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Oaeaaiaeu – aauanoaa ninoaaa NiI2iIi, eiathuea ia?ainoaiaiiia
aeioeie/aneia ?cia/aiea, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a aeeaie i?e?iaea e
ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue a aeecie /aeiaaea.

Iacaaiea oaeaaiaeu aicieeei ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo aiaeeca ia?auo
ecaanoiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoie a?oiiu niaaeeiaiey. Aauanoaa yoie a?oiiu
ninoiyo ec oaea?iaea, aiaei?iaea e eenei?iaea, i?e/ai niioiioaiea /enae
aoiiia aiaei?iaea e eenei?iaea a ieo oaeia aea, eae e a aiaea, o.a. ia
eaaeaeua 2 aoiia aiaei?iaea i?eoiaeeony iaeei aoii eenei?iaea. A i?ioeii
noieaoee eo ?anniao?eaaee eae aeae?aou oaea?iaea. Ionthaea e aicieeei
?onneia iacaaiea oaeaaiaeu, i?aaeeiaeaiiia a 1844a. E.Oieaeoii. Iauay
oi?ioea oaeaaiaeia, niaeanii neacaiiiio, NiI2iIi. I?e auianaiee «n»
ca neiaee iieo/aaony oi?ioea Ni(I2I)n, eioi?ay i/aiue iaaeyaeii
io?aaeaao iacaaiea «oaea – aiaeu».

Eco/aiea oaeaaiaeia iieacaei, /oi nouanoaotho niaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua ii
anai naienoaai ioaeii ioianoe a a?oiio oaeaaiaeia, oioy iie eiatho
ninoaa ia oi/ii niioaaonoaothuee oi?ioea NiH2iIi. Oai ia iaiaa
noa?eiiia iacaaiea «oaeaaiaeu», nio?aieeinue aei iaoeo aeiae, oioy
ia?yaeo n yoei iacaaieai aeey iaicia/aiey ?anniao?eaaaiie a?oiiu
aauanoa eiiaaea i?eiaiytho e aieaa iiaia iacaaiea – aeeoeeaeu.

Aieueoie eeann oaeaaiaeia ?acaeaeytho ia aeaa a?oiiu: i?inoua e
neiaeiua.

I?inouie oaeaaiaeaie (iiiinaoa?eaeaie e iiiiieiicaie) iacuaatho
oaeaaiaeu, eioi?ua ia niiniaiu aeae?ieeciaaoueny n ia?aciaaieai aieaa
i?inouo oaeaaiaeia, o ieo /enei aoiiia oaea?iaea ?aaii /eneo aoiiia
eenei?iaea NiI2nIi.

Neiaeiuie oaeaaiaeaie (iieenaoa?eaeaie eee iieeicaie) iacuaatho oaeea
oaeaaiaeu, eioi?ua niiniaiu aeae?ieeciaaoueny n ia?aciaaieai i?inouo
oaeaaiaeia e o ieo /enei aoiiia oaea?iaea ia ?aaii /eneo aoiiia
eenei?iaea NiI2iIi.

Eeanneoeeaoeeth oaeaaiaeia iiaeii ecia?aceoue neaaeothuae noaiie:

IIIINAOA?EAeU AeENAOA?EAeU
N12I22I11

Oao?icu N4I8I4 naoa?ica

yeeo?ica eaeoica

o?aica
iaeueoica

Iaioicu N5I10I5 oeaeiaeica

a?aaeiica
IIEENAOA?EAeU

eneeica
(N5I8I4)n

?eaica
iaioicaiu

AAENICU N6I12I6 (N6I10I5)n

aetheica
oeaeetheica

iaiiica
e?aoiae

aaeaeoica
aeeeiaai

o?oeoica

Aaaeiaeoeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie i?inouo oaeaaiaeia yaeythony aetheica e
o?oeoica, iie eiatho iaeio iieaeoey?ioth oi?ioeo N6I12I6.

