.

Природные красители. Реферат.

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 574
Скачать документ

I?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee,i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,eioi?ua au?aaaouaathony
aeeauie i?aaieciaie e ie?aoeaatho aeeaioiua e ?anoeoaeueiua eeaoee e
oeaie.A iniiaiii niaaeeiaiey aeaeouo, ei?e/iaauo , /a?iuo e e?aniuo
oeaaoia ?aciuo iooaieia, i/aiue iaei neieo e oeieaoiauo, caeaiua, eae
i?aaeei, ionoonoaotho.

Aei 2-ie iieiaeiu 19a. i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee-aaeeinoaaiiua a-aa aeey
e?aoaiey oaenoeeueiuo e ia?othia?iuo ecaeaeee, eiaee,aoiaae,ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia e ae?. N ?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aaie/aneiai neioaca,
iniaaiii aieeie?ani/iie i?ii-oe,i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee ia auaea?aeaee
eiieo?aioeee n e?aneoaeyie neioaoe/aneeie e a iniiaiii oo?aoeee aueia
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. A iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee
eniieuecotho a ?anoaa?aoeeiiiuo ?aaioao. Eo i?eiaiytho oaeaea a ieuaaie
e ia?othia?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoyo, i?e enneaaeiaaieyo iaoiaeaie iioe/aneie
e yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee a oeeoieiaee e aenoioeiee, a aiaeeoe/aneie
oeiee. Iiiaea i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiie
oeceieiae/aneie e aioeaeioe/aneie aeoeaiinoueth, aneaaenoaea /aai eo
/anoi eniieuecotho eae eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa. Iaeioi?ua i?e?iaeiua
e?aneoaee – ?aaoeyoi?u ?inoa ?anoaiee, a oaeaea neaiaeueiua aauanoaa,
i?eaeaeathuea ianaeiiuo-iiueeoaeae e ioioaeaathuea a?aaeeoaeae.

I?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a i?e?iaea e e?aeia
iiiaiia?aciu. *anoi a ?acee/iuo i?e?iaeiuo enoi/ieeao ano?a/athony iaeie
e oa aea eee aeeceea ii no?iaieth i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee, iiyoiio iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?acii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eo ii oeiai oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.

Aeeoaoe/aneea e aeeoeeeee/aneea e?aneoaee.Aeeth/atho ea?aoeiieaeu,
iaoneiaeeaathuea aeaeooth,i?aiaeaaoth e e?anioth ie?anee oeaaoia e
ieiaeia. N oaeeeiaieai oeaie nii?yaeaiiuo aeaieiuo naycae ie?anea
oaeoaeyaony. N?aaee i?e?iaeiuo e?aneoaeae yoiai ?yaea – oaeaaiaei?iaeu ,
iai?eia?, eeeiiei (e?aniue),aethoa-,aaooa-,aaiia –
ea?ioeiu(oeieaoiaue);nie?ou, iai?eia?, e?eioienaioei e enaioioee
(aeaeoue), caaenaioei (aeaeoiaaoi-e?aniue); eaoiiu, iai?eia?,
?iaeienaioei (neiaaaoi-/a?iue) e anoeoeei (oeieaoiaue); eaoi-nie?ou,
iai?eia?, eaioaenaioei e anoaenaioei
(e?aniue);aeueaeaaeaeu,aeueaeaaeaeinie?ou e ae?..

Ano?a/athony ea?ioeiieaeu a ?anoeoaeueiii e aeeaioiii ie?a. Iiiaea ec
ieo, iai?eia?, ea?ioei, iaeaaeatho aunieie oeceieiae/aneie
aeoeaiinoueth, ?aoeiaeue (aeueaeaaeae,ia?acothueeny ec aeoaieia A)
aoiaeeo a ninoaa c?eoaeueiiai aaeea ?iaeiineia. E iieeaiai ioiineony
?yae aioeaeioeeia (eaiaoeeaeei, iaioaieoeei, o?eoiieoeei e ae?.),
i?iaeooee?oaiuo aeoeiiieoeaoaie.

