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Коррозия меди в 5М изопропанольных растворах НС1

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Коррозия меди в 5М изопропанольных растворах НС1

Язык: русский
Формат: дипломна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1345
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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

Oaiaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

ei. A.?. Aea?aeaaeia

EAOAAe?A IAI?AAIE*ANEIE E OECE*ANEIE OEIEE

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

Ei??icey iaaee

a 5I ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao IN1

Eniieieoaeue: auioneiee oeieei-

aeieiae/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey

I.I. Ea?eia

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: eaiaeeaeao oeie/aneeo iaoe, noa?oee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

Aa?aeieeiaa A.A.

?aoeaicaio:

Aeiiouaia eaoaae?ie e caueoa

a AAE __________1999 a. i?ioieie ?

Caa. eaoaae?ie iai?aaie/aneie e

oece/aneie oeiee E.A. Oeuaaieiaa

Oaiaia-1999

IAEAAEAIEA

No?.

Aaaaeaiea 3

Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaee 4

Ei??iceiiiia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia

iiaaaeaiea iaaee. 12

Iaoiaeeea yenia?eiaioa. 25

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou e eo ianoaeaeaiea 28

Auaiaeu. 45

Eeoa?aoo?a. 47

Aaaaeaiea

I?iaeaia ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia aei neo ii?
yaeyaony aanueia aeooaeueiie aeey nia?aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?eieiay
ai aieiaiea ?acia?u oua?aa io ei??icee e eieinnaeueiia /enei ?acee/iuo
iaoaeeia e eo nieaaia a oaeaea ei??iceiiii aa?anneaiuo n?aae, i/aaeaeii,
/oi a yoie iaeanoe iaoee aua aeieai aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue iaoe?iia iiea
aeey enneaaeiaaiee.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ana aic?anoathuaa aieiaiea noaee oaeaeyoue
ei??iceiiiiio e yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio iiaaaeaieth iaoaeeia a iaaiaeiuo
n?aaeao, a /anoiinoe, ia iniiaa i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?eoaeae. Ieacaeinue,
/oi iiiaea iaoaeeu, iaeaaeathuea ianneaiinoueth a aiaeiuo aa?anneaiuo
?anoai?ao iiaeaa?aathony aanueia eioaineaiiio ?ac?ooaieth a iaaiaeiuo.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiiecaoeey iaeioi?uo iaoaeeia a iaaiaeiuo n?aaeao
inouanoaeyaony aei aieaa ieceiaaeaioiuo /anoeoe, /ai a niioaaonoaothueo
aiaeiuo, /oi icia/aao nieaeaiea yia?aicao?ao ia yeaeo?ioeie/aneoth
ia?aaioeo iaoaeeia e yaeyaony oaaaeeoaeueiu a?aoiaioii a iieueco
i?eiaiaiey niaoaiiuo e iaaiaeiuo ?anoai?ia yeaeo?ieeoia aeey
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai ?acia?iiai oi?iiia?aciaaiey.

Iiyoiio aeaoaeueiia auyniaiea ?iee i?aaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia ei??iceiiiie
n?aaeu iiaeaeaaao e aieaa aaeaeaaoiiio iiciaieth iaoaieciia ei??icee, e
iiieiaieth ?iee aiaeu e eiiieaenia, ia?acothueony a nenoaia eae ca n/ao
enoiaeiuo eiiiiiaioia ?anoai?a, oae e ca n/ao i?iaeoeoia ei??iceiiiuo
i?ioeannia (eae yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo, oae e /enoi oeie/aneeo).

Ianoiyuay aeeieiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia eco/aieth iaeioi?uo aniaeoia
ei??icee iaaee a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao
oei?iaiaei?iaea.

I. EEOA?AOO?IUE IACI?

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaee []

( Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea.

Naiue iaoaeeia i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aeienoi?e/aneeie. Cieioi, na?aa?i,
iaaeue, aeaeaci, ieiai, naeiaoe e ?oooue auee ecaanoiu ethaeyi n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. ?ieue iaaee a noaiiaeaiee /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u
iniaaiia. Eaiaiiue aae niaieeny iaaeiui, iaaeiue – a?iiciaui. Ia aacaea
yoio i?ioeann oae iaeiia?aiaiii. Ei?aiiia ianaeaiea Aia?eee ia?aoiaeeei
io eaiaiiiai aaea e iaaeiiio a XVI a i.y. anaai 400 eao iacaae! A a
Ae?aaiai Aaeioa iaaeiue aae ianooiee a IV ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. Aeaa
ieeeeiia 300 ouny/ eaiaiiuo aeua, ec eioi?uo i?eia?ii 5000 eao iacaae
auea neiaeaia 147-iao?iaay ie?aieaea Oaiina, aeiauou e iaoanaiu
iaaeiuie eino?oiaioaie.

Iiaeiaii na?aa?o e cieioo, iaaeue eiiaaea ia?acoao naii?iaeee. Aeaeeii,
ec ieo ieiei 10 ouny/ eao iacaae auee ecaioiaeaiu ia?aua iaoaeee/aneea
i?oaeey o?oaea. ?ani?ino?aiaieth iaaee niinianoaiaaee oaeea aa naienoaa,
eae niiniaiinoue e oieiaeiie eiaea e ioiineoaeueiay i?inoioa auieaaee
ec aiaaouo ?oae.

Iaaeiue aae aeeeeny ieiei ouny/e eao – aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a?iiciaue.
Oa?aeoa?ii. *oi a A?aoeee eoeueoo?a iaaee ca?iaeeeanue iicaea, /ai a
Aaeioa, a a?iiciaue aae ianooiee ?aiueoa. ?oaea, ec eioi?ie auieaaeyee
iaaeue aaeioyia, ia niaea?aeaea ieiaa. A?aeai a yoii ioiioaiee iiaacei
aieueoa. Iie aeiauaaee «ieiayiiue eaiaiue» aeey auieaaee a?iicu eiiaaea
oai aea, aaea e iaaeioth ?oaeo.

Eneonnoai auieaaee e ia?aaioee iaaee io a?aeia oianeaaeiaaee ?eieyia.
Iie auaiceee iaaeue ec iiei?aiiuo no?ai, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ec Aaeeee e
Eniaiee, i?iaeieaeaee ia/aooth a?aeaie aeiau/o iaaeiie ?oaeu ia E?eoa e
Eei?a. Enoaoe, n iacaaieai iineaaeiaai ino?iaa naycuaatho eaoeineia
iacaaiea iaaee – «eoi?oi».

Iaaeue nua?aea auaeathuothny ?ieue ia oieueei a noaiiaeaiee
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u aieueoeinoaa ia?iaeia, ii e a ecia?aceoaeueiii
eneonnoaa. A yoii ea/anoaa iaaeue i?ioea /a?ac aaea; e a iaoe aeie
aeaeatho aa?aeueaou e a?aath?u ec iaaee.

(Iaaeue a i?e?iaea.

Ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth a caiiie ei?a (4,7.10-3 % ii ianna) iaaeue neaaeoao
ca ieeaeai e caieiaao anaai eeoue 26-a ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo yeaiaioia.
Iaaeue ano?a/aaony a i?e?iaea a aeaea naii?iaeeia, ii?ie cia/eoaeueiuo
?acia?ia. Oae, a 1957 aiaeo a NOA a ?aeiia Aaeeeeo ica? aue iaeaeai
naii?iaeie iannie 420 oiii. Eioa?anii. *oi aunooiathuea /anoe aai auee
ioaeou aua eaiaiiuie oiii?aie. Iaeiaei, naii?iaeiay iaaeue a iaoa a?aiy
ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue io iauaai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeea.

Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue iaaee i?enoonoaoao a ai?iuo ii?iaeao a aeaea
niaaeeiaiee. Ec nioai ieia?aeia iaaee i?iiuoeaiiia cia/aiea eiatho
iaiiiaea, a /anoiinoe, oaeueeiia?eo -iaaeiue eie/aaeai CuFeS2,
oaeueeicei – iaaeiue aeane – Cu2S, eiaaeei – CuS, iaeaoeo –
NuCO3.Nu(OH)2, aco?eo –

2NuCO3.Nu(OH)2.

(Oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa.

Iaaeue – iaoaee e?aniiai, a eceiia ?iciaaoiai oeaaoa, a oiieeo neiyo
i?e i?inaa/eaaiee i?eia?aoaao caeaiiaaoi-aieoaie iooaiie. Ieioiinoue
iaaee -8,96 a/ni3, oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey -1083 0N, oaiia?aoo?a eeiaiey –
2600 0N. Yoi aeiaieueii iyaeee, eiaeee iaoaee, ec iaai iiaeii
i?ieaouaaoue eenou oieueiie anaai eeoue a 2,5 iee?iia (a 5 ?ac oiiueoa
iaie?iniie aoiaae). Iaaeue oi?ioi io?aaeaao naao, i?ae?anii i?iaiaeeo
yeaeo?e/anoai e oaiei.

Iaaeue, na?aa?i, cieioi ninoaaeytho iiai/ioth iiaea?oiio ia?aie a?oiiu
ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu Ae.E. Iaiaeaeaaaa. N uaei/iuie iaoaeeaie eo
naeeaeaao eeoue niiniaiinoue ia?aciauaaoue iaeiiaaeaioiua eaoeiiu. Aeey
iaaee e aa aiaeiaia oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi iie iiaoo aeaaaoue niaaeeiaiey n
aaeaioiinoueth, i?aauoathuae iiia? naiae a?oiiu. E?iia oiai, yeaiaiou
iiaea?oiiu iaaee, a ioee/ea io uaei/iuo iaoaeeia, neeiiiu e
eiiieaeniia?aciaaieth, ia?acotho ie?aoaiiua niee, o.a. i?iyaeytho
naienoaa, naeeaeathuea eo n ieeaeai, iaeeaaeeai, ieaoeiie.

Oaeia iiaaaeaiea iaaee, na?aa?a, cieioa iauyniyaony eiioeao?aoeeae
aiaoieo yeaeo?iiiuo iaiei/ae eo aoiiia. O aoiia iaaee naiay ia?oaeiay
(4-y io yae?a) iaiei/ea niaea?aeeo iaeei s-yeaeo?ii, aio
i?aaeoanoaotho aeanyoue d-yeaeo?iiia (3-e io yae?a) iaiei/ee. Aoiiu
iaaee e aa nieaaia iiaoo i?e ia?aciaaiee niaaeeiaiee oa?youe ia oieueei
naiue aiaoiee s -yeaeo?ii, ii iaeei eee aeaa yeaeo?iia i?aaeaiaoiaai
d-o?iaiy, i?iyaeyy aieaa aunieoth noaiaiue ieeneaiey. Aeey iaaee
ieeneeoaeueiia /enei +2 (aaeaioiinoue II) , aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /ai +1
(aaeaioiinoue I). Nouanoaoao oaeaea iaiiiai/eneaiiia /enei niaaeeiaiee
iaaee (III).

Iaaeue oeie/anee iaeiaeoeaia e a /enoii, nooii aicaeooa ia eciaiyaony.
Iaeiaei aoiinoa?a, a eioi?ie iu aeeaai niaea?aeeo aiaeyiua ia?u e
aeaoieenue oaea?iaea. Iiyoiio ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi, iai?eia?,
i?iecaaaeaiey neoeueioo?u, ecaioiaeaiiua ec iaaee e a?iicu, ni a?aiaiai
iie?uaathony caeaiiaaoui iaeaoii – «iaoeiie». A iau/iie aoiinoa?a
iaoeia ninoieo ec iniiaiiai ea?aiiaoa iaaee (iaeaoeoa), a aoiinoa?a,
niaea?aeauae aeaoieenue na?u (SO2), iaaeiua ecaeaeey iie?uaathony
iniiaiui noeueoaoii CuSO4 .3Cu(OH)2, a aaeece ii?y – iniiaiui oei?eaeii
CuC12 . 3Cu(OH)2. Eioa?anii, /oi iaoeia ia?acoaony oieueei ai aeaaeiii
aicaeooa (i?e aeaaeiinoe auoa 75%). Iaoeia i?eaeaao ecaeaeeyi ec iaaee e
a?iicu e?aneaue, eae aiai?eony, «noa?eiiue» aeae. A nieioiie iaeao
iaoeiu iaeaaeaao aua e caueoiuie naienoaaie, i?aaeio?aiyy io
aeaeueiaeoaai ?ac?ooaiey. Ii ia?aciaaaoayny ieaiea iiaeao auoue n
aeaoaeoaie e iiyoiio iaaeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeiie. Ai?acaei i?i/iaa oaeia
aea iie?uoea, iaianaiiia ia iaoaee eneonnoaaiii.

Iaeei ec niiniaia eneonnoaaiiiai iieo/aiey iaoeiu oaeia: ecaeaeea ec
iaaee eee a?iicu ia?aaaouaatho na?iie eeneioie e caoai aunoaaeytho ia
aicaeoo. *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iia?aoeeth iiaoi?ytho. Ia?acothueeny
noeueoao iaaee aeae?ieecoaony e iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony a onoie/eaoth
ieaieo CuSO4 .3Cu(OH)2.

Anee auno?i iia?oceoue a oieiaeioth aiaeo ?aneaeaiiue aeie?ania eonie
iaaee. Oi ia aai iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoaony y?ei-e?aniay ieaiea ieneaea
iaaee (I). I?e oia?aiiii aea iaa?aaaiee iaaee ia aicaeooa iiaa?oiinoue
aa iie?uaaaony /a?iie ieenueth CuO. Iau/ii ia?acoeu iaaee niaea?aeao
nioua aeiee Nu2O. I?e iaa?aaaiee oaeiai iaoaeea a aoiinoa?a,
niaea?aeauae aiaei?iae e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aacu (NI, NI4) i?ienoiaeeo
ainnoaiiaeaiea Cu2O:

Cu2O + H2 = 2Cu + H2O (1)

Cu2O + CO = 2Cu + CO2 (2)

Ia?aciaaaoeany ia?u aiaeu e aeaoieenue oaea?iaea auaeaeythony ec
iaoaeea, aucuaay iiyaeaiea o?auei. A yoi ?acei oooaeoaao iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa iaaee. («aiaei?iaeiay aieaciue»).

