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OEI?

OEI? (eao. Chlorum), Cl – oeie/aneee yeaiaio VII a?oiiu ia?eiaee/aneie
nenoaiu Iaiaeaeaaaa, aoiiiue iiia? 17, aoiiiay ianna 35,453; ioiineony e
naiaenoao aaeiaaiia. I?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo (0 °N, 0,1 Ii/i2)
ae?eoi-cae?iue aac n ?aceei ?acae?aaeathuei caiaoii. I?e?iaeiue oei?
ninoieo ec aeaoo noaaeeueiuo ecioiiia: 35Cl (75,77%) e 37Cl (24,23%).
Eneonnoaaiii iieo/aiu ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu n ianniauie /eneaie 32, 33,
34, 36, 38, 39, 40 e ia?eiaeaie iieo?aniaaea O1/2 niioaaonoaaiii 0,31;
2,5; 1,56 nae; 3,1*105 eao; 37,3; 55,5 e 1,4 iei. 36Cl e 38Cl
eniieuecothony eae ecioiiiua eiaeeeaoi?u.

Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea.

Xei? iieo/ai aia?aua a 1774 E. Oaaea acaeiiaeaenoaeai nieyiie eeneiou n
ie?iethceoii InO2. Iaeiaei, oieueei a 1810 A. Aeyae onoaiiaee, /oi oei?
– yeaiaio e iacaae aai chlorine (io a?a/aneiai chloros –
ae?eoi-cae?iue). A 1813 AE.E. Aae-Ethnnae i?aaeeiaeee aeey yoiai
yeaiaioa iacaaiea oei?.

?ani?ino?aiaiea a i?e?iaea.

Xei? ano?a/aaony a i?e?iaea oieueei a aeaea niaaeeiaiee. N?aaeiaa
niaea?aeaiea oei?a a caiiie ei?a 1,7*10-2% ii ianna, a eeneuo
ecaa?aeaiiuo ii?iaeao – a?aieoao 2,4*10-2, a iniiaiuo e oeueo?ainiiaiuo
5*10-3. Iniiaioth ?ieue a enoi?ee oei?a a caiiie ei?a ea?aao aiaeiay
iea?aoeey. A aeaea eiia Cl- ii niaea?aeeony a Ie?iaii ieaaia (1,93%),
iiaecaiiuo ?annieao e nieyiuo ica?ao. *enei nianoaaiiuo ieia?aeia
(i?aeiouanoaaiii i?e?iaeiuo oei?eaeia) 97, aeaaiue ec ieo – aaeeo NaCl.
Ecaanoiu oaeaea e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey oei?eaeia eaeey e iaaiey e
niaoaiiuo oei?eaeia: neeueaei ECl, neeueaeieo (Na, E) Cl, ea?iaeeeo
ECl*IgCl2*6I2I, eaeieo ECl*IgSO4*CI2I, aeoioeo IgCl2*6I2I. A enoi?ee
Caiee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaei iinooieaiea niaea?aeauaainy a
aoeeaie/aneeo aacao ICl a aa?oiea /anoe caiiie ei?u.

Oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa.

Xei? eiaao teei – 34,05 °N, tie – 101 °N. Ieioiinoue aaciia?aciiai
oei?a i?e ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo 3,214 a/e; ianuuaiiiai ia?a i?e 0 °N
12,21 a/e; aeeaeeiai oei?a i?e oaiia?aoo?a eeiaiey 1,557 a/ni3;
oa??aeiai oei?a i?e -102 °N 1,9 a/ni3. Aeaaeaiea ianuuaiiuo ia?ia oei?a
i?e 0 °N 0,369; i?e 25 °N 0,772; i?e 100 °N 3,814 Ii/i2 eee
niioaaonoaaiii 3,69; 7,72; 38,14 ean/ni2. Oaieioa ieaaeaiey 90,3
eaeae/ea (21,5 eae/a); oaieioa enia?aiey 288 eaeae/ea (68,8 eae/a);
oaiei?ieinoue aaca i?e iinoiyiiii aeaaeaiee 0,48 eaeae/(ea*E) [0,11
eae/(a*°N)]. Xei? oi?ioi ?anoai?yaony a OiNl4, SiCl4, SnCl4 e iaeioi?uo
i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?eoaeyo (iniaaiii a aaenaia e /aou??ooei?enoii
oaea?iaea). Iieaeoea oei?a aeaooaoiiia (Cl2). Noaiaiue oa?ie/aneie
aeennioeeaoeee Cl2+243 eaeae ( 2Cl i?e 1000 E ?aaia 2,07*10-4%, i?e 2500
E 0.909%.