Aetheico iacuaatho oaeaea aeiia?aaeiui naoa?ii, oae eae iia niaea?aeeony
a aieueoii eiee/anoaa a aeiia?aaeiii niea. E?iia aeiia?aaea aetheica
iaoiaeeony e a ae?oaeo neaaeeeo ieiaeao e aeaaea a ?aciuo /anoyo
?anoaiee. ?ani?ino?aiaia aetheica e a aeeaioiii ie?a: 0,1% aa iaoiaeeony
a e?iae. Aetheica ?aciineony ii anaio oaeo e neoaeeo enoi/ieeii yia?aee
aeey i?aaiecia. Iia oaeaea aoiaeeo a ninoaa naoa?icu, eaeoicu,
oeaeetheicu, e?aoiaea.

A ?anoeoaeueiii ie?a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia o?oeoica eee o?oeoiaue
(ieiaeiaue) naoa?. O?oeoica niaea?aeeony a neaaeeeo ieiaeao, iaaea.
Ecaeaeay ec oeaaoia neaaeeeo ieiaeia niee, i/aeu i?eaioaaeeaatho iaae,
eioi?ue ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a iniiaiii nianue
aetheicu e o?oeoicu. Oaeaea o?oeoica aoiaeeo a ninoaa neiaeiuo naoa?ia,
iai?eia? o?inoieeiaiai e naaeeiae/iiai.

Iiiinaoa?eaeu – yoi oaa?aeua aauanoaa, niiniaiua e?enoaeeeciaaoueny.
Iie aeae?ineiie/iu, i/aiue eaaei ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, eaaei ia?acotho
ne?iiu, ec eioi?uo auaeaeeoue eo a e?enoaeee/aneii aeaea auaaao i/aiue
o?oaeii.

?anoai?u iiiinaoa?eaeia eiatho iaeo?aeueioth ia eaeion ?aaeoeeth e
iaeaaeatho neaaeeiaaoui aeonii. Neaaeinoue iiiinaoa?eaeia ?acee/ia:
o?oeoica a 3 ?aca neaua aetheicu.

A nie?oa iiiinaoa?eaeu ?anoai?ythony ieioi, a a yoe?a aiiaua ia
?anoai?eiu.

Iiiinaoa?eaeu, aaaeiaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaee i?inouo oaeaaiaeia, a i?e?iaea
iaoiaeyony eae a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee, oae e a aeaea naieo aiaeae?eaeia
– neiaeiuo oaeaaiaeia.

Ana neiaeiua oaeaaiaeu iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aiaeae?eaeu i?inouo
naoa?ia, iieo/athueany iooai ioiyoey iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo iieaeoe
aiaeu io aeaoo eee aieaa iieaeoe iiiinaoa?eaea.

E neiaeiui oaeaaiaeai ioiinyony ?aciiia?aciua ii naiei naienoaai
aauanoaa e eo aeaeyo ii yoie i?e/eia ia aeaa iiaea?oiiu.

1.Naoa?iiiaeiaiua neiaeiua oaeaaiaeu eee ieeinaoa?eaeu. Yoe aauanoaa
iaeaaeatho ?yaeii naienoa, naeeaeathueie eo n i?inouie oaeaaiaeaie.
Naoa?iiiaeiaiua oaeaaiaeu eaaei ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, neaaeee ia aeon; yoe
naoa?a eaaei iieo/athony a aeaea e?enoaeeia.

I?e aeae?ieeca naoa?iiiaeiaiuo iieenaoa?eaeia ec eaaeaeie iieaeoeu
iieenaoa?eaea ia?acoaony iaaieueoia eiee/anoai iieaeoe i?inoiai naoa?a
– iau/ii 2, 3, eee 4 iieaeoeu. Ionthaea i?iecioei aoi?ia iacaaiea
naoa?iiiaeiaiuo iieenaoa?eaeia – ieeainaoa?eaeu (io a?a/aneiai ieeain –
iaiiiaee).