Aeae?ieneae iaaee (II) auiaaeaao a aeaea iauaienoiai aieoaiai inaaeea
i?e aeaenoaee uaei/ae ia ?anoai?u nieae aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee. Yoi neaaia
iniiaaiea, ia?acothuaa n eeneioaie niee. Ai?i/ai, naaaeai?eaioiaeaiiue
Cu(OH)2 ?anoai?yaony e a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ao uaei/ae, ii aai
eeneioiue oa?aeoa? au?aaeai neaai.

Ooi?, oei?, a?ii ?aaae?otho n iaaeueth, ia?acoy niioaaonoaothuea
aaeiaaieaeu aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee, iai?eia?:

Cu + C12 = CuC12 (3)

I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee eiaea n iaa?aoui ii?ioeii iaaee iieo/aaony eiaeeae
iaeiiaaeaioiie iaaee:

2Cu + J2 = 2NuJ (4)

Iaaeue ai?eo a ia?ao na?u:

Cu + S = CuS (5)

E na?a iaaeue i?iyaeyao aieueoaa n?iaenoai, /ai e eenei?iaeo. Ia yoii
naienoaa iniiaai ie?ieeoe/aneee niinia iieo/aiey iaaee.

A ?yaeo iai?yaeaiee iaoaeeia iaaeue noieo iinea aiaei?iaea. A
aaneenei?iaeiuo eeneioao iia ia ?anoai?yaony, ii eaaei ieeneyaony
acioiie eeneioie:

3Cu + 8HNO3 (?) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O (6)

e eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie na?iie eeneioie:

Cu + 2H2SO4 (e) = CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O (7)

A oeaeii oeie/aneea naienoaa iaaee iaaeyaeii eeethno?e?oao noaia 1.

(Iieo/aiea e i/enoea iaaee.

Ii/oe ana ie?iaua i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeee/aneie iaaee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iniiauaathony ia ia?a?aaioea noeueoeaeiuo, ieneaeiuo e ea?aiiaoiuo ?oae.
Iaaeiua ?oaeu, eae i?aaeei, niaea?aeao aieueoia eiee/anoai ionoie
ii?iaeu, oae /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiiia iieo/aiea ec ieo iaaee yeiiiie/anee
iaauaiaeii. Iiyoiio ?oaeu nia/aea eciaeue/atho, ?aciaeuaatho e
iaiaauatho n iiiiuueth a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo e oeioaoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia.

A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ?oaeu e niaea?aeaiey a iae iaaee, aeey
ecaea/aiey aa eiioeaio?aou ?oae ia?aaaouaathony ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneeie e
aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneeie iaoiaeaie.

– P, As, Sb, C, Si ( Cu3P, Cu3P2, Cu3As2, Cu3As, Cu5As2, Cu2Sb, Cu3Sb,

ea?aeae e neeeoeeaeu

– n eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie IN1 ia aicaeooa NuN12

– n eiioeaio?e?iaaiii I2SO4 ( CuSO4 . H2O

– c NH3 ( Cu3N

– c NO2 eee NO ( Cu2O

Ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneee iaoiae eniieuecoaony i?e ia?a?aaioea ?oae n
aieueoei niaea?aeaieai iaaee. Ii iniiaai ia oii, /oi inoaaoeany iinea
iaiaauaiey FeS2 e FeS ieeneythony eenei?iaeii eaa/a, /ai noeueoeaeu
iaaee CuS e Cu2S. I?e nieaaeaiee eiioeaio?aoia iieeiaoaeee/aneeo
noeueoeaeiuo ?oae n oethnaie a oaooiuo ia/ao iaaeue n ii?aaeaeaiiie
/anoueth aeaeaca ia?acoao iaaeiue iae Cu2S.FeS, inoaeueiia aeaeaci.
Oeeie e ae?oaea iaoaeeu ia?aoiaeyo a oeae a aeaea neeeeaoia: iuoueye,
no?ueia, oinoi? e /anoe/ii na?a i?aa?auathony a eaoo/ea ieneaeu.

Aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneee iaoiae i?eiaiyaony i?e ia?a?aaioea aaaeiuo
iaaeiuo ?oae e niaea?aeaueo iaaeue iooiaeia ae?oaeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
i?iecaiaenoa. N iiiiuueth iaeioi?uo oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia (I2SO4, NH4OH,
NaCN, Fe2(SO4)) ieioi ?anoai?eiua niaaeeiaiey iaaee ia?aaiaeyo a eaaei
?anoai?eiua, a caoai ?acee/iuie niiniaaie (i?inoui auuaea/eaaieai
?anoai?ia, yeaeo?ieecii eee n iiiiuueth eiiiiiaiaiiuo niie) ecaeaeatho
eo ec ?anoai?a.

Iieo/aiea /enoiai iaoaeea ec nu?iai iooai oaeaeaiey i?eianae yaeyaony
oeaeueth iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?ioeannia – aoeiaaea e ?aoeie?iaiey.
Iaoiaeu aoeiaaea ?acee/iu o ?aciuo iaoaeeia, o.e. iie iiaoo
iniiauaaoueny ia ieeneaiee e ainnoaiiaeaiee i?eianae, ia eeeaaoeee
(i?eiane n aieaa aunieie oaiia?aoo?ie ieaaeaiey inoathony
ia?anoai?aiiuie), ia aa?aaaoeee (i?eiane n aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie
ieaaeaiey auaeaeythony naeaeoeaiui ioaa?aeaeaieai), ia aaeni?aoeee
(i?eiane aaeni?ae?othony aac o/anoey oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee).

Nu?ay iaaeue, iieo/aiiay iaoaeeo?ae/anee, niaea?aeeo 93-98,5% iaaee e
caa?yciaia eenei?iaeii, aeaeacii, iuoueyeii, no?ueiie, aeniooii,
eiaaeueoii, ieiaii, na?ie e, aiciiaeii, na?aa?ii, cieioii, ieaoeiie.
Naeiaoe, na?a, naeai, oaeeo?, aenioo e eenei?iae – i?eiane, a?aaeiua
aeey iaaee, a iuoueye, oinoi?, ieeaeue, aeaeaci, ia?aaiaoe e e?aiiee
oeo/oatho aa iaoaie/aneea naienoaa. Aeey i/enoee nu?ie iaaee io i?eianae
aa iiaeaa?aatho ?aoeie?iaaieth, eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy niiniaaie
– ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneei e yeae?ioeie/aneei. I?e ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneii
ieeneaiee nu?oth iaaeue ?anieaaeytho a io?aaeaoaeueiie ia/e, a eioi?oth
aaeoaatho naeaoue aicaeoo. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo /anoe/iia ieeneaiea
oaeeo yeaiaioia eae na?a, aeaeaci, ieeaeue, oeeie, eiaaeueo, ieiai,
naeiaoe, iuoueye, no?ueia e naycuaaiea aeeieneaea e?aiiey n i?aa?auaieai
a oeae. I?e iaa?aaaiee ?anieaaa ieneae na?u (IV) iieiinoueth
oeaoo/eaaaony, /anoe/ii oaeaeythony As2O3 e Sb2O3, a aieueoay /anoue
no?ueiu inoaaony a iaaee.

Iaaeue, ?aoeie?iaaiiay ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/anee niaea?aeeo i?eiane Cu2O, Bi,
Sn, eiiaaea Ag, Au, Pt e ieaoeiiaua iaoaeeu. Ec oaeie iaaee ioeeaatho
aiiaeu, aeey aeaeueiaeoaai iieo/aiey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneie iaaee.

Yeaeo?ieeca?aie aeey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneie i/enoee iaaee neoaeao aaoiiiua
/aiu ni noaiaie, iaeiaeaiiuie naeioeiauie ieanoeiaie. A ieo iaeeaatho
yeaeo?ieeo – ?anoai? noeueoaoa iaaee n na?iie eeneioie e aeiaaaeie
noeueoaoa iao?ey. A yeaeo?ieeca? iiiauatho aiiaeu ec ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/anee
iieo/aiiie iaaee e eaoiaeu ec /enoie iaaee. I?e i?iioneaiee oiea ia
eaoiaea inaaeaeaaony /enoay iaaeue, a aiiaeu ?anoai?ythony a i?ioeanna
ieeneaiey. Iaiaoaeee/aneea i?eiane e iaoaeeu, iaiaa aeoeaiua, /ai iaaeue
(Ag, Au, Pt, ieaoeiiaua iaoaeeu), iaoiaeyueany ia aiiaeao auiaaeatho a
aeaea oeaia ia aeii yeaeo?ieeca?a. I?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeiiai ?anoai?a
noeueoaoa iaaee ia eaoiaea inaaeaeaaony /enoay iaaeue, a ia aiiaea
auaeaeyaony eenei?iae.

CuSO4 ( Cu2+ + SO42- (8)

H2O (( H+ + OH- (9)

Ia eaoiaea: Cu2+ + 2e ( Cu0

Ia aiiaea: 2OI- – 2e ( 1/2O2 + H2O

Ei??iceiiiia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia

iiaaaeaiea iaaee.

A aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo a ioee/ea io iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaoaeeia, iaaeue ia
iiaeaa?aaaony ei??icee, oae eae ia aa iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoaony oiieee
?iaiue neie (ieaiea) i?iaeoeoia ei??icee, ia niaea?aeauay ieeaeeo
aa?anneaiuo niaaeeiaiee, niiniaiuo i?e eaeeo-eeai oneiaeyo ?ac?ooaoue
iaoaee. Ei??icey iaaee a aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo – i?ioeann
naiii?iecaieueii caoooathuee, oae eae i?iaeoeou ei??icee caueuatho
iiaa?oiinoue iaoaeea io aiaoiae n?aaeu.

A aiaea e iaeo?aeueiuo ?anoai?ao nieae iaaeue iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie
onoie/eainoueth, eioi?ay caiaoii nieaeaaony i?e aeinooia eenei?iaea e
ieeneeoaeae. A ii?neie aiaea, ay?e?oaiie i?e iaeie nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey,
iaaeue oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaieueoei ?aaiiia?iui ?anoai?aieai (ii?yaeea
0,05 ii/aiae). I?e aunieeo nei?inoyo oa/aiey aeeaeeinoe, a oaeaea
oaea?ao no?oe nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee neeueii iiauoaaony [].

Eiathony aeaiiua i aeeyiee pH n?aaeu ia aeaianneaaoeeth iaaee [] a
oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo aooa?iuo ?anoai?ao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi anai
enneaaeiaaiiii eioa?aaea ?I i?e aiiaeiie iiey?ecaoeee iaaeue ia?aoiaeeo
a ianneaiia ninoiyiea. I?e oaaee/aiee ?I ai?aoiiai aooa?a noaoeeiia?iue
iioaioeeae, iioaioeeae ianneaaoeee e ieioiinoue oiea ianneaaoeee
oiaiueoaaony, o.e. eciaiyaony no?oeoo?a, oieueia e ninoaa ieneaeiie
ieaiee ia iaaee. A n?aaea, aeeceie e iaeo?aeueiie ianneae?othuay ieaiea
ninoieo ec ieneaeia Cu (I) e Cu (II), a a uaei/iie n?aaea – a iniiaiii
ec ieneaea iaaee (I) e i/aiue oiieie ieaiee ieneaea iaaee (II). A
iineaaeiai neo/aa oieueia ieaiee iaiueoa, a ii?enoinoue aieueoa. I?e
oaaee/aiee ?I a oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo aooa?ao iioaioeeae
ieooeiiaiia?aciaaiey nieaeaaony (?acaeaai?aaeeaaaony), /oi naycaii eae n
eciaiaieai i?ienoiaeyueie a ieneaeiie ieaiea, oae e n oai, /oi
ia/aeueiua noaaeee aeaianneaaoeee iaaee i?ioaeatho /a?ac ia?aciaaiea
niaoaiiuo aeae?ienieiiieaenia. I?e iinoiyiiii cia/aiee ?I iioaioeeae
ieooeiaiia?aciaaiey ia caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee NaC1. I?aaeeiaeaia
noaia iaoaiecia ia/aeueiuo noaaeee eieoeee?iaaiey ieooeiaiia?aciaaiey
iaaee a oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo ?anoai?ao, niaeanii eioi?ie
eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae yaeyaony aeennioeeaoeey aeae?ieneaea Cu(II)2, a
ioeeaioeeueiia caiauaiea ianneae?othuaai eeaaiaea a iiaa?oiinoiii
eiiieaena aieiiii-aeoeaaoi?ii i?ioaeaao ii aeennioeeaoeaiiio iaoaiecio.

A [] i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ii ei??iceiiiiio iiaaaeaieth iaaee I1 a 3%
?anoai?a oei?eaea iao?ey a n?aaiaiee n anoanoaaiiie ii?neie aiaeie,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo iicaieeea aaoi?ai naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iniiaiui
aiiaeiui i?ioeannii i?e ei??icee iaaee a 3 % ?anoai?a NaC1 e ii?neie
aiaea yaeyaony aa ieeneaiea a caeenue n iineaaeothuei oeie/aneei
?anoai?aieai iineaaeiae. Eiio?iee?othuae noaaeeae yaeyaony ioaiae
eiiiuo oi?i iaaee (Nu+, CuCl2-, CuCl32-) a yeaeo?ieeo.

