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OAEA?IAe.

O

aea?iae (eao. Carboneum), N – oeie/aneee yeaiaio IV a?oiiu
ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu Iaiaeaeaaaa. Ecaanoiu aeaa noaaeeueiuo ecioiia
12N (98,892 %) e 13N (1,108 %).

Oaea?iae ecaanoai n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Ae?aaaniue oaieue neoaeee aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey iaoaeeia ec ?oae, aeiac – eae ae?aaioeaiiue eaiaiue.
Cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa noaee i?eiaiyoueny a?aoeo aeey ecaioiaeaiey oeaeae
e ea?aiaeaoae.

A 1778 E. Oaaea, iaa?aaay a?aoeo n naeeo?ie, iaia?oaeee, /oi i?e yoii,
eae e i?e iaa?aaaiee oaey n naeeo?ie, auaeaeyaony oaeaeeneue aac.
Oeie/aneee ninoaa aeiaca aue onoaiiaeai a ?acoeueoaoa iiuoia A.Eaaoacuea
(1772) ii eco/aiey ai?aiey aeiaca ia aicaeooa e enneaaeiaaiee N.Oaiiaioa
(1797), aeieacaaoaai, /oi iaeeiaeiaua eiee/anoaa aeiaca e oaey aeatho
i?e ieeneaiee ?aaiua eiee/anoaa oaeaeeneiai aaca. Oaea?iae eae
oeie/aneee yeaiaio aue i?eciai oieueei a 1789 A.Eaaoacuea. Eaoeineia
iacaaiea narboneum oaea?iae iieo/ee io narbo — oaieue.

?ani?ino?aiaiea a i?e?iaea:

N?aaeiaa niaea?aeaiea oaea?iaea a caiiie ei?a 2,3*10-2 % ii ianna (1*10
–2 a oeueo?ainiiaiuo, 1*10 –2 a iniiaiuo, 2*10 –2 a n?aaeieo, 3*10 –2 a
eeneuo ai?iuo ii?iaeao). Oaea?iaea iaeaieeaaaony a aa?oiae /anoe caiiie
ei?u (aeinoa?a): a aeeaii aauanoaa 18 % oaea?iaea, a ae?aaaneia 50 %, a
eaiaiiii oaea 80 %, a iaooe 85 %, aio?aoeeoa 96 %. Cia/eo /anoue
oaea?iaea eeoinoa?u nin?aaeioi/aia a ecaanoiyeao e aeieiieoao.

*enei nianoaaiiuo ieia?aeia oaea?iaea – 112; eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeei
/enei i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee oaea?iaea – oaeaaiaei?iaeia e eo
i?iecaiaeiuo.

N iaeiieaieai oaea?iaea a caiiie ei?a naycaii iaeiieaiea e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia, ni?ae?oaiuo i?aaie/aneei aauanoaii e inaaeaeathueony
a aeaea ia?anoai?eiuo ea?aiiaoia e o.ae.

Ii n?aaiaieth ni n?aaeiei niaea?aeaieai a caiiie ei?a /aeiaa/anoai a
eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoeo eiee/anoaao ecaeaeaao oaea?iae ec iaae?
(oaieue, iaooue, i?e?iaeiue aac), o.e. yoe eneiiaaiua — iniiaiua
enoi/ieee yia?aee.

Oaea?iae oe?iei ?ani?ino?ai?i oaeaea a einiina; ia Nieioea ii caieiaao
4-a ianoi iinea aiaei?iaea, aaeey e eenei?iaea.

Oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa:

