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Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea.

Oa?iei “iieeia?ey” aue aaaaeai a iaoeo E.Aa?oeaeeonii a 1833 aeey
iaicia/aiey iniaiai aeaea eciia?ee, i?e eioi?ie aauanoaa (iieeia?u),
eiathuea iaeeiaeiaue ninoaa, iaeaaeatho ?acee/iie iieaeoey?iie iannie,
iai?eia? yoeeai e aooeeai, eenei?iae e icii. Oaeia niaea?aeaiea oa?ieia
ia niioaaonoaiaaei nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi i iieeia?ao. “Enoeiiua”
neioaoe/aneea iieeia?u e oiio a?aiaie aua ia auee ecaanoiu.

?yae iieeia?ia aue, ii-aeaeeiiio, iieo/ai aua a ia?aie iieiaeia 19
aaea. Iaeiaei oeieee oiaaea iau/ii iuoaeenue iiaeaaeoue iieeia?ecaoeeth
e iieeeiiaeainaoeeth, eioi?ua aaee e “iniieaieth” i?iaeoeoia iniiaiie
oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee, o.a., nianoaaiii, e ia?aciaaieth iieeia?ia (aei
neo ii? iieeia?u /anoi iacuaatho “niieaie”). Ia?aua oiiieiaiey i
neioaoe/aneeo iieeia?ao ioiinyony e 1838 (iieeaeieeeaeaioei?eae) e 1839
(iieenoe?ie),

Oeiey iieeia?ia aicieeea oieueei a nayce n nicaeaieai A.I.Aooea?iaui
oai?ee oeie/aneiai no?iaiey. A.I.Aooea?ia eco/ae naycue iaaeaeo
no?iaieai e ioiineoaeueiie onoie/eainoueth iieaeoe, i?iyaeythuaeny a
?aaeoeeyo iieeia?ecaoeee. Aeaeueiaeoaa naia ?acaeoea iaoea i iieeia?ao
iieo/eea aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y eioaineaiui iieneai niiniaia
neioaca eao/oea, a eioi?uo o/anoaiaaee e?oiiaeoea o/?iua iiiaeo no?ai
(A.Aooa?aea, O.Oeeaeai, iaiaoeeee o/?iue E Aa??ean, E.E.Eiiaeaeia,
N.A.Eaaaaeaa e ae?oaea). A 30-o aiaeia auei aeieacaii nouanoaiaaiea
naiaiaeii?aaeeeaeueiiai e eiiiiai iaoaieciia iieeia?ecaoeee. Aieueooth
?ieue a ?acaeoee i?aaenoaaeaiee i iieeeiiaeainaoeee nua?aee ?aaiou
O.Ea?ica?na.

N ia/aea 20-o aiaeia 20 aaea ?acaeaathony oaeaea oai?aoe/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?iaiee iieeia?ia Aia/aea i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi oaeea
aeiiieeia?u, eae oeaeetheica, e?aoiae, eao/oe, aaeee, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua
neioaoe/aneea iieeia?u, noiaeiua n ieie ii naienoaai (iai?eia?,
iieeecii?ai), ninoiyo ec iaeuo iieaeoe, iaeaaeathueo iaiau/iie
niiniaiinoueth annioeee?iaaoue a ?anoai?a a eiiieaenu eieeieaeiie
i?e?iaeu aeaaiaea?y iaeiaaeaioiui naycyi (oai?ey “iaeuo aeieia”).
Aaoi?ii i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i iieeia?ao eae i
aauanoaao, ninoiyueo ec iae?iiieaeoe, /anoeoe iaiau/aeii aieueoie
iieaeoey?iie iannu, aue A.Ooaoaeeiaa?. Iiaaaea eaeae yoiai o/?iiai
canoaaeea ?anniao?eaaoue iieeia?u eae ea/anoaaiii iiaue iauaeo
enneaaeiaaiey oeiee e oeceee.

Iieeia?u – oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey n aunieie iie. iannie (io ianeieueeeo
ouny/ aei iiiaeo ieeeeiiia), iieaeoeu eioi?uo (iae?iiieaeoeu) ninoiyo ec
aieueoiai /enea iiaoi?ythueony a?oiie?iaie (iiiiia?iuo caaiueaa).
Aoiiu, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iae?iiieaeoe, niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii
neeaie aeaaiuo e (eee) eii?aeeiaoeeiiiuo aaeaioiinoae.

Eeanneoeeaoeey.

Ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth iieeia?u aeaeyony ia i?e?iaeiua (aeiiieeia?u),
iai?eia? aaeee, ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, niieu i?e?iaeiua, e neioaoe/aneea,
iai?eia? iieeyoeeai, iieei?iieeai, oaiiei-oi?iaeueaeaaeaeiua niieu.
Aoiiu eee aoiiiua a?oiiu iiaoo ?aniieaaaoueny a iae?iiieaeoea a aeaea:
ioe?uoie oeaie eee auoyiooie a eeieth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oeeeeia
(eeiaeiua iieeia?u, iai?eia? eao/oe iaoo?aeueiue); oeaie n ?acaaoaeaieai
(?acaaoaeaiiua iieeia?u, iai?eia? aieeiiaeoei), o?aoia?iie naoee (noeoua
iieeia?u, iai?eia? ioaa?aeae?iiua yiieneaeiua niieu). Iieeia?u, iieaeoeu
eioi?uo ninoiyo ec iaeeiaeiauo iiiiia?iuo caaiueaa, iacuaathony
aiiiiieeia?aie (iai?eia? iieeaeieeoei?eae, iieeeai?iaieae, oeaeetheica).

