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Химия в биологии, медицине и в производстве лекарственных веществ

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Химия в биологии, медицине и в производстве лекарственных веществ.

Nia?aiaiiia /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai aeeaao e i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny,
aeoeaii eniieuecoy aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee, e i?aeoe/anee iaiuneeii
inoaiiaeoueny ia yoii iooe eee aa?iooueny iacaae, ioeacaaoenue io
eniieueciaaiey ciaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, eioi?uie /aeiaa/anoai oaea
iaeaaeaao. Iaeiieaieai yoeo ciaiee, iieneii caeiiiia?iinoae a ieo e eo
i?eiaiaieai ia i?aeoeea caieiaaony iaoea. *aeiaaeo eae iauaeoo iiciaiey
naienoaaiii ?acaeaeyoue e eeanneoeoee?iaaoue i?aaeiao naiaai iiciaiey
(aa?iyoii, aeey i?inoiou enneaaeiaaiey) ia iiiaeanoai eaoaai?ee e a?oii;
oae e iaoea a naia a?aiy auea iiaeaeaia ia ianeieueei aieueoeo eeannia:
anoanoaaiiua iaoee, oi/iua iaoee, iauanoaaiiua iaoee, iaoee i /aeiaaea e
i?. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo eeannia aeaeeony, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia iiaeeeannu
e o.ae. e o.i.

Ii n?aaee yoiai iiiaiia?acey iaoe anoue iaoee “eeaea?u” e iaoee
“ionoathuea”. Iaeieie ec nia?aiaiiuo iaoe “eeaea?ia” e yaeythony
aeieiaey e iaaeeoeeia.

“Aoi?ay iieiaeia iaoaai noieaoey ioia/aia no?aieoaeueiui i?ia?annii
aeieiae/aneeo ciaiee e eo i?eeiaeaiee a ?aciiia?aciuo noa?ao aeecie
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. A nouiinoe, eioa?an /aeiaaea e aeeaie i?e?iaea
ieeiaaea ia oaanae, ii eeoue iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iicaieeee
i?eaeeceoueny e iiieiaieth oaeeaeoaeueiuo oaei aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e ia
yoie iniiaa naeaeaoue ?aoeoaeueiue oaa a eniieueciaaiee iiaaeoeo
aeieiae/aneeo ioe?uoee.”(aeoea-i?aceaeaio AI NNN? TH.A.Ia/eiieeia,1987)

Iyoeaeanyoua aiaeu noaee a?aiaiai ia/aea ?aiannaina aeieiaee, eioi?ay
“noiaea caaeyiooue aioo?ue eeaoee e ?acia?aoueny a iieaeoey?iuo
iaoaieciao ?iaeaeaiey ie ?acaeoey i?aaieciia” [1].

Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi XXI aae noaiao aaeii aeieiaee, a ana inoaeueiua
iaoee ioieaeoo ia aoi?ie ieai [3]. Naueinue i?aaeneacaiea aaeeeiai
oeceea nia?aiaiiinoe I.Ai?a, eioi?ue a 50o aiaeao iaiaeiie?aoii cayaeye,
/oi a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iaeaieaa eioaineaiia i?iieeiiaaiea a oaeiu
i?e?iaeu noaiao i?a?iaaoeaie ia oeceee, a eiaiii aeieiaee [8]. Aieueoay
/anoue nia?aiaiiie anoanoaaiiiiao/iie eeoa?aoo?u a oie eee eiie ia?a
iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth eiaiii aeeaie i?e?iaeu. Aeieiae/aneeie
i?iaeaiaie caieiathony nae/an aeanyoee iaoe. I/aiue i?iaeoeoeaiuie
ieacuaathony e iaoee, naycaiiua n i?aoai?aieai iiaaeoeo aeieiae/aneeo
ioe?uoee a aeeciue.

