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Aeieeaae ii oeiee

ia oaio:

“Oeoai”.

a.Noaa?iiieue

2000 a.

Anooieaiea.

Oeoai (iacaai a /anoue oeoaiia, nuiiaae aiaeie Aae) – iaeei ec
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiuo yeaiaioia a i?e?iaea. A caiiie ei?a ianna
oeoaia ninoaaeyao 0,61% iannu Caiee. A iaeiii iocaa enneaaeiaaee
eiathueany a eieeaeoeee ieia?aeu e iaia?oaeeee, /oi ec 1000 ?acee/iuo
ieia?aeia ieiei 800 niaea?aeao oeoai. Iaeiaei iieoi?a aaea iacaae ia
enoeiiuo naienoaao yoiai yeaiaioa ii/oe ie/aai ia ciaee.

Ioe?uoea oeoaia.

Ioe?uoea oeoaia auei iaiau/ii: iii ninoiyeinue o?eaeaeu. A 1789-1791
aa. aiaeeeneee oeiee O. A?aai?, enneaaeoy ninoaa iaaieoiiai aeaeacenoiai
ianea ec ?aeiia Iaiaeai a Ei?ioyea (THaeiay Aiaeey), auaeaeee iiaoth
“caieth” (ieenue) iaecaanoiiai iaoaeea, eioi?oth iacaae iaiaeaiiaie.

A 1795 a. iaiaoeeee oeiee I. Eeai?io ioe?ue a ieia?aea ?ooeea iiaue
yeaiaio e iacaae aai oeoaiii. Nionoy aeaa aiaea Eeai?io onoaiiaee, /oi
?ooee e iaiaeaiiaay caiey – ieeneu iaeiiai e oiai aea yeaiaioa, ca
eioi?ui e inoaeinue iacaaiea “oeoai”.

*a?ac 10 eao ioe?uoea oeoaia ninoiyeinue a o?aoee ?ac. O?aioeocneee
o/?iue E. Aieeai iaia?oaeee oeoai a aiaoaca e aeieacae, /oi ?ooee e
aiaoac – eaeaioe/iua ieeneu oeoaia.

Naienoaa oeoaia.

Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi au? a 1799 a. iiyaeeanue noaouey ?onneiai
o/?iiai Oiaey Eiaeoea, eioi?ue a?e iaaethaeaiey iaae oeoaiiai –
iaaieoiuie ?oaeaie O?aea, – “Iieacaiea iaeioi?uo caia/aiee i oeoaia”. A
ia? ?anneacuaaeinue i naienoaao oeoaia. Anoanoaaiii, /oi e a yoie ?aaioa
e a aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaieyo ?a/ue oea i oeoaia, caa?yci?iiii
?acee/iuie i?eianyie.

Neaaia ?acaeoea aiaeeoe/aneeo niiniaia ii?aaeaeaiey oeoaia ia?aaeei
i?eaiaeeei e a?oaui ioeaeai: iai?eia?, aei 1848 aiaea ca oeoai i?eieiaee
e?enoaeeu ec oeaeia aeiiaiiuo ia/ae, iiea iaiaoeeee oeiee O. A?ea? ia
aeieacae, /oi yoe e?enoaeeu – ea?aiieo?eo oeoaia.

Aei 1870 aiaea aeaaea aoiiiay ianna oeoaia auea ii?aaeaeaia
iai?aaeeueii, e oieueei aaeeeee ?onneee oeiee Ae.E. Iaiaeaeaaa ia
iniiaaiee iieiaeaiey oeoaia a ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaia yeaiaioia
i?aaeneacae aai aeaenoaeoaeueioth aoiiioth ianno (48 aianoi 52).

N?aaieoaeueii /enoue iaoaeee/aneee oeoai aue iieo/ai eeoue a 1910
aiaeo aia?eeaineei oeieeii Oaioa?ii. Ii e yoio iaoaee niaea?aeae au?
?yae i?eianae, ?acei eneaaeaaoeo aai iiaeeeiiua oece/aneea e oeie/aneea
naienoaa.