A caaeneiinoe io /enea iieaeoe iiiinaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua ia?acothony i?e
aeae?ieeca eaaeaeie iieaeoeu ieeainaoa?eaeia, iineaaeiea aeaeyony ia
aeenaoa?eaeu, o?enaoa?eaeu e o.ae.

Aeenaoa?eaeu – yoi neiaeiua naoa?a, eaaeaeay iieaeoea eioi?uo i?e
aeae?ieeca ?aniaaeaaony ia 2 iieaeoeu iiiinaoa?eaea.

Niiniau neioaca aeenaoa?eaeia ecaanoiu, ii i?aeoe/anee eo iieo/atho ec
i?e?iaeiuo enoi/ieeia.

Niiniau neioaca aeenaoa?eaeia ecaanoiu, ii i?aeoe/anee eo iieo/atho ec
i?e?iaeiuo enoi/ieeia.

Aaaeiaeoee ec aeenaoa?eaeia – naoa?ica – i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiai a
i?e?iaea. Yoi oeie/aneia iacaaiea iau/iiai naoa?a, iacuaaaiiai
o?inoieeiaui eee naaeeiae/iui.

Eiaeonu aua ca 300 eao aei iaoae y?u oiaee iieo/aoue o?inoieeiaue naoa?
ec o?inoieea. A iaoa a?aiy iieo/atho naoa?ico ec o?inoieea,
i?iec?anoathuaai a o?iieeao (ia i.Eoaa e a ae?oaeo no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie
Aia?eee).

A na?aaeeia 18 aaea aeenaoa?eae aue iaia?oaeai e a naoa?iie naaeea, a a
na?aaeeia 19 aaea aue iieo/ai a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo.

A naoa?iie naaeea niaea?aeeony 12-15% naoa?icu, ii ae?oaei enoi/ieeai
16-20% (naoa?iue o?inoiee niaea?aeeo 14-26% naoa?icu).

Naoa?ioth naaeeo eciaeue/atho e ecaeaeatho ec iaa naoa?ico ai?y/ae
aiaeie a niaoeeaeueiuo aiia?aoao-aeeoooci?ao. Iieo/aiiue ?anoai?
ia?aaaouaatho ecaanoueth aeey inaaeaeaiey i?eianae, a ia?aoaaeoee
/anoe/ii a ?anoai? ecauoi/iue aeae?ieec eaeueoeey inaaeaeatho
i?iioneaieai aeeieneaea oaea?iaea. Aeaeaa iinea ioaeaeaiey inaaeea
?anoai? oia?eaatho a aaeooi-aiia?aoao, iieo/ay iaeeie?enoaeee/aneee
ianie-nu?aoe. Iinea aai aeiiieieoaeueiie i/enoee iieo/atho
?aoeie?iaaiiue (i/euaiiue) naoa?. A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee
e?enoaeeecaoeee ii auaeaeyaony a aeaea iaeeeo e?enoaeeia eee a aeaea
eiiiaeoiuo «naoa?iuo aieia», eioi?ua ?aneaeuaatho eee ?anieeeaatho ia
eonee. Auno?i?anoai?eiue naoa? aioiayo i?anniaaieai iaeeieciaeue/aiiiai
naoa?iiai ianea.

O?inoieeiaue naoa? i?eiaiyaony a iaaeeoeeia aeey ecaioiaeaiey ii?ioeia,
ne?iiia, ieenoo? e o.ae.

Naaeeiae/iue naoa? oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
eoeeia?ee, i?eaioiaeaiee aei, ieaa e o.ae.

Ec iieiea iieo/atho iiei/iue naoa? – eaeoico. A iieiea eaeoica
niaea?aeeony a aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa: a ei?iaueai iieiea
4-5,5% eaeoicu, aeaineia iieiei niaea?aeeo 5,5-8,4% eaeoicu.