Iiaeii aac i?aoaaee/aiey neacaoue, /oi iaeiie ec oaeeo io?aneae
i?eeiaeaiey aeieiaee iiiaea ec ian iaycaiu caei?iaueai e aeaaea
aeeciueth. ?a/ue eaeao i iaaeeoeeia, eioi?ay a ianoiyuea aiaeu
ia?aoiaeeo ia oieueei e eniieueciaaieth eaea?noa iiaiai iieieaiey e
i?eiaiaieth a i?aeoeea iiauo iaoa?eaeia, ii e oaeei iaoiaeai ea/aiey,
eioi?ua iicaieytho aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia aieaciue a naiii aa ia/aea, a oi
e aei ia/aea ! Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui a nayce n enneaaeiaaieai
iieaeoey?iuo iaoaieciia ?acaeoey iiiaeanoaa caaieaaaiee e ei??aeoeeae
ia?ooaiee ia i?eau/iui iaoiaeii aaaaeaiey a i?aaieci iaaeinoathueo
aauanoa, a iooai aicaeaenoaey ia anoanoaaiiua i?ioeannu aei?aaoeyoeee (n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo aei?aaoeyoi?ia eee ia aaiaoe/aneii o?iaia).
?aoaiea iiiaeanoaa eeth/aauo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiinoe, oaeeo eae
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, iiiaeo eaea?noa e ae?oaeo aauanoa
naycaii n aeoeaiui aiaae?aieai a aeeciue aeioaoiieiaee.

Noieue iuooeiue i?ia?ann aeieiaee aue au iaaiciiaeai aac aa aeoeaiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey n ae?oaeie iaoeaie. Ii ia?aaeien nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey
iaoee ninoieo a oii, /oi iiiaeanoai enneaaeiaaiee ieacuaaaony “ia nouea
iaoe”, aeey i?iaeoeoeaiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu i?eoiaeeony i?eaeaeaoue
o/aiuo ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiinoae; aieaa oiai, iiiaea o/aiua a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, a aae oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee, auioaeaeaiu iaeaaeaaaoue niaaeiuie
niaoeeaeueiinoyie, e iiiaeanoai nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee n o?oaeii
iiaeii ioianoe e eaeie-ieaoaeue iaeiie io?anee iaoee. I?e ?aoaiee
aeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai oanii ia?aieaoathony eaeae e iaoiaeu aeieiaee,
oeiee, oeceee, iaoaiaoeee e ae?oaeo iaeanoae ciaiey. Eiaiii i?iaeaia
acaeiiaeaenoaey oeiee n aeieiae/aneeie aeenoeeieeiaie e eo i?eeiaeaieyie
a iaaeeoeeia e aoaeao ian eioa?aniaaoue.

Oeieee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XX aaea i/aiue aeoeaii caieiaeenue
enneaaeiaaieyie aeeaie i?e?iaeu. A iieueco yoiai oacena iiaeao
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue oioy au oio oaeo, /oi ec 39 Iiaaeaaneeo i?aiee ii
oeiee, a?o/aiiuo ca iineaaeiea 20 eao (19771996), 21 i?aiey (aieueoa
iieiaeiu! a aaaeue io?aneae oeiee i/aiue iiiai) auea iieo/aia ca ?aoaiea
oeieei-aeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai [14, ni. I?eeiaeaiea 1].

Yoi e iaoaeeaeoaeueii, aaaeue aeeaay eeaoea yoi ianoiyuaa oea?noai
aieueoeo e iaeuo iieaeoe, eioi?ua iai?a?uaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho,
ia?acothony e ?aniaaeathony… A i?aaiecia /aeiaaea ?aaeecoaony ieiei
100 000 i?ioeannia, i?e/ai eaaeaeue ec ieo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo oeie/aneeo i?aa?auaiee. A iaeiie eeaoea
i?aaiecia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue i?eia?ii 2000 ?aaeoeee [4,5]. Ana yoe
i?ioeannu inouanoaeythony i?e iiiiue n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoiai /enea
i?aaie/aneeo e iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Nia?aiaiiay oeiey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?aoiaeii e eco/aieth neiaeiuo yeaiaioi?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee, ninoiyueo ec iai?aaie/aneeo e i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia.
Iai?aaie/aneea /anoe i?aaenoaaeaiu aiaeie e eiiaie ?acee/iuo iaoaeeia,
aaeiaaiia e oinoi?a (a iniiaiii), i?aaie/aneea /anoe i?aaenoaaeaiu
aaeeaie, ioeeaeiiauie eeneioaie, oaeaaiaeaie, eeieaeaie e aeinoaoi/ii
iaoe?iie a?oiiie ieceiiieaeoey?iuo aei?aaoeyoi?ia, oaeeo eae ai?iiiu,
aeoaieiu, aioeaeioeee, i?inoaaeaiaeeiu, aeeaeieaeu, ?aaoeyoi?u ?inoa e
o.ae.