A ia?aie /aoaa?oe iaoaai aaea ai anao ni?aai/ieeao e o/aaieeao ii
oeiee e iaoaeeo?aee oeoai oa?aeoa?eciaaeny eae i/aiue o?oieee iaoaee, n
o?oaeii iiaeaeathueeny iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioea. Eeoue a 1925 aiaeo
aieeaiaeneea o/?iua A. – Aai A?eaeue e aea Ao?, i?eiaiea ?ac?aaioaiiue
eie iaoiae oa?ie/aneie aeennioeeaoeee eiaeeaeia iaoaeeia, iieo/eee oeoai
i/aiue aunieie /enoiou. Ia ia?auo ia?acoeao yoiai iaoaeea auee
ii?aaeaeaiu enoeiiua oece/aneea naienoaa oeoaia.

Oec. naienoaa: na?aa?enoi-aaeue iaoaee,
n?aaieoaeueii e?aeee, iaiiiai oyaeaeaa aethieiey, ii i?eia?ii a 3 ?aca
i?i/iaa aai. Ooaiieaaeee, a iau/iuo oneiaeyo ioee/aaony aunieie
i?i/iinoueth e ayceinoueth. Iiaeaea?ony ?acee/iui aeaeai ia?aaioee.

Oei. naienoaa: aeiaieueii aeoeaiue iaoaee, iaeiaei,
aeaaiaea?y ia?aciaaieth ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea ieioiie caueoiie
ieneaeiie ie?iee ii iaeaaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie noieeinoueth
i?ioea ei??icee. Ia iaai ia ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ie aiaea, ie na?iay
eeneioa, ie ii?neay aiaea, ie aeaaea oea?neay aiaeea. I?e iiauoaiee
oaiia?aoo?u aai oeie/aneay aeoeaiinoue iiauoaaony. Oae, oeoai ?aaae?oao
n oei?ii. Acioiay eeneioa ia oeoai ia aeaenoaoao, e?iia ii?ioea, ii
na?iay eeneioa ?aaae?oao n iei.

I?eiaiaiea oeoaia.

Oeaiiua naienoaa oeoaia aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi ianoaiao a?aiy, e oeoai aoaeao oe?iei i?eiaiyoueny a oaoieea. Ii
aeaaea a 40-o aiaeao OO a., eiaaea oaea iao/eeenue iieo/aoue oeoai a
cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao, oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey ii ia iaoiaeee. Yoi
aue iaoaee aoaeouaai.

?inea nei?inoue naiie?oia. Ia?aae aaeaoeeae anoaea i?iaeaia caoeiaiai
e oaieiaiai aa?uea?ia. An? auoa ia?aiauaeny e “iioieie” iie?oia.
Iio?aaiaaeny iaoa?eae e?aeee e i?i/iue. Aethieiee, aethieieaaua e
iaaieoiua nieaau, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a naiie?oino?iaiee, iiaui
o?aaiaaieyi ia oaeiaeaoai?yee. Aeey ?aaeoeaiiai aeaeaaoaey o?aaiaaeny
aea?ii?i/iue e e?aeee iaoa?eae. Yoei o?aaiaaieyi ioaa/ae oeoai. Aai
aunieay oi/ea ieaaeaiey (1725N) ni/aoaaony n ieceie ieioiinoueth e
aieueoie i?i/iinoueth, a oanoue ?ac i?aauoathuae i?i/iinoue noaee.
Aiaoia aea oeoai iioiae ia noaeue. Aeaaiaea?y ni/aoaieth e?aeinoe n
iaoaie/aneie i?i/iinoueth e o?oaeiie ieeneyaiinoueth oeoai e aai
niaaeeiaiey noaee oeaiiaeoeie no?ieoaeueiuie iaoa?eaeaie a iiaie
oaoieea. Eo iaai aeaeatho eiianoe aaciauo oo?aei ?aaeoeaiuo aeaeaaoaeae,
othcaeyaeae e eaaeiu aunioiuo naiie?oia, ia?aai?iaeee, o?oau e /anoe
?acee/iie aiia?aoo?u. Oae a iaeiii ec aia?eeaineeo naa?ocaoeiauo
naiie?oia ec oeoaiiauo nieaaia naeaeaii aieaa 20 oun. ?acee/iuo
aeaoaeae. Caiaia oeoaiiauie nieaaaie noaeueiuo aeaoaeae aeaeaaoaeae
nieaeaao oaeaeueioth ianno aeaeaaoaeae ia 40%.