Iae?iiieaeoeu iaeiiai e oiai aea oeie/aneiai ninoaaa iiaoo auoue
iino?iaiu ec caaiueaa ?acee/iie i?ino?ainoaaiiie eiioeao?aoeee. Anee
iae?iiieaeoeu ninoiyo ec iaeeiaeiauo noa?aieciia?ia eee ec ?acee/iuo
noa?aieciia?ia, /a?aaeothueony a oeaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoe,
iieeia?u iacuaathony noa?ai?aaoey?iuie.

Iieeia?u, iae?iiieaeoeu eioi?uo niaea?aeao ianeieueei oeiia iiiiia?iuo
caaiueaa, iacuaathony niiieeia?aie. Niiieeia?u, a eioi?uo caaiuey
eaaeaeiai oeia ia?acotho aeinoaoi/ii aeeeiiua iai?a?uaiua
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa a i?aaeaeao iae?iiieaeoeu,
iacuaathony aeieniiieeia?aie. E aioo?aiiei (iaeiioeaaui) caaiueyi
iae?iiieaeoeu iaeiiai oeie/aneiai no?iaiey iiaoo auoue i?eniaaeeiaiu
iaeia eee ianeieueei oeaiae ae?oaiai no?iaiey. Oaeea niiieeia?u
iacuaathony i?eaeouie.

Iieeia?u, a eioi?uo eaaeaeue eee iaeioi?ua noa?aieciia?u caaia
ia?acotho aeinoaoi/ii aeeeiiua iai?a?uaiua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe,
niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa a i?aaeaeao iaeiie iae?iiieaeoeu, iacuaathony
noa?aiaeieniiieeia?aie.

A caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa iniiaiie (aeaaiie) oeaie iieeia?u, aeaeyo ia:
aaoa?ioeaiiua, a iniiaiie oeaie eioi?uo niaea?aeaony aoiiu ?acee/iuo
yeaiaioia, /aua anaai oaea?iaea, acioa, e?aiiey, oinoi?a, e
aiiioeaiiua,

iniiaiua oeaie eioi?uo iino?iaiu ec iaeeiaeiauo aoiiia. Ec aiiioeaiiuo
iieeia?ia iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu ea?aioeaiiua iieeia?u, aeaaiua oeaie
eioi?uo ninoiyo oieueei ec aoiiia oaea?iaea,

iai?eia? iieeyoeeai, iieeiaoeeiaoae?eeao, iieeoao?aooi?coeeai. I?eia?u
aaoa?ioeaiiuo iieeia?ia – iieeyoe?u (iieeyoeeaioa?aooaeao,
iieeea?aiiaou), iieeaieaeu, ii/aaeii-oi?iaeueaeaaeaeiua niieu, aaeee,
iaeioi?ua e?aiieei?aaie/aneea iieeia?u. Iieeia?u, iae?iiieaeoeu eioi?uo
ia?yaeo n oaeaaiaei?iaeiuie a?oiiaie niaea?aeao aoiiu iai?aaiiaaiiuo
yeaiaioia, iacuaathony yeaiaioii?aaie/aneeie. Ioaeaeueioth a?oiio
iieeia?ia ia?acotho iai?aaie/aneea iieeia?u, iai?eia? ieanoe/aneay na?a,
iieeoinoiieo?eeoei?eae.

Naienoaa e aaaeiaeoea oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Eeiaeiua iieeia?u iaeaaeatho niaoeeoe/aneei eiiieaenii
oeceei-oeie/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo naienoa. Aaaeiaeoea ec yoeo naienoa:
niiniaiinoue ia?aciauaaoue aunieii?i/iua aiecio?iiiua
aunieii?eaioe?iaaiiua aieieia e ieaiee , niiniaiinoue e aieueoei,
aeeeoaeueii ?acaeaathueiny ia?aoeiui aeaoi?iaoeeyi; niiniaiinoue a
aunieiyeanoe/iii ninoiyiee iaaooaoue ia?aae ?anoai?aieai; aunieay
ayceinoue ?anoai?ia. Yoio eiiieaen naienoa iaoneiaeai aunieie
iieaeoey?iie iannie, oeaiiui no?iaieai, a oaeaea aeaeinoueth
iae?iiieaeoe. I?e ia?aoiaea io eeiaeiuo oeaiae e ?acaaoaeaiiui, ?aaeeei
o?aoia?iui naoeai e, iaeiiaoe, e aonoui nao/aoui no?oeoo?ai yoio
eiiieaen naienoa noaiiaeony an? iaiaa au?aaeaiiui. Neeueii noeoua
iieeia?u ia?anoai?eiu, iaieaaee e ianiiniaiu e aunieiyeanoe/iui
aeaoi?iaoeeyi.

Iieeia?u iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a e?enoaeee/aneii e aii?oiii ninoiyieyo.
Iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea e?enoaeeecaoeee – ?aaoey?iinoue aeinoaoi/ii
aeeeiiuo o/anoeia iae?iiieaeoeu. A e?enoaeee/aneeo iieeia?ao aiciiaeii
aicieeiiaaiea ?aciiia?aciuo iaaeiieaeoey?iuo no?oeoo? (oea?eee,
noa?ieeoia, iiiie?enoaeeia, oei eioi?uo ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao naienoaa
iieeia?iiai iaoa?eaea. Iaaeiieaeoey?iua no?oeoo?u a
iacae?enoaeeeciaaiiuo (aii?oiuo) iieeia?ao iaiaa au?aaeaiu, /ai a
e?enoaeee/aneeo.

