZ-1350. Iaea/anoaaiii o?aaeaiea Al iaoneiaeaii ianeieueeeie oaeoi?aie : 1) iaaeii?iyaeaiiue ?aceno; 2) ia?aaiiia?iinoue oieueiu; 3) iai?yaeaiey a ieaieao iiaa?o nooiaiae; 4) aaeueaaie/aneia onei?aiea o?aaeaiey ec-ca iaee/ey i?aoeeieoaoia Al-Cu; 5) ia?aaiiia?iinoue oieueiu ieenea; 6) ianoaaeeueiinoue oaiia?aoo?u (>(1iN).

Yoe oaeoi?u i?eaiaeyo e ia?ao?aaeeaaieth e caei?a/eaaieth.

O?ii yaeyaony aoi?ui iinea aethieiey iaoaeeii, iaeaieaa /anoi
iiaeaa?aathueiny o?aaeaieth. Ii oe?iei eniieuecoaony i?e ecaioiaeaiee
oioioaaeiiia. A ea/anoaa o?aaeoaey eniieuecoaony noeueoao oea?ey/HNO3.

Aneaaenoaea eiaeoeoeeiiiiai yooaeoa (oi?ie?iaaiey aa?oiaai neiy Cr2O3)
o?aaeaiea ieaiee iaeeiaeii, e iiyoiio iiiaio ieii/aiey o?aaeaiey ia
iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai ii aa ia/aeueiie oieueia.

Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia o?aaeaiea.

?en. 18. Aaoiiaoecaoeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieii/aiey i?ioeanna iooai eiio?iey
oiea I i?e yeaeo?i-oeie/aneii o?aaeaiee.