A oei?eaeiuo ?anoai?ao n ?I=0,5, niaea?aeaueo eiiu aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee,
ii aeaiiui [] i?e eaoiaeiie iiey?ecaoeee iaaethaeaaony eiiiiiaioa
nei?inoe ?anoai?aiey, iacaaeneiay io iioaioeeaea ca n/ao i?ioeanna
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey:

Cu + Cu2+ ( 2Cu+ (10)

Iaaeue aanueia neeiiia e eiiieaeniia?aciaaieth. Iai?eia?, a iaeo?aeueiuo
oei?eaeiuo n?aaeao yooaeoeaiue ca?yae ia?aoiaeyueo a ?anoai? eiiia
(myoo) iaaee ?aaai 1 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± 0,01 []. I?aaeeiaeai
neaaeothuee noaaeeeiue iaoaieci ?anoai?aiey iaaee c aeaoiy aiciiaeiuie
ia?o?ooaie eiiecaoeee :

+ a (11)

a) Cu SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ + e (12)

_________________________

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoei
oeie/aneia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia o?aaeaiea iaaee. A iaaeii-aiiea/iuo
o?aaeeueiuo ?anoai?ao, niaea?aeaueo NH3 e NH4C1 [], onoaiiaeaia
neaaeothuay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey ianneae?othueo neiaa n
?inoii iioaioeeaea: NuC12, Cu2O, CuO (i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo),
CuC12.3Cu(OH)2 e CuC12 . 2NH4C1.H2O, eeai eo nianue. ?acee/iuie
yeaeo?ioeie/aneeie e ?aioaaiia?aoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie auei iieacaii, /oi
eioaineaiia a?auaiea yeaeo?iaea oaeaeyao eeoue ?uoeoth /anoue i?iaeoeoia
?aaeoeee, inoaaeyy ianneaiue neie. A ethauo oneiaeyo ?anoai?aiea eaeao
/a?ac ianneaioth ieaieo.

Eco/aiea o?aaeaiey a ?anoai?ao FeC12 iieacaei, /oi oeie/aneia
?anoai?aiea iaaee i?ioaeaao ia?yaeo n yeaeo?ioeie/aneei, iniiaiuie
i?iaeoeoaie eioi?uo yaeythony CuC1 e Nu2I. Iauay nei?inoue eiiecaoeee
iaoaeea ii?aaeaeyaony ianneae?iaaieai iiaa?oiinoe iaaee iaei?anoai?eiuie
i?iaeoeoaie. Ianneae?iaaiea aeey aeaeaci-oei?eaeiuo ?anoai?ia oai
aeoaaea, /ai iicaea iii ianooiaao. I?e/eiie yaeyaony oieioiaiea neiy
NuN1 a ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa aeaoaeoia a no?oeoo?a, a
oaeaea oio oaeo, /oi ii n?aaiaieth n CuC12 a aeaeaci-oei?eaeiuo
?anoai?ao oie aea eiioeaio?aoeee eiee/anoai naiaiaeiuo N1- eiiia, ia
aoiaeyueo a eiiieaenu, aieueoa, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo/oa oneiaey aeey
ianneae?iaaiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?acothueeny i?e o?aaeaiee iaaee
ianneae?othuee neie CuN1 iaeaaeaao iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie naienoaaie e
ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?ioaeaiea aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey
iaoaeea. I?e iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo FeC13 aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao oieueia
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, a i?e aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo FeC13 – aeeooocey
eiiia Fe3+ a oaa?aeoth oaco.

.

A n?aaeao ia iniiaa CuC12 e FeC13 ?anoai?aiea i?ienoiaeeo ii ?aaeoeeyi:

Cu + CuC12 ( 2CuC1 (13)

Cu + FeC13 ( CuC1 + FeC12 (14),

i?ioaeathuei ii yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio iaoaiecio, o.a., iai?eia?, eae
niaieoiiinoue ?aaeoeee:

Nu + C1- (CuC1 + e (15)

CuC12 + (C1- + CuC1 (16)

, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo ieeneyoueny eenei?iaeii aicaeooa aei
iaaee (II).

Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia iiaaaeaiea iaaee eiiieaenia Nu (I) a ?anieaaa
yeaeiiey?iie niane NaF-KC1 []. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioeann ?ac?yaea
eiiieaenia Nu (I) aei iaoaeea i?ioaeaao ia?aoeii. Ii?aaeaeaiu
eiyooeoeeaiou aeeooocee Nu (I) e oneiaiua noaiaea?oiua iioaioeeaeu ( Nu+
/Cu e ( Nu2+/Cu+. Iieacaii, /oi i?e iaee/ee aieueoiai ecauoea aieiiia
ooi?a e iaaee (I) a ?anieaaa i?ienoiaeeo noaaeeecaoeey aeaooaaeaioiiai
ninoiyiey iaaee, a ?ac?yae eiiieaenia Cu (II) i?ioaeaao a iaeio
aeaooyeaeo?iiioth ?aaeoeeth. A ionoonoaea aea aieueoiai ecauoea F –
ia?acothueany oei?eaeii-ooi?eaeiua eiiieaenu ainnoaiaaeeaathony /a?ac
aeaa iaeiiyeaeo?iiiua noaaeee.

I?e eco/aiee yeaeo?ieeca ?anoai?ia o?aoaiaeiiai ieo?aoa iaaee
Nu(NO3)2.3H2O a aeeiaoeenoeueoieneaea (AeINI) n iaaeiuie aiiaeaie []
auei ia?auaii aieiaiea ia /?acau/aeii aunieee aiiaeiue auoiae ii oieo a
?an/aoa ia eiiu iaaee (II). Aeeyiea ieioiinoe oiea (O1) e oaiia?aoo?u
(O2) ia aiiaeiue auoiae ii oieo (AOA) eco/aee iaoiaeii ieaie?iaaiey
yenia?eiaioa (Aiena-Oeeueniia). Eiioeaio?aoeeth niee a ?anoai?a 0,1I
nio?aiyee iinoiyiiie. A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai o?iaiy auee i?eiyou
ieioiinoue oiea 6 iA/ni2 e oaiia?aoo?a 55 0N.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioia iieo/aii ia?aiao?e/aneia
o?aaiaiea (17). Ioiaoei i?aaeaea anaai aunieia cia/aiea ia?aiai
eiyooeoeeaioa o?aaiaiey ?aa?annee:

AOA = 188,58 – 0,32O1 + 0,80O2 – 0,33O1O2

Noaey ii cia/aieyi ae?oaeo eiyooeoeeaioia, aieueoaa aeeyiea ia
enneaaeoaiue i?ioeann ieacuaaao oaiia?aoo?a. Aaee/eia auoiaea ii oieo,
?ann/eouaaaiay ii (17), aoaeao eiaoue ?acoiiua cia/aiey, anee aiiaeiia
ieeneaiea iaaee a aeeiaoeenoeueoieneaeiii ?anoai?a iienuaaoue o?aaiaieai

Nu – e ( Cu+ (18)

Aiciiaeii, yoiio aeaaii?eyonoaoao niiniaiinoue iieaeoe AeINI
aaeni?ae?iaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeanoe iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia
iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea e i?i/ii nieueaaoe?iaaoue eiiu iaaee (I),
acaeiiaeaenoaoy n iieaeoeaie aiaeu, aiineiie a yeaeo?ieeo a ninoaaa
niee, ii ?aaeoeee:

Cu+ + H2O ( CuOH + H+ (19),

2Cu+ + H2O ( Cu2O + 2H+ (20),

a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acothony a ?anoai?a y?ei ie?aoaiiua acaane
aeae?ieneaea aeaeoiai oeaaoa e ieneaea e?aniiai oeaaoa, oi?ioi
iaaethaeaaiua a aiiaeiii i?ino?ainoaa aecoaeueii.

Ecaanoiu ioaeeeaoeee ii eco/aieth aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a
aoeaoiieo?eea []. Oaiia?aoo?ii-eeiaoe/aneei iaoiaeii e iaoiaeii
a?auathuaainy aeeneiaiai yeaeo?iaea onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e niaea?aeaiee a
?anoai?a 20 iauaiiuo i?ioeaioia aiaeu i?ioeann aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey
iaaee a aoeaoiieo?eeueiuo ?anoai?ao Nu(NO3)2 eeieoe?oaony iiaeaiaeii
ieeneeoaey a ciio ?aaeoeee. N oaaee/aieai eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeu i?ioeann
ia?aoiaeeo a iaeanoue niaoaiiie eeiaoeee e iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea
nei?inoe o?aaeaiey aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey eeieoe?othueo noaaeee
nii?yaeaiiuo ?aaeoeee ?anoai?aiey iaaee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ii
n?aaiaieth n aiaeiuie ?anoai?aie, eiiu Nu+ a aoeaoiieo?eea iaeaaeatho
aieaa aunieie yia?aeae nieueaaoaoeee, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao eo
noaaeeecaoeeth. Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?ooaieth
nieueaaoia Cu+ n aoeaoiieo?eeii, aeanoaaeeecaoeee eiiia Nu+, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ioeann o?aaeaiey ineiaeiyaony.

Ei??icey iaaee a iaoaiieueiii, i-i?iiaiieueiii e aiaeii-iaoaiieueiii
?anoai?ao I2SO4, ianuuaiiuo eenei?iaeii, enneaaeiaaia a []. Iieacaii,
/oi ?anoai?aiea i?ioaeaao ii eaoaeeoe/aneiio iaoaiecio oae aea, eae e a
aiaeiii ?anoai?a, i?e eioi?ii eenei?iae ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a oeie/aneie
?aaeoeee eiiaie Cu+, a iaaeue ?anoai?yaony ca n/ao nii?yaeaiiuo
?aaeoeee. Iiuou i?iaiaeeeenue n iaaeueth, inaaeaeaiiie ia ieaoeia, i?e
ia?aiaoeaaiee ?anoai?a, n eiioeaio?aoeeae eeneiou (I2SO4) 0,5 iieue/e
i?e t=25 0C.

Noaey ii yenia?eiaioaeueiui aeaiiui, i?aaeaeueiue eaoiaeiue oie ii
eenei?iaeo (ii?aae) i?aauoaao oo aea aaee/eio a aicaeooa i?eaeeceoaeueii
a 5 ?ac, o. a. eaoiaeiue oie ii eenei?iaeo i?aeoe/anee eeiaeii caaeneo
io eiioeaio?aoeee I2. Oaaee/aiea ia?aiaoeaaiey ia aeeyao ia iei?? ,
ii oaaee/eaaao ii?aae ii I2, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaoaeaaneee o/anoie
yaeyaony eeiaoe/aneei, a o/anoie i?aaeaeueiiai oiea – aeeoooceiiiue.

Eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae ainnoaiiaeaiey I2, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia, yaeyaony
i?eniaaeeiaiea ia?aiai yeaeo?iia :

I2 + a SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® I2- (21),

ca eioi?ui neaaeoao annioeeaoeey

I2- + I+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® II2 (22),

Aaoi?aie [10] i?aaeeiaeai neaaeothuee iaoaieci ei??icee iaaee a
iaoaiieueiie na?iieeneie n?aaea:

Nu+ + O2 SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + O2- (23)

Cu SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ + e (24)

Cu2+ + e SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ (25)

e aeaeaa:

HO2 + Cu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + HO2- (26)

IO2- + H+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® H2O2 (27)

I2I2 + Nu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Nu2+ + II- + II (28)

II + Nu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + OH- (29)

OH- + H+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® H2O (30)

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai i?ioaeaiey oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee ia?yaeo n
yeaeo?ioeie/aneei iaoaieciii yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi ecia?aiiay
?aaeeiiao?e/anee yooaeoeaiay aaeaioiinoue iaaee, ia?aoiaeyuae a ?anoai?,
?aaia 1.

Aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii eco/aii yeaeo?ioeie/aneia e ei??iceiiiia
iiaaaeaiea iaaee a eeneuo nie?oiauo oei?eaeiuo n?aaeao, aaea
eiiieaniia?aciaaiea iaaee iniaaiii caiaoii [13-17]. A iaoaiieueiuo
?anoai?ao oei?iaiaei?iaea enneaaeiaaia [] nei?inoue ei??icee
ii?aaeaeyeanue ia iaiiaeaeaeiii e a?auathuainy aeeneiaii yeaeo?iaeao ii
aeaiiui oeie/aneiai aiaeeca ei??iceiiiie n?aaeu ia iaaeue iin?aaenoaii
o?eeiiiiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey a i?enoonoaee io?aeneaea.

I?e?iaea eaoiaeiiai i?ioeanna i?e ei??icee iaaee ii?aaeaeyaony
eiioeaio?aoeeae eeneiou e aiaeu. A oneiaii aacaiaeiuo ?anoai?ao NIN1 =
10-2-10-1 iieue/e ?anoai?aiea iaaee i?ioaeaao n eenei?iaeiie
aeaiiey?ecaoeeae. Ia yoi oeacuaaao iaee/ea o/anoea i?aaeaeueiiai oiea ii
eenei?iaeo ia eaoiaeiie iiey?ecaoeeiiiie e?eaie, aaee/eia eioi?iai a
i?aaeaeao ioeaee yenia?eiaioa ia caaeneo io NIN1. Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey
IN1 a 10 ?ac i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth aiaei?iaeiie aeaiiey?ecaoeee, /aai
ia iaaethaeaaony a aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao. Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeeaeueiiai
i?ioaeaiey aiaei?iaeiie iiey?ecaoeee a iaoaiiea, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia [13]
naycaia ni nieaeaieai ia?aiai?yaeaiey aiaei?iaea ia iaaee e
?acaeaai?aaeeaaieai iaoaeea a nie?oa (ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiuie
?anoai?aie).

Aaaaeaiea aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ii?aae. I?e niaea?aeaiee 10 ian.%
I2I ca n/ao naeaeaa ?aaiiaaney ai?aai

NI3+ + I2I ( I3I+ + NI3II (31)

iineoaeyie eeneioiuo naienoa yaeythony i?ioiiu a oi?ia eiiia
aeae?ieniiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiauoaaony ia?aiai?yaeaiea aiaei?iaea e
ei??icey i?ioaeaao n eenei?iaeiie aeaiiey?ecaoeeae.

