.

Цинк

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 507
Скачать документ

Oeeie

Aeieeaae iiaeaioiaeai e ioi?ieai

o/aieeii 11 ”A” eeanna oeieu ?26

Aaae/aaui Aeieo?eai.

Y

eaiaio oeeie (Zn) a oaaeeoea Iaiaeaeaaaa eiaao ii?yaeeiaue iiia? 30. Ii
iaoiaeeony a /aoaa?oii ia?eiaea aoi?ie a?oiiu. Aoiiiue aan – 65,37.
?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia ii neiyi 2-8-18-2.

Oeeie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaaaoi – aaeue iaoaee, ieaayueeny i?e 419(
N, a i?e 913( N i?aa?auathueeny a ia?; ieioiinoue aai ?aaia 7,14 a/ni3.
I?e iaueiiaaiiie oaiia?aoo?a oeeie aeiaieueii o?oiie, ii i?e 100-110( N
ii oi?ioi aiaony e i?ieaouaaaony a eenou. Ia aicaeooa oeeie iie?uaaaony
oiieei neiai ieene eee iniiaiiai ea?aiiaoa, i?aaeio?aiythuei aai io
aeaeueiaeoaai ieeneaiey. Aiaea ii/oe ia aeaenoaoao ia oeeie, oioy ii e
noieo a ?yaeo iai?yaeaiee cia/eoaeueii eaaaa aiaei?iaea. Yoi iauyniyaony
oai, /oi ia?acothuayny ia iiaa?oiinoe oeeiea i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aai n
aiaeie aeae?iieenue i?aeoe/anee ia?anoai?eia e i?aiyonoaoao
aeaeueiaeoaio oa/aieth ?aaeoeee. A ?acaaaeaiiuo aea eeneioao oeeie eaaei
?anoai?yaony n ia?aciaaieai niioaaonoaothueo nieae. E?iia oiai, oeeie
iiaeiaii aa?eeeeth e ae?oaei iaoaeeai, ia?acothuei aioioa?iua
aeae?iieene, ?anoai?yaony a uaei/ao. Anee iaa?aoue oeeie ia aicaeooa aei
oaiia?aoo?u eeiaiey, oi ia?u aai ainieaiaiythony e nai?atho
caeaiiaaoi-aaeui ieaiaiai, ia?acoy ieenue oeeiea.

Iaiiiai enoi?ee

Niaaeeiaiey oeeiea e aai nieaau ecaanoiu /aeiaa/anoao n aeoaieie
ae?aaiinoe, iaoaeee/aneee aea oeeie aue iieo/ai cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa,
/ai aeaeaci, naeiaoe e ieiai. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iauyniyaony oai, /oi
iau/iua niiniau ieaaee ?oaeu n oaeai caeanue ia aeinoeaaee oeaee; /oiau
ainnoaiiaeoue oeeie, aai iaaei auno?i iaa?aoue aei oaiia?aoo?u ieiei
1000 a?aaeonia, ii i?e yoii ii eeieo e a aeaea ia?ia oa?yaony aianoa n
aeuiiauie aacaie. Oieueei iinea oiai eae iao/eeenue eiiaeaine?iaaoue
ia?u oeeiea a aeeiyiuo ninoaeao, noaei aiciiaeiuo iieo/aiea iaoaeea a
naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee. Iieaaatho, /oi oaeie aeenoeeeyoeeiiiue niinia
iieo/aiey naiaiaeiiai oeeiea aia?aua aue ecia?aoai a Eeoaa.

Eaooiue (nieaa iaaee n oeeieii) auea ecaanoia a?aeai, eiaeonai e
ae?oaei ia?iaeai Ainoiea, oiio?aaeyaoei aa aeey ecaioiaeaiey ?acee/iuo
i?aaeiaoia aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai eeouey e oe?aoaiee.
Ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou ec eaooie, ioiinyueany e ia?eiaeo ca 1500 eao aei
i.y., auee iaeaeaiu a Iaeanoeia. I?eaioiaeaiea eaooie ainnoaiiaeaieai
iniaie caiee eaaeiey (oae iacuaaeenue a ae?aaiinoe iiiaea ieia?aeu,
niaea?aeauea oeeie, ioee/ea iaaeaeo eioi?ua ia aeaeaee) oaeai a
i?enoonoaee iaaee iienuaatho A?enoioaeue (384- 322 aa. aei i.y.), Ieeiee
Noa?oee (23-79 aa. i.y.) e Aiia?. Ieeiee Noa?oee e Aeeine?eae ec
Aiaca?aona iienuaatho eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa, niaea?aeauea niaaeeiaiey
oeeiea. Eaea?noaa yoe oiio?aaeyeenue aeey caaeeaeaiey ?ai e i?e ea/aiee
aeaciuo aieaciae.

A aeienoi?e/aneeo aeaeeeneeo ?acaaeeiao a O?aineeueaaiee aue iaeaeai
eaeie, ioeeoue ec nieaaa, niaea?aeauaai ieiei 87% oeeiea. Iieo/aiea
iaoaeee/aneiai oeeiea ec aaeiay Zn4(Si2O7)*H2O aia?aua iienuaaao No?aaii
(60-20 aa. aei i.y.). Oeeie a yoio ia?eiae iacuaaee oooeae eee
oaeueoeaui na?aa?ii.