Iacae?enoaeeeciaaiiua iieeia?u iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a o?ao oece/aneeo
ninoiyieyo: noaeeiia?aciii, aunieiyeanoe/iii e ayceioaeo/ai. Iieeia?u n
ieceie (ieaea eiiiaoiie) oaiia?aoo?ie ia?aoiaea ec noaeeiia?aciiai a
aunieiyeanoe/iia ninoiyiea iacuaathony yeanoiia?aie, n aunieie –
ieanoeeaie. A caaeneiinoe io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa, no?iaiey e acaeiiiai
?aniieiaeaiey iae?iiieaeoe naienoaa iieeia?u iiaoo iaiyoueny a i/aiue
oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Oae, 1,4.-oeeniieeaooaaeeai, iino?iaiiue ec aeaeeo
oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo oeaiae, i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 20 °N – yeanoe/iue
iaoa?eae, eioi?ue i?e oaiia?aoo?a -60 °N ia?aoiaeeo a noaeeiia?aciia
ninoiyiea; iieeiaoeeiaoae?eeao, iino?iaiiue ec aieaa aeanoeeo oeaiae,
i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 20 °N – oaa?aeue noaeeiia?aciue i?iaeoeo,
ia?aoiaeyuee a aunieiyeanoe/iia ninoiyiea eeoue i?e 100 °N. Oeaeetheica
– iieeia? n i/aiue aeanoeeie oeaiyie, niaaeeiaiiuie iaaeiieaeoey?iuie
aiaei?iaeiuie naycyie, aiiaua ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a aunieiyeanoe/iii
ninoiyiee aei oaiia?aoo?u aa ?aceiaeaiey. Aieueoea

?acee/ey a naienoaao iieeia?ia iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny aeaaea a oii neo/aa,
anee ?acee/ey a no?iaiee iae?iiieaeoe ia ia?aue acaeyae e iaaaeeee.
Oae, noa?ai?aaoey?iue iieenoe?ie – e?enoaeee/aneia aauanoai n
oaiia?aoo?ie ieaaeaiey ieiei 235 °N, a ianoa?ai?aaoey?iue aiiaua ia
niiniaai e?enoaeeeciaaoueny e ?aciya/aaony i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 80 °N.

Iieeia?u iiaoo anooiaoue a neaaeothuea iniiaiua oeiu ?aaeoeee:
ia?aciaaiea oeie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo iae?iiieaeoeaie (oae iacuaaaiia
noeaaiea), iai?eia? i?e aoeeaiecaoeee eao/oeia, aeoaeaiee eiaee; ?aniaae
iae?iiieaeoe ia ioaeaeueiua, aieaa ei?ioeea o?aaiaiou, ?aaeoeee aieiauo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii iieeia?ia n ieceiiieaeoey?iuie aauanoaaie, ia
cao?aaeaathuea iniiaioth oeaiue (oae iacuaaaiua iieeia?aiaeiae/iua
i?aa?auaiey); aioo?eiieaeoey?iua ?aaeoeee, i?ioaeathuea iaaeaeo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie a?oiiaie iaeiie iae?iiieaeoeu, iai?eia?
aioo?eiieaeoey?iay oeeeeecaoeey. Noeaaiea /anoi i?ioaeaao iaeiia?aiaiii
n aeano?oeoeeae. I?eia?ii iieeia?aiaeiae/iuo i?aa?auaiee iiaeao
neoaeeoue iiueaiea iieeaoeeaoeaoaoa, i?eaiaeyuaa e ia?aciaaieth
iieeaeieeiaiai nie?oa. Nei?inoue ?aaeoeee iieeia?ia n ieceiiieaeoey?iuie
aauanoaaie /anoi eeieoe?oaony nei?inoueth aeeooocee iineaaeieo a oaco
iieeia?a. Iaeaieaa yaii yoi i?iyaeyaony a neo/aa noeouo iieeia?ia.
Nei?inoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iae?iiieaeoe n ieceiiieaeoey?iuie aauanoaaie
/anoi nouanoaaiii caaeneo io i?e?iaeu e ?aniieiaeaiey ninaaeieo caaiueaa
ioiineoaeueii ?aaae?othuaai caaia. Yoi aea ioiineony e e
aioo?eiieaeoey?iui ?aaeoeeyi iaaeaeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuie a?oiiaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie iaeiie oeaie.

Iaeioi?ua naienoaa iieeia?ia, iai?eia? ?anoai?eiinoue, niiniaiinoue e
ayceiio oa/aieth, noaaeeueiinoue, i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth
iaaieueoeo eiee/anoa i?eianae eee aeiaaaie, ?aaae?othueo n
iae?iiieaeoeaie. Oae, /oiau i?aa?aoeoue eeiaeiue iieeia? ec ?anoai?eiiai
a iieiinoueth ia?anoai?eiue, aeinoaoi/ii ia?aciaaoue ia iaeio
iae?iiieaeoeo 1-2 iiia?a/iua nayce.

Aaaeiaeoea oa?aeoa?enoeee iieeia?ia – oeie/aneee ninoaa, iieaeoey?iay
ianna e iieaeoey?ii-ianniaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea, noaiaiue ?acaaoaeaiiinoe e
aeaeinoe iae?iiieaeoe, noa?ai?aaoey?iinoue e ae?oaea. Naienoaa iieeia?ia
nouanoaaiii caaenyo io yoeo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Iieo/aiea.

I?e?iaeiua iieeia?u ia?acothony a i?ioeanna aeineioaca a eeaoeao aeeauo
i?aaieciia. N iiiiuueth yeno?aeoeee, o?aeoeeiiiiai inaaeaeaiey e ae?oaeo
iaoiaeia iie iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu ec ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai
nu?uey. Neioaoe/aneea iieeia?u iieo/atho iieeia?ecaoeeae e
iieeeiiaeainaoeeae. Ea?aioeaiiua iieeia?u iau/ii neioace?otho
iieeia?ecaoeeae iiiiia?ia n iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie e?aoiuie
oaea?iaeiuie naycyie eee iiiiia?ia, niaea?aeaueo iaonoie/eaua
ea?aioeeeee/aneea a?oiie?iaee (iai?eia?, ec oeeeeii?iiaia e aai
i?iecaiaeiuo), Aaoa?ioeaiiua iieeia?u iieo/atho iieeeiiaeainaoeeae, a
oaeaea iieeia?ecaoeeae iiiiia?ia, niaea?aeaueo e?aoiua nayce
oaea?iaeiyeaiaioa (iai?eia?, N=I, N=N, N=N=I) eee iai?i/iua
aaoa?ioeeeee/aneea a?oiie?iaee.