Ii aeaiiui eoeiiiiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee iaaeue ia?aoiaeeo a ?anoai? n
yooaeoeaiie aaeaioiinoueth (Zyo), aeeceie e 1 iacaaeneii io aaee/eiu
eiiiie neeu ?anoai?a, nei?inoe a?auaiey aeenea (() e iioaioeeaea
yeaeo?iaea. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e niiinoaaeaieai eeiaoeee aiiaeiiai
i?ioeanna ii iiey?ecaoeeiiiui e?eaui e oeie/aneiio aiaeeco ?anoai?a.
Aaaaeaiea aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia iaaee a aeaea NuC12 nieaeaao Zyo aei
0,6-0,8. Iaeiia?aiaiii nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao oie naii?anoai?aiey
iaoaeea e aaee/eia i?aaeaeueiiai oiea. Oaaee/eaaaony ?aaiiaaniue
iioaioeeae, ?ac?yae eiiia aiaei?iaea noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui,
iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiay eaoiaeiay ?aaeoeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey Nu2+ aei eiiia Cu+ (12), o.e. iaeiica?yaeiua eiiu a
oei?eaeiuo iaoaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao, aeaeeii, cia/eoaeueii noaaeeueiaa
aeaooca?yaeiuo.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee iiieaeaaony n oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaiey aiaeu.
Oei?iaiaei?iae ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aeaenoaea. Aaee/eiu nei?inoe ei??icee
a 10-20 ?ac iaiueoa niioaaonoaothueo i?aaeaeueiuo oieia eaoiaeiuo
iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anoai?aiea ii?aaeaeyaony
eeiaoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie e ia naycaii n o?ainii?oiuie ia?aie/aieyie
iiaeaiaea aeaiiey?ecaoi?a.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai
eiioeaio?aoeee oei?iie iaaee, n ii?yaeeii aeeceei e 1. Iaeiia?aiaiii
i?aaeaeueiue oie oaeaea ?anoao n ii?yaeeii 0,9. Iaeiaei iei?? ( ii?aae,
o.a a i?enoonoaee Nu2+ nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee aieueoa oaeiaie,
?ann/eoaiiie i?e i?ioaeaiee aa ia i?aaeaeueiii oiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii
iiaieth aaoi?ia [13], eiaao ianoi ia?aeeaeueiay ?aaeoeey, aeaeeii,
iayeaeo?ioeie/aneie i?e?iaeu – ?aaeoeey ?ai?iii?oeeiii?iaaiey (10).
Iineaaeiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iauyniyao e iaiueooth aaee/eio
yooaeoeaiie aaeaioiinoe a i?enoonoaee CuC12.

A 1I oneiaii aacaiaeiuo ?anoai?ao IN1 nei?inoue ei??icee i?aeiouanoaaiii
ii?aaeaeyaony eeiaoeeie eaoiaeiie ?aaeoeee, ia /oi oeacuaaao ?aceia
aic?anoaiea nei?inoe naii?anoai?aiey i?e aaaaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eaoiaeiiai aeaiiey?ecaoi?a.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee a yoeeaiaeeeieaauo ?anoai?ao IN1 [] oaeaea a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeaia oeie/aneie ?aaeoeeae
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey (10). Eiiecaoeey iaaee i?ioaeaao aei
iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia, a iaee/ea Cu2+ a ?anoai?a naycaii n ieeneaieai
eiiia Nu+ ?anoai?aiiui eenei?iaeii.

A ?aaioa [14] eco/aia nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee a yoeeaiaeeeieaauo
?anoai?ao IN1 eae ooieoeey eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeu (0,4-10 ian.%),
oei?iaiaei?iaea (0,1-3,0 iieue/e) e oei?iie iaaee (10-2-10-1 iieue/e).
Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaaaeaiu a eenei?iaeiie aoiinoa?a i?e eiiiaoiie
oaiia?aoo?a ia iaiiaeaeaeiii yeaeo?iaea ec iaaee ia?ee I1. Nei?inoue
ei??icee iinea aeaoo/aniauo eniuoaiee ii?aaeaeyeanue iin?aaenoaii
aiaeeca n?aaeu.

Iaaeue ei??iaee?oao a enneaaeoaiuo n?aaeao n eenei?iaeiie
aeaiiey?ecaoeeae, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeoao ec oa?aeoa?a eaoiaeiuo
iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. Aaee/eiu ii?aae a oneiaii aacaiaeiuo
yoeeaiaeeeieaauo ?anoai?ao (0,1-1,0 iieue/e) ninoaaeyao 20(10 ieA/ni2 e
?aaia 95(5 ieA/ni2 aeey 1I aiaeiuo n?aae. Aai eciaiaiea i?e aaaaeaiee 2
e 10 ian.% I2I iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ioeaee yenia?eiaioa.

A 1I aiaeiii ?anoai?a IN1 nei?inoue ei??icee, ia?an/eoaiiay ia
yeaeo?ioeie/aneea aaeeieoeu (iiau) a 3 ?aca aieueoa i?aaeaeueiiai oiea,
a , neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeie/aneee i?ioeann ?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey ea?aao
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue. Iaeiaei, iaee/ea aeiaaaie eiiia Cu2+ neacuaaaony
eia/a, /ai a nie?oa. Ii ia?a aaaaeaiey NuN12 ?acieoea iaaeaeo iiau e
ii?aae oiaiueoaaony e, a caoai iie noaiiayony iaeeiaeiauie. Yoi
oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi ?anoai?aiee iaaee a 1I aiaeiii ?aoai?a a
i?enoonoaee Cu2+>10-2 iieue/e i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ei??iceae, eaoiaeiay ?aaeoeey eioi?ie (12) i?ioaeaao
ia i?aaeaeueiii oiea e eeieoe?oao i?ioeann a oeaeii. I?e/eiu yoiai eaaei
iiiyoue, anee o/anoue, /oi aaaaeaiea 5.10-2 iieue/e eiiia Cu2+ iiauoaao
aaee/eio i?aaeaeueiiai oiea a o.a. yoeeaiaeeeiea e aiaea niioaaonoaaiii
aei 100 e 2500 ieA/ni2. A aiaea ioiineoaeueiue aeeaae ?aaeoeee
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey noaiiaeony i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii iae.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee oaaee/eaaaony n ?inoii eiioeaio?aoeee IN1.
Iiuou iieacaee, /oi ii?yaeie aiiaeiie eiiecaoeee ii eiiai aiaei?iaea e
oei?a ?aaai 2. Aaee/eia ((1gK/( lgCHC1)Ci ninoaaeyao 0,15-0,20, /oi
oeacuaaao ia ionoonoaea aeeyiey eeiaoeee aiiaeiie ?aaeoeee ia nei?inoue
ei??icee. Iaee/ea (( lgK/( lgCHC1)Ci ( 0 i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
((lgii?aae/(lgCHC1)Ci= 0, aeaeeii, naycaii, n onei?ythuei aeeyieai IN1
ia ?aaeoeeth ?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey (10), /oi iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaii,
a naith i/a?aaeue, ?acee/iie caeiiieaeniaaiiinoueth eiiia Cu2+.
Nieaeaiea nei?inoe ei??icee iaaee ii ia?a aaaaeaiey aiaeu oaeaea iiaeii
iauynieoue caiaaeeaieai i?ioeanna (10).

A [] ioia/aaony, /oi nei?inoue aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a i?enoonoaee
oei?eae-eiiia caaeneo io nei?inoe a?auaiey yeaeo?iaea. Iaeiaei, anee
i?ioeanno ?anoai?aiey iaaee a iaoaiiea i?enou /enoi aeeoooceiiiue
iaoaieci, oi a yoaiiea ia/eiatho i?iyaeyoueny iaeiia?aiaiii e
eeiaoe/aneea cao?oaeiaiey. Oaiaain oaea iaeeiia i?yiuo lgi0 – lgCC1-
ninoaaeyao 2. Yoe ?acoeueoaou iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioeann ?anoai?aiey
iaaee a yoaiiea ia?aie/ai a iniiaiii aeeoooceae CuC12 a aeoaue naiiai
?anoai?a.

I?e ia?aoiaea io yoaiiea e i?iiaiieo neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue oneeaiea aeiee
eeiaoe/aneeo cao?oaeiaiee; aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiey?ecaoeeiiiua e?eaua
aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioeann eiio?iee?oaony
eae aeeoooceae, oae e eeiaoeeie. Oae, iai?eia?, iieiaeaiea e?eauo
ieioiinoue oiea – iioaioeeae caaeneo io /enea iai?ioia yeaeo?iaea.
I?yiieeiaeiua caaeneiinoe auee iieo/aiu a eii?aeeiaoao i-1 – (-1/2,
i?e/ai io?acee, ionaeaaiua io ine i?aeeiao, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
cia/aiey eeiaoe/aneeo ieioiinoae oieia. Oaoaeaaneee iaeeii aiiaeiie
iiey?ecaoeeiiiie e?eaie ninoaaeyao 60 iA.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaoo eiaoue iauyniaiey, aiaeiae/iua
i?aaeeiaeaiiui aeey iaioai-2,4-aeeiia: a neo/aa auno?ie
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ?aaeoeee ia?acoaony nieueaaoe?iaaiiue NuC1, eioi?ue
aaeni?ae?oaony ia yeaeo?iaeao. Aeaeaa ii ?aaae?oao n oei?eae-eiiaie n
ia?aciaaieai oei?ieiiieaena. Yoi i?aa?auaiea iiaeii caienaoue eae
?aaeoeeth caiauaiey:

[CuC1(ROH)n] + C1- ( [CuC12(ROH)n-1] + ROH (32)

I/aaeaeii, /oi n oaaee/aieai oeaie aeeeeueiie a?oiiu aic?anoatho
noa?e/aneea cao?oaeiaiey i?ioaeaiey yoie ?aaeoeee, oae /oi nei?inoue
ia?aciaaiey eiiieaena a ?yaeo iaoaiie ( yoaiie ( i?iiaiie nieaeaaony.

I?ioeann aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee ii?aaeaeyaony eae naienoaaie
aieiiia oiia, oae oa?aeoa?ii ?anoai?eoaey. Iaa yoe oaeoi?a aeeytho ia
aeeoooceth eiiia iaaee. I?ienoiaeeo oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
iieaeoeaie ?anoai?eoaey e aieiiaie.

Eeiaoeea aiiaeiie eiiecaoeeee iaaee a nenoaia eci-N3I7II–I2I–IN1, eae
ooieoeey i?e?iaeu ?anoai?eoaey (0,2-10 ian.% aiaeu), eiiiie neeu
?anoai?a (1-3), iioaioeeaea yeaeo?iaea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee a
i?eyeaeo?iaeiii neia e oa?aeoa?a aoiinoa?u eco/aia a []. Iieacaii, /oi
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ianuuaiea ?aai/aai ?anoai?a eenei?iaeii ia ieacuaaao
aeeyiey ia oiae aiiaeiuo iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. N o/aoii iaaeoaciiai
iioaioeeaea ii?aaeaeaiu ii?yaeee ?aaeoeee aiiaeiie eiiecaoeee iaaee ii
eiiai aiaei?iaea e oei?a. Oaoaeaaneee iaeeii aiiaeiuo e?eauo ai anao
neo/ayo aeecie e 60 iA. A ?anoai?a n niaea?aeaieai I2I 0,2% nH+=1 eee
2, a nN1- aeecie e aaeeieoea (eiiiay neea 1 e 2) e aeaoi (eiiiay neea
3). A niaoaiiii aiaeii-nie?oiaii ?anoai?eoaea ai anao neo/ayo nH+=0 ,
nN1- =2.

Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo eeiaoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia i?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci
aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a enneaaeoaiuo oneiaeyo iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a aeaea neaaeothuaai aeaoonoaaeeeiiai i?ioeanna n iineaaeiae
eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae:

+ a (33a)

)-aaen + a (33a)

+ mH+ (34a)

(34a)

Ii?yaeie ?aaeoeee ii eiiai aiaei?iaea ?aaai n, aaea 0 iyo
ai anai enneaaeiaaiiii eioa?aaea eiioeaio?aoeee CuC12 e aiaeu, /oi
aiai?eo i iaee/ee iayeaeo?ioeie/aneie ninoaaeythuae ei??icee.

Aaaeaiea 10 ian.% I2I a n?aaeu n niaea?aeaieai CuC12 a eiee/anoaa 10-4 –
10-2 iieue/e aucuaaao iaaieueoia nieaeaiea nei?inoe ei??icee a 5I
ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao IN1, a a eioa?aaea NCu2+ 10-2-10-1 iieue/e
caiaoii noeioee?oao ei??iceth iaaee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu eeiaiaoe/aneay e aeeiaie/aneay ayceinoe anao eco/aiiuo
ninoaaia. Iieacaii, /oi n iiauoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee CuC12 ayceinoue
?anoai?ia oaaee/eaaaony; aaaaeaiea 10 ian.% I2I a ?anoai?eoaeue
i?aeoe/anee ia neacuaaaony ia aaee/eiao ( e (

PAGE 48

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. ?eiai ?., *aoyio E. Iai?aaie/aneay oeiey. I., Ie?. O.2. N.681-723.

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aeaianneaaoeeth iaaee. //Caueoa iaoaeeia. 1993. O.29. ?2. N.207-214.

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iaaee a 3%-iii ?anoai?a oei?eaea iao?ey e ii?neie aiaea. //Caueoa
iaoaeeia. 1985. ?1.

. Anoaoiaa ?.E., E?aneeia A.N. E aii?ino i iiaaaeaiee iaaee a
nieyiieeneuo ?anoai?ao. // AEo?i. i?eee. oeiee. 1971. O.44. ?2.
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nieaaia nenoaiu iaaeue-oeeie a 0,1I ?anoai?a oei?enoiai iao?ey. //AEo?i.
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yeaeo?i?anoai?aiea iaaee ia yeaeo?iaea, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiii oeiii/aaeiie. //Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1993. O.29. ?2.
N.234-238.

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oei?eaeii-ooi?eaeiuo ?anoai?ao. // Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1994. O.27. ?11. N..

. Aaoeaeia ?.N., Aeaeaieeaa O.I., Naeeiia O.A., Oaceaaa A.?. Aiiaeiia
iiaaaeaiea iaaee a aeeiaoeenoeueoieneaea.// Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1993. O.29.
?8. N..

. Aoiiinyioe A.A., Eo/a?aiei A.A., Ooiaeia A.E. aiiaeiia ?anoai?aiea
iaaee a aiaeii-aoeaoiieo?eeueiuo ?anoai?ao ieo?aoa iaaee (II). //
Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1988. O.24. ?5. N.653.