Aiaoiyy yeaeo?iiiay eiioeao?aoeey aoiia Nl Cs2 3?5. A niioaaonoaee n
yoei oei? a niaaeeiaieyo i?iyaeyao noaiaie ieeneaiey -1, +1, +3, +4, +5,
+6 e +7. Eiaaeaioiue ?aaeeon aoiia 0,99A, eiiiue ?aaeeon Nl- 1,82A,
n?iaenoai aoiia oei?a e yeaeo?iio 3,65 ya, yia?aey eiiecaoeee 12,97 ya.

Oeie/anee oei? i/aiue aeoeaai, iaiin?aaenoaaiii niaaeeiyaony ii/oe ni
anaie iaoaeeaie (n iaeioi?uie oieueei a i?enoonoaee aeaae eee i?e
iaa?aaaiee) e n iaiaoaeeaie (e?iia oaea?iaea, acioa, eenei?iaea,
eia?oiuo aacia), ia?acoy niioaaonoaothuea oei?eaeu, anooiaao a ?aaeoeeth
ni iiiaeie niaaeeiaieyie, caiauaao aiaei?iae a i?aaeaeueiuo
oaeaaiaei?iaeao e i?eniaaeeiyaony e iaianuuaiiui niaaeeiaieyi. Oei?
auoaniyao a?ii e eiae ec eo niaaeeiaiee n aiaei?iaeii e iaoaeeaie; ec
niaaeeiaiee oei?a n yoeie yeaiaioaie ii auoaniyaony ooi?ii. Uaei/iua
iaoaeeu a i?enoonoaee neaaeia aeaae acaeiiaeaenoaotho n oei?ii n
ainieaiaiaieai, aieueoeinoai iaoaeeia ?aaae?oao n nooei oei?ii oieueei
i?e iaa?aaaiee. Noaeue, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua iaoaeeu noieee a aoiinoa?a
nooiai oei?a a oneiaeyo iaaunieeo oaiia?aoo?, iiyoiio eo eniieuecotho
aeey ecaioiaeaiey aiia?aoo?u e o?aieeeu aeey nooiai oei?a. Oinoi?
ainieaiaiyaony a aoiinoa?a oei?a, ia?acoy ?Nl3, a i?e aeaeueiaeoai
oei?e?iaaiee – ?Nl5; na?a n oei?ii i?e iaa?aaaiee aeaao S2Nl2, SNl2 e
ae?oaea SnClm. Iuoueye, no?ueia, aenioo, no?iioeee, oaeeo? yia?ae/ii
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n oei?ii. Nianue oei?a n aiaei?iaeii ai?eo aanoeaaoiui
eee aeaeoi-caeaiui ieaiaiai n ia?aciaaieai oei?enoiai aiaei?iaea (yoi
oeaiiay ?aaeoeey).

Iaeneiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a aiaei?iaeii-oei?iiai ieaiaie 2200 °N. Niane
oei?a n aiaei?iaeii, niaea?aeauea io 5,8 aei 88,3% I2, ac?uaiiianiu.

N eenei?iaeii oei? ia?acoao ieeneu: Cl2O, ClO2, Cl2O6, Cl2O7, Cl2O8, a
oaeaea aeiioei?eou (niee oei?iiaaoenoie eeneiou), oei?eou, oei?aou e
ia?oei?aou. Ana eenei?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey oei?a ia?acotho ac?uaiiianiua
niane n eaaei ieeneythueieny aauanoaaie. Ieeneu oei?a iaeinoieee e iiaoo
naiii?iecaieueii ac?uaaoueny, aeiioei?eou i?e o?aiaiee iaaeeaiii
?aceaaathony, oei?aou e ia?oei?aou iiaoo ac?uaaoueny iiae aeeyieai
eieoeeaoi?ia.

Xei? a aiaea aeae?ieecoaony, ia?acoy oei?iiaaoenooth e nieyioth eeneiou:
Nl2 + I2I ( INlI + INl. I?e oei?e?iaaiee aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia uaei/ae ia
oieiaeo ia?acothony aeiioei?eou e oei?eaeu: 2NaII + Nl2 = NaNlO + NaNl +
I2I, a i?e iaa?aaaiee – oei?aou. Oei?e?iaaieai nooie aeae?iieene
eaeueoeey iieo/atho oei?ioth ecaanoue. I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aiieaea n
oei?ii ia?acoaony o??ooei?enoue acio. I?e oei?e?iaaiee ia?aie/aiiuo
niaaeeiaiee oei? eeai caiauaao aiaei?iae: R—I + Nl2 = RNl + INl, eeai
i?eniaaeeiyaony ii e?aoiui naycyi:

N=N + Nl2 ( NlN—NNl

ia?acoy ?acee/iua oei?niaea?aeauea i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey.