Aeaaiaea?y aeiaieueii neiaeiie au?aaioea oeeiea ec ?oae a X-XI aa. i.y.
eneonnoai iieo/aiey oeeiea a Aa?iia auei oo?a/aii e ii aaiceeny nthaea
iiae iacaaieai eiaeeeneiai ieiaa ec Eeoay e Eiaeee.

A eiioea XIII a. i.y. eoaeueyineee iooaoanoaaiiee Ia?ei Iiei iienae
niinia iieo/aiey iaoaeee/aneiai oeeiea a Ia?nee. A 1637 aiaeo iaoiae
auieaaee oeeiea e aai naienoaa iienuaathony a eeoaeneie eieaa “Oeeai
eiia eai o”. Eacaeinue au, /oi ?ac iaoiae iieo/aiey iienai a eeoa?aoo?a,
oi aai eaaei iiaee ia?aiyoue ae?oaea ia?iaeu e i?eiaieoue o naay ia
?iaeeia. Ii yoiai ia neo/eeinue. Yeiiiie/aneay e eoeueoo?iay
?aciauaiiinoue ia?iaeia, neaaua o?ainii?oiua nayce, a aeaaiia,
no?aieaiea iiiaeo o/aiuo iienuaaoue naie ioe?uoey ia iaiiiyoiii
ycuea-ana yoi i?aiyonoaiaaei auno?iio ?ani?ino?aiaieth oaoie/aneeo
aeinoeaeaiee.

Aoi?e/ii iieo/aiea oeeiea a Aa?iia noaei ecaanoii a ia/aea XVI aaea,
eiaaea i niiniaa aai auieaaee oiiieiatho a naieo ni/eiaieyo Aai?a
Aa?eeiea (1494-1555) e Oaio?ano Ia?aoeaeuen. Iaeiaei e iinea yoiai oeeie
a Aa?iia aue aieueoie ?aaeeinoueth, /oi i?iaeieaeaeinue ii/oe aei eiioea
XVIII a.

Iacaaiea aea “oeeie” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai neiaa, iaicia/athuaai
aaeueii eee aaeue iaeao, e aia?aua ano?a/aaony o Ia?aoeaeuena a 1530
aiaeo. ?iaa?o Aieeue iacaae oeeie “niaeoa?ii”. O ian oeeie E.Oeaooa?
(1736) iacuaae “oooeeae”, Eiiiiinia (1742) aaae iacaaiea “oeeie”, ii iii
ia iieueciaaeinue oniaoii e oeeie /aua anaai iacuaaee “oieaooa?”.

A 8-i ecaeaiee “Iniia oeiee” (1906) Ae.E.Iaiaeaeaaa oiio?aaeyao
nia?aiaiiia iacaaiea oeeiea, ii ia?yaeo n yoei noaaeo a neiaeao e
ae?oaia aai iacaaiea-”oieaooa?”. Ec yoiai iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi ai
a?aiaia Iaiaeaeaaaa noa?ia iacaaiea oeeiea auei aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii.

Iaoaeee/aneee oeeie.

A XVI aaea auee i?aaei?eiyou ia?aua iiiuoee auieaaeyoue oeeie a
caaiaeneeo oneiaeyo. Ii i?iecaiaenoai “ia iioei”, oaoiieiae/aneea
o?oaeiinoe ieacaeenue iai?aiaeieeiuie. Oeeie iuoaeenue iieo/aoue oi/ii
oaeaea, eae e ae?oaea iaoaeeu. ?oaeo iaaeeaaee, i?aa?auay oeeie a
ieenue, caoai yoo ieenue ainnoaiaaeeaaee oaeai…

Oeeie, anoanoaaiii, ainnoaiaaeeaaeny, acaeiiaeaenoaoy n oaeai, ii …
ia auieaaeyeny. Ia auieaaeyeny iioiio, /oi yoio iaoaee oaea a
ieaaeeueiie ia/e enia?yeny – oaiia?aoo?a aai eeiaiey anaai 906( N. A a
ia/e aue aicaeoo. Ano?a/ay aai, ia?u aeoeaiiai oeeiea ?aaae?iaaee n
eenei?iaeii, e aiiaue ia?aciauaaeny enoiaeiue i?iaeoeo-ieenue oeeiea.

Iaeaaeeoue oeeieiaia i?iecaiaenoai a Aa?iia oaeaeinue eeoue iinea oiai,
eae ?oaeo noaee ainnoaiaaeeaaoue a cae?uouo ?aoi?oao aac aeinooia
aicaeooa. I?eia?ii oae aea “/a?iiaie” oeeie iieo/atho e nae/an, a
i/euatho aai ?aoeie?iaaieai. Ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneei niiniaii nae/an
iieo/atho i?eia?ii iieiaeio i?iecaiaeeiiai a ie?a oeeiea, a ae?oaoth
iieiaeio-aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneei.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi /enoi oeeieiaua ?oaeu a i?e?iaea ii/oe ia
ano?a/athony. Niaaeeiaiey oeeiea (iau/ii 1-5% a ia?an/aoa ia iaoaee)
aoiaeyo a ninoaa iieeiaoaeee/aneeo ?oae. Iieo/aiiua i?e iaiaauaiee ?oaeu
oeeieiaua eiioeaio?aou niaea?aeao 48-65% oeeiea, aei 2% iaaee, aei 2%
naeioea, aei 12% aeaeaca. E iethn aeiee i?ioeaioa ?annayiiuo e ?aaeeeo
iaoaeeia…