A ?aeaoino?iaiee oeoai eniieuecotho aeey ecaioiaeaiey ei?ionia
aeaeaaoaeae ?aeao, ?ieinoae aeey aeeaeeiai aiaei?iaea e ae?oaie
aiia?aoo?u.

Iaioeaieiui iaoa?eaeii ieacaeny oeoai e a noaeino?iaiee. A oeoaiiaie
ieanoeiea, iia?oae?iiie a ii?neoth aiaeo, /a?ac 10 eao ia auei
iaia?oaeaii ieeaeeo eciaiaiee, a aaaeue io noaeueiie ieanoeiu inoaeenue
au iaeie ainiiieiaiey. Iaoeaea ei?aaeae oeoaiiauie ieanoeiaie ia o?aaoao
ieeaeie aioeei??iceeiie caueou. Oeoaiiauie eenoaie iie?uo iiioiaio a
/anoue iiei?eoaeae einiina a Iineaa.

Oeoaiiaua nieaau i?eiaiytho i?e ecaioiaeaiee iaaeaaoeeiiiuo
i?eai?ia, ianinia e o?oaii?iaiaeia, a oaeaea aeey iaoeaee noaeia e
iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie. A iau/iie aiaea oeoai iiaeaa?aaaony ei??icee eeoue
i?e 800N. Aea /oi aiaea, aeaaea eiioeaio?e?iaaiiay na?iay eeneioa i?ioea
oeoaia aanneeueia. Niiniaiinoue oeoaia aeaaeii iiaeiuaoue aacu e
aeaaaoue i?i/iua niaaeeiaiey n acioii e oaea?iaeii (yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
enoaoe, cao?oaeiyao iieo/aiea oeoaia a /enoii aeaea) oaeaea noaee
eniieueciaaoue a oaoieea – aeey oaeaeaiey aacia ec ?anieaaeaiiuo
iaoaeeia oai, aaea aaeooi- ianinu ia iiaoo iieiaoue e oaeaeeoue inoaoee
aacia. *enoue oeoai a aeaea i?iaieiee, eaiou e ae?oaeo ecaeaeee
eniieuecotho a yeaeo?iaaeooiiie oaoieea aeey ecaioiaeaiey aiiaeia,
naoie, aioeeaoiaeia ?aioaaiianeeo o?oaie e ae?oaeo aeaoaeae.

Oeoai e aai nieaau iaeaaeatho iiauoaiiie ei??iceeiie noieeinoueth
i?ioea ?yaea oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia – aeaaeiiai oei?a, acioiie eeneiou,
i?aaie/aneeo eeneio e ae?. Iiyoiio oeoai oe?iei i?eiaiytho a oeie/aneii
iaoeiino?iaiee. A i?iecaiaenoaa oei?a ec oeoaiiauo nieaaia ecaioiaeytho
o?oaii?iaiaeu, oaieiiaiaiieee, ianinu aeey ia?aea/ee oei?iuo e nieaauo
?anoai?ia. Noieeinoue yoie aiia?aoo?u a 10-20 ?ac auoa, /ai aiaeiae/iuo
ianinia ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee. A i?iecaiaenoaa acioiie eeneiou
i?eiaiytho oeoaiiaoth aiia?aoo?o aeey o?aiaiey e ia?aaicee 60-70 –
i?ioeaioiie HNO3; a aeuiyuae eeneioa oeoai ac?uaiiianai.

Aiia?aoo?ie ec oeoaia iieuecothony i?e iieo/aiee oenoniie,
io?aaueeiie e ae?oaeo eeneio, a i?iecaiaenoaa ii/aaeiu e i?aaie/aneeo
e?aneoaeae. N aeiaaaeaieai oeoaia noaeue noaiiaeony oa??aea e
yeanoe/iaa. Ec oaeie noaee ecaioiaeytho ?aeuenu, aaaiiiua ine, eie?na.