Xei? ia?acoao n ae?oaeie aaeiaaiaie iaaeaaeiaaiiua niaaeeiaiey. Ooi?eaeu
NlF, NlF3, NlF5 i/aiue ?aaeoeeiiiiniiniaiu; iai?eia?, a aoiinoa?a NlF3
noaeeyiiay aaoa naiiainieaiaiyaony. Ecaanoiu niaaeeiaiey oei?a n
eenei?iaeii e ooi?ii – ieneooi?eaeu oei?a: NlI3F, NlI2F3, NlOF, NlIF3 e
ia?oei?ao ooi?a FNlO4.

Iieo/aiea.

Xei? ia/aee i?iecaiaeeoue a i?iiuoeaiiinoe a 1785 acaeiiaeaenoaeai
nieyiie eeneiou n aeaoieenueth ia?aaioea eee ie?iethceoii. A 1867
aiaeeeneee oeiee A. Aeeeii ?ac?aaioae niinia iieo/aiey oei?a ieeneaieai
INl eenei?iaeii aicaeooa i i?enoonoaee eaoaeecaoi?a. N eiioea 19 –
ia/aea 20 aaeia oei? iieo/atho yeaeo?ieecii aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia oei?eaeia
uaei/iuo iaoaeeia. Ii yoei iaoiaeai a 70-o aiaeao 20 aaea i?iecaiaeeony
90 – 95% oei?a a ie?a. Iaaieueoea eiee/anoaa oei?a iieo/athony iiiooii
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iaaiey, eaeueoeey, iao?ey e eeoey yeaeo?ieecii
?anieaaeaiiuo oei ?eaeia. A 1975 aiaeo ie?iaia i?iecaiaenoai oei?a
ninoaaeyei ieiei 23 iei. oiii. I?eiaiythony aeaa iniiaiuo iaoiaea
yeaeo?ieeca aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia NaNl: 1) a yeaeo?ieec??ao n oa??aeui
eaoiaeii e ii?enoie oeeueo?othuae aeeao?aaiie; 2) a yeaeo?ieec??ao n
?oooiui eaoiaeii. Ii iaiei iaoiaeai ia a?aoeoiaii eee ieeniii
oeoaii-?ooaieaaii aiiaea auaeaeyaony aaciia?aciue oei?. Ii ia?aiio
iaoiaeo ia eaoiaea auaeaeyaony aiaei?iae e ia?acoaony ?anoai? NaII e
NaNl, ec eioi?iai iineaaeothuae ia?a?aaioeie auaeaeytho oiaa?ioth
eaonoe/aneoth niaeo. Ii aoi?iio iaoiaeo ia eaoiaea ia?acoaony aiaeueaaia
iao?ey, i?e a? ?aceiaeaiee /enoie aiaeie a ioaeaeueiii aiia?aoa
iieo/athony ?anoai? NaII, aiaei?iae e /enoay ?oooue, eioi?ay aiiaue
eae?o a i?iecaiaenoai. Iaa iaoiaea aeatho ia 1 oiiio oei?a 1,125 oiiiu
NaII.

Yeaeo?ieec n aeeao?aaiie o?aaoao iaiueoeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeey
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oei?a, aeaao aieaa aeao?aue NaII. Iaoiae n
?oooiui eaoiaeii iicaieyao iieo/aoue i/aiue /enoue NaII, ii iioa?e ?oooe
caa?yciytho ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. A 1970 ii iaoiaeo n ?oooiui eaoiaeii
i?iecaiaeeeinue 62,2% ie?iaie au?aaioee oei?a, n oa??aeui eaoiaeii 33,6%
e i?i/eie niiniaaie 4,3%. Iinea 1970 ia/aee i?eiaiyoue yeaeo?ieec n
oa??aeui eaoiaeii e eiiiiaiaiiie iaia?aiie, iicaieythuee iieo/aoue
/enoue NaII aac eniieueciaaiey ?oooe.

I?eiaiaiea.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiuo io?aneae oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeyaony oei?iay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Iniiaiua eiee/anoaa oei?a ia?a?aaaouaathony ia ianoa
aai i?iecaiaenoaa a oei?niaea? aeauea niaaeeiaiey. O?aiyo e ia?aaicyo
oei? a aeeaeeii aeaea a aaeeiiao, ai/eao, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oeenoa?iao
eee a niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiuo noaeao. Aeey eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai
oa?aeoa?ii neaaeothuaa i?eia?iia iio?aaeaiea oei?a: ia i?iecaiaenoai
oei?niaea?aea ueo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee – 60 – 75%; iai?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee, niaea?aeaueo oei?, -10 – 20%; ia ioaaeeo oeaeetheicu e
oeaiae – 5 – 15%; ia naieoa?iua ioaeaeu e oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu – 2 – 6% io
iauae au?aiaoee.