Neiaeiue oeie/aneee e ieia?aeiae/aneee ninoaa ?oae, niaea?aeaueo oeeie,
aue iaeiie ec i?e/ei, ii eioi?ui oeeieiaia i?iecaiaenoai ?iaeaeaeinue
aeieai e o?oaeii. A ia?a?aaioea iieeiaoaeee/aneeo ?oae e nae/an aua
anoue ia?aoaiiua i?iaeaiu… Ii aa?iainy e ie?iiaoaeeo?aee oeeiea – a
yoii i?ioeanna i?iyaeythony noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe yoiai
yeaiaioa.

I?e ?aceii ioeaaeaeaiee ia?u oeeiea n?aco aea, ieioy aeeaeeia
ninoiyiea, i?aa?auathony a oaa?aeoth iueue. Yoi ianeieueei ineiaeiyao
i?iecaiaenoai, oioy yeaiaioa?iue oeeie n/eoaaony iaoiene/iui. *anoi
auaaao ioaeii nio?aieoue oeeie eiaiii a aeaea iuee, a ia ia?a?ieaaeyoue
aai a neeoee.

A ie?ioaoieea oeeieiaoth iueue i?eiaiytho, /oiau iieo/eoue aieoaia
ieaiy. Oeeieiaay iueue eniieuecoaony a i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaeeeo e
aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia. A /anoiinoe, oaeei oeeieii auoaniytho cieioi e
na?aa?i ec oeeaienouo ?anoai?ia. Eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ii i?e
iieo/aiee naiiai oeeiea (e eaaeiey) aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneei niiniaii
i?eiaiyaony oeeieiaay iueue-aeey i/enoee ?anoai?a noeueoaoa iaaee e
eaaeiey. Ii yoi aua ia ana. Au ieeiaaea ia caaeoiuaaeenue, ii/aio
iaoaeee/aneea iinou, i?ieaou caaiaeneeo oeaoia e ae?oaea
e?oiiiaaaa?eoiua ecaeaeey ec iaoaeea /aua anaai ie?aoeaatho a na?ue
oeaao?

Aeaaiay ninoaaiay /anoue i?eiaiyaiie ai anao yoeo neo/ayo e?anee – ana
oa aea oeeieiaay iueue. Niaoaiiay n ieenueth oeeiea e eueiyiui ianeii,
iia i?aa?auaaony a e?aneo, eioi?ay ioee/ii i?aaeio?aiyao io ei??icee.
Yoa e?anea e oiio aea aeaoaaa, ieanoe/ia, oi?ioi i?eeeiaao e iiaa?oiinoe
iaoaeea e ia ioneaeaaaony i?e oaiia?aoo?iuo ia?aiaaeao. Iuoeiue oeaao
nei?aa aeinoieinoai, /ai iaaeinoaoie. Ecaeaeey, eioi?ua iie?uaatho oaeie
e?aneie, aeieaeiu auoue ia ia?ee e a oi aea a?aiy ii?yoiu.

Ia naienoaao oeeiea neeueii neacuaaaony noaiaiue aai /enoiou. I?e 99,9
e 99,99% /enoiou oeeie oi?ioi ?anoai?yaony a eeneioao. Ii noieo
“i?eaaaeoue” aua iaeio aeaayoeo (99,999%), e oeeie noaiiaeony
ia?anoai?eiui a eeneioao aeaaea i?e neeueiii iaa?aaaiee. Oeeie oaeie
/enoiou ioee/aaony e aieueoie ieanoe/iinoueth, aai iiaeii auoyaeaaoue a
oiieea ieoe. A iau/iue oeeie iiaeii i?ieaoeoue a oiieea eenou, eeoue
iaa?aa aai aei 100-150( N. Iaa?aoue aei 250( N e auoa, aieioue aei oi/ee
ieaaeaiey, oeeie iiyoue noaiiaeony o?oieei – i?ienoiaeeo i/a?aaeiay
ia?ano?ieea aai e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u.

Eenoiaie oeeie oe?iei i?eiaiytho a i?iecaiaenoaa aaeueaaie/aneeo
yeaiaioia. Ia?aue “aieueoia noiea” ninoiye ec e?oaei/eia oeeiea e iaaee.
E a nia?aiaiiuo oeie/aneeo enoi/ieeao oiea io?eoeaoaeueiue yeaeo?iae
/aua anaai aeaeaaony ec oeeiea.

Cia/eoaeueia ?ieue yoiai yeaiaioa a iieea?aoee. Ec oeeiea aeaeatho
eeeoa, iicaieythuea aini?iecaanoe a ia/aoe ?enoiee e oioia?aoee.
Niaoeeaeueii i?eaioiaeaiiue e ia?aaioaiiue oeiia?aoneee oeeie
aini?eieiaao oioiecia?aaeaiea. Yoi ecia?aaeaiea a ioaeiuo ianoao
caueuatho e?aneie, e aoaeouaa eeeoa i?io?aaeeaatho eeneioie.
Ecia?aaeaiea i?eia?aoaao ?aeueaoiinoue, iiuoiua a?aaa?u iiae/euatho aai,
aeaeatho iooenee, a iioii yoe eeeoa eaeoo a ia/aoiua iaoeiu.