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iaoaiiea e i-i?iiaiiea a i?enoonoaee eenei?iaea. // Caueoa iaoaeeia.
1985. O.21. ?6. N.884-889.

. Oa?eooeeia E.E., Oeuaaieiaa E.A., Aeaaei?iae/ A.E. Ei??icey iaaee a
iaoaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao oei?enoiai aiaei?iaea. //AEo?i. I?eee. oeiee.
1977. O.50. ?10. N.2417.

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yoeeaiaeeeieaauo ?anoai?ao HNl. // Oeiey e oei. oaoiieiaey. 1977 ?8,
N.1179.

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?aoai?eoaeyo a i?enoonoaee oei?eae-eiiia. //Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1996. O.32.
?3. N.333-338.

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//Yeaeo?ioeiey. 1998.O.34. ?8. N.848-854.

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N.E., Iaoaioeaa A.A., Oeuaaieiaa E.A. Ei??icey e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia
iiaaaeaiea iaaee a nenoaia IN1 – i?iiaiie-2 – I2I. //Aanoiee OAO. 1997.
O.2. Aui.1. N.12-18.

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Oeiey. 1968.

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1974. N.186.

. Aa?aeieeiaa A.A. Aaoi?aoa?ao eaiae. aeen. Oaiaia. 1998. 21n.

. Eooeeia O. Ni?aai/iee ii oeceea: Ia?. n iai. – I: Ie?, 1982.
N.128-140.

IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

Oaiaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

ei. A.?. Aea?aeaaeia

EAOAAe?A IAI?AAIE*ANEIE E OECE*ANEIE OEIEE

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

Ei??icey iaaee

a 5I ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao IN1

Eniieieoaeue: auioneiee oeieei-

aeieiae/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey

I.I. Ea?eia

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: eaiaeeaeao oeie/aneeo iaoe, noa?oee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

Aa?aeieeiaa A.A.

?aoeaicaio:

Aeiiouaia eaoaae?ie e caueoa

a AAE __________1999 a. i?ioieie ?

Caa. eaoaae?ie iai?aaie/aneie e

oece/aneie oeiee E.A. Oeuaaieiaa

Oaiaia-1999

IAEAAEAIEA

No?.

Aaaaeaiea 3

Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaee 4

Ei??iceiiiia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia

iiaaaeaiea iaaee. 12

Iaoiaeeea yenia?eiaioa. 25

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou e eo ianoaeaeaiea 28

Auaiaeu. 45

Eeoa?aoo?a. 47

Aaaaeaiea

I?iaeaia ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia aei neo ii?
yaeyaony aanueia aeooaeueiie aeey nia?aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?eieiay
ai aieiaiea ?acia?u oua?aa io ei??icee e eieinnaeueiia /enei ?acee/iuo
iaoaeeia e eo nieaaia a oaeaea ei??iceiiii aa?anneaiuo n?aae, i/aaeaeii,
/oi a yoie iaeanoe iaoee aua aeieai aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue iaoe?iia iiea
aeey enneaaeiaaiee.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ana aic?anoathuaa aieiaiea noaee oaeaeyoue
ei??iceiiiiio e yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio iiaaaeaieth iaoaeeia a iaaiaeiuo
n?aaeao, a /anoiinoe, ia iniiaa i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?eoaeae. Ieacaeinue,
/oi iiiaea iaoaeeu, iaeaaeathuea ianneaiinoueth a aiaeiuo aa?anneaiuo
?anoai?ao iiaeaa?aathony aanueia eioaineaiiio ?ac?ooaieth a iaaiaeiuo.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiiecaoeey iaeioi?uo iaoaeeia a iaaiaeiuo n?aaeao
inouanoaeyaony aei aieaa ieceiaaeaioiuo /anoeoe, /ai a niioaaonoaothueo
aiaeiuo, /oi icia/aao nieaeaiea yia?aicao?ao ia yeaeo?ioeie/aneoth
ia?aaioeo iaoaeeia e yaeyaony oaaaeeoaeueiu a?aoiaioii a iieueco
i?eiaiaiey niaoaiiuo e iaaiaeiuo ?anoai?ia yeaeo?ieeoia aeey
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai ?acia?iiai oi?iiia?aciaaiey.

Iiyoiio aeaoaeueiia auyniaiea ?iee i?aaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia ei??iceiiiie
n?aaeu iiaeaeaaao e aieaa aaeaeaaoiiio iiciaieth iaoaieciia ei??icee, e
iiieiaieth ?iee aiaeu e eiiieaenia, ia?acothueony a nenoaia eae ca n/ao
enoiaeiuo eiiiiiaioia ?anoai?a, oae e ca n/ao i?iaeoeoia ei??iceiiiuo
i?ioeannia (eae yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo, oae e /enoi oeie/aneeo).

Ianoiyuay aeeieiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia eco/aieth iaeioi?uo aniaeoia
ei??icee iaaee a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao
oei?iaiaei?iaea.

I. EEOA?AOO?IUE IACI?

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaee []

( Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea.

Naiue iaoaeeia i?eiyoi iacuaaoue aeienoi?e/aneeie. Cieioi, na?aa?i,
iaaeue, aeaeaci, ieiai, naeiaoe e ?oooue auee ecaanoiu ethaeyi n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. ?ieue iaaee a noaiiaeaiee /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u
iniaaiia. Eaiaiiue aae niaieeny iaaeiui, iaaeiue – a?iiciaui. Ia aacaea
yoio i?ioeann oae iaeiia?aiaiii. Ei?aiiia ianaeaiea Aia?eee ia?aoiaeeei
io eaiaiiiai aaea e iaaeiiio a XVI a i.y. anaai 400 eao iacaae! A a
Ae?aaiai Aaeioa iaaeiue aae ianooiee a IV ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. Aeaa
ieeeeiia 300 ouny/ eaiaiiuo aeua, ec eioi?uo i?eia?ii 5000 eao iacaae
auea neiaeaia 147-iao?iaay ie?aieaea Oaiina, aeiauou e iaoanaiu
iaaeiuie eino?oiaioaie.

Iiaeiaii na?aa?o e cieioo, iaaeue eiiaaea ia?acoao naii?iaeee. Aeaeeii,
ec ieo ieiei 10 ouny/ eao iacaae auee ecaioiaeaiu ia?aua iaoaeee/aneea
i?oaeey o?oaea. ?ani?ino?aiaieth iaaee niinianoaiaaee oaeea aa naienoaa,
eae niiniaiinoue e oieiaeiie eiaea e ioiineoaeueiay i?inoioa auieaaee
ec aiaaouo ?oae.

Iaaeiue aae aeeeeny ieiei ouny/e eao – aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai a?iiciaue.
Oa?aeoa?ii. *oi a A?aoeee eoeueoo?a iaaee ca?iaeeeanue iicaea, /ai a
Aaeioa, a a?iiciaue aae ianooiee ?aiueoa. ?oaea, ec eioi?ie auieaaeyee
iaaeue aaeioyia, ia niaea?aeaea ieiaa. A?aeai a yoii ioiioaiee iiaacei
aieueoa. Iie aeiauaaee «ieiayiiue eaiaiue» aeey auieaaee a?iicu eiiaaea
oai aea, aaea e iaaeioth ?oaeo.

Eneonnoai auieaaee e ia?aaioee iaaee io a?aeia oianeaaeiaaee ?eieyia.
Iie auaiceee iaaeue ec iiei?aiiuo no?ai, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ec Aaeeee e
Eniaiee, i?iaeieaeaee ia/aooth a?aeaie aeiau/o iaaeiie ?oaeu ia E?eoa e
Eei?a. Enoaoe, n iacaaieai iineaaeiaai ino?iaa naycuaatho eaoeineia
iacaaiea iaaee – «eoi?oi».

Iaaeue nua?aea auaeathuothny ?ieue ia oieueei a noaiiaeaiee
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u aieueoeinoaa ia?iaeia, ii e a ecia?aceoaeueiii
eneonnoaa. A yoii ea/anoaa iaaeue i?ioea /a?ac aaea; e a iaoe aeie
aeaeatho aa?aeueaou e a?aath?u ec iaaee.

(Iaaeue a i?e?iaea.

Ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth a caiiie ei?a (4,7.10-3 % ii ianna) iaaeue neaaeoao
ca ieeaeai e caieiaao anaai eeoue 26-a ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo yeaiaioia.
Iaaeue ano?a/aaony a i?e?iaea a aeaea naii?iaeeia, ii?ie cia/eoaeueiuo
?acia?ia. Oae, a 1957 aiaeo a NOA a ?aeiia Aaeeeeo ica? aue iaeaeai
naii?iaeie iannie 420 oiii. Eioa?anii. *oi aunooiathuea /anoe aai auee
ioaeou aua eaiaiiuie oiii?aie. Iaeiaei, naii?iaeiay iaaeue a iaoa a?aiy
ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue io iauaai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeea.

Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue iaaee i?enoonoaoao a ai?iuo ii?iaeao a aeaea
niaaeeiaiee. Ec nioai ieia?aeia iaaee i?iiuoeaiiia cia/aiea eiatho
iaiiiaea, a /anoiinoe, oaeueeiia?eo -iaaeiue eie/aaeai CuFeS2,
oaeueeicei – iaaeiue aeane – Cu2S, eiaaeei – CuS, iaeaoeo –
NuCO3.Nu(OH)2, aco?eo –

2NuCO3.Nu(OH)2.

(Oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa.

Iaaeue – iaoaee e?aniiai, a eceiia ?iciaaoiai oeaaoa, a oiieeo neiyo
i?e i?inaa/eaaiee i?eia?aoaao caeaiiaaoi-aieoaie iooaiie. Ieioiinoue
iaaee -8,96 a/ni3, oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey -1083 0N, oaiia?aoo?a eeiaiey –
2600 0N. Yoi aeiaieueii iyaeee, eiaeee iaoaee, ec iaai iiaeii
i?ieaouaaoue eenou oieueiie anaai eeoue a 2,5 iee?iia (a 5 ?ac oiiueoa
iaie?iniie aoiaae). Iaaeue oi?ioi io?aaeaao naao, i?ae?anii i?iaiaeeo
yeaeo?e/anoai e oaiei.

Iaaeue, na?aa?i, cieioi ninoaaeytho iiai/ioth iiaea?oiio ia?aie a?oiiu
ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu Ae.E. Iaiaeaeaaaa. N uaei/iuie iaoaeeaie eo
naeeaeaao eeoue niiniaiinoue ia?aciauaaoue iaeiiaaeaioiua eaoeiiu. Aeey
iaaee e aa aiaeiaia oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi iie iiaoo aeaaaoue niaaeeiaiey n
aaeaioiinoueth, i?aauoathuae iiia? naiae a?oiiu. E?iia oiai, yeaiaiou
iiaea?oiiu iaaee, a ioee/ea io uaei/iuo iaoaeeia, neeiiiu e
eiiieaeniia?aciaaieth, ia?acotho ie?aoaiiua niee, o.a. i?iyaeytho
naienoaa, naeeaeathuea eo n ieeaeai, iaeeaaeeai, ieaoeiie.

Oaeia iiaaaeaiea iaaee, na?aa?a, cieioa iauyniyaony eiioeao?aoeeae
aiaoieo yeaeo?iiiuo iaiei/ae eo aoiiia. O aoiia iaaee naiay ia?oaeiay
(4-y io yae?a) iaiei/ea niaea?aeeo iaeei s-yeaeo?ii, aio
i?aaeoanoaotho aeanyoue d-yeaeo?iiia (3-e io yae?a) iaiei/ee. Aoiiu
iaaee e aa nieaaia iiaoo i?e ia?aciaaiee niaaeeiaiee oa?youe ia oieueei
naiue aiaoiee s -yeaeo?ii, ii iaeei eee aeaa yeaeo?iia i?aaeaiaoiaai
d-o?iaiy, i?iyaeyy aieaa aunieoth noaiaiue ieeneaiey. Aeey iaaee
ieeneeoaeueiia /enei +2 (aaeaioiinoue II) , aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /ai +1
(aaeaioiinoue I). Nouanoaoao oaeaea iaiiiai/eneaiiia /enei niaaeeiaiee
iaaee (III).

Iaaeue oeie/anee iaeiaeoeaia e a /enoii, nooii aicaeooa ia eciaiyaony.
Iaeiaei aoiinoa?a, a eioi?ie iu aeeaai niaea?aeeo aiaeyiua ia?u e
aeaoieenue oaea?iaea. Iiyoiio ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi, iai?eia?,
i?iecaaaeaiey neoeueioo?u, ecaioiaeaiiua ec iaaee e a?iicu, ni a?aiaiai
iie?uaathony caeaiiaaoui iaeaoii – «iaoeiie». A iau/iie aoiinoa?a
iaoeia ninoieo ec iniiaiiai ea?aiiaoa iaaee (iaeaoeoa), a aoiinoa?a,
niaea?aeauae aeaoieenue na?u (SO2), iaaeiua ecaeaeey iie?uaathony
iniiaiui noeueoaoii CuSO4 .3Cu(OH)2, a aaeece ii?y – iniiaiui oei?eaeii
CuC12 . 3Cu(OH)2. Eioa?anii, /oi iaoeia ia?acoaony oieueei ai aeaaeiii
aicaeooa (i?e aeaaeiinoe auoa 75%). Iaoeia i?eaeaao ecaeaeeyi ec iaaee e
a?iicu e?aneaue, eae aiai?eony, «noa?eiiue» aeae. A nieioiie iaeao
iaoeiu iaeaaeaao aua e caueoiuie naienoaaie, i?aaeio?aiyy io
aeaeueiaeoaai ?ac?ooaiey. Ii ia?aciaaaoayny ieaiea iiaeao auoue n
aeaoaeoaie e iiyoiio iaaeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeiie. Ai?acaei i?i/iaa oaeia
aea iie?uoea, iaianaiiia ia iaoaee eneonnoaaiii.

Iaeei ec niiniaia eneonnoaaiiiai iieo/aiey iaoeiu oaeia: ecaeaeea ec
iaaee eee a?iicu ia?aaaouaatho na?iie eeneioie e caoai aunoaaeytho ia
aicaeoo. *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iia?aoeeth iiaoi?ytho. Ia?acothueeny
noeueoao iaaee aeae?ieecoaony e iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony a onoie/eaoth
ieaieo CuSO4 .3Cu(OH)2.