Xei? i?eiaiyaony oaeaea aeey oei?e?iaaiey iaeioi?uo ?oae n oeaeueth
ecaea/aiey oeoaia, ieiaey, oee?eiiey e ae?oaeo.

Oei? a i?aaiecia.

Xei? – iaeei ec aeiaaiiuo yeaiaioia, iinoiyiiue eiiiiiaio oeaiae
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Niaea?aeaiea oei?a a ?anoaieyo (iiiai oei?a a
aaeioeoao) – io ouny/iuo aeieae i?ioeaioa aei oeaeuo i?ioeaioia, o
aeeaioiuo – aeanyoua e nioua aeiee i?ioeaioa. Nooi/iay iio?aaiinoue
ac?ineiai /aeiaaea a oei?a, (2 – 4 a) iie?uaaaony ca n/?o ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia. N ieuae oei? iinooiaao iau/ii a ecauoea a aeaea oei?eaea
iao?ey e oei?eaea eaeey. Iniaaiii aiaaou oei?ii oeaa, iyniua e iiei/iua
i?iaeoeou. A i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo oei? – iniiaiia iniioe/anee aeoeaiia
aauanoai ieaciu e?iae, eeiou, nieiiiiicaiaie aeeaeeinoe e iaeioi?uo
oeaiae. Ea?aao ?ieue a aiaeii-nieaaii iaiaia, niinianoaoy oaea?aeaieth
oeaiyie aiaeu. ?aaoeyoeey eeneioii-uaei/iiai ?aaiiaaney a oeaiyo
inouanoaeyaony ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie i?ioeannaie ioo?i eciaiaiey a
?ani?aaeaeaiee oei?a iaaeaeo e?iaueth e ae?oaeie oeaiyie, oei? o/anoaoao
a yia?aaoe/aneii iaiaia o ?anoaiee, aeoeae?oy eae ieeneeoaeueiia
oinoi?eee?iaaiea, oae e oioioinoi?eee?iaaiea. Xei? iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao
ia iiaeiuaiea ei?iyie eenei?iaea. Xei? iaiaoiaeei aeey ia?aciaaiey
eenei?iaea a i?ioeanna oioineioaca eciee?iaaiiuie oei?iieanoaie. A
ninoaa aieueoeinoaa ieoaoaeueiuo n?aae aeey eneonnoaaiiiai
eoeueoeae?iaaiey ?anoaiee oei? ia aoiaeeo. Aiciiaeii, aeey ?acaeoey
?anoaiee aeinoaoi/iu aanueia iaeua eiioeaio?aoeee oei?a.

Io?aaeaiey oei?ii aiciiaeiu a oeie/aneie, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie,
oaenoeeueiie, oa?iaoeaaoe/ie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Xei? ?acae?aaeaao neecenoua
iaiei/ee aeac e aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae. E ia?ae/iui ainiaeeoaeueiui
eciaiaieyi iau/ii i?eniaaeeiyaony aoi?e/iay eioaeoeey. Ino?ia io?aaeaiea
?acaeaaaony ii/oe iaiaaeeaiii. I?e aaeuoaiee n?aaeieo e ieceeo
eiioeaio?aoeee oei?a ioia/athony noaniaiea e aieue a a?oaee, nooie
eaoaeue, o/au?iiia aeuoaiea, ?acue a aeacao, neacioa/aiea, iiauoaiea
niaea?aeaiey eaeeioeeoia a e?iae, oaiia?aoo?u oaea e o. i. Aiciiaeiu
a?iioiiiaaiiiey, oiene/aneee io?e e?aeeo, aeai?anneaiua ninoiyiey,
noaei?iae. A e?aeeo neo/ayo aucaei?iaeaiea ianooiaao /a?ac 3 – 7 nooie.
Eae ioaeae?iiua iineaaenoaey iaaethaeathony eaoa?u aa?oieo aeuoaoaeueiuo
iooae, ?aoeeaeeae?othuee a?ieoeo, iiaaiineea?ic; aiciiaeia aeoeaecaoeey
ooaa?eoe?ca e?aeeo. I?e aeeeoaeueiii aaeuoaiee iaaieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeee
oei?a iaaethaeathony aiaeiae/iua, ii iaaeeaiii ?acaeaathueany oi?iu
caaieaaaiey. I?ioeeaeoeea io?aaeaiee, aa?iaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoa,
iai?oaeiaaiey, yooaeoeaiay aaioeeyoeey, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
eniieueciaaiea i?ioeaiaaca. I?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey oei?a
a aicaeooa i?iecaiaenoa, iiiauaiee 1 ia/i3. I?iecaiaenoai oei?a, oei?iie
ecaanoe e ae?oaeo oei?niaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee ioiineony e
i?iecaiaenoaai n a?aaeiuie oneiaeyie o?oaea.

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