Ecaanoii, /oi ec iiiaeanoaa oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia a ninoaa aeeauo
i?aaieciia aoiaeyo oieueei iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie eiiaie
iaoaeeia ieacuaathony eiiu iao?ey, eaeey, iaaiey, eaeueoeey, oeeiea,
iaaee, eiaaeueoa, ia?aaioea, aeaeaca e iieeaaeaia. Ec iaiaoaeeieaeia a
aeeauo nenoaiao i?aeoe/anee anaaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue aoiiu aiaei?iaea,
eenei?iaea, acioa, oaea?iaea, oinoi?a e na?u a ninoaaa i?aaie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee e aoiiu aaeiaaiia e ai?a eae a aeaea eiiia, oae e a ninoaaa
i?aaie/aneeo /anoeoe [4]. Ioeeiiaiea a niaea?aeaiee aieueoeinoaa ec yoeo
yeaiaioia a aeeauo i?aaieciao /anoi i?eaiaeeo e aeinoaoi/ii oyaeaeui
ia?ooaieyi iaoaaieecia.

Aieueoay /anoue aieaciae iaoneiaeaia ioeeiiaieai eiioeaio?aoeee
eaeiai-eeai aauanoaa io ii?iu. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ia?iiiia /enei
oeie/aneeo i?aa?auaiee aioo?e aeeaie eeaoee i?ienoiaeeo a ianeieueei
yoaiia, e iiiaea aauanoaa aaaeiu eeaoea ia naie ii naaa, iie yaeythony
eeoue iin?aaeieeaie a oeaie neiaeiuo ?aaeoeee; ii, anee ia?ooaaony
eaeia-oi caaii, oi any oeaiue a ?acoeueoaoa /anoi ia?anoaao auiieiyoue
naith ia?aaeaoi/ioth ooieoeeth; inoaiaaeeaaaony ii?iaeueiay ?aaioa
eeaoee ii neioaco iaiaoiaeeiuo aauanoa.

A iiaeaea?aeaiee ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia i/aiue
aaeeea ?ieue i?aaie/aneeo iieaeoe. Eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ii i?eioeeiai,
caeiaeaiiui a eo eiino?oeoeeth, ia o?e a?oiiu : aeieiae/aneea
iae?iiieaeoeu (aaeee, ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou e eo eiiieaenu), ieeaiia?u
(ioeeaioeaeu, eeieaeu, iaioeaeu e ae?.) e iiiiia?u (ai?iiiu,
aioeaeioeee, aeoaieiu e iiiaea ae?oaea a-aa) [6].

Aeey oeiee iniaaiii aaaeii onoaiiaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo no?iaieai aauanoaa
e aai naienoaaie, a /anoiinoe, aeieiae/aneei aeaenoaeai. Aeey yoiai
eniieuecoaony iiiaeanoai nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia, aoiaeyueo a a?naiae
oeceee, i?aaie/aneie oeiee, iaoaiaoeee e aeieiaee.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea ia a?aieoea oeiee e aeieiaee aicieeei iiiaeanoai
iiauo iaoe, eioi?ua ioee/athony eniieuecoaiuie iaoiaeaie, oeaeyie e
iauaeoaie eco/aiey. Ana yoe iaoee i?eiyoi iauaaeeiyoue iiae oa?ieiii
“oeceei-oeie/aneay aeieiaey”. E yoiio iai?aaeaieth ioiinyo:

a) oeieth i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee (aeii?aaie/aneay e aeiiai?aaie/aneay
oeiey bioorganic chemistry and inorganic biochemistry niioaaonoaaiii);

a) aeioeieth;

a) aeioeceeo;

a) iieaeoey?ioth aeieiaeth;

ae) iieaeoey?ioth aaiaoeeo;