Iieeia?u a naeueneii oicyenoaa

Naaiaeiy iiaeii aiai?eoue ii iaiueoae ia?a i /aou?ao iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaieyo eniieueciaaiey iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa.
E a ioa/anoaaiiie e a ie?iaie i?aeoeea ia?aia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo
ieaieai. Aeaaiaea?y i?eiaiaieth ioeue/e?othuae ia?oi?e?iaaiiie ieaiee ia
iieyo o?iaeaeiinoue iaeioi?uo eoeueoo? iiauoaaony aei 30%, a n?iee
nic?aaaiey onei?ythony ia 10-14 aeiae. Eniieueciaaiea iieeyoeeaiiaie
ieaiee aeey aeae?iecieyoeee nicaeaaaaiuo aiaeio?aieeeu iaania/eaaao
nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea iioa?ue caianaaiie aeaae. Oe?uoea ieaieie
naiaaea, neeina, a?oauo ei?iia iaania/eaaao eo eo/ooth nio?aiiinoue
aeaaea a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iiaiaeiuo oneiaeyo. Ii aeaaiay iaeanoue
eniieueciaaiey ieaii/iuo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa –
no?ieoaeuenoai e yenieoaoaoeey ieaii/iuo oaieeoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
noaei oaoie/anee aiciiaeiui auioneaoue iieioieua ieaiee oe?eiie aei 16
i, a yoi iicaieyao no?ieoue ieaii/iua oaieeoeu oe?eiie a iniiaaiee aei
7,5 e aeeeiie aei 200 i. A oaeeo oaieeoeao iiaeii ana
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aaiou i?iaiaeeoue iaoaiece?iaaiii; aieaa oiai,
yoe oaieeoeu iicaieytho au?aueaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth e?oaeiaiaee/ii. A
oieiaeiia a?aiy oaieeoeu iaia?aaathony iiyoue-oaee n iiiiuueth
iieeia?iuo o?oa, caeiaeaiiuo a ii/ao ia aeoaeio 60-70 ni.

N oi/ee c?aiey oeie/aneie no?oeoo?u iieeia?ia, eniieuecoaiuo a
oaiee/iuo oicyenoaao oaeiai ?iaea, iiaeii ioiaoeoue i?aeiouanoaaiiia
eniieueciaaiea iieeyoeeaia, iaieanoeoeoee?iaaiiiai iieeaeieeoei?eaea e a
iaiueoae ia?a iieeaieaeia. Iieeyoeeaiiaua ieaiee ioee/athony eo/oae
naaoii?iieoeaaiinoueth, eo/oeie i?i/iinoiuie naienoaaie, ii ooaeoae
iiaiaeionoie/eainoueth e n?aaieoaeueii aunieeie oaieiiioa?yie. Iie iiaoo
eni?aaii neoaeeoue eeoue 1-2 naciia. Iieeaieaeiua e ae?oaea ieaiee iiea
i?eiaiythony n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei.

Ae?oaay iaeanoue oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a naeueneii
oicyenoaa – iaeei?aoeey. Ooo e ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu o?oa e oeaiaia aeey
iieeaa, iniaaiii aeey naiiai i?ia?anneaiiai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eaiaeueiiai i?ioaiey; ooo e ia?oi?e?iaaiiua ieanoianniaua o?oau aeey
ae?aiaaea. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi n?ie neoaeau ieanoianniauo o?oa a
nenoaiao ae?aiaaea, iai?e ia?, a ?anioaeeeao I?eaaeoeee a 3-4 ?aca
aeieueoa, /ai niioaaonoaothueo ea?aie/aneeo o?oa. Aaeiaaaie
eniieueciaaiea ieanoianniauo o?oa, iniaaiii ec aio?e?iaaiiiai
iieeaeieeoei?eaea, iicaieyao ii/oe iieiinoueth eneeth/eoue ?o/iie o?oae
i?e i?ieeaaeea ae?aiaaeiuo nenoai.

Aeaa inoaeueiuo aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey iieeia?iuo
iaoa?eaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa – no?ieoaeuenoai, iniaaiii
aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo iiiauaiee, e iaoeiino?iaiea.

Iaoeu a neioaoe/aneeo ooaao

Iaoea, eae ecaanoii, aeeaioiia ia?acoiiia. Iniaaiii – ia?eiin. Ciaao
aaaeue, /oi oa?noue ioaeia oicyeio /enoie a ana-oaee oi a iuee
ecaaeyaony, oi, i?iaee?aynue ii eon oai, eieth/ae ia naay iaoeaieyao.
Iuoue e /enoeoue iaa/ueth oa?noue iinea no?eaeee – i?ioeann neiaeiue e
o?oaeiaieee. *oiau oi?inoeoue aai, /oiau caueoeoue oa?noue io
caa?yciaiee, aano?aeeeneea iaoeaaiaeu ecia?aee iiiiio ec iieeyoeeaiiaie
oeaie. Iaaeaaatho aa ia iaoeo n?aco iinea no?eaeee, caoyaeaatho
?aceiiauie canoaaeeaie. Iaoea ?anoao, e oa?noue ia iae ?anoao, ?anie?aao
iiiiio, a ?aceiee neaaatho, iiiiia ana a?aiy eae ii ia?ea noeoa. Ii aio
aaaea: iiae aano?aeeeneei nieioeai nai iieeyoeeai o?oieei noaiiaeony. E
n yoei ni?aaeeenue n iiiiuueth aieiiuo noaaeeecaoi?ia. Inoaeinue aua
i?eo/eoue iaoeo ia ?aaoue iieeyoeeaiiaoth oeaiue i eieth/ee e caai?u.

