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Монокристаллический кремень

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Aaaaeaiea

Iniiaiie iauai iiiie?enoaeee/aneiai e?aiiey (80-90%)
iio?aaeyaiiai yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiii-

noueth, au?aueaaaoueny ii iaoiaeo *io?aeueneiai.

Oaeoe/anee aanue e?aiiee,eniieuecoaiue aeey i?iecai-

aenoaa eioaa?aeueiuo noai,i?iecaiaeeoueny yoei iaoiaeii.

E?enoaeeu au?auaiiua yoei iaoiaeii iau/ii ia niaea?aeao e?aaauo
aeeneieaoeee,ii iiaoo aeeth/aoue

iaaieueoea aeeneieaoeeiiiua iaoee,ia?acothueany i?e

eiiaeainaoeee ecauoi/iuo oi/a/iuo aeaoaeoia.

E?enoaeee/aneee ?ino caeeth/aaoueny a oaciaii ia?aoiaea ec aeeaeeiai
ninoiyiey a oaa?aeoth oaco.

I?eiaieoaeueii e e?aiieth yoio i?ioeann iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaai eae
iaeiieiiiiiaioiay ?inoiaay nenoaia aeeaeeinoue-oaa?aeia oaei.

?ino e?enoaeeia ii iaoiaeo *io?aeueneiai caeeth/aaoueny

a caoaa?aeaaaiee aoiiia aeeaeeie oacu ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea

Nei?inoue ?inoa ii?aaeaeyaoueny /eneii iano ia iiaa?oiinoe ?anoouaai
e?enoaeea aeey i?eniaaeeiaiey

aoiiia,iinooiathueo ec aeeaeeie oacu,e iniaaiiinoyie

oaieiia?aiina ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac.Nei?inoue auoyaeaaiey ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia oi?io a?aieoeu ?acaeaea oac iaaeaeo ?anoouei e?enoaeeii e
?anieaaii,

eioi?ay yaeyaoueny ooieoeeae ?aaeeaeueiiai a?aaeeaioa

oaiia?aoo?u e oneiaee ioeaaeaeaiey aieiaie iiaa?oiinoe ?anoouaai
e?enoaeea.

Iai?oaeiaaiea aeey ?inoa e?enoaeeia.

Onoaiiaea aeey au?aueaaiey e?enoaeeia i?aaenoaaeaia ia

?enoiea 2,e aeeth/aao a naay 4 iniiaiuo ocea:

1.Ia/ue a eioi?oth aoiaeyo oeaaeue,eiioaeia?,

iaoaieci a?auaiey,iaa?aaaoaeue,enoi/iee ieoa-

iey e eaia?a.

2.Iaoaieci auoyaeaaiey e?enoaeea niaea?aeauee

noa?aeaiue,eee oeaiue n cao?aaeie,iaoaieci a?auaiey

cao?aaee e ono?ienoai aeey caaeeia cao?aaee.

3.Onoienoai aeey oi?aaeaiey ninoaaii aoiinoa?u,

ninoiyuaa ec aaciauo enoi/ieeia,?anoiaeiia?ia,

nenoaiu i?iaeoaee e aaeooiiie nenoaiu.

4.Aeie oi?aaeaiey,a eioi?ue aoiaeyo iee?ii?ioeanni?,aeao/eee e
ono?ienoaa auaiaea.

Oeaaeue yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui yeaiaioii

?inoiaie nenoaiu.Oae eae oeaaeue niaea?aeeo ?anieaa,aai iaoa?eae
aeieaeai auoue oeie/anee eia?oai ii ioiioaieth e ?anieaaeaiiiio
e?aiieth.

Yoi iniiaiia o?aaiaaiea i?e auai?a iaoa?eaea

oeaey,oae eae yeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa e?aiiey /oanoaeoaeueiu aeaaea e
oaeei o?iaiyi i?eiane,

eae 10(-7)ao.%.E?iia oiai,iaoa?eae oeaey aeieaeai

eiaoue aunieoth oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiey,iaeaaeaoue

oa?ie/aneie noaaeeueiinoueth e i?i/iinoueth.

Oaeaea ii aeieaeai auoue iaaei?iaei eee iaeaaeaoue niiniaiinoueth e
iiiaie?aoiiio eniieueciaaieth.