a) oa?iaeieiaeth e iieaeoey?ioth oa?iaeieiaeth

e iiiaeanoai niaaeiuo aeenoeeieei [1,8]. A aieueoae /anoe nia?aiaiiuo
aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aeoeaii eniieuecothony oeie/aneea e
oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoiaeu. I?ia?ann a oaeeo ?acaeaeao aeieiaee, eae
oeeoieiaey, eiioiieiaey e aenoieiaey, aue iai?yioth naycai n ?acaeoeai
oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia auaeaeaiey e aiaeeca aauanoa. Aeaaea oaeay
eeanne/aneay “/enoi aeieiae/aneay” iaoea, eae oeceieiaey, ana aieaa
aeoeaii eniieuecoao aeinoeaeaiey oeiee e aeioeiee. A NOA Iaoeeiiaeueiua
Einoeooou Caei?iauey (National Instituts of Health USA) a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oeiaine?otho iai?aaeaiey iaaeeoeeineie iaoee, naycaiiua n /enoi
oeceieiae/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie, ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai aeioeie/aneea,
n/eoay oeceieiaeth “iaia?niaeoeaiie e ioaeeaoae naia” iaoeie. Aicieeatho
oaeea , eaaeoueany ia ia?aue acaeyae yecioe/aneeie iaoee, eae
iieaeoey?iay oeceieiaey, iieaeoey?iay yieaeaieieiaey e ae?. Iiyaeeenue
iiaua aeaeu iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo aiaeecia, a /anoiinoe,
eiioiioa?iaioiue aiaeec, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai oaeaaony ii?aaeaeyoue
iaee/ea oaeeo aieaciae, eae NIEAe e aaiaoeo; i?eiaiaiea iiauo iaoiaeia
oeiee e iiauoaiea /oanoaeoaeueiinoe noa?uo iaoiaeia iicaieyao oaia?ue
ii?aaeaeyoue iiiaeanoai aaaeiuo aauanoa ia ia?ooay oeaeinoiinoe eiaeiiai
iie?iaa iaoeeaioa, ii eaiea nethiu, iioa eee ae?oaie aeieiae/aneie
aeeaeeinoe.

Eoae, /ai aea caieiathony ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua iaoee, yaeythueany
?acee/iuie aaoayie oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee?

Iniiaie oeiee i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee yaeeanue o?aaeeoeeiiiay
i?aaie/aneay oeiey, eioi?ay ia?aiia/aeueii ?anniao?eaaeanue eae oeiey
aauanoa, ano?a/athueony a aeeaie i?e?iaea. Nia?aiaiiay aea i?aaie/aneay
oeiey caieiaaony anaie niaaeeiaieyie, eiathueie oaea?iaeiua (eee
caiauaiiua aaoa?iaiaeiaaie oaea?iaea) oeaii/ee, a aeii?aaie/aneay oeiey,
enneaaeothuay i?e?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey, auaeaeeeanue a ioaeaeueioth
io?aneue iaoee. Oeiey i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee aicieeea a na?aaeeia XIX
aaea, eiaaea auee neioace?iaaiu iaeioi?ua aee?u, naoa?a e aieiieeneiou
(yoi naycaii n ?aaioaie I.Aa?oei, O.Aaea?a, A.Aooea?iaa, O.Eaeoea e
ae?.). Ia?aua iiaeiaiua aaeeai iieeiaioeaeu auee nicaeaiu a ia/aea
iaoaai aaea, oiaaea aea Y.Oeoa? aianoa n ae?oaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie aian
naie aeeaae a enneaaeiaaiea naoa?ia. ?acaeoea enneaaeiaaiee ii oeiee
i?e?iaeiuo aauanoa i?iaeieaeaeinue ia?anoathueie oaiiaie aieioue aei
na?aaeeiu XX aaea. Aneaae ca aeeaeieaeaie, oa?iaiaie e aeoaieiaie yoa
iaoea noaea eco/aoue noa?ieaeu, ?inoiaua aauanoaa, aioeaeioeee,
i?inoaaeaiaeeiu e ae?oaea ieceiiieaeoey?iua aei?aaoeyoi?u. Ia?yaeo n
ieie oeiey i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee eco/aao aeiiieeia?u e aeiieeaiia?u
(ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou, aaeee, ioeeaii?ioaeaeu, aeeeii?ioaeiu,
eeiii?ioaeiu, aeeeieeieaeu e ae?.). Iniiaiie a?naiae iaoiaeia
enneaaeiaaiey ninoaaeytho iaoiaeu i?aaie/aneie oeiee, iaeiaei aeey
?aoaiey no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ aeoeaii i?eaeaeathony e
?aciiia?aciua oece/aneea, oeceei-oeie/aneea, iaoaiaoe/aneea e
aeieiae/aneea iaoiaeu. Iniiaiuie caaea/aie, ?aoaaiuie oeieae i?e?iaeiuo
niaaeeiaiee, yaeythony :