Ioia?iaaiiua aeeaioiua

Ia/eiay n 1975 aiaea aanue e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio, a oaeaea iaoeu e eicu
a ainoaea?noaaiiuo oicyenoaao *aoineiaaeee aeieaeiu iineoue a ooao
naiaia?aciua na?aaeee – ieanoianniaua oaaee/ee n oeacaieai iniiaiuo
aeaiiuo i aeeaioiuo. Yoa iiaay oi?ia ?aaeno?aoeee aeeaioiuo aeieaeia
caiaieoue i?eiaiyaoaany ?aiaa eeaeiaiea, /oi i?eciaii niaoeeaeenoaie
iaaeaeaie/iui. Ieeeeiiu ieanoianniauo oaaee/ae aeieaeiu auioneaoue
a?oaee ianoiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iee?ia – ei?ieeaoe

Eiiieaenioth caaea/o i/enoee noi/iuo aiae oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaeiia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia aeey
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aoeee oeineea o/aiua. Niaoeeaeueioth eoeueoo?o
iee?iaia au?aueaatho ia io?aaioaiiuo noeueoeoiuo uaeieao a niaoeeaeueiuo
oa?iaioaoi?ao i?e 38° N, iaeiia?aiaiii aeiaaaeyy ooaea aiieae. Auoiae
ei?iiaiai aaeea ninoaaeyao 50-55%; aai n aiiaoeoii iiaaeatho naeiuee e
aeiiaoiyy ioeoea.

Neioaoe/aneay o?aaea

O?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiyoi iiiaea nii?oeaiua ia?ii?eyoey i?iaiaeeoue ia
ieiuaaeeao n o?aayiui iie?uoeai. Oooaie, oaiien, e?ieao… E
niaeaeaieth, aeeiaie/iia ?acaeoea nii?oa, ieeiaua iaa?ocee o ai?io eee o
naoee i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi o?aaa ia oniaaaao iiae?anoe io iaeiiai
ninoycaiey aei ae?oaiai. E ieeaeea ooeu?aiey naaeiaieeia ia iiaoo n yoei

ni?aaeoueny. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, i?iaiaeeoue aiaeiae/iua ninoycaiey ia

ieiuaaeeao, neaaeai, n anoaeueoiaui iie?uoeai, ii eae aea auoue n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaeaie nii?oa? Ia iiiiuue i?eoee neioaoe/aneea
iaoa?eaeu. Iieeaieaeioth ieaieo oieueiie 1/40 ii (25 iei) ia?acatho ia
iieinee oe?eiie 1,27 ii, auoyaeaatho eo, ecaeaatho, a caoai ia?aieaoatho
oae, /oiau iieo/eoue eaaeoth iauaiioth iacno, eieoe?othuoth o?aao. Ai
ecaaaeaiea iiaea?a e iieeia?o caaiaey aeiaaaeytho iaiacaueoiua
n?aaenoaa, a /oiau ec-iiae iia o nii?oniaiia ia iinuiaeenue
yeaeo?e/aneia ene?u -aioenoaoee. Eia?eee ec neioaoe/aneie o?aau
iaeeaeaatho ia iiaeaioiaeaiiia iniiaaiea – e aio cai aioia o?aayiie ei?o
eee oooaieueiia iiea, eee eiay nii?oeaiay ieiuaaeea. A ii ia?a eciina
ioaeaeueiua o/anoee ea?iaiai iiey iiaeii caiaiyoue iiauie eia?eeaie,
ecaioiaeaiiuie ii oie aea oaoiieiaee e oiai aea caeaiiai oeaaoa.

Iieeia?u a iaoeiino?iaiee

Ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi yoa io?aneue – aeaaiue iio?aaeoaeue
/ooue ee ia anao iaoa?eaeia, i?iecaiaeeiuo a iaoae no?aia, a oii /enea e
iieeia?ia. Eniieueciaaiea iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a iaoeiino?iaiee ?anoao
oaeeie oaiiaie, eaeea ia ciatho i?aoeaaeaioa ai anae /aeiaa/aneie
enoi?ee. E i?eia?o, a 1976 1. iaoeiino?iaiea iaoae no?aiu iio?aaeei
800000 o ieano iann, a a 1960 a. – anaai 116 000 o. I?e yoii eioa?anii
ioiaoeoue, /oi aua aeanyoue eao iacaae a iaoeiino?iaiea iai?aaeyeinue
37—38% anao auioneathueony a iaoae no?aia ieanoiann, a 1980 a. aeiey
iaoeiino?iaiey a eniieueciaaiee ieanoiann nieceeanue aei 28%. E aeaei
ooo ia a oii, /oi iiaea au nieceony iio?aaiinoue, a a oii, /oi ae?oaea
io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa noaee i?eiaiyoue iieeia?iua iaoa?eaeu a
naeueneii oicyenoaa, a no?ieoaeuenoaa, a eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
aua aieaa eioaineaii.