E iieea?aoe/aneiio oeeieo i?aaeuyaeytho iniaua o?aaiaaiey: i?aaeaea
anaai ii aeieaeai eiaoue iaeeie?enoaeee/aneoth no?oeoo?o, iniaaiii ia
iiaa?oiinoe neeoea. Iiyoiio oeeie, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey iieea?aoee,
anaaaea ioeeaatho a cae?uoua oi?iu. Aeey “au?aaieaaiey” no?oeoo?u
i?eiaiytho ioaeea i?e 375( N n iineaaeothuei iaaeeaiiui ioeaaeaeaieai e
ai?y/ae i?ieaoeie. No?iai eeieoe?otho e i?enoonoaea a oaeii iaoaeea
i?eianae, iniaaiii naeioea. Anee aai iiiai, oi iaeuecy aoaeao auo?aaeoue
eeeoa oae, eae yoi ioaeii. Anee aea naeioea iaiueoa 0,4%, oi o?oaeii
iieo/eoue ioaeioth iaeeie?enoaeee/aneoth no?oeoo?o. Aio ii yoie e?iiea e
“oiaeyo” iaoaeeo?ae, no?aiynue oaeiaeaoai?eoue cai?inu iieea?aoee.

Oeeie e noaeue.

Eae au a?iiei ie iacuaaee a iaoa a?aiy: “aae iieeia?ia”, “aae
iieoi?iaiaeieeia”, “aoiiiue aae” e oae aeaeaa, ii nooe aeaea iu ia auoee
aua ec aaea aeaeaciiai. Yoio iaoaee ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony iniiaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii auieaaea /oaoia e noaee e nae/an noaeyo i iiue
ainoaea?noaa. A /oaoi e noaeue iiaeaa?aeaiu ei??icee, e, ianiio?y ia
cia/eoaeueiua oniaoe, aeinoeaiooua /aeiaa/anoaii a ai?ueaa n “?uaeei
a?aaii”, ei??icey aaeaaiaeii aoaeo aeanyoee ieeeeiiia oiii iaoaeea.

Iaianaiea ia iiaa?oiinoue noaee e /oaoia oiieeo ieaiie
ei??iceiiiinoieeeo iaoaeeia – aaaeiaeoaa n?aaenoai caueou io ei??icee. A
ia ia?aii ianoa n?aaee anao iaoaeeiiie?uoee – e ii aaaeiinoe, e ii
ianooaaai – noiyo iie?uoey oeeieiaua. Ia caueoo noaee eaeao 40% ie?iaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa oeeiea!

Ioeeieiaaiiua aaae?a, ioeeieiaaiiay aeanoue ia e?uoao aeiiia – aaue
ianoieueei i?eau/iua, ianoieueei aoaeie/iua, /oi iu, eae i?aaeei, ia
caaeoiuaaainy, a ii/aio, nianoaaiii, iie ioeeieiaaiiua, a ia
o?iie?iaaiiua eee ieeaee?iaaiiua? Anee aea oaeie aii?in aicieeaao, oi
“aeaeaciay eiaeea” ieaii auaeaao iaeiicia/iue ioaao: iioiio /oi oeeie
aeaoaaea o?iia e ieeaey. Ii aeaei ia a iaeiie aeaoaaecia.

Oeeieiaia iie?uoea /anoi ieacuaaaony aieaa iaaeaaeiui, iaaeaee
inoaeueiua, iioiio /oi oeeie ia i?inoi iaoaie/anee caueuaao aeaeaci io
aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee, ii aai oeie/anee caueuaao.

Eiaaeueo, ieeaeue, eaaeiee, ieiai e ae?oaea iaoaeeu, i?eiaiyaiua aeey
caueou aeaeaca io ei??icee, a ?yaeo aeoeaiinoe iaoaeeia noiyo iinea
aeaeaca. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iie aieaa noieee, /ai aeaeaci. Oeeie aea e
o?ii, iaiai?io, aeoeaiaa aeaeaca. O?ii a ?yaeo aeoeaiinoe noieo ii/oe
?yaeii n aeaeacii (iaaeaeo ieie oieueei aaeeee), a oeeie – ia?aae
o?iiii.

I?ioeannu aoiinoa?iie ei??icee eiatho yeaeo?ioeie/aneoth i?e?iaeo e
iauyniythony n yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo iiceoeee. Ii a i?eioeeia iaoaieci
caueou aeaeaca oeeieii ninoieo a oii, /oi oeeie – iaoaee aieaa aeoeaiue
– i?aaeaea, /ai aeaeaci, ?aaae?oao n aa?anneaiuie eiiiiiaioaie
aoiinoa?u. Oi anoue iieo/aaony, /oi oeeie au?o/aao aeaeaci, nai iiaeaay.