Ecaanoiu /aou?a e?enoaeee/aneea iiaeeoeeaoeee oaea?iaea: a?aoeo, aeiac,
ea?aei e eiinaeaeeeo. A?aoeo – na?i-/a?iay, iai?ic?a/iay, aee?iay ia
iuoiue, /aooe/aoay, i/aiue iyaeay ianna n iaoaeee/aneei aeaneii. I?e
eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a e ii?iaeueiii aeaaeaiee (0,1 Ii/i2, eee 1ean/ni2)
a?aoeo oa?iiaeeiaie/anee noaaeeai. Aeiac – i/aiue oaa?aeia,
e?enoaeee/aneia aauanoai. E?enoaeeu eiatho eoae/aneoth
a?aiaoeaio?e?iaaiioth ?aoaoeo: a=3,560(. I?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a e
ii?iaeueiii aeaaeaiee aeiac iaoanoaaeeai. Caiaoiia i?aa?auaiea aeiaca a
a?aoeo iaaethaeaaony i?e oaiia?aoo?ao auoa 1400(N a aaeooia eee a
eia?oiie aoiinoa?a. I?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 3700(N
a?aoeo aicaiiyaony. AEeaeeee oaea?iae iiaeao auoue iieo/ai i?e aeaaeaiee
auoa 10,5 Ii/i2 (1051 ean/ni2) e oaiia?aoo?ao auoa 3700(N. Aeey
oaa?aeiai oaea?iaea (eien, naaea, ae?aaaniue oaieue) oa?aeoa?ii oaeaea
ninoiyiea n iaoii?yaei/aiiie no?oeoo?ie “aii?oiue” oaea?iae, eioi?ue ia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiinoiyoaeueiie iiaeeoeeaoeee; a iniiaa aai
no?iaiey eaaeeo no?oeoo?a iaeeie?enoaeee/aneiai a?aoeoa. Iaa?aaaiea
iaeioi?uo ?aciiaeaeiinoae “aii?oiiai” oaea?iaea auoa 1500-1600(N aac
aeinooia aicaeooa aucuaaao eo i?aa?auaiea a a?aoeo. Oece/aneea naienoaa
“aii?oiue” oaea?iaea i/aiue neeueii caaenyo io aeenia?niinoe /anoeoe e
iaee/ey i?eianae. Ieioiinoue, oaieiaieinoue, oaieii?iaiaeiinoue e
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue “aii?oiue” oaea?iaea anaaaea auoa, /ai a?aoeoa.
Ea?aei iieo/ai eneonnoaaiii. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeeie?enoaeee/aneee
ii?ioie /a?iiai oeaaoa (ieioiinoue 1,9 – 2 a/ni3). Iino?iai ec aeeeiiuo
oeaii/ae aoiiia N, oeiaeaiiuo ia?aeeaeueii ae?oa ae?oao. Eiinaeaeeeo
iaeaeai a iaoai?eoao e iieo/ai eneonnoaaiii; aai no?oeoo?a e naienoaa
ieii/aoaeueii ia onoaiiaeaiu.

Eiioeao?aoeey aiaoiae iaiei/ee aoiia oaea?iaea 2s22p2. Aeey oaea?iaea
oa?aeoa?ii ia?aciaaiea /aou?ao eiaaeaioiuo naycae, iaoneiaeaiiia
aicaoaeaeaiea aiaoiae yeaeo?iiiie iaiei/ee aei ninoiyiey 2sp3. Iiyoiio
oaea?iae niiniaai a ?aaiie noaiaie eae i?eoyaeaaoue, oae e ioaeaaaoue
yeaeo?iiu. Oeie/aneay naycue iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ca n/ao sp3-, sp2- e
sp- aea?eaeiuo i?aeoaeae, eioi?ui niioaaonoaotho eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua /enea
4,3 e 2. *enei aaeaioiuo yeaeo?iiia oaea?iaea e /enei aaeaioiuo
i?aeoaeae iaeeiaeiai; yoi iaeia ec i?e/ei onoie/eainoe nayce iaaeaeo
aoiiaie oaea?iaea.

Oieeaeueiay niiniaiinoue aoiiia oaea?iaea niaaeeiyoueny iaaeaeo niaie n
ia?aciaaieai i?i/iuo e aeeeiiuo oeaiae e oeeeeia i?eaaea e
aicieeiiaaieth a?iiaaeiiai /enea ?aciiia?aciuo niaaeeiaiee oaea?iaea,
eco/aaiuo i?aaie/aneie oeieae.

A niaaeeiaieyo oaea?iae i?iyaeyao noaiaie ieeneaiey -4; +2; +4. Aoiiiue
?aaeeon 0,77(,eiaaeaioiua ?aaeeonu 0,77(, 0,67(, 0,60( niioaaonoaaiii a
iaeeia?iie, aeaieiie e o?ieiie naycyo; eiiiie ?aaeeon N4- 2,60(, N4+
0,20(. I?e iau/iuo oneiaeyo oaea?iae oeie/anee eia?oai, i?e aunieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao ii niaaeeiyaony ni iiiaeie yeaiaioaie, i?iyaeyy neeueiua
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua naienoaa.