I?e yoii oianoii ioiaoeoue, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu ianeieueei
eciaieeanue e ooieoeey iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a ethaie io?anee. Iieeia?ai
noaee aeiaa?youe ana aieaa e aieaa ioaaonoaaiiua caaea/e. Ec iieeia?ia
noaee ecaioaaeeaaoue ana aieueoa ioiineoaeueii iaeeeo, ii eiino?oeoeaii
neiaeiuo e ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaoaeae iaoei e iaoaieciia, e a oi aea a?aiy
ana /aua iieeia?u noaee i?eiaiyoueny a ecaioiaeaiee e?oiiiaaaa?eoiuo
ei?ioniuo aeaoaeae iaoei e iaoaieciia, ianoueo cia/eoaeueiua iaa?ocee.
Ieaea aoaeao iiae?iaiaa ?anneacaii i i?eiaiaiee iieeia?ia a
aaoiiiaeeueiie e aaeaoeeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, caeanue aea oiiiyiai eeoue
iaeei i?eia/aoaeueiue oaeo: ianeieueei eao iacaae ii Iineaa oiaeee
oeaeueiiieanoianniaue o?aiaae. A aio ae?oaie oaeo: /aoaa?oue anao iaeeeo
noaeia – eaoa?ia, oethiie, eiaeie – oaia?ue no?ieony ec ieanoe/aneeo
iann.

Aei iaaeaaieo ii? oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a
iaoeiino?iaiee i?aiyonoaiaaee aeaa, eacaeinue au, iauai?eciaiiuo
iaaeinoaoea iieeia?ia: eo ieceay (ii n?aaiaieth n ia?i/iuie noaeyie)
i?i/iinoue e ieceay oaieinoieeinoue. ?oaaae i?i/iinoiuo naienoa
iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia oaeaeinue i?aiaeieaoue ia?aoiaeii e
eiiiiceoeeiiiui iaoa?eaeai, aeaaiui ia?acii noaeei e oaeaieanoeeai. Oae
/oi oaia?ue au?aaeaiea “ieanoianna i?i/iaa noaee” cao/eo aiieia
iainiiaaiii. A oi aea a?aiy iieeia?u nio?aieee naie iiceoeee i?e
ianniaii ecaioiaeaiee ia?iiiiai /enea oao aeaoaeae, io eioi?uo ia
o?aaoaony iniaaiii aunieay i?i/iinoue: caaeooae, ooooea?ia, eieia/eia,
?oeiyoie, oeae e ei?ionia ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia. Aua iaeia iaeanoue,
niaoeeoe/aneay eiaiii aeey iieeia?ia, aaea /ao/a anaai
i?iyaeythony eo

i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ethauie eiuie iaoa?eaeaie, – yoi iaeanoue aioo?aiiae
e aiaoiae ioaeaeee.

Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i iaoeiino?iaiee. Ii/oe o?e /aoaa?oe
aioo?aiiae ioaeaeee naeiiia eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae, aaoiaonia, naiieaoia,
?a/iuo e ii?neeo noaeia e iannaaee?neeo aaaiiia auiieiyaony iuia ec
aeaei?aoeaiuo ieanoeeia, neioaoe/aneeo ieaiie, oeaiae, eneonnoaaiiie
eiaee. Aieaa oiai, aeey iiiaeo iaoei e aiia?aoia oieueei eniieueciaaiea
aioeei??iceiiiie ioaeaeee neioaoe/aneeie iaoa?eaeaie iaania/eei eo
iaaeaaeioth, aeieaia?aiaiioth yenieoaoaoeeth. E i?eia?o, iiiaie?aoiia
eniieueciaaiea ecaeaeey a yeno?aiaeueiuo oeceei-oaoie/aneeo oneiaeyo
(einiina) iaania/eaaaony, a /anoiinoe, oai, /oi any aai aiaoiyy
iiaa?oiinoue iie?uoa neioaoe/aneeie ieeoeaie, e oiio aea i?eeeaaiiuie
neioaoe/aneei iieeo?aoaiiaui eee iieeyiieneaeiui eeaai. A aiia?aou aeey
oeie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa? O ieo aioo?e auaatho oaeea aa?anneaiua
n?aaeu, /oi ieeaeay ia?i/iay noaeue ia auaea?aeaea au. Aaeeinoaaiiue
auoiae – naeaeaoue aioo?aiithth iaeeoeiaeo ec ieaoeiu eee ec ieaiee
ooi?iieanoa. Aaeueaaie/aneea aaiiu iiaoo ?aaioaoue oieueei i?e oneiaee,
/oi iie naie e eiino?oeoeee iiaeaanee iie?uou neioaoe/aneeie niieaie e
ieanoeeaie.

Oe?iei i?eiaiythony iieeia?iua iaoa?eaeu e a oaeie io?anee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, eae i?eai?ino?iaiea. Caeanue iieo/ai naiue aunieee
yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo a n?aaeiai a 1,5-2,0 ?aca auoa, /ai a ae?oaeo
io?aneyo iaoeiino?iaiey. Iauyniyaony yoi, a /anoiinoe oai /oi aieueoay
/anoue iieeia?ia ia?a?aaaouaaaony a i?eai?ino?iaiee naiuie
i?ia?anneaiuie niiniaaie /oi iiauoaao o?iaaiue iieaciiai eniieueciaaiey
(e aaciooiaeiinoue iooiaeiinoue) oa?iiieanoia, oaaee/eaaao eiyooeoeeaio
caiaiu aei?iainoiyueo iaoa?eaeia. Ia?yaeo n yoei cia/eoaeueii
nieaeathony cao?aou aeeaiai o?oaea. I?inoaeoei e aanueia oaaaeeoaeueiui
i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue ecaioiaeaiea ia/aoiuo noai: i?ioeann, ia
iuneeiue aac iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia, a n ieie e iieiinoueth
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiue.