Anee auno?i iia?oceoue a oieiaeioth aiaeo ?aneaeaiiue aeie?ania eonie
iaaee. Oi ia aai iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoaony y?ei-e?aniay ieaiea ieneaea
iaaee (I). I?e oia?aiiii aea iaa?aaaiee iaaee ia aicaeooa iiaa?oiinoue
aa iie?uaaaony /a?iie ieenueth CuO. Iau/ii ia?acoeu iaaee niaea?aeao
nioua aeiee Nu2O. I?e iaa?aaaiee oaeiai iaoaeea a aoiinoa?a,
niaea?aeauae aiaei?iae e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aacu (NI, NI4) i?ienoiaeeo
ainnoaiiaeaiea Cu2O:

Cu2O + H2 = 2Cu + H2O (1)

Cu2O + CO = 2Cu + CO2 (2)

Ia?aciaaaoeany ia?u aiaeu e aeaoieenue oaea?iaea auaeaeythony ec
iaoaeea, aucuaay iiyaeaiea o?auei. A yoi ?acei oooaeoaao iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa iaaee. («aiaei?iaeiay aieaciue»).

Aeae?ieneae iaaee (II) auiaaeaao a aeaea iauaienoiai aieoaiai inaaeea
i?e aeaenoaee uaei/ae ia ?anoai?u nieae aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee. Yoi neaaia
iniiaaiea, ia?acothuaa n eeneioaie niee. Ai?i/ai, naaaeai?eaioiaeaiiue
Cu(OH)2 ?anoai?yaony e a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ao uaei/ae, ii aai
eeneioiue oa?aeoa? au?aaeai neaai.

Ooi?, oei?, a?ii ?aaae?otho n iaaeueth, ia?acoy niioaaonoaothuea
aaeiaaieaeu aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee, iai?eia?:

Cu + C12 = CuC12 (3)

I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee eiaea n iaa?aoui ii?ioeii iaaee iieo/aaony eiaeeae
iaeiiaaeaioiie iaaee:

2Cu + J2 = 2NuJ (4)

Iaaeue ai?eo a ia?ao na?u:

Cu + S = CuS (5)

E na?a iaaeue i?iyaeyao aieueoaa n?iaenoai, /ai e eenei?iaeo. Ia yoii
naienoaa iniiaai ie?ieeoe/aneee niinia iieo/aiey iaaee.

A ?yaeo iai?yaeaiee iaoaeeia iaaeue noieo iinea aiaei?iaea. A
aaneenei?iaeiuo eeneioao iia ia ?anoai?yaony, ii eaaei ieeneyaony
acioiie eeneioie:

3Cu + 8HNO3 (?) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O (6)

e eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie na?iie eeneioie:

Cu + 2H2SO4 (e) = CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O (7)

A oeaeii oeie/aneea naienoaa iaaee iaaeyaeii eeethno?e?oao noaia 1.

(Iieo/aiea e i/enoea iaaee.

Ii/oe ana ie?iaua i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeee/aneie iaaee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iniiauaathony ia ia?a?aaioea noeueoeaeiuo, ieneaeiuo e ea?aiiaoiuo ?oae.
Iaaeiua ?oaeu, eae i?aaeei, niaea?aeao aieueoia eiee/anoai ionoie
ii?iaeu, oae /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiiia iieo/aiea ec ieo iaaee yeiiiie/anee
iaauaiaeii. Iiyoiio ?oaeu nia/aea eciaeue/atho, ?aciaeuaatho e
iaiaauatho n iiiiuueth a?aaeoaoeeiiiuo e oeioaoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia.

A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ?oaeu e niaea?aeaiey a iae iaaee, aeey
ecaea/aiey aa eiioeaio?aou ?oae ia?aaaouaathony ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneeie e
aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneeie iaoiaeaie.

– P, As, Sb, C, Si ( Cu3P, Cu3P2, Cu3As2, Cu3As, Cu5As2, Cu2Sb, Cu3Sb,

ea?aeae e neeeoeeaeu

– n eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie IN1 ia aicaeooa NuN12

– n eiioeaio?e?iaaiii I2SO4 ( CuSO4 . H2O

– c NH3 ( Cu3N

– c NO2 eee NO ( Cu2O

Ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneee iaoiae eniieuecoaony i?e ia?a?aaioea ?oae n
aieueoei niaea?aeaieai iaaee. Ii iniiaai ia oii, /oi inoaaoeany iinea
iaiaauaiey FeS2 e FeS ieeneythony eenei?iaeii eaa/a, /ai noeueoeaeu
iaaee CuS e Cu2S. I?e nieaaeaiee eiioeaio?aoia iieeiaoaeee/aneeo
noeueoeaeiuo ?oae n oethnaie a oaooiuo ia/ao iaaeue n ii?aaeaeaiiie
/anoueth aeaeaca ia?acoao iaaeiue iae Cu2S.FeS, inoaeueiia aeaeaci.
Oeeie e ae?oaea iaoaeeu ia?aoiaeyo a oeae a aeaea neeeeaoia: iuoueye,
no?ueia, oinoi? e /anoe/ii na?a i?aa?auathony a eaoo/ea ieneaeu.

Aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneee iaoiae i?eiaiyaony i?e ia?a?aaioea aaaeiuo
iaaeiuo ?oae e niaea?aeaueo iaaeue iooiaeia ae?oaeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
i?iecaiaenoa. N iiiiuueth iaeioi?uo oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia (I2SO4, NH4OH,
NaCN, Fe2(SO4)) ieioi ?anoai?eiua niaaeeiaiey iaaee ia?aaiaeyo a eaaei
?anoai?eiua, a caoai ?acee/iuie niiniaaie (i?inoui auuaea/eaaieai
?anoai?ia, yeaeo?ieecii eee n iiiiuueth eiiiiiaiaiiuo niie) ecaeaeatho
eo ec ?anoai?a.

Iieo/aiea /enoiai iaoaeea ec nu?iai iooai oaeaeaiey i?eianae yaeyaony
oeaeueth iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?ioeannia – aoeiaaea e ?aoeie?iaiey.
Iaoiaeu aoeiaaea ?acee/iu o ?aciuo iaoaeeia, o.e. iie iiaoo
iniiauaaoueny ia ieeneaiee e ainnoaiiaeaiee i?eianae, ia eeeaaoeee
(i?eiane n aieaa aunieie oaiia?aoo?ie ieaaeaiey inoathony
ia?anoai?aiiuie), ia aa?aaaoeee (i?eiane n aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie
ieaaeaiey auaeaeythony naeaeoeaiui ioaa?aeaeaieai), ia aaeni?aoeee
(i?eiane aaeni?ae?othony aac o/anoey oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee).

Nu?ay iaaeue, iieo/aiiay iaoaeeo?ae/anee, niaea?aeeo 93-98,5% iaaee e
caa?yciaia eenei?iaeii, aeaeacii, iuoueyeii, no?ueiie, aeniooii,
eiaaeueoii, ieiaii, na?ie e, aiciiaeii, na?aa?ii, cieioii, ieaoeiie.
Naeiaoe, na?a, naeai, oaeeo?, aenioo e eenei?iae – i?eiane, a?aaeiua
aeey iaaee, a iuoueye, oinoi?, ieeaeue, aeaeaci, ia?aaiaoe e e?aiiee
oeo/oatho aa iaoaie/aneea naienoaa. Aeey i/enoee nu?ie iaaee io i?eianae
aa iiaeaa?aatho ?aoeie?iaaieth, eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy niiniaaie
– ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneei e yeae?ioeie/aneei. I?e ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneii
ieeneaiee nu?oth iaaeue ?anieaaeytho a io?aaeaoaeueiie ia/e, a eioi?oth
aaeoaatho naeaoue aicaeoo. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo /anoe/iia ieeneaiea
oaeeo yeaiaioia eae na?a, aeaeaci, ieeaeue, oeeie, eiaaeueo, ieiai,
naeiaoe, iuoueye, no?ueia e naycuaaiea aeeieneaea e?aiiey n i?aa?auaieai
a oeae. I?e iaa?aaaiee ?anieaaa ieneae na?u (IV) iieiinoueth
oeaoo/eaaaony, /anoe/ii oaeaeythony As2O3 e Sb2O3, a aieueoay /anoue
no?ueiu inoaaony a iaaee.

Iaaeue, ?aoeie?iaaiiay ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/anee niaea?aeeo i?eiane Cu2O, Bi,
Sn, eiiaaea Ag, Au, Pt e ieaoeiiaua iaoaeeu. Ec oaeie iaaee ioeeaatho
aiiaeu, aeey aeaeueiaeoaai iieo/aiey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneie iaaee.

Yeaeo?ieeca?aie aeey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneie i/enoee iaaee neoaeao aaoiiiua
/aiu ni noaiaie, iaeiaeaiiuie naeioeiauie ieanoeiaie. A ieo iaeeaatho
yeaeo?ieeo – ?anoai? noeueoaoa iaaee n na?iie eeneioie e aeiaaaeie
noeueoaoa iao?ey. A yeaeo?ieeca? iiiauatho aiiaeu ec ie?iiaoaeeo?ae/anee
iieo/aiiie iaaee e eaoiaeu ec /enoie iaaee. I?e i?iioneaiee oiea ia
eaoiaea inaaeaeaaony /enoay iaaeue, a aiiaeu ?anoai?ythony a i?ioeanna
ieeneaiey. Iaiaoaeee/aneea i?eiane e iaoaeeu, iaiaa aeoeaiua, /ai iaaeue
(Ag, Au, Pt, ieaoeiiaua iaoaeeu), iaoiaeyueany ia aiiaeao auiaaeatho a
aeaea oeaia ia aeii yeaeo?ieeca?a. I?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeiiai ?anoai?a
noeueoaoa iaaee ia eaoiaea inaaeaeaaony /enoay iaaeue, a ia aiiaea
auaeaeyaony eenei?iae.

CuSO4 ( Cu2+ + SO42- (8)

H2O (( H+ + OH- (9)

Ia eaoiaea: Cu2+ + 2e ( Cu0

Ia aiiaea: 2OI- – 2e ( 1/2O2 + H2O

Ei??iceiiiia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia

iiaaaeaiea iaaee.

A aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo a ioee/ea io iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaoaeeia, iaaeue ia
iiaeaa?aaaony ei??icee, oae eae ia aa iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoaony oiieee
?iaiue neie (ieaiea) i?iaeoeoia ei??icee, ia niaea?aeauay ieeaeeo
aa?anneaiuo niaaeeiaiee, niiniaiuo i?e eaeeo-eeai oneiaeyo ?ac?ooaoue
iaoaee. Ei??icey iaaee a aoiinoa?iuo oneiaeyo – i?ioeann
naiii?iecaieueii caoooathuee, oae eae i?iaeoeou ei??icee caueuatho
iiaa?oiinoue iaoaeea io aiaoiae n?aaeu.

A aiaea e iaeo?aeueiuo ?anoai?ao nieae iaaeue iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie
onoie/eainoueth, eioi?ay caiaoii nieaeaaony i?e aeinooia eenei?iaea e
ieeneeoaeae. A ii?neie aiaea, ay?e?oaiie i?e iaeie nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey,
iaaeue oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaieueoei ?aaiiia?iui ?anoai?aieai (ii?yaeea
0,05 ii/aiae). I?e aunieeo nei?inoyo oa/aiey aeeaeeinoe, a oaeaea
oaea?ao no?oe nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee neeueii iiauoaaony [].

Eiathony aeaiiua i aeeyiee pH n?aaeu ia aeaianneaaoeeth iaaee [] a
oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo aooa?iuo ?anoai?ao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi anai
enneaaeiaaiiii eioa?aaea ?I i?e aiiaeiie iiey?ecaoeee iaaeue ia?aoiaeeo
a ianneaiia ninoiyiea. I?e oaaee/aiee ?I ai?aoiiai aooa?a noaoeeiia?iue
iioaioeeae, iioaioeeae ianneaaoeee e ieioiinoue oiea ianneaaoeee
oiaiueoaaony, o.e. eciaiyaony no?oeoo?a, oieueia e ninoaa ieneaeiie
ieaiee ia iaaee. A n?aaea, aeeceie e iaeo?aeueiie ianneae?othuay ieaiea
ninoieo ec ieneaeia Cu (I) e Cu (II), a a uaei/iie n?aaea – a iniiaiii
ec ieneaea iaaee (I) e i/aiue oiieie ieaiee ieneaea iaaee (II). A
iineaaeiai neo/aa oieueia ieaiee iaiueoa, a ii?enoinoue aieueoa. I?e
oaaee/aiee ?I a oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo aooa?ao iioaioeeae
ieooeiiaiia?aciaaiey nieaeaaony (?acaeaai?aaeeaaaony), /oi naycaii eae n
eciaiaieai i?ienoiaeyueie a ieneaeiie ieaiea, oae e n oai, /oi
ia/aeueiua noaaeee aeaianneaaoeee iaaee i?ioaeatho /a?ac ia?aciaaiea
niaoaiiuo aeae?ienieiiieaenia. I?e iinoiyiiii cia/aiee ?I iioaioeeae
ieooeiaiia?aciaaiey ia caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee NaC1. I?aaeeiaeaia
noaia iaoaiecia ia/aeueiuo noaaeee eieoeee?iaaiey ieooeiaiia?aciaaiey
iaaee a oei?eaeniaea?aeaueo ai?aoiuo ?anoai?ao, niaeanii eioi?ie
eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae yaeyaony aeennioeeaoeey aeae?ieneaea Cu(II)2, a
ioeeaioeeueiia caiauaiea ianneae?othuaai eeaaiaea a iiaa?oiinoiii
eiiieaena aieiiii-aeoeaaoi?ii i?ioaeaao ii aeennioeeaoeaiiio iaoaiecio.