Ana oi?iu oaea?iaea onoie/eau e uaei/ai e eeneioai e iaaeeaiii
ieeneythony oieueei i/aiue neeueiuie ieeneeoaeyie (o?iiiaay nianue,
nianue eiioeaio?e?ia. HNO3 e KCIO3 e ae?.). “Aii?oiue” oaea?iae
?aaae?oao n ooi?ii i?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a, a?aoeo e aeiac – i?e
iaa?aaaiee. Iaiin?aaenoaaiii niaaeeiaiea oaea?iaea n oei?ii i?ienoiaeeo
a yeaeo?e/aneie aeoaa; n a?iiii e eiaeii oaea?iae ia ?aaae?oao, iiyoiio
iiiai/eneaiiua oaea?iaea aaeiaaieaeu neioace?otho einaaiiui iooai. Ec
ieneaaeiaaieaeia iauae oi?ioeu COX2 (aaea O – aaeiaai) iaeaieaa
ecaanoiay oei?ieenue COCI2 (oinaai).

I?e oaiia?aoo?ao auoa 1000(N oaea?iae acaeiiaeaenoaoao ni iiiaeie
iaoaeeaie, aeaaay ea?aeaeu. Ana oi?iu oaea?iaea i?e iaa?aaaiee
ainnoaiaaeeaatho ieeneu iaoaeeia n ia?aciaaieai naiaiaeiuo iaoaeeia (Zn,
Cd, Cu, Pb e ae?.) eee ea?aeaeia (CaC2, Mo2C, WC, TaC e ae?.). Oaea?iae
?aaae?oao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao auoa 600 – 800(N n aiaeyiui ia?ii e
oaeaeeneui aacii.

Ana oi?iu oaea?iaea ia?anoai?eiu a iau/iuo iai?aaie/aneeo e i?aaie/aneeo
?anoai?eoaeyo, ii ?anoai?ythony a iaeioi?uo ?anieaaeaiiuo iaoaeeao
(iai?eia?, Fe, Ni, Co).

Ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea:

Oaea?iae ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi nauoa 90 % anao ia?ae/iuo enoi/ieeia
iio?aaeyaiie a ie?a yia?aee i?eoiaeeony ia i?aaie/aneia oiieeai,
aeaaainoaothuay ?ieue eioi?iai nio?aieony e ia aeeaeaeoea aeanyoeeaoey,
ianiio?y ia eioaineaiia ?acaeoea yaea?iie yia?aaoeee. Oieueei ieiei 10%
aeiauaaaiiai oiieeaa eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa nu?uey aeey iniiaiiai
i?aaie/aneiai neioaca e iaooaoeie/aneiai neioaca, aeey iieo/aiey
ieanoe/iuo iann e ae?.

Oaea?iae a i?aaiecia:

Oaea?iae – aaaeiaeoee aeiaaiiue yeaiaio, ninoaaeythuee iniiao aeecie ia
Caiea, no?oeoo?iay aaeeieoea ia?iiiiai /enea i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee,
o/anoaothueo a iino?iaiee i?aaieciia e iaania/aiee eo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe (aeiiieeia?u, a oaeaea iiiai/eneaiiua
ieceiiieaeoey?iua aeieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa – aeoaieiu, ai?iiiu,
iaaeeaoi?u e ae?.). Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaieciai
yia?aee ia?acoaony a eeaoeao ca n/ao ieeneaiey oaea?iaea. Aicieeiiaaiea
aeecie ia Caiea ?anniao?eaaaony a nia?aiaiiie iaoea eae neiaeiue
i?ioeann yaiethoeee oaea?iaeenouo niaaeeiaiee.