Eaeoica ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo naoa?ia ionoonoaeai aeae?ineiie/iinoe –
iia ia ionu?aaaao. Yoi naienoai eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea: anee ioaeii
i?eaioiaeoue n naoa?ii eaeie-eeai ii?ioie, niaea?aeauee eaaei
aeae?ieecothuaa eaea?noai, oi aa?oo iiei/iue naoa?. Anee acyoue
o?inoieeiaue eee naaeeiae/iue naoa?, oi ii?ioie auno?i ionu?aao e eaaei
aeae?ieecothuaa eaea?noaaiiia aauanoai auno?i ?aceiaeeony.

Cia/aiea eaeoicu i/aiue aaeeei, o.e. iia yaeyaony aaaeiui ieoaoaeueiui
aauanoaii, iniaaiii aeey ?anooueo i?aaieciia /aeiaaea e ieaeiieoathueony
aeeaioiuo.

Nieiaeiaue naoa? – yoi i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo i?e aeae?ieeca e?aoiaea.
Ii ae?oaiio aai iacuaatho aua iaeueoica, o.e. nieiaeiaue naoa?
iieo/aaony ec e?aoiaea i?e aeaenoaee nieiaea (ii eao. nieiae – maltum).

Nieiaeiaue naoa? oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai eae a ?anoeoaeueiuo, oae e a
aeeaioiuo i?aaieciao. Iai?eia?, ii ia?acoaony iiae aeeyieai oa?iaioia
ieuaaa?eoaeueiiai eaiaea, a oaeaea i?e iiiaeo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao
a?iaeeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe: aeiieo?aiey, ieaiaa?aiee e o.ae.

Aaaeiaeoea ec iieenaoa?eaeia – yoi e?aoiae, aeeeiaai (aeeaioiue
e?aoiae), oeaeetheica (eeao/aoea). Ana yoe o?e aunoea iieeicu ninoiyo
ec inoaoeia iieaeoe aetheicu, ?acee/iui ia?acii niaaeeiaiiuo ae?oa n
ae?oaii. Ninoaa eo au?aaeaaony iauae oi?ioeie (N6I12I6)i. Iieaeoey?iua
iannu i?e?iaeiuo iieenaoa?eaeia ninoaaeytho io ianeieueeeo ouny/ aei
ianeieueeeo ieeeeiiia.

E?aoiae – yoi ia?aue aeaeeiue i?iaeoeo oioineioaca. I?e oioineioaca
e?aoiae ia?acoaony a ?anoaieyo e ioeeaaeuaaaony a ei?iyo, eeoaiyo,
naiaiao. Ca?ia ?ena, ioaieoeu, ?aee e ae?oaeo ceaeia niaea?aeao 60-80%
e?aoiaea, eeoaie ea?oioaey – 15-20%. E?aoiaeueiua ca?ia ?anoaiee
?acee/athony ii aiaoiaio aeaeo, /oi oi?ioi aeaeii, eiaaea eo
?anniao?eaaaoue iiae iee?ineiiii (?en. 1).

Aiaoiee aeae e?aoiaea oi?ioi anai ecaanoai: yoi aaeia aauanoai,
ninoiyuaa ec iaeue/aeoeo ca?ai, iaiiieiathueo ioeo, iiyoiio aai aoi?ia
iacaaiea «ea?oioaeueiay ioea».

E?aoiae ia ?anoai?ei a oieiaeiie aiaea, a ai?y/ae iaaooaao e iinoaiaiii
?anoai?yaony, ia?acoy ayceee ?anoai? (eeaenoa?).

I?e auno?ii iaa?aaaiee e?aoiaea i?ienoiaeeo ?anuaieaiea aeaaioneie
iieaeoeu e?aoiaea ia iaeeea iieaeoeu iieenaoa?eaeia, iacuaaaiuo
aeaeno?eiaie. Aeaeno?eiu eiatho iauoth iieaeoey?ioth oi?ioeo n
e?aoiaeii (N6I12I5)o, ?acieoea eeoue a oii, «o» a aeaeno?eiao iaiueoa
«n» a e?aoiaea.