E niaeaeaieth,?anieaaeaiiue e?aiiee ?anoai?yao

ii/oe ana eniieuecoaiua iaoa?eaeu (iai?eia?

ea?aeaeu ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeeia TiC eee TaC,oai

naiui niinianoaoy neeoeii aunieiio o?iaith

iaoaeee/aneeo i?eianae a ?anoouai iiiie?enoaeea.Oeaee ec ea?aeaea
e?aiiey oaeaea

iai?eaieeiu.Ianiio?y ia oi /oi oaea?iae

yaeyaoueny yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeueiie i?eianueth a

e?aiiee,au?anoeoue aunieiea/anoaaiiua iiiie?enoaeeu e?aiiey ec
?anieaaia,ianuuaiiuo

oaea?iaeii,ia oaeaaoueny.

Ioiioaiea aeeaiao?a oeaey e aai aunioa a aieueoeo

onoaiiaeao =1 eee iaiiiai i?aauoaao yoi cia/aiea

Iau/ii aeeaiao? oeaey ?aaai 25,30 eee 35 ni.aeey

iauaia caa?ocee 12,20 e 30 ea. niioaaonoaaiii.

Oieueia noaiie oeaey ?aaia 0.25ni,iaeiaei eaa?oe

iaaeinoaoi/ii oaa?ae,/oiau eniieueciaaoue aai a ea/anoaa eiioaeia?a aeey
iaoaie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee ?anieaaa.Iinea ioeaaeaeaiey ianiioaaonoaea
oa?ie/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia eeiaeiiai ?anoe?aiey

iaaeaeo inoaaoeieny a oeaea e?aiieai e eaa?oeii

i?eaiaeeo e ?ano?aneeaaieth oeaey.

Aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ieo?eaea e?aiiey a ea-

/anoaa iaoa?eaea aeey oeaeae auea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia i?e inaaeaeaiee
ieo?eaea ec

ia?iaaciauo nianae ia noaiee iau/iiai oeaey.

Eiioaeia? eniieuecoaoueny aeey iiaeaea?aeee eaa?oea-

aiai oeaey .A ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea aeey eiioaeia?a

neoaeeo a?aoeo,iineieueeo ii iaeaaeaao oi?ioeie

aunieioaiia?aoo?iuie naienoaaie.Iau/ii eniieuecotho naa?o/enoue
a?aoeo.Aunieay noaiaiue /enoiou iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey
caa?yciaiey e?enoaeea,i?eianyie,eioi?ua auaeaeythoueny ec a?aoeoa i?e
aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao i?ioeanna .Eiioaeia? onoaiaaeeaatho

ia iueaaeanoae,aae eioi?iai niaaeeiai n aeaeaaoaeai,

iaania/eaathuei a?auaiea.Ana ono?ienoai iiaeii

iiaeieiaoue eee iioneaoue aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey o?iaiy

?anieaaa a iaeiie oeene?iaaiiie oi/ea,/oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey
aaoiiaoe/aneiai eiio?iey aeeaiao?a ?anoouaai neeoea.

Eaia?a aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai ocea onoaiiaee

aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi.I?aaeaea anaai iia
aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue

eaaeee aeinooi e aeaoaeyi ocea aeey iaeaa/aiey

caa?ocee e i/enoee.Aunieioaiia?aoo?iue ocae

aeieaeai auoue ouaoaeueii aa?iaoece?iaai,aeaau

i?aaeioa?aoeoue caa?yciaiea nenoaiu ec aoiinoa?u

E?iia oiai,aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu niaoeeaeueiua
ono?ienoaa,i?aaeioa?auythuea iaa?aa

ethaiai ocea eaia?u aei oaiia?aoo?u,i?e eioi?ie

aeaaeaiea ia?ia aa iaoa?eaea iiaeao i?eaanoe e caa?yciaieth
e?enoaeea.Eae i?aaeei,iaeaieaa neeueii

iaa?aaaaiua aeaoaee eaia?u eiatho aiaeyiia ioeaaeaeaiea,a iaaeaeo
iaa?aaaoaeai e noaieaie eaia?u onoaiaaeeaatho oaieiaua ye?aiu.