Oieeaeueiay ?ieue oaea?iaea a aeeaie i?e?iaea iaoneiaeaia aai
naienoaaie, eioi?uie a niaieoiiinoe ia iaeaaeaao ie iaeei ae?oaie
yeaiaio ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu. Iaaeaeo aoiiaie oaea?iaea, a oaeaea
iaaeaeo oaea?iaeii e ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie ia?acothony i?i/iua oeie/aneea
nayce, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, iiaoo auoue ?aci?aaiu a n?aaieoaeueii iyaeeo
oeceieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo (yoe nayce iiaoo auoue iaeeia?iuie, aeaieiuie e
o?ieiuie). Niiniaiinoue oaea?iaea ia?aciauaaoue 4 ?aaiicia/iua aaeaioiua
nayce n ae?oaeie aoiiaie. Oaea?iae nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeey
iino?iaiey oaea?iaeiuo neaeaoia ?acee/iuo oeiia – eeiaeiuo,
?acaaoaeaiiuo, oeeeee/aneeo. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi anaai o?e yeaiaioa – N,
I, I – ninoaaeytho 98 % iauae iannu aeeauo i?aaieciia. Yoei aeinoeaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiay yeiiiie/iinoue a aeeaie i?e?iaea: i?e i?aeoe/anee
aaca?aie/iii no?oeoo?iii ?aciiia?acee oaea?iaeenouo niaaeeiaiee
iaaieueoia /enei oeiia oeie/aneeo naycae iicaieyao ia iiiai nie?aoeoue
eiee/anoai oa?iaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?anuaieaiey e neioaca
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa. Iniaaiiinoe no?iaiey aoiia oaea?iaea eaaeeo a
iniiaa ?acee/iuo aeaeia eciia?ee i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee (niiniaiinoue
e iioe/aneie eciia?ee ieacaeanue ?aoathuae a aeioeie/aneie yaiethoeee
aieiieeneio, oaeaaiaeia e iaeioi?uo aeeaeieaeia).

Niaeanii aeiioaca A. E. Iia?eia, ia?aua i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey ia
Caiea eiaee aaeiaaiiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Enoi/ieeaie oaea?iaea neoaeeee
(NI4)e oeeaienoue aiaei?iae (HCN),niaea?aeaaoeany a ia?ae/iie aoiinoa?a
Caiee. N aicieeiiaaieai aeecie aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii iai?aaie/aneiai
oaea?iaea, ca n/ao eioi?iai ia?acoaony an? i?aaie/aneia aauanoai
aeinoa?u, yaeyaony oaea?iaea aeaoieenue (NI2),iaoiaeyueeny a aoiinoa?a,
a oaeaea ?anoai?aiiay a i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao a aeaea INI3. Iaeaieaa iiuiue
iaoaieci onaiaiey (anneieeyoeey) oaea?iaea (a oi?ia NI2) – oioineioac –
inouanoaeyaony iianaianoii caeaiuie ?anoaieyie. Ia Caiea nouanoaoao e
yaiethoeeiiii aieaa ae?aaiee niinia onaiaiey NI2 iooai oaiineioaca; a
yoii neo/aa iee?ii?aaieciu – oaiineioaoeee eniieuecotho ia eo/enooth
yia?aeth Nieioea, a yia?aeth ieeneaiey iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.
Aieueoeinoai aeeaioiuo iio?aaeytho oaea?iae n ieuae a aeaea oaea aioiauo
i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa onaiaiey i?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue aaoio?ioiua i?aaieciu e aaoa?io?ioiua
i?aaieciu. I?eiaiaiea aeey aeineioaca aaeea e ae?oaeo ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa iee?ii?aaieciia, eniieuecothueo a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai
enoi/ieea oaea?iaea, oaeaaiaei?iaeu iaooe, – iaeia ec aaaeiuo
nia?aiaiiuo iao/ii – oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai.

Iiieii noaaeeueiuo ecioiiia oaea?iaea, a i?e?iaea ?ani?ino?aiai
?aaeeiaeoeaiue 14N (a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea aai niaea?aeeony ieiei
0,1ieeth?e). N eniieueciaaieai ecioiiia oaea?iaea a aeieiae/aneeo e
iaaeeoeeineeo enneaaeiaaieyo naycaiu iiiaea e?oiiua aeinoeaeaiey a
eco/aiee iaiaia aauanoa e e?oaiai?ioa oaea?iaea a i?e?iaea. Oae, n
iiiiuueth ?aaeeioaea?iaeiie iaoee auea aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue oeenaoeee
I14NI3 ?anoaieyie e oeaiyie aeeaioiuo, onoaiiaeaia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
?aaeoeee oioineioaca, eco/ai iaiai aieiieeneio, i?ineaaeaiu iooe
aeineioaca iiiaeo aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo niaaeeiaiee e o. ae. I?eiaiaiea
14N niinianoaiaaei oniaoai iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee a eco/aiee iaoaieciia
aeineioaca aaeea e ia?aaea/e ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiea
oaeaeueiie aeoeaiinoe 14N a oaea?iaeniaea?aeaueo i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeao
iicaieyao noaeeoue ia eo aic?anoa, /oi eniieuecoaony a iaeaiioieiaee e
a?oaieiaee.

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