Aio eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo:

A i?enoonoaee aeaae iaaeaeo aeaeacii e oeeieii ia?acoaony
iee?iaaeueaaiiia?a, a eioi?ie oeeie – aiiae. Eiaiii ii e aoaeao
?ac?ooaoueny i?e aicieeoai yeaeo?ioeie/aneii i?ioeanna, nio?aiyy a
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe iniiaiie iaoaee. Aeaaea anee iie?uoea ia?ooaii –
iiyaeeanue, aeiionoei, oea?aieia, – yoe iniaaiiinoe oeeieiaie caueou e
aa iaaeaaeiinoue inoathony iaeciaiiuie. Aaaeue e a oaeie neooaoeee
aeaenoaotho iee?iaaeueaaiiia?a, a eioi?ie oeeie i?eianai a aea?oao, e,
e?iia oiai, iau/ii a i?ioeanna iaianaiey iie?uoey aeaeaci e oeeie
?aaae?otho iaaeaeo niaie. E /aua anaai oea?aieia iaieyao ia naii
aeaeaci, a eioa?iaoaeee/aneia niaaeeiaiea aeaeaca n oeeieii, aeiaieueii
onoie/eaia e aeaenoaeth aeaae.

Nouanoaaiai e ninoaa i?iaeoeoa, ia?acothuaainy i?e “naiiiiaea?oaiaaiee”
oeeiea. Aeoeaiue oeeie ?aaae?oao n aeaaie aicaeooa e iaeiia?aiaiii n
niaea?aeaueiny a iai oaeaeeneui aacii. Ia?acoaony caueoiay ieaiea
ninoaaa ZnCO3*Zn(OH)2, eiathuay aeinoaoi/ioth oeie/aneoth noieeinoue,
/oiau caueoeoue io ?aaeoeee e aeaeaci, e nai oeeie. Ii anee oeeie
ei??iaee?oao a n?aaea, eeoaiiie oaeaeeneiou, neaaeai, a oiya/aiiie aiaea
ia?iaiai eioea, oi ieaiea ioaeiiai ninoaaa ia?aciaaoueny ia iiaeao, e a
yoii neo/aa oeeieiaia iie?uoea ?ac?ooaaony iaiiiai auno?aa.

Eae aea iaiinyo oeeie ia aeaeaci? Niiniaia ianeieueei. Iineieueeo oeeie
ia?acoao nieaau n aeaeacii, auno?i ?anoai?yy aai aeaaea i?e iaaunieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao, iiaeii iaiineoue ?aniueaiiue oeeie ia iiaeaioiaeaiioth
noaeueioth iiaa?oiinoue ec niaoeeaeueiiai ienoieaoa. Iiaeii
ioeeieiauaaoue noaeue (yoi naiue noa?ue niinia), i?inoi ieoiay aa a
?anieaaeaiiue oeeie. Enoaoe, ieaaeony ii i?e n?aaieoaeueii ieceie
oaiia?aoo?a (419,5( N). Anoue, eiia/ii, yeaeo?ieeoe/aneea niiniau
oeeieiaaiey. Anoue, iaeiiaoe, iaoiae oa?a?aeecaoeee (ii eiaie
ecia?aoaoaey), i?eiaiyaiue aeey iie?uoey iaaieueoeo aeaoaeae neiaeiie
eiioeao?aoeee, eiaaea iniaaiii aaaeii nio?aieoue iaeciaiiuie ?acia?u.

A aa?iaoe/anee cae?uoii aa?aaaia aeaoaee, ia?anuiaiiua oeeieiaie
iueueth, auaea?aeeaatho a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania i?e 350-375( N. A
yoeo oneiaeyo aoiiu oeeiea aeinoaoi/ii auno?i aeeoooiaee?otho a iniiaiie
iaoa?eae; ia?acoaony aeaeacioeeieiaue nieaa, neie eioi?iai ia “ oeiaeai”
iiaa?o aeaoaee, a “aiaae?ai” a iaa.

Nieaau.

Oaea oiiieiaeinue, /oi enoi?ey n oeeieii aeinoaoi/ii iooaia. Ii iaeii
aannii?ii: nieaa iaaee e oeeiea – eaooiue – aue iieo/ai iaiiiai ?aiueoa,
/ai iaoaeee/aneee oeeie. Naiua ae?aaiea eaooiiua i?aaeiaou, naeaeaiiua
i?eia?ii a 1500 aiaeo aei i.y., iaeaeaiu i?e ?aneiieao a Iaeanoeia.

I?eaioiaeaiea eaooie ainnoaiiaeaieai iniaiai eaiiy – ((((((( (eaaeiey)
oaeai a i?enoonoaee iaaee iienaii o Aiia?a, A?enoioaey, Ieeiey Noa?oaai.
A /anoiinoe A?enoioaeue ienae i aeiauaaaiie Eiaeee iaaee, eioi?ay
“ioee/aaony io cieioa oieueei aeonii”.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiia nieaaia, iinyueo
iauaa iacaaiea eaooiae, anoue iaeei (E-96, eee oiiiae), ii oeaaoo ii/oe
iaioee/eiue io cieioa. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, oiiiae niaea?aeeo iaiueoa oeeiea,
/ai aieueoeinoai eaooiae: oeeo?a ca eiaeaenii E icia/aao i?ioeaioiia
niaea?aeaiea iaaee. Cia/eo, ia aeieth oeeiea a yoii nieaaa i?eoiaeeony
ia aieueoa 4%.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi iaoaee ec eaaeiae e a ae?aaiinoe aeiaaaeyee
a iaaeue ia oieueei caoai, /oiau inaaoeeoue aa. Iaiyy niioiioaiea oeeiea
e iaaee, iiaeii iieo/eoue iiiai/eneaiiua nieaau n ?acee/iuie naienoaaie.
Ia neo/aeii eaooie iiaeaeaiu ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu – aeueoa- e
aaoa-eaooie. A ia?auo oeeiea ia aieueoa 33%. Ii/aio eiaiii 33?

N oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaiey oeeiea ieanoe/iinoue eaooie ?anoao, ii
oieueei aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea: eaooiue n 33 e aieaa i?ioeaioaie
oeeiea i?e aeaoi?ie?iaaiee a oieiaeiii ninoiyiee ?ano?aneeaaaony, 33% Zn
– ?oaaae ?inoa ieanoe/iinoe, ?oaaae, ca eioi?ui eaooiue noaiiaeony
o?oieie.

Ai?i/ai, iiaei neo/eoueny /oi ca iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee eaooiae acyee au
ae?oaie “ii?ia” – ana eeanneoeeaoeee oneiaiu, aaaeue e i?i/iinoue
eaooiae ?anoao ii ia?a oaaee/aiey a ieo niaea?aeaiey oeeiea, ii oiaea
aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea. Caeanue i?aaeae eiie – 47-50% Zn.
I?i/iinoue eaooie, niaea?aeauae 45% oeeiea, a ianeieueei ?ac aieueoa,
/ai nieaaa, ioeeoiai ec ?aaiuo eiee/anoa oeeiea e iaaee.

Oe?ieee aeeaiacii naienoa eaooiae iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai oi?ioae
niaianoeiinoueth iaaee e oeeiea: iie ia?acotho na?eth oaa?aeuo nieaaia n
?acee/iie e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?ie. Oae aea ?aciiia?acii e i?eiaiaiea
nieaaia yoie a?oiiu. Ec eaooiae aeaeatho eiiaeainaoi?iua o?oaee e
iao?iiiua aeeuecu, ?aaeeaoi?u e ?acee/ioth a?iaoo?o, iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo
iieaciuo aauae – anaai ia ia?a/eneeoue.

E /oi caeanue iniaaiii aaaeii. Aaaaeaiiue a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao oeeie
anaaaea oeo/oaao iaoaie/aneea naienoaa iaaee (aa i?i/iinoue,
ieanoe/iinoue, ei??iceeioth noieeinoue). E anaaaea i?e yoii ii
oaeaoaaeyao nieaa – aaaeue oeeie iaiiiai aeaoaaea iaaee. Eaae?iaaiea
aeaeaao nieaa aieaa aeaoaaui – oaeia ano?aoeoue ia /anoi.

Oeeie aoiaeeo e a ninoaa ae?oaiai ae?aaiaai nieaaa ia iaaeiie iniiaa.
?a/ue eaeao i a?iica. Yoi ?aiueoa aeaeeee /aoei: iaaeue iethn ieiai –
a?iica, iaaeue iethn oeeie – eaooiue. Oaia?ue “a?aie noa?eenue”.
Iai?eia?, nieaa IOeN-3-12-5 n/eoaaony a?iicie, ii oeeiea a iai a /aou?a
?aca aieueoa, /ai ieiaa.

Aei neo ii? iu ?anneacuaaee oieueei i caueoa oeeieii e i eaae?iaaiee
oeeieii. Ii anoue e nieaau ia iniiaa yoiai yeaiaioa. Oi?ioea eeoaeiua
naienoaa e ieceea oaiia?aoo?u ieaaeaiey iicaieytho ioeeaaoue ec oaeeo
nieaaia neiaeiua oiieinoaiiua aeaoaee. Aeaaea ?acueao iiae aieou e aaeee
iiaeii iieo/aoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?e ioeeaea, anee eiaaoue aeaei ni
nieaaaie ia iniiaa oeeiea.

?anoouee aeaoeoeeo naeioea e ieiaa canoaaee iaoaeeo?aia eneaoue
?aoeaioo?u iiauo oeiia?aoneeo e aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo nieaaia. Aeinooiiue,
aeiaieueii iyaeee e ioiineoaeueii eaaeiieaaeee oeeie, anoanoaaiii,
i?eaeae aieiaiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. Ii/oe o?eaeoeaoue eao iieneiauo e
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio i?aaeoanoaiaaee iiyaeaieth aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo
nieaaia ia oeeieiaie iniiaa. I?e iaaieueoeo iaa?oceao iie caiaoii
onooiatho e aaaaeoai e a?iicai, ii a iiaeoeiieeao aieueoaa?ociuo
aaoiiiaeeae e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia, oaeaae?iaeeie e caiea/a?iaeie
iie noaee auoaniyoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua nieaau. E aeaei caeanue ia oieueei a
ioiineoaeueiie aeaoaaecia nieaaia ia iniiaa oeeiea. Yoe iaoa?eaeu
i?ae?anii auaea?aeeaatho aieueoea iaa?ocee i?e aieueoeo nei?inoyo a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea aaaaeou ia/eiatho aue?aoeaaoueny…

Ei?ioei i niaaeeiaieyo oeeiea.