Ieuaaa?eoaeueiua niee niaea?aeao ianeieueei ?aciuo oa?iaioia, eioi?ua
i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a aeiaiaeyo aeae?ieec e?aoiaea aei aetheicu:

(N6I10I5) ——- (N6I10I5)o ——— N12I22I11 ———
N6I12I6

e?aoiae ?yae aeaeno?ei
iaeueoica
aetheica

Aua auno?aa aeaeno?eiecaoeey eaeao a i?enoonoaee eeneiou:

I2SI4 t

(N6I10I5)n ———— n I2I ————— n N6I12I6

Oa?iaioaoeaiue aeae?ieec (?aceiaeaiea iooai a?iaeaiey) e?aoiaea eiaao
i?iiuoeaiiia cia/aiea a i?iecaiaenoaa yoeeiaiai nie?oa ec ca?ia e
ea?oioaey. I?ioeann ia/eiaaony n i?aa?auaieai e?aoiaea a aetheico,
eioi?oth caoai na?aaeeaatho. Eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueiua eoeueoo?u
ae?iaeaeae e eciaiyy oneiaey, iiaeii iai?aaeoue a?iaeaiea e a noi?iio
iieo/aiey aooeeiaiai nie?oa, aoeaoiia, iiei/iie, eeiiiiie e aetheiiiaie
eeneio.

Iiaeaa?aay e?aoiae aeae?ieeco eeneioaie, iiaeii iieo/eoue aetheico a
aeaea /enoiai e?enoaeee/aneiai i?aia?aoa eee a aeaea iaoiee –
ie?aoaiiiai iane?enoaeeece?othuaai ne?iia.

Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea e?aoiae eiaao a ea/anoaa ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa: a
aeaea oeaaa, ea?oioaey, e?oi, yaeyynue aeaaiui enoi/ieeii a iaoai
?aoeeiia ieoaiey. E?iia oiai, /enoue e?aoiae i?eiaiyaony a ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a i?iecaiaenoaa eiiaeeoa?neeo e eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee,
eieaan. Cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai e?aoiaea oiio?aaeyaony aeey
i?ieeaeaaiey oeaiae, aoiaae, ea?oiia, i?iecaiaenoaa eaioeaey?neiai eeay.

A aiaeeoe/aneie oeiee e?aoiae neoaeeo eiaeeeaoi?ii a eiaeiiao?e/aneii
iaoiaea oeo?iaaiey. Aeey yoeo neo/aaa eo/oa i?eiaiyoue i/euaiioth
aieeico, o.e. aa ?anoai?u ia caaonoaaatho, a ia?acoaiay n eiaeii ie?anea
aieaa eioaineaia.

A iaaeeoeeia e oa?iaoeee e?aoiae i?eiaiyaony aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
i?enuiie, iano (aonouo iacae), a oaeaea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa oaaeaoie.

A aeeaioiii ie?a ?ieue «caianiiai e?aoiaea» ea?aao ?iaenoaaiiue e?aoiaeo
iieenaoa?eae – aeeeiaai. Aeeeiaai niaea?aeeony ai anao aeeaioiuo oeaiyo.
Iniaaiii iiiai aai a ia/aie (aei 20%) e a iuooeao (4%).

Aeeeiaai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeue aii?oiue ii?ioie, oi?ioi ?anoai?eiue
aeaaea a oieiaeiie aiaea. Iieaeoea aeeaioiiai e?aoiaea iino?iaia ii oeio
iieaeoe aieeiiaeoeia, ioee/aynue eeoue aieueoae aaoaenoinoueth (?en. 2
a). Iieaeoey?iay ianna aeeeiaaia en/eneyaony ieeeeiiaie.

N eiaeii ?anoai?u aeeeiaaia aeatho ie?aoeaaiea io aeiii-e?aniiai aei
e?anii-ao?iai a caaeneiinoe io i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeeeiaaia (aeaea
aeeaioiiai) e ae?oaeo oneiaee.

Aeeeiaai yaeyaony ?aca?aiui ieoaoaeueiui aauanoaii aeey i?aaiecia.

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