a) auaeaeaiea a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ninoiyiee eco/aaiuo niaaeeiaiee n
iiiiuueth e?enoaeeecaoeee, ia?aaiiee, ?acee/iuo aeaeia o?iiaoia?aoee,
yeaeo?ioi?aca, oeueo?aoeeueo?aoeee, oeueo?aoeaio?eooae?iaaiey,
i?ioeaioi/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e o.i.;

a) onoaiiaeaiea no?oeoo?u, aeeth/ay i?ino?ainoaaiiia no?iaiea, ia iniiaa
iiaeoiaeia i?aaie/aneie e oece/aneie i?aaie/aneie oeiee n i?eiaiaieai
iann-niaeo?ineiiee, ?acee/iuo aeaeia iioe/aneie niaeo?ineiiee (EE, OO,
eaca?iie e ae?.), ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca, yaea?iiai iaaieoiiai
?aciiaina, yeaeo?iiiiai ia?aiaaieoiiai ?aciiaina, aeenia?nee iioe/aneiai
a?auaiey e e?oaiaiai aeeo?iecia, iaoiaeia auno?ie eeiaoeee e ae?.;

a) oeie/aneee neioac e oeie/aneay iiaeeoeeaoeey eco/aaiuo niaaeeiaiee,
aeeth/ay iieiue neioac, neioac aiaeiaia e i?iecaiaeiuo, n oeaeueth
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey no?oeoo?u, auyniaiey nayce no?iaiey e aeieiae/aneie
ooieoeee, iieo/aiey i?aia?aoia, oeaiiuo aeey i?aeoe/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey;

a) aeieiae/aneia oanoe?iaaiea iieo/aiiuo niaaeeiaiee in vitro e in vivo.

E?oiiaeoeie aeinoeaeaieyie oeiee i?e?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee yaeeenue
?anoeo?iaea no?iaiey e neioac aeieiae/anee aaaeiuo aeeaeieaeia,
noa?ieaeia e aeoaieiia, iieiue oeie/aneee neioac iaeioi?uo iaioeaeia,
i?inoaaeaiaeeiia, iaieoeeeeeiia, aeoaieiia, oei?ioeeea e ae?.
niaaeeiaiee; onoaiiaeaiu no?oeoo?u iiiaeanoaa aaeeia, ioeeaioeaeiua
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iiiaeanoaa aaiia e o.ae. e o.i.

Iiyaeaiea iaoee aeioeiee iau/ii naycuaatho n ioe?uoeai yaeaiey
oa?iaioaoeaiiai eaoaeeca e naieo aeieiae/aneeo eaoaeecaoi?ia oa?iaioia,
ia?aua ec eioi?uo auee eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiu e auaeaeaiu a e?enoaeee/aneii
ninoiyiee a 20o aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey. Aeioeiey eco/aao oeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aeeauo i?aaieciao e
eniieuecoao oeie/aneea iaoiaeu a enneaaeiaaiee aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.
E?oiiaeoeie niauoeyie a aeioeiee yaeeenue onoaiiaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie
?iee AOO a yia?aaoe/aneii iaiaia, auyniaiea oeie/aneeo iaoaieciia
oioineioaca, aeuoaiey e iuoa/iiai nie?auaiey, ioe?uoea
o?ainaieie?iaaiey, onoaiiaeaiea iaoaiecia o?ainii?oa aauanoa /a?ac
aeieiae/aneea iaia?aiu e o.i.

Iieaeoey?iay aeieiaey aicieeea a ia/aea 50o aiaeia, eiaaea Aeae.Oionii e
O.E?ee ?anoeo?iaaee no?oeoo?o AeIE, /oi iicaieeei ia/aoue eco/aiea iooae
o?aiaiey e ?aaeecaoeee ianeaaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. E?oiiaeoea
aeinoeaeaiey iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee ioe?uoea aaiaoe/aneiai eiaea,
iaoaiecia aeineioaca aaeeia a ?eainiiao, iniiau ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ia?aiin/eea eenei?iaea aaiiaeiaeia.