Aua i?e ia?auo iiiuoeao auieaaeoue oeeie ec ?oaeu o n?aaeiaaaeiauo
oeieeia iieo/aeny aaeue iaeao, eioi?ue a eieaao oiai a?aiaie iacuaaee
aeaiyei: eeai “aaeui niaaii” (nix alba), eeai “oeeinioneie oa?noueth”
(lana philosophica). Iao?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny, /oi yoi auea ieenue oeeiea
ZnO – aauanoai, eioi?ia anoue a aeeeeua eaaeaeiai ai?iaeneiai aeeoaey
iaoeo aeiae.

Yoio “niaa”, aoaeo/e caiaoaiiui ia ieeoa, i?aa?auaaony a oeeieiaua
aaeeea – naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ec anao aaeee. Ieenue oeeiea ioaeia ia
oieueei aeey iaey?iuo aeae, ath oe?iei iieuecothony iiiaea io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Noaeieueiay – aeey iieo/aiey iiei/iiai noaeea e (a iaeuo
aeicao) aeey oaaee/aiey oa?iinoieeinoe iau/iuo noaeie. A ?aceiiaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?iecaiaenoaa eeiieaoia ieenue oeeiea eniieuecotho eae
iaiieieoaeue. Ecaanoiay oeeieiaay iacue ia naiii aeaea ia oeeieiaay, a
ieneiioeeieiaay. I?aia?aou ia iniiaa ZnO yooaeoeaiu i?e eiaeiuo
caaieaaaieyo.

Iaeiiaoe, n e?enoaeee/aneie ieenueth oeeiea naycaia iaeia ec naiuo
aieueoeo iao/iuo nainaoeee 20-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea. A 1924 aiaeo iaeei
ec ?aaeeiethaeoaeae ai?iaea Oiinea onoaiiaee ?aei?ae aeaeueiinoe i?eaia.
Aeaoaeoi?iui i?eaiieeii ii a Neae?e i?eieiae ia?aaea/e ?aaeeinoaioeee
O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee, i?e/ai neuoeiinoue auea aieaa io/aoeeaie, /ai o
aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeiieaiiiauo i?eaiieeia. Eae yoi iiaei i?iecieoe? Aeaei a
oii, /oi aeaoaeoi?iue i?eaiiee oiineiai ethaeoaey aue niiioe?iaai ii
noaia nio?oaeieea ieaeaai?iaeneie ?aaeeieaai?aoi?ee I.A.Einaaa.

Einaa onoaiiaee, /oi anee a eieaaaoaeueiue eiioo? ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
aeeth/ai e?enoaee ieene oeeiea, oi iineaaeiee aoaeao oneeeaaoue
eieaaaiey aunieie /anoiou e aeaaea aicaoaeaeaoue iacaoooathuea
eieaaaiey. A iaoe “aanaeua o?aicenoi?iua aeie” oaeia niauoea i?ioei au
ii/oe iacaia/aiiui, ii a 1924 aiaeo ecia?aoaiea Einaaa i?aaenoaaeyeinue
?aaiethoeeiiiui. Aio /oi aiai?eeinue a ?aaeaeoeeiiiie noaouea
aia?eeaineiai aeo?iaea “Radio-News”, oeaeeeii iinayuaiiie ?aaioa
ieaeaai?iaeneiai ecia?aoaoaey: ”Ecia?aoaiea I.A.Einaaa ec
Ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?e/aneie eaai?aoi?ee a ?innee aeaeaao yiioo,
e oaia?ue e?enoaee caiaieo eaiio!” Aaoi? noaouee ieacaeny i?iaeaeoeai:
e?enoaee aeaenoaeoaeueii caiaiee eaiio; i?aaaea, yoi ia einaaneee
e?enoaee ieene oeeiea, a e?enoaeeu ae?oaeo aauanoa. Ii, iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
n?aaee oe?iei i?eiaiyaiuo iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo iaoa?eaeia anoue
niaaeeiaiey oeeiea. Yoi aai naeaieaeu e oaeeo?eaeu, aioeiiae e a?naieae.

Aua aieaa aaaeii i?eiaiaiea iaeioi?uo niaaeeiaiee oeeiea, i?aaeaea
anaai aai noeueoeaea, aeey iie?uoey naaoyueony ye?aiia oaeaaeci?ia,
inoeeeeia?aoia, ?aioaaiianeeo aiia?aoia. Iiae aeaenoaeai
ei?ioeiaieiiaiai eceo/aiey eee yeaeo?iiiiai eo/a na?ienoue oeeie
i?eia?aoaao niiniaiinoue naaoeoueny, i?e/ai yoa niiniaiinoue nio?aiyaony
e iinea oiai, eae i?ae?aoeeinue iaeo/aiea.

?aca?oi?ae, aia?aua noieeioaoenue n yaeaieai iineanaa/aiey na?ienoiai
oeeiea, ainiieueciaaeny ei aeey iiaen/aoa aueaoathueo ec yae?a
aeueoa-/anoeoe. A ianeiaeiii i?eai?/eea, nieioa?eneiia, oaea?yynue ia
ye?ai, iie?uoue noeueoeaeii oeeiea, yoe /anoeoeu aunaeaee aniuoeo,
aeaeeioth aeacii. A anee /anoeoeu iaaeatho ia ye?ai aeinoaoi/ii /anoi,
oi aianoi aniuoae iiyaeyaony iinoiyiiia naa/aiea.

Aeieiae/aneay ?ieue oeeiea.