Aeey ?anieaaeaiey iaoa?eaea caa?ocee eniieuecotho aeaaiui ia?acii
auniei/anoioiue eiaeoeoeeiiiue eee ?acenoeaiue iaa?aa.Eiaeoeoeeiiiue
iaa?aa i?eiaiytho i?e iaeii iauaia caa?ocee,a
?acenoeaiue-eneeth/eoaeueii a aieueoeo ?inoiauo

onoaiiaeao.?acenoeaiua iaa?aaaoaee i?e o?iaia iiuiinoe ii?yaeea
ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia eeeiaaoo

iau/ii iaiueoa ii ?acia?o,aeaoaaea,eaa/a a ecaioiaeaiee e aieaa
yooaeoeaiu.Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a?aoeoiaue iaa?aaaoaeue

,niaaeeiaiiue n enoi/ieeii iinoiyiiiai iai?yaeaiey.

Iaoaieci auoyaeaaiey e?enoaeea.

Iaoaieci auoyaeaaiey e?enoaeea aeieaeai n ieieia-

eueiie aea?aoeeae e aunieie oi/iinoueth iaania/eoue

?aaeecaoeeth aeaoo ia?aiao?ia i?ioeanna ?inoa:

-nei?inoe auoyaeaaiey;

-nei?inoe a?auaiey e?enoaeea.

Cao?aai/iue e?enoaee ecaioaaeeaaaoueny n oi/iie

(a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai aeiionea)i?eaioaoeeae,

iiyoiio aea?aeaoaeue cao?aaee e iaoaieci auoyaeaaiey aeieaeiu iinoiyiii
oaea?aeeaaoue aai

ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iiaa?oiinoe ?anieaaa.

Iai?aaeythuea aeiou /anoi eniieuecothoueny aeey

iiaeuaia e a?auaiey neeoea. Yoio iaoiae iicai-

eyao aacioeai/ii oeaio?e?iaaoue e?enoaee ioii-

neoaeueii oeaey , iaeiaei i?e au?aueaaiee neeoeia

aieueoie aeeeiu iiaeao ieacaoueny iaiaoiaeeiie

neeoeii aieueoay aunioa onoaiiaee.Iiyoiio,

eiaaea iiaeaea?aeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoe i?e au-

?aueaaiee aeeeiiuo neeoeia ia iaania/eaaaoueny

aeioiaui ono?ienoaii,i?eoiaeeoueny i?eiaiyoue iiiaiaeeeueiua o?inu.A
yoii neo/aa oeaio?iaea

iieiaeaiey iiiie?enoaeea e oeaey cao?oaeiaia.

Aieaa oiai,a i?ioeanna iaiaouaaiey o?ina aiciiaeii

aicieeiiaaiea iayoieeiai yooaeoa.Oai ia iaiaa

i?eiaiaiea o?inia iaania/eaaao ieaaiia auoy-

aeaaiea neeoea ec ?anieaaaaa , a i?e oneiaee eo

iaiaouaaiey ia aa?aaai aunioa onoaiiaie cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoaaoueny.
E?enoaee auoiaeeo ec

aunieioaiia?aoo?iie ciiu /a?ac nenoaio i?iaeoaee

,aaea aaciaue iioie-a neo/aa anee au?aueaaiea i?i-

ecaiaeeoueny a aaciaie aoiinoa?a-aeaeaeaoueny aaeieue

iiaa?oiinoe neeoea,i?eaiaey e aai ioeaaeaeaieth.

Ec nenoaiu i?iaeoaee neeoie iiiaaeaao a aa?oithth

eaia?o,eioi?ay iau/ii ioaeaeaia io aunieioaiia?aoo?iie ciiu eciee?othuei
eeaiaiii.

Ono?ienoai aeey oi?aaeaiey ninoaaii aoiinoa?u.

?ino iiiie?enoaeea ii iaoiaeo *io?aeueneiai aeieaeai

i?iaiaeeoueny a eia?oiie n?aaea eee aaeooia,/oi aucaaii neaaeothueie
i?e/eiaie:

1) Iaa?aoua a?aoeoiaua oceu aeieaeiu auoue

caueuaiu io aicaeaenoaey eenei?iaea aeey

i?aaeioa?auaiey y??icee;

2) Aaciaay aoiinoa?a ia aeieaeia anooiaoue a

oeie/aneoth ?aaeoeeth n ?anieaaii e?aiiey.