A [] i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua ii ei??iceiiiiio iiaaaeaieth iaaee I1 a 3%
?anoai?a oei?eaea iao?ey a n?aaiaiee n anoanoaaiiie ii?neie aiaeie,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo iicaieeea aaoi?ai naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iniiaiui
aiiaeiui i?ioeannii i?e ei??icee iaaee a 3 % ?anoai?a NaC1 e ii?neie
aiaea yaeyaony aa ieeneaiea a caeenue n iineaaeothuei oeie/aneei
?anoai?aieai iineaaeiae. Eiio?iee?othuae noaaeeae yaeyaony ioaiae
eiiiuo oi?i iaaee (Nu+, CuCl2-, CuCl32-) a yeaeo?ieeo.

A oei?eaeiuo ?anoai?ao n ?I=0,5, niaea?aeaueo eiiu aeaooaaeaioiie iaaee,
ii aeaiiui [] i?e eaoiaeiie iiey?ecaoeee iaaethaeaaony eiiiiiaioa
nei?inoe ?anoai?aiey, iacaaeneiay io iioaioeeaea ca n/ao i?ioeanna
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey:

Cu + Cu2+ ( 2Cu+ (10)

Iaaeue aanueia neeiiia e eiiieaeniia?aciaaieth. Iai?eia?, a iaeo?aeueiuo
oei?eaeiuo n?aaeao yooaeoeaiue ca?yae ia?aoiaeyueo a ?anoai? eiiia
(myoo) iaaee ?aaai 1 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± 0,01 []. I?aaeeiaeai
neaaeothuee noaaeeeiue iaoaieci ?anoai?aiey iaaee c aeaoiy aiciiaeiuie
ia?o?ooaie eiiecaoeee :

+ a (11)

a) Cu SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ + e (12)

_________________________

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoei
oeie/aneia e yeaeo?ioeie/aneia o?aaeaiea iaaee. A iaaeii-aiiea/iuo
o?aaeeueiuo ?anoai?ao, niaea?aeaueo NH3 e NH4C1 [], onoaiiaeaia
neaaeothuay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey ianneae?othueo neiaa n
?inoii iioaioeeaea: NuC12, Cu2O, CuO (i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo),
CuC12.3Cu(OH)2 e CuC12 . 2NH4C1.H2O, eeai eo nianue. ?acee/iuie
yeaeo?ioeie/aneeie e ?aioaaiia?aoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie auei iieacaii, /oi
eioaineaiia a?auaiea yeaeo?iaea oaeaeyao eeoue ?uoeoth /anoue i?iaeoeoia
?aaeoeee, inoaaeyy ianneaiue neie. A ethauo oneiaeyo ?anoai?aiea eaeao
/a?ac ianneaioth ieaieo.

Eco/aiea o?aaeaiey a ?anoai?ao FeC12 iieacaei, /oi oeie/aneia
?anoai?aiea iaaee i?ioaeaao ia?yaeo n yeaeo?ioeie/aneei, iniiaiuie
i?iaeoeoaie eioi?uo yaeythony CuC1 e Nu2I. Iauay nei?inoue eiiecaoeee
iaoaeea ii?aaeaeyaony ianneae?iaaieai iiaa?oiinoe iaaee iaei?anoai?eiuie
i?iaeoeoaie. Ianneae?iaaiea aeey aeaeaci-oei?eaeiuo ?anoai?ia oai
aeoaaea, /ai iicaea iii ianooiaao. I?e/eiie yaeyaony oieioiaiea neiy
NuN1 a ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa aeaoaeoia a no?oeoo?a, a
oaeaea oio oaeo, /oi ii n?aaiaieth n CuC12 a aeaeaci-oei?eaeiuo
?anoai?ao oie aea eiioeaio?aoeee eiee/anoai naiaiaeiuo N1- eiiia, ia
aoiaeyueo a eiiieaenu, aieueoa, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo/oa oneiaey aeey
ianneae?iaaiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?acothueeny i?e o?aaeaiee iaaee
ianneae?othuee neie CuN1 iaeaaeaao iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie naienoaaie e
ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?ioaeaiea aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey
iaoaeea. I?e iaeuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo FeC13 aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao oieueia
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy, a i?e aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo FeC13 – aeeooocey
eiiia Fe3+ a oaa?aeoth oaco.

.

A n?aaeao ia iniiaa CuC12 e FeC13 ?anoai?aiea i?ienoiaeeo ii ?aaeoeeyi:

Cu + CuC12 ( 2CuC1 (13)

Cu + FeC13 ( CuC1 + FeC12 (14),

i?ioaeathuei ii yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio iaoaiecio, o.a., iai?eia?, eae
niaieoiiinoue ?aaeoeee:

Nu + C1- (CuC1 + e (15)

CuC12 + (C1- + CuC1 (16)

, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo ieeneyoueny eenei?iaeii aicaeooa aei
iaaee (II).

Yeaeo?ioeie/aneia iiaaaeaiea iaaee eiiieaenia Nu (I) a ?anieaaa
yeaeiiey?iie niane NaF-KC1 []. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioeann ?ac?yaea
eiiieaenia Nu (I) aei iaoaeea i?ioaeaao ia?aoeii. Ii?aaeaeaiu
eiyooeoeeaiou aeeooocee Nu (I) e oneiaiua noaiaea?oiua iioaioeeaeu ( Nu+
/Cu e ( Nu2+/Cu+. Iieacaii, /oi i?e iaee/ee aieueoiai ecauoea aieiiia
ooi?a e iaaee (I) a ?anieaaa i?ienoiaeeo noaaeeecaoeey aeaooaaeaioiiai
ninoiyiey iaaee, a ?ac?yae eiiieaenia Cu (II) i?ioaeaao a iaeio
aeaooyeaeo?iiioth ?aaeoeeth. A ionoonoaea aea aieueoiai ecauoea F –
ia?acothueany oei?eaeii-ooi?eaeiua eiiieaenu ainnoaiaaeeaathony /a?ac
aeaa iaeiiyeaeo?iiiua noaaeee.

I?e eco/aiee yeaeo?ieeca ?anoai?ia o?aoaiaeiiai ieo?aoa iaaee
Nu(NO3)2.3H2O a aeeiaoeenoeueoieneaea (AeINI) n iaaeiuie aiiaeaie []
auei ia?auaii aieiaiea ia /?acau/aeii aunieee aiiaeiue auoiae ii oieo a
?an/aoa ia eiiu iaaee (II). Aeeyiea ieioiinoe oiea (O1) e oaiia?aoo?u
(O2) ia aiiaeiue auoiae ii oieo (AOA) eco/aee iaoiaeii ieaie?iaaiey
yenia?eiaioa (Aiena-Oeeueniia). Eiioeaio?aoeeth niee a ?anoai?a 0,1I
nio?aiyee iinoiyiiie. A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai o?iaiy auee i?eiyou
ieioiinoue oiea 6 iA/ni2 e oaiia?aoo?a 55 0N.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioia iieo/aii ia?aiao?e/aneia
o?aaiaiea (17). Ioiaoei i?aaeaea anaai aunieia cia/aiea ia?aiai
eiyooeoeeaioa o?aaiaiey ?aa?annee:

AOA = 188,58 – 0,32O1 + 0,80O2 – 0,33O1O2

Noaey ii cia/aieyi ae?oaeo eiyooeoeeaioia, aieueoaa aeeyiea ia
enneaaeoaiue i?ioeann ieacuaaao oaiia?aoo?a. Aaee/eia auoiaea ii oieo,
?ann/eouaaaiay ii (17), aoaeao eiaoue ?acoiiua cia/aiey, anee aiiaeiia
ieeneaiea iaaee a aeeiaoeenoeueoieneaeiii ?anoai?a iienuaaoue o?aaiaieai

Nu – e ( Cu+ (18)

Aiciiaeii, yoiio aeaaii?eyonoaoao niiniaiinoue iieaeoe AeINI
aaeni?ae?iaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeanoe iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia
iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea e i?i/ii nieueaaoe?iaaoue eiiu iaaee (I),
acaeiiaeaenoaoy n iieaeoeaie aiaeu, aiineiie a yeaeo?ieeo a ninoaaa
niee, ii ?aaeoeee:

Cu+ + H2O ( CuOH + H+ (19),

2Cu+ + H2O ( Cu2O + 2H+ (20),

a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acothony a ?anoai?a y?ei ie?aoaiiua acaane
aeae?ieneaea aeaeoiai oeaaoa e ieneaea e?aniiai oeaaoa, oi?ioi
iaaethaeaaiua a aiiaeiii i?ino?ainoaa aecoaeueii.

Ecaanoiu ioaeeeaoeee ii eco/aieth aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a
aoeaoiieo?eea []. Oaiia?aoo?ii-eeiaoe/aneei iaoiaeii e iaoiaeii
a?auathuaainy aeeneiaiai yeaeo?iaea onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e niaea?aeaiee a
?anoai?a 20 iauaiiuo i?ioeaioia aiaeu i?ioeann aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey
iaaee a aoeaoiieo?eeueiuo ?anoai?ao Nu(NO3)2 eeieoe?oaony iiaeaiaeii
ieeneeoaey a ciio ?aaeoeee. N oaaee/aieai eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeu i?ioeann
ia?aoiaeeo a iaeanoue niaoaiiie eeiaoeee e iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea
nei?inoe o?aaeaiey aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey eeieoe?othueo noaaeee
nii?yaeaiiuo ?aaeoeee ?anoai?aiey iaaee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ii
n?aaiaieth n aiaeiuie ?anoai?aie, eiiu Nu+ a aoeaoiieo?eea iaeaaeatho
aieaa aunieie yia?aeae nieueaaoaoeee, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao eo
noaaeeecaoeeth. Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?ooaieth
nieueaaoia Cu+ n aoeaoiieo?eeii, aeanoaaeeecaoeee eiiia Nu+, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ioeann o?aaeaiey ineiaeiyaony.

Ei??icey iaaee a iaoaiieueiii, i-i?iiaiieueiii e aiaeii-iaoaiieueiii
?anoai?ao I2SO4, ianuuaiiuo eenei?iaeii, enneaaeiaaia a []. Iieacaii,
/oi ?anoai?aiea i?ioaeaao ii eaoaeeoe/aneiio iaoaiecio oae aea, eae e a
aiaeiii ?anoai?a, i?e eioi?ii eenei?iae ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a oeie/aneie
?aaeoeee eiiaie Cu+, a iaaeue ?anoai?yaony ca n/ao nii?yaeaiiuo
?aaeoeee. Iiuou i?iaiaeeeenue n iaaeueth, inaaeaeaiiie ia ieaoeia, i?e
ia?aiaoeaaiee ?anoai?a, n eiioeaio?aoeeae eeneiou (I2SO4) 0,5 iieue/e
i?e t=25 0C.

Noaey ii yenia?eiaioaeueiui aeaiiui, i?aaeaeueiue eaoiaeiue oie ii
eenei?iaeo (ii?aae) i?aauoaao oo aea aaee/eio a aicaeooa i?eaeeceoaeueii
a 5 ?ac, o. a. eaoiaeiue oie ii eenei?iaeo i?aeoe/anee eeiaeii caaeneo
io eiioeaio?aoeee I2. Oaaee/aiea ia?aiaoeaaiey ia aeeyao ia iei?? ,
ii oaaee/eaaao ii?aae ii I2, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaoaeaaneee o/anoie
yaeyaony eeiaoe/aneei, a o/anoie i?aaeaeueiiai oiea – aeeoooceiiiue.

Eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae ainnoaiiaeaiey I2, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia, yaeyaony
i?eniaaeeiaiea ia?aiai yeaeo?iia :

I2 + a SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® I2- (21),

ca eioi?ui neaaeoao annioeeaoeey

I2- + I+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® II2 (22),

Aaoi?aie [10] i?aaeeiaeai neaaeothuee iaoaieci ei??icee iaaee a
iaoaiieueiie na?iieeneie n?aaea:

Nu+ + O2 SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + O2- (23)

Cu SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ + e (24)

Cu2+ + e SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu+ (25)

e aeaeaa:

HO2 + Cu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + HO2- (26)

IO2- + H+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® H2O2 (27)

I2I2 + Nu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Nu2+ + II- + II (28)

II + Nu+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® Cu2+ + OH- (29)

OH- + H+ SYMBOL 174 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ® H2O (30)

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai i?ioaeaiey oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee ia?yaeo n
yeaeo?ioeie/aneei iaoaieciii yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi ecia?aiiay
?aaeeiiao?e/anee yooaeoeaiay aaeaioiinoue iaaee, ia?aoiaeyuae a ?anoai?,
?aaia 1.

Aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii eco/aii yeaeo?ioeie/aneia e ei??iceiiiia
iiaaaeaiea iaaee a eeneuo nie?oiauo oei?eaeiuo n?aaeao, aaea
eiiieaniia?aciaaiea iaaee iniaaiii caiaoii [13-17]. A iaoaiieueiuo
?anoai?ao oei?iaiaei?iaea enneaaeiaaia [] nei?inoue ei??icee
ii?aaeaeyeanue ia iaiiaeaeaeiii e a?auathuainy aeeneiaii yeaeo?iaeao ii
aeaiiui oeie/aneiai aiaeeca ei??iceiiiie n?aaeu ia iaaeue iin?aaenoaii
o?eeiiiiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey a i?enoonoaee io?aeneaea.

I?e?iaea eaoiaeiiai i?ioeanna i?e ei??icee iaaee ii?aaeaeyaony
eiioeaio?aoeeae eeneiou e aiaeu. A oneiaii aacaiaeiuo ?anoai?ao NIN1 =
10-2-10-1 iieue/e ?anoai?aiea iaaee i?ioaeaao n eenei?iaeiie
aeaiiey?ecaoeeae. Ia yoi oeacuaaao iaee/ea o/anoea i?aaeaeueiiai oiea ii
eenei?iaeo ia eaoiaeiie iiey?ecaoeeiiiie e?eaie, aaee/eia eioi?iai a
i?aaeaeao ioeaee yenia?eiaioa ia caaeneo io NIN1. Iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey
IN1 a 10 ?ac i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth aiaei?iaeiie aeaiiey?ecaoeee, /aai
ia iaaethaeaaony a aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao. Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeeaeueiiai
i?ioaeaiey aiaei?iaeiie iiey?ecaoeee a iaoaiiea, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia [13]
naycaia ni nieaeaieai ia?aiai?yaeaiey aiaei?iaea ia iaaee e
?acaeaai?aaeeaaieai iaoaeea a nie?oa (ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiuie
?anoai?aie).