Oeoai e aai nieaau oe?iei i?eiaiytho a /??iie e oeaaoiie
iaoaeeo?aee. Oa??ioeoai – nieaa aeaeaca n oeoaiii – neoaeeo aeey
?aneeneaiey e aeaacioecaoeee noaee. Oeoai naycuaaao ia oieueei eenei?iae
e acio, ii e na?o. Oeoai aeiaaaeytho a nieaau oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, /oiau
oeo/oeoue eo iaoaie/aneea naienoaa e nii?ioeaeaiea ei??icee. Ea?aeae
oeoaia iaeaaeaao aunieie oa??aeinoueth e ooaiieaaeinoueth. Ii aoiaeeo a
ninoaa oeoaii-aieueo?aiiauo e eino?oiaioaeueiuo oa??aeuo nieaaia. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho naa?oi?iaiaeyuea
nieaau ieiaey n oeoaiii.

I?eaeiaeueiia i?eiaiaiea iieo/ee oeoai a iaaeeoeeia – aeey
ecaioiaeaiey aioo?aiieo i?ioacia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?enoonoaea oeoaia a
aeeaii i?aaiecia aiieia aeiionoeii, einoe e iuoa/iay oeaiue n?anoathony
n iei.

Aeaoieenue oeoaia eniieuecotho eae aaeue ieaiaio oeoaiiauo aaeee.
?aiueoa a aeeaiiene i?eiaiyeenue naeioeiaua aaeeea. Ni a?aiaiai iie
ii?oyony: oaiiatho e oa?ytho e?ithuoth niiniaiinoue. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai
ea?oeiu iiiaeo auaeathueony aeeaiienoeaa oo?aoeee naie ia?aiia/aeueiue
aeae. Oeoaiiaua aea aaeeea i/aiue noieeea, iieioia iaoeo auaeathueony
nia?aiaiieeia niiaoo nio?aiyoueny iiiaea aaea.

A ecaioiaeaiee oa??aeuo aeeyeaeo?eeia (i?iecaiaenoai eiiaeainaoi?ia,
?aaeeiaiia?aoo?u e auniei/anoioiuo ia/ae) eniieuecotho ?acee/iua
e?enoaeee/aneea oi?iu aeaoieene oeoaia – aiaoac e ?ooee.

Iaoaoeoaieo aa?ey BaTiO3 ioee/aaony naa?oaunieie aeeyeaeo?e/aneie
iinoiyiiie e i?eiaiyaony aeey ecaioiaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo eiiaeainaoi?ia.

Ecaanoii ia iaiaa 65 ieia?aeia, niaea?aeaueo oeoai, eioi?ue
iaoiaeeony iau/ii a /aou??oaaeaioiie oi?ia. I?iiuoeaiiia cia/aiea eiatho
ieia?aeu ?ooee, eeueiaieo, ia?ianeeo e noai. ?ooee, aiaoac e a?oeeo –
yoi aeeio?iie/aneea iiaeeoeeaoeee aeaoieene oeoaia. Eeueiaieo
(iaoaoeoaiao aeaeaca) FeTiO3 e ?ooee TiO2 – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiua
ieia?aeu oeoaia, ec eioi?uo aai a iniiaiii iieo/atho.

Oi?ioi ia?aaioaiiua e?enoaeeu ?ooeea TiO2 i?eiaiytho a ea/anoaa
thaaee?iuo oe?aoaiee.

I?iecaiaenoai oeoaia.

I?ioeann iieo/aiey oeoaia i?ioaeaao a ianeieueei noaaeee:

1.?oaeo e eiioeaio?ao oeoaia ia?aaiaeyo a aeeieneae oeoaia TiO2 ,
eioi?ue oei?e?otho a i?enoonoaee oaea?iaea n oeaeueth iiauoaiey nei?inoe
?aaeoeee:

TiO2 +2Cl2 +2CTiCl4 +2CO

2.Ainnoaiaaeeaatho oei?eae oeoaia iaaieai:

TiCl4 +2MgTi+2MgCl2

3.Nianue iaa?aaatho a aaeooia. I?e yoii iaaiee e oei?eae iaaiey
enia?ythony e inaaeaeathony a eiiaeainaoi?a, a inoaaoeeny aoa/aoue oeoai
ia?aieaaeytho.

I?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai iaoaeee/aneiai oeoaia ia/aeinue n 1948
aiaea. Nia/aea a NOA, caoai a Aiaeee e ssiiiee, a n 1954 aiaea a NNN?
?aaioatho i?aaei?eyoey, auioneathuea oeoai e aai nieaau. Iaoa no?aia ii
i?iecaiaenoao oeoaia auoea ia iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a.

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