Au?aueaaiea e?enoaeeia a aaeooia oaeiaeaoai?yao oeacaiiui o?aaiaaieyi e
, e?iia oiai, eiaao ?yae

i?aeiouanoa,a /anoiinoe ,niinianoaoao oaeaeaieth

ec nenoaiu iiiiieene e?aiiey, oai naiui i?aaei-

oa?auayao aa inaaeaeaiea ia noaieao eaia?u.I?e

au?aueaaiee a aaciaie aoiinoa?a /aua anaai eniieuecotho eia?oiua aacu
:a?aii e aaeee.

Eia?oiua aacu iiaio iaoiaeeoueny i?e aoiinoa?iii eee iiieaeaiiii
aeaaeaiee.A i?iiuoeaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaa aeey yoeo oeaeae eniieuecothony
a?aii

/oi iauyniyaoueny aai ieceie noieiinoueth.

Iioeiaeueiue ?anoiae aaca ninoaaeyao 1500e ia 1ea

au?auaiiiai e?aiiey.A?aii iinooiaao a eaia?o i?e

enia?aiee ec aeeaeeiai enoi/ieea e aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi
aunieie /enoiou

a ioiioaiee niaea?aeaiey aeaae,oaeaaiaei?iaeia,

e ae?oaeo i?eianae.

Aeie oi?aaeaiey.

Aeie oi?aaeaiey iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay ?aciua

i?eai?u.Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eiio?iey e

oi?aaeaiey oaeeie ia?aiao?aie i?ioeanna,eae

oaiia?aoo?a,aeeaiao? e?enoaeea,nei?inoue auoyaeaaiey e nei?inoue
a?auaiey.Eiio?ieue

iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny ii caieiooiio eee ?aciieiooiio
eiioo?o.Ia?aiao?u,aeeth/athuea

nei?inoe auoyaeaaiey e a?auaiey,eiatho aieueooth

nei?inoue ioeeeea e /aua anaai eiio?iee?othoueny

ii i?eioeeio caieiooiai eiioo?a n ia?aoiie naycueth.

Aieueoay oaieiaay ianna iau/ii ia o?aaoao

e?aoeia?aiaiiiai eiio?iey oaiia?aoo?u.Iai?eia?

aeey eiio?iey aeeaiao?a ?anoouaai e?enoaeea ei-

o?ae?aniue aeao/ee oaiia?aoo?u iiaeao auoue noieone?iaai ia a?aieoea
?acaeaea oac ?anieaa-

iiiie?enoaee e eniieueciaai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u iaienea.Auoiae
aeao/eea naycai n

iaoaieciii auoyaeaathuaai ono?ienoaa e eiio?i-

ee?oao aeeaiao? neeoea iooai eciaiaiey nei?inoe auoyaeaaiey.Iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiuie oi?aaeythueie yaeythoueny oeeo?iaua iee?ii?ioeanni?iua
nenoaiu.Iie iicaieytho oiaiueoeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea iia?aoi?a a

i?ioeanna au?aueaaiey e aeatho aiciiaeiinoue

i?aaieciaaoue i?ia?aiiia oi?aaeaiea iiiaeie yoaiaie oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna.

Noaia onoaiiaee aeey au?aueaaiey e?enoaeeia.

1.cao?aai/iue ooie 2.aa?oiee eiaeoo 3.eciee?othuee eeaiai

4.aaciaue aoiae 5.aea?aeaoaeue cao?aaee e cao?aaea 6.eaia?a

aunieioaiia?aoo?iie ciiu 7.?anieaa 8.oeaaeue 9.auoeii

10.aaeooiiue ianin 11.ono?ienoai a?auaiey e iiaeuaia oeaey

12.nenoaia eiio?iey e enoi/iee yia?aee 13.aeao/ee oaiia?aoo?u

14.iueaaeanoae 15.iaa?aaaoaeue 16.ecieyoeey 17.o?oaa aeey i?iaeoaee

18.niio?iaia ieii 19.aeao/ee aeey eiio?iey aeeaiao?a ?anoouaai

neeoea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.Oaoiieiaey NAEN

iiae ?aaeaeoeeae N.CE.,IINEAA”IE?”1986

2.Iai?oaeiaaiea iieoi?iaiaeieeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa

Aeeiia,Eiaeeoia,”IAOEIINO?IAIEA”1986

O/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa ia oaio :

“Au?aueaaiea iiiie?enoaeeia iaoiaeii

*io?aeueneiai”

no.i?. Eaiaiaa A.A.

nooae.a?.Y-92 Aaneeueaa A.A.

Iineaa,1996

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