Oa?iaoeaaou e iaaeeee aeaeotho iiiaea niaaeeiaiey oeeiea. Ni a?aiai
Ia?aoeaeuena aei iaoeo aeiae a oa?iaeiiaa cia/aony aeaciua oeeieiaua
eaiee (0,25%-iue ?anoai? ZnSO4). Eae i?enuiea ecaeaaia i?eiaiyaony
oeeieiaay nieue noaa?eiiaie eeneiou. Oaiinoeueoao oeeiea – oi?ioee
aioenaioee. Noniaicey, a eioi?oth aoiaeyo einoeei, i?ioaiei e oei?eae
oeeiea – iiaia yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai i?ioea aeeaaaoa, aeaenoaothuaa
eo/oa, /ai /enoue einoeei.

E aianoa n oai iiiaea niaaeeiaiey oeeiea, i?aaeaea anaai aai noeueoao e
oei?eae, oiene/iu.

Oeeie – iaeei ec aaaeiuo iee?iyeaiaioia. E a oi aea a?aiy ecauoie
oeeiea aeey ?anoaiee a?aaeai.

Aeieiae/aneay ?ieue oeeiea aeaiyea e ia aei eiioea auyniaia.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oeeie – iaycaoaeueiay ninoaaiay /anoue oa?iaioa e?iae,
ea?aiaiaeae?acu. Yoio oa?iaio niaea?aeeony a y?eo?ioeeoao.
Ea?aiaiaeae?aca onei?yao auaeaeaiea oaeaeeneiai aaca a eaaeeo. E?iia
oiai, iia iiiiaaao i?aa?aoeoue /anoue NI2 a eii INI3, ea?athuee aaaeioth
?ieue a iaiaia aauanoa.

Ii a?yae ee oieueei ea?aiaiaeae?acie ia?aie/eaaaony ?ieue oeeiea a
aeecie aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea. E anee au auei oae, oi o?oaeii auei au
iauynieoue oiene/iinoue niaaeeiaiee yoiai yeaiaioa.

Ecaanoii, /oi aeiaieueii iiiai oeeiea niaea?aeeony a yaea ciae,
iniaaiii aaaethe e eia?. Ii a oi aea a?aiy ecaanoii, /oi niee oeeiea
niaoeeoe/anee oaiaoatho aeoeaiinoue yoeo aea naiuo yaeia, oioy, eae
iieacaee iiuou, iiae aeaenoaeai nieae oeeiea yaeu ia ?ac?ooathony. Eae
iauynieoue oaeia i?ioeai?a/ea? N/eoatho, /oi aunieia niaea?aeaiea oeeiea
a yaea – yoi oi n?aaenoai, eioi?ui ciay io nianoaaiiiai yaea caueuaaony.
Ii oaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea aua o?aaoao no?iaie yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee.
AEaeoo auyniaiey e iiiaea oiieea aeaoaee iauae i?iaeaiu “oeeie e
aeeciue”…

Yoi eioa?anii!

Ao?oiaeo/iay ?oaea.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue ieia?ae oeeiea – noaea?eo, eee oeeieiaay
iaiaiea ZnS. ?aciiia?aciua i?eiane i?eaeatho yoiio aauanoao
anaaiciiaeiua oeaaoa. Aeaeeii, ca yoi ieia?ae e iacuaatho iaiaieie.
Oeeieiaoth iaiaieo n/eoatho ia?ae/iui ieia?aeii, ec eioi?iai
ia?aciaaeenue ae?oaea ieia?aeu yoiai yeaiaioa: nieoniieo ZnCO3, oeeieeo
ZnO, eaeaiei 2ZnO*SiO2*H2O. Ia Aeoaa ia?aaeei iiaeii ano?aoeoue
iieinaooth “ao?oiaeo/ioth” ?oaeo – nianue oeeieiaie iaiaiee e ao?iai
oiaoa. Eonie oaeie ?oaeu ecaeaee aeaenoaeoaeueii iioiae ia caoaeaoaainy
iieinaoiai caa?ueea.

Ia a ii/ue iiae Eaaia Eoiaeo.

Ii noa?eiiui i?aaeaieyi, iaii?ioiee oeaaoao eeoue a ii/ue iiae Eaaia
Eoiaeo, e io?aiyao yoio oeaaoie ia/enoay neea. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iaii?ioiee eae nii?iaia ?anoaiea ia oeaaoao aiiaua, ii neiaa
“iaii?ioieeiaua oeaaou” iiaeii ano?aoeoue ia no?aieoeao aiieia
na?ueaciuo iao/iuo aeo?iaeia. Oae iacuaatho oa?aeoa?iua oci?u oeeieiauo
iie?uoee. Yoe oci?u aicieeatho aeaaiaea?y niaoeeaeueiui aeiaaaeai
no?ueiu (aei 0,3%) eee ieiaa (aei 0,5%), eioi?ua aaiaeyo a aaiiu
ai?y/aai oeeieiaaiey. Ia iaeioi?uo caaiaeao “oeaaou” iieo/atho eia/a, –
i?eaeeiay ai?y/ee ioeeieiaaiiue eeno e ?eoeaiiio o?ainii?oa?o.

?aaioa iiaeaioiaeaia o/aieeii 11 “A” eeanna – Aaae/aaui Aeieo?eai

Thesis edited and cleared by D.O.S.™

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019