Anoue e ae?oaea iiaeio?anee, aaea eniieueciaaiea iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia
iaania/eaaao e yeiiiieth iaoa?eaeueiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, e ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ii/oe iieioth aaoiiaoecaoeeth iaania/eei
i?eiaiaiea iieeia?ia a i?iecaiaenoaa oi?iiciuo nenoai aeey o?ainii?oa.
Iani?inoa i?aeoe/anee ana ooieoeeiiaeueiua aeaoaee oi?iiciuo nenoai aeey
aaoiiiaeeae e ieiei 45% aeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa
aeaeathony ec neioaoe/aneeo i?ann-iaoa?eaeia. Ieiei 50% aeaoaeae
a?auaiey e coa/aouo eiean

ecaioiaeyaony ec i?i/iuo eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iieeia?ia. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
iiaeii ioiaoeoue aeaa ?acee/iuo oaiaeaioeee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ana /aua
iiyaeythony niiauaiey ia ecaioiaeaiee coa/aouo eiean aeey o?aeoi?ia ec
eai?iia. Ia?uaee ioneoaeeaoeo naia ?uaieiaiuo naoae, noa?ua /oeee e
iooaieo eai?iiiauo aieieii ia?aieaaeytho e oi?iotho a oanoa?ie. Yoe
oanoa?ie iiaoo ?aaioaoue ii/oe aac eciina a eiioaeoa ni noaeueiuie,
aaeiaaaie oaeay nenoaia ia ioaeaeaaony a niacea e ii/oe aanooiia.
Ae?oaay oaiaeaioeey – iieiay caiaia iaoaeee/aneeo aeaoaeae a ?aaeoeoi?ao
ia aeaoaee ec oaeaieanoeeia. O ieo oiaea ioia/aaony ?aceia nieaeaiea
iaoaie/aneeo iioa?ue, aeieaia?aiaiiinoue n?iea neoaeau.

Aua iaeia iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a iaoeiino?iaiee,
aeinoieiay ioaeaeueiiai oiiieiaiey, – ecaioiaeaiea iaoaeei?aaeouaai
eino?oiaioa. Ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey eniieueciaaiey i?i/iuo noaeae i nieaaia
ana aieaa aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e ia?aaaouaathuaio
eino?oiaioo. E caeanue oiaea ia au?o/eo eino?oiaioaeueueeo e noaii/ieeo
i?eoiaeyo ieanoiannu. Ii ia nianai iau/iua ieanoiannu naa?oaunieie
oaa?aeinoe, oaeea, eioi?ua niatho iinii?eoue aeaaea n aeiacii. Ei?ieue
oaa?aeinoe, aeiac, aua ia naa?aioo ni naiaai o?iia, ii aeaei eaeao e
oiio. Iaeioi?ua ieeneu (iai?eia? ec ?iaea oeaieoia), ieo?eaeu, ea?aeaeu,
oaea naaiaeiy aeaiiino?e?otho ia iaiueooth oaa?aeinoue, aea e oiio aea e
aieueooth oa?iinoieeinoue. Any aaaea a oii, /oi iie iiea aua aieaa
aei?iae, /ai i?e?iaeiua e neioaoe/aneea aeiacu, aea e oiio aea ei
naienoaai “ei?ieaaneee ii?ie” – iie a aieueoeinoaa naiai o?oiee. Aio e
i?eoiaeeony, /oiau oaea?aeaoue eo io ?ano?aneeaaiey, eaaeaeia ca?iuoei
oaeiai aa?aceaa ie?oaeaoue iieeia?iie oiaeiaeie /aua anaai ec
oaiieoi?iaeueaeaaeaeiuo niie. Iiyoiio naaiaeiy o?e /aoaa?oe aa?aceaiiai
eino?oiaioa auioneaaony n i?eiaiaieai neioaoe/aneeo niie.

Oaeiau eeoue iaeioi?ua i?eia?u i iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee aiaae?aiey
iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a iiaeio?anee iaoeiino?iaiey. Naiia aea ia?aia
ianoi ii oaiiai ?inoa i?eiaiaiey ieanoe/aneeo iann n?aaee ae?oaeo
iiaeio?aneae caieiaao nae/an aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Aeanyoue
eao iacaae a aaoiiaoeiao eniieueciaaee io 7 aei 12 aeaeia ?acee/iuo
ieanoeeia, e eiioeo 70-o aiaeia yoi /enei ia?aoaaioei ca 30. N oi/ee
c?aiey oeie/aneie no?oeoo?u, eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, ia?aua ianoa
ii iauaio caieiatho noe?ieueiua ieanoeee, iieeaeieeoei?eae e
iieeieaoeiu. Iiea aua iaiiiai onooiatho ei, ii aeoeaii aeiaiiytho
iieeo?aoaiu, iieeyoe?u, ae?eeaou e ae?oaea iieeia?u. Ia?a/aiue aeaoaeae
aaoiiiaeey, eioi?ua a oao eee eiuo iiaeaeyo a iaoe aeie ec

aioiaeytho ec iieeia?ia, caiye au ia iaeio no?aieoeo. Eociaa e eaaeiu,
eino?oiaiou e yeaeo?iecieyoeey, ioaeaeea naeiia e aaiia?u, ?aaeeaoi?u e
iiaeeieioieee, oeaiae, neaeaiuey, aeaa?oeu, eaiio. Aieaa oiai,
ianeieueei ?aciuo oe?i ca ?oaaaeii oaea iauyaeee i ia/aea i?iecaiaenoaa
oeaeueiiieanoianniauo aaoiiiaeeae. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua oaiaeaioeee a
i?eiaiaiee ieanoiann aeey aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey, a iauai, oa aea, /oi e a
ae?oaeo iiaeio?aneyo. Ai-ia?auo, yoi yeiiiiey iaoa?eaeia: aaciooiaeiia
eee iaeiiooiaeiia oi?iiaaiea aieueoeo aeieia e oceia. Ai-aoi?uo,
aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth eaaeeo e iaeaa/aiiuo iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia
nieaeaaony iauee aan aaoiiiaeey, a cia/eo, aoaeao yeiiiieoueny ai?th/aa
i?e aai yenieoaoaoeee. A-o?aoueeo, auiieiaiiua eae aaeeiia oeaeia, aeiee
ieanoianniauo aeaoaeae nouanoaaiii oi?iuatho nai?eo e iicaieytho
yeiiiieoue aeeaie o?oae.