A?iiaoe/aneea e?aneoaee. A iniiaiii yoi aeae?iene- e aeeiene- caiauaiiua
iai?aaeaeueiua eaoiiu: 1)i?iecaiaeiua ei?e/iie e oa?oeiaie eeneio – 4,4-
aeeaeae?ieneaeeoeeiiaiieeiaoai (aeaeoue), 4-
aeae?ieneoeeiiaiieeoa?oeieeiaoai (i?aiaeaaue) e aeeoa?oeieeiaoai,eee
eo?eoiei (i?aiaeaai-e?aniue), ano?a/athueany a ei?iyo eo?eoiu e ae?. ;
2) i?iecaiaeiua oaeeiia N6I5NI=NININ6I5 e oeiiiia, iai?eia?, eaanii e
thaeii, auaeaeaiiua niioaaonoaaiii ec eenoueaa oiu e ec eiaeo?u iac?aeuo
a?aoeeeo i?aoia, – aeaeoua e?aneoaee aeey oa?noe e uaeea; o?eca?iaei –
aeaeoue e?aneoaeue a?aceeueneeo aeaeia ae?aaaneiu, yiiaeeiaio?ii –
aeaeoue e?aneoaeue ae?aaaneiu aeinoa?a aeao?neiai; aeia?eoeei e
inaaaeiaeia?eoeei – oaiii-oeieaoiaue e oaiii-e?aniue e?aneoaee oeaaoia
caa?iaiy i?iaeu?yaeaiiiai, iaeaaeathuea niiniaiinoueth oaeaaoue
iee?ii?aaieciu e i?inoaeoea aeaaea i?e neaaii OO iaeo/aiee.

Iiiaea i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee iaeaaeatho oeceieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth,
aeoaieiu a?oiiu E -i?ioeaiainiaeeoaeueiui aeaenoaeai. E /anoe/ii
aeae?e?iaaiiui a?iiaoe/iui i?e?iaeiui e?aneoaeyi ioiinyony aioeaeioeee
a?oiiu oao?aoeeeeeia e o?iiiieoeeia, ie?aoaiiua a aeaeoue oeaao.
Iaeioi?ua ec e?aneoaeae yoiai ?yaea ana aua i?eiaiytho aeey e?aoaiey;
iai?eia?, a ?anoaa?aoeeiiiuo ?aai oao eniieuecotho aeeca?ei –
iniiaiia e?anyuaa aauanoai e?aiia, eee ia?aiu e?aneeueiie, niaea?aeauaa
oaeaea io?io?ei – e?aniue e?aneoaeue, eioi?ue i?eiaiytho a aenoioeiee
aeey auyaeaiey Na a caii?iaeaiiuo n?aaeao, a oaeaea eae ?aaeoea a
aiaeeoe/aneie oeiee: ea?oaiei – aeaeoue e?aneoaeue iueueoeu oeaaoia
naoei?a e?aneeueiiai; ea?iei, auaeaeyaiue ec eioaieee (naiie ianaeiiuo
eaeooniaay eiaeiiueoiaea); e i?eiaiyaiue a ieuaaie e ia?othia?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoyo. Aeaenoaothuaa ia/aei ea?ieia – ea?ieiiaay eeneioa; aa
i?eiaiytho a oeeoieiaee.

Aaoa?ioeeeee/aneea e?aneoaee.

Iaeaieaa oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaeoua i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee- aeae?iene-,
iaoiene – e iaoeeaiaeeaeae?ienei?iecaiaeiua 4-o?iiiia e o?iiaia. E iei
ioiinyony oeaaiiieaeu – i?iecaiaeiua oeaaiia, oeaaiiiea, oeaaaiiia e
oeaaaiiiiea, ecioeaaiia, a oaeaea aioioeeaieaeeiu, ie?aoeaathuea oeaaou,
yaiaeu, ieiaeu e iaiue a e?aniue, oeieaoiaue, neiee e /a?iue oeaaoa.

E yoie a?oiia i?e?iaeiuo e?aneoaeae ioiinyony oaeaea oaeaoi?iaay
eeneioa- /a?ii-oeieaoiaue e?aneoaeue iiiaeanoaa aeaeia a?eaia, a?aceeei
e aaiaoieneeei, auaeaeaiiua ec ae?aaaneiu ?acee/iuo aeaeia e?aniiai
aea?aaa e eaiiaoaaiai aea?aaa. Yoe aanoeaaoiua aauanoaa i?e e?aoaiee
oeiiea ii aeethieieaaie i?io?aaa aeatho neiaaaoi-e?aniua e oeieaoiaua
ie?anee. Aaiaoieneeei (ia aai iniiaa nicaeaiu e?anyuea ?anoai?u
niaoeeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey) i?eiaiytho oaeaea aeey oeeoieiae/aneie
aeeaaiinoeee ?aea.