iiaeieiaaony aei ieeiaiai cia/aiey aneaae-noaea iiey?ecaoeee yeaeo?ieeoa
e caoai nieaeaaony aei noaoeeiia?iiai cia/aiey Ii. Ieii/aiea o?aaeaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaaony oeene?iaaiiui i?ioeaioiui nieaeaieai oiea. Eiioaeoiia
nii?ioeaeaiea aeieaeii auoue ieceei ( I?aeoe/aneea aniaeou aeeaeeinoiiai oeie/aneiai o?aaeaiey. I?aeoe/aneea aniaeou aeeaeeinoiiai oeie/aneiai o?aaeaiey (AEOO) naycaiu ni noaoe/aneie e aeeiaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yoiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea n aai eiia/iuie ?acoeueoaoaie. Oaaeeoea 10. Aniaeou AEOO. Noaooenoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee Aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acoeueoaou AEOO Iaeii?iaeiinoue ieaiee Ninoaa ieaiee Iiey?iinoue o?aaeoaey Ninoaa o?aaeoaey ?acia? ecia?aaeaiey a ?acenoa Oaiia?aoo?a Iauai o?aaeoaey ?aca?ucaeaaiea o?aaeoaey Ia?aiaoeaaiea o?aaeoaey Nei?inoue o?aaeaiey Y?icey ?acenoa Ineaaeaiea aaeaacee Iiiaio i?ae?auaiey o?aaeaiey Enoiuaiea o?aaeoaey Iiaeo?aaeeaaiea I?ieieu Caei?a/eaaiea, ?ac?uau Aeiione ia eciaiaiea ?acia?ia Naeaeoeaiinoue Iaeeii noaiie Eciaiaiea ?acia?ia E o?ai iniiaiui ia?aiaiiui i?ioeanna aeeaeeinoiiai o?aaeaiey ioiinyony oieueia o?aaeiiai neiy, oaiia?aoo?a e a?aiy ia?aaioee. Ia?aiaoeaaiea ?aaaaioa ia ea?aao nouanoaaiiie ?iee a neo/aa ia?aie/aiey nei?inoe ia noaaeee oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee. Nei?inoue aieueoeinoaa i?ioeannia aeeaeeinoiiai o?aaeaiey (HF) ia?aie/aia nei?inoueth oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee. Oeie/iua oeoeooaoeee ia?a/eneaiiuo ia?aiaiiuo iiaoo i?eaanoe e ia?ao?aaeeaaieth. Ia?ao?aaeeaaiea eee iaiieiia no?aaeeaaiea oaoaeueii ia noieueei ec-ca aieueoiai ooiaea ?acia?ia, neieueei ec-ca oiai, /oi iii cao?oaeiyao i?iaaaeaiea iineaaeothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, iai?eia? aeeooocee. *ai oieua oaeaeyaiay ieaiea, oai aieueoa ooiae ?acia?ia aneaaenoaea iiaeo?aaeeaaiey e oai aieueoa aeiione ia yoio ooiae. I?ieieu oiaiueoatho auoiaeu aiaeiuo, i?e/ai aaee/eia yoiai oiaiueoaiey ii?aaeaeyaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth eiie?aoiie noaiu e ?acia?ai, ianoiiieiaeaieth e ieioiinoe aeaoaeoia. O?aaeaiea ia?aaiaeeo oi/a/iue aeaoaeo a ?acenoa a ?enoiie ia iiaeeiaeea. Anee iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? i?ieieia ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eiu n?aaiei n eciaiaieai ?acia?ia i?e AEOO (0.4-1.0 iei), oi ?acei aic?anoaao aa?iyoiinoue ia?aciaaiey ?ac?uaia a nieioiuo eeieyo. Ae?oaea oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aaeaiey. Iaeii?iaeiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth oaiia?aoo?u a aaiia n ?aaaaioii niinianoaoao ia?aiaoeaaiea. Oeueo?aoeeueo?aoeey ?anoai?a o?aaeoaey a i?ioeanna AEOO n/euaao ?aaaaio io inoaoeia ?acenoa e ae?oaeo oaa?aeuo /anoeoe, niiniaiuo aeiee?iaaoue o?aaeaiea. Ai ecaaaeaiea caa?yciaiee aa/ie n o?aaeoaeai aeieaeai auoue cae?uo e eciee?iaai io ae?oaiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii iiaeae?aoue niaianoeiua n ?aaaaioii iaoa?eaeu yeaiaioia onoaiiaie, eia/a iaecaaaeiu caa?yciaiey e ooa/ee. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaioa ieii/aiey o?aaeaiey e ioeaiee aaee/eiu ia?ao?aaeeaaiey oaeiaii iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaiaeeoue o?aaeaiea aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo ?aoaoie eee yeaiaioia n iaiueoei oa?aeoa?iui ?acia?ii, /ai a iniiaiii ecia?aaeaiee. A?aiy aeecie ?aaaaioa iiaeii au/eneeoue ii noaoeiiao?ee oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee. Iai?eia?, aeey o?aaeaiey 1 iieue SiO2 o?aaoaony 6 iieae HF. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iaaei ia?aaioaoue 25% ieiuaaee 100-ii ieanoeiu a aooa?iii ?anoai?a 2I HF n niioiioaieai eiiiiiaioia 1:7 niioaaonoaaiii (ni. ?en. 10). A aaiia aieinoueth 8 eeo?ia niaea?aeeony 16 iieae HF. SiO2 + 6HF ( H2SiF6 + 2H2O. (41) Iieaaaai iaaeaiea nei?inoe o?aaeaiey ia 20% i?aaeaeueiui, /oi niioaaonoaoao oiaiueoaieth eiioeaio?aoeee HF oaeaea ia 20% (?en.10). Aeey ieaiee SiO2 oieueiie t=0.5 iei e ieioiinoueth ( au/eneyai eiee/anoai oaeaeaiiuo iieae SiO2: Iiee SiO2 = ( r2 t (/ SiO2 = = 3.14(25 ni2) 5(10-5 ni(2.3 a/ni3)/60 (42) Ia iaeio ieanoeio o?aaoaony 4.8(10-4 iieae HF, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a iaoae aaiia n o/aoii 20%-iiai iaaeaiey nei?inoe (yoi niioaaonoaoao 3.2 iieyi HF) iiaeii ia?aaioaoue 25000 iiaeeiaeae. Anee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue onoaiiaee ?aaia 500 ieanoei a aeaiue, oi ?anoai? a oaiea i?eaeaony iaiyoue ?ac a 50 aeiae (anee i?aiaa?a/ue iioa?yie iaoa?eaea e caa?yciaieyie). Caeeth/aiea. O?aaeaiea - e?eoe/aneay noaaeey eeoia?aoe/aneiai i?ioeanna. Ia yoie noaaeee aeanoei eniuouaathony aaeaacey, iai?iieoeaaiinoue, o?iaaiue aeaoaeoiinoe e oeie/aneay eia?oiinoue ?acenoa. Noieeinoue ?acenoa e o?aaeaieth e aai aaeaacey e iiaeeiaeea yaeythony, aiciiaeii, iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ia?aiao?aie ?acenoiiai eeoia?aoe/aneiai i?ioeanna e a iaeaieueoae noaiaie ii?aaeaeytho aai oniao. I?eiaiaiea ?acenoa n aunieie noieeinoueth e o?aaeaieth aa?aioe?oao ieieiaeueiia eneaaeaiea ecia?aaeaiey i?e ia?aiina aai a iiaeeiaeeo. I?aeoe/aneea i?aaeaeu i?eiaieiinoe i?ioeanna AEOO ii?aaeaeythony aai ?ac?aoaieai -1.5-2.0 iei - e ooiaeii ?acia?ia i?e o?aaeaiee - (0.2-0.5 iei.Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 1. O?aaeaiea iieoi?iaiaeieeia [nai?ee noaoae]. Ia?. n aiae. N. I. Ai?eia. I.: Ie?, 1965. 2. Ia??e Aeae. Ni?aai/iee Eiaeaia?a-oeieea/ Ia?. n aiae. - O.2. - I.: Oeiey, 1969. 3. Iieoaaoeaa TH. A., Eiycaa A. N. Oaoiieiaey ia?aaioee iiaa?oiinoae a iee?iyeaeo?iieea. - Eeaa: Oyoieea, 1990. 4. Oaoiieiaey iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia e ecaeaeee iee?iyeaeo?iieee.[O/aa. aeey IOO: a 10 ei.]. - I: Auno. oe., 1989. 5. Aaaeaaa A. A., Eieoeuaieia A. I., Iaioaeaaaa O. N. Aeaoia?iia oiiieiae/aneia iiaea?e?iaaiea o?aaeaiey//Yeaeo?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. - 1986.- ?4.-N.14-17. 6. Aieinia A. A. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia o?aaeaiea GaAs. A na.: Neeiaua i/i i?eai?u. - Oaeei : Aaeaon, 1981. 7. Aaneeueaaa I. A., A?ioaaaa E. A. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia iiee?iaaiea iiaeeiaeae GaAs// Yeaeo?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1988.-?8.-N. 39-40. 8. Ee?aaa A. A. E?aoeee eo?n oece/aneie oeiee. I.: Oeiey, 1978. I.........F Si D I.........F H ( F ( ( O ( H Si Si HF O Si Si F F Si

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