Enoaoe, oa aea i?aeiouanoaa noeioee?otho e oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea
iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia a aaeaoeeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iai?eia?, caiaia
aethieieaaiai nieaaa a?aoeoiieanoeeii i?e ecaioiaeaiee i?aaee?ueea e?uea
naiieaoa iicaieyao nie?aoeoue eiee/anoai aeaoaeae n 47 aei 14, e?aiaaea
– n 1464 aei 8 aieoia, nieceoue aan ia 22%, noieiinoue – ia 25%. I?e
yoii caian i?i/iinoe ecaeaeey ninoaaeyao 178%. Eiianoe aa?oieaoa,
eiiaoee aaioeeyoi?ia ?aaeoeaiuo aeaeaaoaeae ?aeiiaiaeotho ecaioiaeyoue
ec iieeeiiaeainaoeeiiiuo niie, iaiieiaiiuo aethiineeeeaoiuie aieieiaie,
/oi iicaieyao nieceoue aan naiieaoa i?e nio?aiaiee i?i/iinoe e
iaaeaaeiinoe. Ii aiaeeeneiio iaoaioo ? 2047188 iie?uoea ianoueo
iiaa?oiinoae naiieaoia eee eiianoae ?ioi?ia aa?oieaoia neiai iieeo?aoaia
oieueiie anaai 0,65 ii a 1,5-2 ?aca iiauoaao eo noieeinoue e aeiaeaeaaie
y?icee. AEanoeea o?aaiaaiey auee iinoaaeaiu ia?aae eiino?oeoi?aie
ia?aiai aiaei-o?aioeocneiai naa?ocaoeiaiai iannaaee?neiai naiieaoa
“Eiiei?ae”. Auei ?ann/eoaii, /oi io o?aiey ia aoiinoa?o aiaoiyy
iiaa?oiinoue naiieaoa aoaeao ?acia?aaaoueny aei 120-150° N, e a oi aea
a?aiy o?aaiaaeinue, /oiau iia ia iiaeaeaaaeanue y?icee a oa/aiea ii
iaiueoae ia?a 20000 /ania. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu auei iaeaeaii n iiiiuueth
iiaa?oiinoiiai iie?uoey caueou naiieaoa oii/aeoae ieaieie ooi?iieanoa.

Ieanoianniaua ?aeaou

Iaiei/eo aeaeaaoaey ?aeao ecaioaaeeaatho ec oaeaieanoeea, iaiaouaay ia
o?oao eaioo ec oaeaaieieia, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?iieoaiioth yiieneaeiuie
niieaie. Iinea ioaa?aeaeaiey niieu e oaeaeaiey aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
na?aea/ieea iieo/atho o?oao n niaea?aeaieai oaeaaieieia aieaa aeaoo
o?aoae, aeinoaoi/ii i?i/ioth ia ?anoyaeaiea e ecaea, noieeoth e
aea?aoeeyi e ioeuenaoeee. Inoaaony ia/eieoue caaioiaeo ?aeaoiui
oiieeaii, i?eeaaeeoue e iae ionae aeey i?eai?ia e oioieaia?, e iiaeii
ioi?aaeyoue aa a iieao.

Ieanoianniaue oethc

Ia iaeiii ec eaiaeia a ?aeiia Auaaeiue onoaiiaeai ia?aue a Iieueoa (a
aa?iyoii, e ia?aue a ie?a) oeaeueiiieanoianniaue oethc. ?aaioaao oethc
aacoei?eciaiii. Ieanoianniaua yeaiaiou ?ann/eoaiu ia aieaa /ai 20-eaoiee
n?ie yenieoaoaoeeiiiie neoaeau. Eiino?oeoeee aea ec aeoaiauo aaeie
i?eoiaeeeinue iaiyoue eaaeaeua 6 eao.

Naa?ea aac iaa?aaa

Eae i?ee?aieoue ae?oa e ae?oao aeaa ieanoianniaua iaiaee? Iiaeii
i?eeeaeoue, ii oiaaea iaiaoiaeeii iai?oaeiaaoue ?aai/aa ianoi nenoaiie
aaioeeyoeee. Iiaeii i?eaeioeoue eee i?eeeaiaoue, ii oiaaea iaaei caaiaey
naa?eeoue ioaa?noey. Iiaeii i?eaa?eoue, anee iaa iaiaee oa?iiieanoe/iu,
ii e ooo aac aaioeeyoeee ia iaieoenue, aea e oiio aea ec-ca eieaeueiuo
ia?aa?aaia niaaeeiaiea iiaeao ieacaoueny i?iaeano?oeoe?iaaaoei e
iai?i/iui. Naiue eo/oee niinia e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey iaai ?ac?aaioaea
o?aioeocneay oe?ia “A?ainii”. Aaia?aoi? oeueo?acaoea iiuiinoueth 3 eAo,
/anoioie 20 eAoe, “caoeiaiaeu” – niiio?iaeu – e ana. Iaeiia/iee
niiio?iaea, aea?e?oy, i?iieeaao neaicue aa?oithth ec ne?aieyaiuo
aeaoaeae oieueiie aei 8 ii. iia?oaeathony a ieaeithth e oaeaeaao ca
niaie ?anieaa aa?oiaai iieeia?a. Yia?aey oeueo?acaoeiauo eieaaaiee
i?aa?auaaony a oaiei eeoue eieaeueii, iieo/aaony oi/a/iay naa?ea.

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