Acioniaea?aeauea aaoa?ioeeeeu.

Iaeaieaa ae?aaiea i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee – eiaeeai e io?io? aioe/iue.
I?iecaiaeiua ii??iea aeeth/atho o?e aaaeiua a?oiiu e?aneoaeae:

1. E?aniue ieaiaio y?eo?ioeeoia e?iae aaiiaeiaei – aeaeaciniaea?aeauee
eiiieaen i?ioiii?oe?eia e aaeea aeiaeia.

2. Ieaiaiou caeaiuo /anoae ?anoaiee, niaea?aeaueany a oei?iieanoao
ia?yaeo n ea?ioeiieaeaie (a niioiioaiee 3:1), neia-caeaiue oei?ioeee a e
aeaeoi-caeaiue oei?ioeee a, ea?athuea aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeannao
oioineioaca.

3. AEae/iua ieaiaiou.

I?iecaiaeiua ioa?eaeeia – oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua ieaiaiou,
niaea?aeaueany a e?ueueyo aaai/ae e ioeoe.

E?aneoaee neioaoe/aneea,i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,eniieuecoaiua aeey
e?aoaiey ?acee/iuo (i?aeiouanoaaiii aieieienouo) iaoa?eaeia e
ecaeaeee. I?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeaaiui ia?acii ie?aoaiiua niaaeeiaiey.,
iaeioi?ua aanoeaaoiua niaaeeiaiey, iai?eia?, ioaaeeaaoaee iioe/aneea, a
oaeaea niaaeeiaiey, ec eioi?uo e?aneoaee ia?acothony iinea iaianaiey ia
ie?aoeaaaiue iaoa?eae. Oeaao e?aneoaey iaoneiaeai iaee/eai a aai
iieaeoea o?iiioi?iie nnenoaiu – aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie ioe?uoie eee
caieiooie nenoaiu nii?yaeaiiuo e?aoiuo naycae e naycaiiuo n iae
yeaeo?iiiaeiii?iuo e (eee) yeaeo?iiiaeoeaioi?iuo caianoeoaeae. E?iia
oiai, a iieaeoeao e?aneoaeae iiaoo niaea?aeaoueny caianoeoaee,
i?eaeathuea ei ?acee/iua naienoaa, iai?eia?: niiniaiinoue ?anoai?youeny
a aiaeiuo eee iaaiaeiuo n?aaeao; ia?aciauaaoue aioo?eeiiieaeniua
niaaeeiaiey n iaoaeeaie; oeie/anee naycuaaoueny n ie?aoeaaaiui
iaoa?eaeii.

Neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee aeieaeiu ia?aciauaaoue ie?anee, onoie/eaua e
?acee/iui oeceei-oeie/aneei aicaeaenoaeyi a i?ioeannao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?a?aaioee ie?aoaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e i?e eo
yenieoaoaoeee, iai?eia?, e ia?aaioea ai?y/ae aiaeie e ianuuaiea ia?ii, e
aeaenoaeth aeoeaiiai oei?a, aunieeo oaiia?aoo? ( a ?anieaaao iieeia?ia),
naaoa, ii?neie aiaeu, e iiaiaeiui oneiaeyi, noe?ea, aeaaeaieth, o?aieth
a nooii e iie?ii ninoiyieyo. Yoe naienoaa ioeaieaathony ii iyoeaaeeueiie
oeaea, oieueei i?i/iinoue e naaoo – ii ainueieaaeeueiie. Iaai?
o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e e?aneoaeth, ii?aaeaeyaony iacia/aieai e
niiniaii i?iecaiaenoaa ie?aoaiiiai iaoa?eaea. Iiieii onoie/eainoe e
?acee/iui aicaeaenoaeyi,neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee oa?aeoa?ecotho oaeaea ii
?iaiioa ie?anie, /enoioa eo iooaiea.

A oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia aeey e?aoaiey oeaiae, ecaioiaeaiey einiaoe/aneeo
i?aia?aoia, a iicaeiaa e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo e?anie i?eiaiyee e?aneoaee
i?e?iaeiua – aeeca?ei, eiaeeai, ea?iei e ae?. (anaai ieiei 30). A 1771a.
aeaenoaeai INO3 ia eiaeeai iieo/ai ia?aue neioaoe/aneee e?aneoaeue –
iee?eiiaay eeneioa; a 1843a aa iieo/eee ec aieaa aeinooiiiai nu?uey –
oaiiea, /oi iicaieeei a 1849a. ia/aoue i?iecaiaenoai eeneiou aeey
e?aoaiey oaeea.Aicieeiiaaiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae
noaei aiciiaeiui eeoue iinea ioe?uoey I.I.Ceieiui (1842a.)
oieaa?naeueiiai iaoiaea iieo/aiey aieeeia e ae?. a?iiaoe/aneeo aieiia.A
1855a. ss.Iaoainii iieo/ee ec aieeeia e?aniue neioaoe/aneee e?aneoaeue,
aoi?e/ii ioe?uoue a 1859a. Y.Aa?aaiii e iacaaiiue ooeneiii (oeaao
ooenee).A 1856a. O.Ia?eei-noa?oee neioace?iaae ?iciaaoi-eeeiaue iiaaei
(oeaao iaeueau).Aiae 1856 n/eoaaony aeaoie aicieeiiaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe
neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae, iacaaiiie aieeeiie?ani/iie.

A 1858a. I.A?enn ioe?ue ?aaeoeeth aeeacioe?iaaiey, a a 1864 –
acini/aoaiey, /oi i?eaaei e neioaco acie?aneoaeae. A 1880a. A.Aaea?
neioace?iaae eiaeeai, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iai ia/aeinue a
1896a., iinea /aai iineaaeiaae neioac ae?. eiaeeaieaeiuo neioaoe/aneeo
e?aneoaeae. A 1873a. ioe?uou na?ienoua neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee, a n
1893a. i?aaieciaaii eo i?iiuoeaiiia iieo/aiea.A 19i1a. iieo/ai ia?aue
neioaoe/aneee eoaiaue e?aneoaeue eiaeaio?ii, a 1903a. iaeaaeaii
i?iecaiaenoai iieeiaoeiiauo neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae, a 1936a. –
ooaeioeeaieiiauo. E ia/aeo 20 a. neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee auoanieee
i?e?iaeiua e?aneoaee.E?oiiaeoea aeinoeaeaiey iinea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu
auione aeoeaiuo e aeenia?niuo neioaoe/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Iauaa /enei
ecaanoiuo neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae ninoaaeyao nauoa 6500, a
i?iecaiaeeiuo a ie?a ieiei 1500.

Aei 1914a. iiiiiieenoii a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae
auea Aa?iaiey, ia aeieth eioi?ie (aianoa n oeeeaeaie aa oe?i ca
?oaaaeii) i?eoiaeeeinue ieiei 90% ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaiiai 150,3
oun.o/aiae. E 1937a. e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua i?iecaiaenoaa neioaoe/aneeo
e?aneoaeae i?aaieciaaiu a 18 no?aiao, e iio?aaeaiea e?aneoaeae aeinoeaei
235 oun.o/aiae. A 80-o aa.20a. i?iecaiaenoai neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae
ninoaaeei 770-860 oun.o/aiae, i?e/ai 70% yoiai eiee/anoaa i?eoiaeeony ia
aeieth NOA, O?A, NNN?, ssiiiee, Aiaeee,

Oaaeoea?ee e O?aioeee.

Oa?iei “e?aneoaeue” aaaaeai a 1908a. A.A.Ii?ae-Eioeoeai.

E?aneoaee auioneatho a i?iaeaaeo iau/ii iiae oi?aiauie iacaaieyie. Ca
?oaaaeii – yoi oe?iaiiua iacaaiey, caueuaiiua iaoaioaie. Iiyoiio /anoi
iaeeiaeiaua ii oeie/aneiio no?iaieth neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee ?aciua
oe?iu auioneatho iiae ?acee/iuie iacaaieyie.

I?iecaiaenoai neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae – io?aneue i?iiuoeaiiinoe oiieiai
i?aaie/aneiai neioaca. Neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee iieo/atho a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaaaeaiey iiiainoaaeeeiiai oeie/aneiai neioaca ec i?iiaaeooi/iuo
i?iaeoeoia, i?iecaiaeeiuo, a naith i/a?aaeue, ec a?iiaoe/aneeo e
aaoa?ia?iiaoe/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, au?aaaouaaaiuo oaea- e iaooaoeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. *anoi ec iaeiiai i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?iaeoeoa iieo/atho
ianeieueei neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae. I?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou, e?iia
oiai, oe?iei eniieuecotho aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa,
ianoeoeeaeia, ?inoiauo aauanoa e iiiaeo ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia. Eae i?aaeei,
i?iecaiaenoai i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia i?aaieciaaii ia caaiaeao,
eioi?ua au?aaaouaatho neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee.

Aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe neioaoe/aneei e?aneoaeyi oa?aeoa?iu:
iiiaianni?oeiaioiinoue (aieueoia /enei ia?ie neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae),
iaeioiiiaaeiinoue ioaeaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa, iiiainoaaeeeiinoue iieo/aiey
aieueoeinoaa e?aneoaeae (eiiaaea 10 e aieaa noaaeee). Yoi cao?oaeiyao
iaoaiecaoeeth e aaoiiaoecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oeo/oaiea yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

Iniiaiua iooe i?ia?anna a i?iiuoeaiiinoe neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae:
?ac?aaioea aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea e?aoaiey o?eaae e?aneoaeae
(aeaeoue-io?io?iue-aieoaie), niaoaieai eioi?uo ii aeaiiui ?an/aoa
oeaaoiinoe ia YAIiiaeii iieo/eoue nianiaua ia?ee neioaoe/aneeo
e?aneoaeae ethauo oeaaoia e iooaieia;i?aaiecaoeeyaeaeeo i?iecaiaenoa,
iicaieythueo n iiiiuueth iaaieueoiai /enea aiia?aoia iiauoaiiie iiuiinoe
i?iecaiaeeoue oe?ieee anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoeee; ecuneaiea aiciiaeiinoae
eniieueciaaiey iaeieo e oao aea i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia aeey neioaca
aiciiaeii aieueoaai /enea neioaoe/aneeo e?aneoaeae e i?eiaiaiey a
ea/anoaa i?iiaae. i?iaeoeoia niaaeeiaiee, i?iecaiaeeiuo aeey neioaca
eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa, ianoeoeeaeia, oioiiaoa?eaeia e ae?..

Iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa oeie/aneiai neioaca neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee
iau/ii iaei i?eaiaeiu aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?eiaiaiey a e?aoaiee e
iniaaiii a ia/aoaiee. *oiau e?aneoaee auee oaeiaiu a i?eiaiaiee e aeey
iiauoaiey noaiaie eo eniieueciaaiey (iai?eia?, eneeth/aiea iao. iioa?ue,
aieaa iieiay auae?aaiinoue ec e?aneeueiuo aaii) ec ieo aioiayo auioneiua
oi?iu. Yoi noaiaea?oeciaaiiua oiaa?iua oi?iu, a eioi?uo neioaoe/aneea
e?aneoaee iinooiatho iio?aaeoaeyi; e?iia e?aneoaey, acyoiai a no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee, a eo ninoaa aoiaeyo ?acee/iua
aniiiiaaoaeueiua aauanoaa. Ia iniiaa iaeiiai e oiai aea neioaoe/aneiai
e?aneoaey iiaeao auoue i?eaioiaeaii ianeieueei auioneiuo oi?i.
Neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee i?iecaiaeyo a aeaea iaiueyueo ii?ioeia, a?aioe
e aeeaeeinoae, a aeaea ?anoai?ia.

I?eiaiytho neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee aeey e?aoaiey aieieii e ?acee/iuo
oaenoeeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eiaee, iaoia, aoiaae, ae?aaaneiu e ae?.;
?anoai?eiua a i?aaie/aneeo n?aaeao neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee – aeey
ie?aoeaaiey aaiceiia,ia?aoeia, nie?oia, aineia, ?anoeoaeueiuo aee?ia,
neioaoe/aneeo aieieii i?e iieo/aiee eo oi?ie?iaaieai a ianna, ieanoiann,
?acei. Neioaoe/aneea e?aneoaee eniieuecotho oaeaea a oeaaoiie e
/a?ii-aaeie eeiaiaoia?aoee e oioia?aoee, a yeaeo?ioioia?aoee
aiaeeoe/aneie oeiee, a iaaeeoeeia (n?aaenoaa aeeaaiinoeee, i?e
aeioeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo), a aeeaeeinoiuo eaca?ao, a ?acee/iuo
oece/aneeo i?eai?ao a ea/anoaa iieoi?iaiaeieeia e yeaiaioia,
iaeaaeathueo oioii?iaiaeeiinoueth e iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie naienoaaie, eae
eaoaeecaoi?u.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019