Aaaaeaiea aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ii?aae. I?e niaea?aeaiee 10 ian.%
I2I ca n/ao naeaeaa ?aaiiaaney ai?aai

NI3+ + I2I ( I3I+ + NI3II (31)

iineoaeyie eeneioiuo naienoa yaeythony i?ioiiu a oi?ia eiiia
aeae?ieniiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiauoaaony ia?aiai?yaeaiea aiaei?iaea e
ei??icey i?ioaeaao n eenei?iaeiie aeaiiey?ecaoeeae.

Ii aeaiiui eoeiiiiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee iaaeue ia?aoiaeeo a ?anoai? n
yooaeoeaiie aaeaioiinoueth (Zyo), aeeceie e 1 iacaaeneii io aaee/eiu
eiiiie neeu ?anoai?a, nei?inoe a?auaiey aeenea (() e iioaioeeaea
yeaeo?iaea. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e niiinoaaeaieai eeiaoeee aiiaeiiai
i?ioeanna ii iiey?ecaoeeiiiui e?eaui e oeie/aneiio aiaeeco ?anoai?a.
Aaaaeaiea aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia iaaee a aeaea NuC12 nieaeaao Zyo aei
0,6-0,8. Iaeiia?aiaiii nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao oie naii?anoai?aiey
iaoaeea e aaee/eia i?aaeaeueiiai oiea. Oaaee/eaaaony ?aaiiaaniue
iioaioeeae, ?ac?yae eiiia aiaei?iaea noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui,
iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiay eaoiaeiay ?aaeoeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey Nu2+ aei eiiia Cu+ (12), o.e. iaeiica?yaeiua eiiu a
oei?eaeiuo iaoaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao, aeaeeii, cia/eoaeueii noaaeeueiaa
aeaooca?yaeiuo.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee iiieaeaaony n oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaiey aiaeu.
Oei?iaiaei?iae ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aeaenoaea. Aaee/eiu nei?inoe ei??icee
a 10-20 ?ac iaiueoa niioaaonoaothueo i?aaeaeueiuo oieia eaoiaeiuo
iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anoai?aiea ii?aaeaeyaony
eeiaoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie e ia naycaii n o?ainii?oiuie ia?aie/aieyie
iiaeaiaea aeaiiey?ecaoi?a.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai
eiioeaio?aoeee oei?iie iaaee, n ii?yaeeii aeeceei e 1. Iaeiia?aiaiii
i?aaeaeueiue oie oaeaea ?anoao n ii?yaeeii 0,9. Iaeiaei iei?? ( ii?aae,
o.a a i?enoonoaee Nu2+ nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee aieueoa oaeiaie,
?ann/eoaiiie i?e i?ioaeaiee aa ia i?aaeaeueiii oiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii
iiaieth aaoi?ia [13], eiaao ianoi ia?aeeaeueiay ?aaeoeey, aeaeeii,
iayeaeo?ioeie/aneie i?e?iaeu – ?aaeoeey ?ai?iii?oeeiii?iaaiey (10).
Iineaaeiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iauyniyao e iaiueooth aaee/eio
yooaeoeaiie aaeaioiinoe a i?enoonoaee CuC12.

A 1I oneiaii aacaiaeiuo ?anoai?ao IN1 nei?inoue ei??icee i?aeiouanoaaiii
ii?aaeaeyaony eeiaoeeie eaoiaeiie ?aaeoeee, ia /oi oeacuaaao ?aceia
aic?anoaiea nei?inoe naii?anoai?aiey i?e aaaaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eaoiaeiiai aeaiiey?ecaoi?a.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee a yoeeaiaeeeieaauo ?anoai?ao IN1 [] oaeaea a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeaia oeie/aneie ?aaeoeeae
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey (10). Eiiecaoeey iaaee i?ioaeaao aei
iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia, a iaee/ea Cu2+ a ?anoai?a naycaii n ieeneaieai
eiiia Nu+ ?anoai?aiiui eenei?iaeii.

A ?aaioa [14] eco/aia nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee a yoeeaiaeeeieaauo
?anoai?ao IN1 eae ooieoeey eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeu (0,4-10 ian.%),
oei?iaiaei?iaea (0,1-3,0 iieue/e) e oei?iie iaaee (10-2-10-1 iieue/e).
Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaaaeaiu a eenei?iaeiie aoiinoa?a i?e eiiiaoiie
oaiia?aoo?a ia iaiiaeaeaeiii yeaeo?iaea ec iaaee ia?ee I1. Nei?inoue
ei??icee iinea aeaoo/aniauo eniuoaiee ii?aaeaeyeanue iin?aaenoaii
aiaeeca n?aaeu.

Iaaeue ei??iaee?oao a enneaaeoaiuo n?aaeao n eenei?iaeiie
aeaiiey?ecaoeeae, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeoao ec oa?aeoa?a eaoiaeiuo
iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. Aaee/eiu ii?aae a oneiaii aacaiaeiuo
yoeeaiaeeeieaauo ?anoai?ao (0,1-1,0 iieue/e) ninoaaeyao 20(10 ieA/ni2 e
?aaia 95(5 ieA/ni2 aeey 1I aiaeiuo n?aae. Aai eciaiaiea i?e aaaaeaiee 2
e 10 ian.% I2I iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ioeaee yenia?eiaioa.

A 1I aiaeiii ?anoai?a IN1 nei?inoue ei??icee, ia?an/eoaiiay ia
yeaeo?ioeie/aneea aaeeieoeu (iiau) a 3 ?aca aieueoa i?aaeaeueiiai oiea,
a , neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeie/aneee i?ioeann ?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey ea?aao
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue. Iaeiaei, iaee/ea aeiaaaie eiiia Cu2+ neacuaaaony
eia/a, /ai a nie?oa. Ii ia?a aaaaeaiey NuN12 ?acieoea iaaeaeo iiau e
ii?aae oiaiueoaaony e, a caoai iie noaiiayony iaeeiaeiauie. Yoi
oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi ?anoai?aiee iaaee a 1I aiaeiii ?aoai?a a
i?enoonoaee Cu2+>10-2 iieue/e i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ei??iceae, eaoiaeiay ?aaeoeey eioi?ie (12) i?ioaeaao
ia i?aaeaeueiii oiea e eeieoe?oao i?ioeann a oeaeii. I?e/eiu yoiai eaaei
iiiyoue, anee o/anoue, /oi aaaaeaiea 5.10-2 iieue/e eiiia Cu2+ iiauoaao
aaee/eio i?aaeaeueiiai oiea a o.a. yoeeaiaeeeiea e aiaea niioaaonoaaiii
aei 100 e 2500 ieA/ni2. A aiaea ioiineoaeueiue aeeaae ?aaeoeee
?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey noaiiaeony i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii iae.

Nei?inoue ei??icee iaaee oaaee/eaaaony n ?inoii eiioeaio?aoeee IN1.
Iiuou iieacaee, /oi ii?yaeie aiiaeiie eiiecaoeee ii eiiai aiaei?iaea e
oei?a ?aaai 2. Aaee/eia ((1gK/( lgCHC1)Ci ninoaaeyao 0,15-0,20, /oi
oeacuaaao ia ionoonoaea aeeyiey eeiaoeee aiiaeiie ?aaeoeee ia nei?inoue
ei??icee. Iaee/ea (( lgK/( lgCHC1)Ci ( 0 i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
((lgii?aae/(lgCHC1)Ci= 0, aeaeeii, naycaii, n onei?ythuei aeeyieai IN1
ia ?aaeoeeth ?ai?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey (10), /oi iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaii,
a naith i/a?aaeue, ?acee/iie caeiiieaeniaaiiinoueth eiiia Cu2+.
Nieaeaiea nei?inoe ei??icee iaaee ii ia?a aaaaeaiey aiaeu oaeaea iiaeii
iauynieoue caiaaeeaieai i?ioeanna (10).

A [] ioia/aaony, /oi nei?inoue aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a i?enoonoaee
oei?eae-eiiia caaeneo io nei?inoe a?auaiey yeaeo?iaea. Iaeiaei, anee
i?ioeanno ?anoai?aiey iaaee a iaoaiiea i?enou /enoi aeeoooceiiiue
iaoaieci, oi a yoaiiea ia/eiatho i?iyaeyoueny iaeiia?aiaiii e
eeiaoe/aneea cao?oaeiaiey. Oaiaain oaea iaeeiia i?yiuo lgi0 – lgCC1-
ninoaaeyao 2. Yoe ?acoeueoaou iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioeann ?anoai?aiey
iaaee a yoaiiea ia?aie/ai a iniiaiii aeeoooceae CuC12 a aeoaue naiiai
?anoai?a.

I?e ia?aoiaea io yoaiiea e i?iiaiieo neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue oneeaiea aeiee
eeiaoe/aneeo cao?oaeiaiee; aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiey?ecaoeeiiiua e?eaua
aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioeann eiio?iee?oaony
eae aeeoooceae, oae e eeiaoeeie. Oae, iai?eia?, iieiaeaiea e?eauo
ieioiinoue oiea – iioaioeeae caaeneo io /enea iai?ioia yeaeo?iaea.
I?yiieeiaeiua caaeneiinoe auee iieo/aiu a eii?aeeiaoao i-1 – (-1/2,
i?e/ai io?acee, ionaeaaiua io ine i?aeeiao, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
cia/aiey eeiaoe/aneeo ieioiinoae oieia. Oaoaeaaneee iaeeii aiiaeiie
iiey?ecaoeeiiiie e?eaie ninoaaeyao 60 iA.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaoo eiaoue iauyniaiey, aiaeiae/iua
i?aaeeiaeaiiui aeey iaioai-2,4-aeeiia: a neo/aa auno?ie
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ?aaeoeee ia?acoaony nieueaaoe?iaaiiue NuC1, eioi?ue
aaeni?ae?oaony ia yeaeo?iaeao. Aeaeaa ii ?aaae?oao n oei?eae-eiiaie n
ia?aciaaieai oei?ieiiieaena. Yoi i?aa?auaiea iiaeii caienaoue eae
?aaeoeeth caiauaiey:

[CuC1(ROH)n] + C1- ( [CuC12(ROH)n-1] + ROH (32)

I/aaeaeii, /oi n oaaee/aieai oeaie aeeeeueiie a?oiiu aic?anoatho
noa?e/aneea cao?oaeiaiey i?ioaeaiey yoie ?aaeoeee, oae /oi nei?inoue
ia?aciaaiey eiiieaena a ?yaeo iaoaiie ( yoaiie ( i?iiaiie nieaeaaony.

I?ioeann aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee ii?aaeaeyaony eae naienoaaie
aieiiia oiia, oae oa?aeoa?ii ?anoai?eoaey. Iaa yoe oaeoi?a aeeytho ia
aeeoooceth eiiia iaaee. I?ienoiaeeo oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
iieaeoeaie ?anoai?eoaey e aieiiaie.

Eeiaoeea aiiaeiie eiiecaoeeee iaaee a nenoaia eci-N3I7II–I2I–IN1, eae
ooieoeey i?e?iaeu ?anoai?eoaey (0,2-10 ian.% aiaeu), eiiiie neeu
?anoai?a (1-3), iioaioeeaea yeaeo?iaea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo oneiaee a
i?eyeaeo?iaeiii neia e oa?aeoa?a aoiinoa?u eco/aia a []. Iieacaii, /oi
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ianuuaiea ?aai/aai ?anoai?a eenei?iaeii ia ieacuaaao
aeeyiey ia oiae aiiaeiuo iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo. N o/aoii iaaeoaciiai
iioaioeeaea ii?aaeaeaiu ii?yaeee ?aaeoeee aiiaeiie eiiecaoeee iaaee ii
eiiai aiaei?iaea e oei?a. Oaoaeaaneee iaeeii aiiaeiuo e?eauo ai anao
neo/ayo aeecie e 60 iA. A ?anoai?a n niaea?aeaieai I2I 0,2% nH+=1 eee
2, a nN1- aeecie e aaeeieoea (eiiiay neea 1 e 2) e aeaoi (eiiiay neea
3). A niaoaiiii aiaeii-nie?oiaii ?anoai?eoaea ai anao neo/ayo nH+=0 ,
nN1- =2.

Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo eeiaoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia i?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci
aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey iaaee a enneaaeoaiuo oneiaeyo iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a aeaea neaaeothuaai aeaoonoaaeeeiiai i?ioeanna n iineaaeiae
eeieoe?othuae noaaeeae:

+ a (33a)

)-aaen + a (33a)

+ mH+ (34a)

(34a)

Ii?yaeie ?aaeoeee ii eiiai aiaei?iaea ?aaai n, aaea 0 iyo
ai anai enneaaeiaaiiii eioa?aaea eiioeaio?aoeee CuC12 e aiaeu, /oi
aiai?eo i iaee/ee iayeaeo?ioeie/aneie ninoaaeythuae ei??icee.

Aaaeaiea 10 ian.% I2I a n?aaeu n niaea?aeaieai CuC12 a eiee/anoaa 10-4 –
10-2 iieue/e aucuaaao iaaieueoia nieaeaiea nei?inoe ei??icee a 5I
ecii?iiaiieueiuo ?anoai?ao IN1, a a eioa?aaea NCu2+ 10-2-10-1 iieue/e
caiaoii noeioee?oao ei??iceth iaaee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu eeiaiaoe/aneay e aeeiaie/aneay ayceinoe anao eco/aiiuo
ninoaaia. Iieacaii, /oi n iiauoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee CuC12 ayceinoue
?anoai?ia oaaee/eaaaony; aaaaeaiea 10 ian.% I2I a ?anoai?eoaeue
i?aeoe/anee ia neacuaaaony ia aaee/eiao ( e (

PAGE 48

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