Neaaeothuei oaaii ia yoii iooe yaeeinue aicieeiiaaiea iieaeoey?iie
aaiaoeee, eioi?ay eco/aao iaoaieciu ?aaiou aaeeieoe ianeaaenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee aaiia, ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia. Iaeiie ec aeooaeueiaeoeo
i?iaeai iieaeoey?iie aaiaoeee yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea iooae ?aaoeyoeee
yeni?annee aaiia ia?aaiae aaia ec aeoeaiiai ninoiyiey a iaaeoeaiia e
ia?aoii; ?aaoeyoeey i?ioeannia o?aine?eioeee e o?aineyoeee. I?aeoe/aneei
i?eeiaeaieai iieaeoey?iie aaiaoeee yaeeanue ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia aaiiie
eiaeaia?ee e aaiioa?aiee, eioi?ua iicaieytho iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue
ianeaaenoaaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, o?aiyuothny a aeeaie eeaoea, oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iaiaoiaeeiua aauanoaa aoaeoo neioace?iaaoueny aioo?e naiie
eeaoee, /oi iicaieyao iieo/aoue aeioaoiieiae/aneei iooai iiiaeanoai
oeaiiuo niaaeeiaiee, a oaeaea ii?iaeeciaaoue aaeain aauanoa,
ia?ooeaoeeny ai a?aiy aieacie. Nooue aaiiie eiaeaia?ee ?anna/aiea
iieaeoeu AeIE ia ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou, /oi aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth
oa?iaioia e oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia, n iineaaeothuei niaaeeiaieai; yoa
iia?aoeey i?iecaiaeeony n oeaeueth anoaaee a yaiethoeeiiii ioeaaeaiioth
oeaiue ioeeaioeaeia iiaiai o?aaiaioa aaia, ioaa/athuaai ca neioac
ioaeiiai iai aauanoaa, aianoa n oae iacuaaaiuie ?aaoeyoi?aie o/anoeaie
AeIE, iaania/eaathueie aeoeaiinoue “naiaai” aaia. Oaea nae/an n
iiiiuueth aaiiie eiaeaia?ee iieo/atho iiiaea eaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aou,
i?aeiouanoaaiii aaeeiaie i?e?iaeu : einoeei, eioa?oa?ii, niiaoio?iiei e
ae?. [2,3]. 11

Oa?iaeieiaey – yoi iaoea i eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoaao, aeaenoaee ?acee/iuo
oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ia aeeaua i?aaieciu, i niiniaao aaaaeaiey
eaea?noa a i?aaieciu e i acaeiiaeaenoaee eaea?noa iaaeaeo niaie.
Iieaeoey?iay oa?iaeieiaey eco/aao iiaaaeaiea iieaeoe eaea?noaaiiuo
aauanoa aioo?e eeaoee, o?ainii?o yoeo iieaeoe /a?ac iaia?aiu e o.ae.
*aeiaae ia/ae i?eiaiyoue eaea?noaaiiua aauanoaa i/aiue aeaaii,
ianeieueei ouny/ eao iacaae. Ae?aaiyy iaaeeoeeia i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
iniiauaaeanue ia eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaieyo, e yoio iiaeoiae nio?aiee naith
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue i iaoeo aeiae. Iiiaeanoai nia?aiaiiuo eaea?noaaiiuo
i?aia?aoia niaea?aeao aauanoaa ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey eee
oeie/anee neioace?iaaiiua niaaeeiaiey, eaeaioe/iua oai, eioi?ua iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue a eaea?noaaiiuo ?anoaieyo. Iaeei ec naiuo ?aiieo ec
aeioaaeoeo aei ian o?aeoao i eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoaao aue iaienai
ae?aaiaa?a/aneei a?a/ii Aeiiie?aoii a IV aaea aei iaoae y?u.

Ca/aoee oeiee eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa iiyaeythony a ia?eiae ainiiaenoaa
aeoeiee. Nia?aiaiiay oeieioa?aiey aaaeao naie ion/ao n ia/aea XX aaea io
o?oaeia I.Y?eeoa ii i?ioeaiiaey?eeiui n?aaenoaai e i?iecaiaeiui
iuoueyeiaie eeneiou. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy neioace?iaaiu aeanyoee e nioie
ouny/ eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa, e eo iiene i?iaeieaeaaony. Ii /enei aeoeaii
i?eiaiyaiuo eaea?noa, eiia/ii, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa. Ia ana aauanoaa,
neioace?iaaiiua a ea/anoaa iioaioeeaeueiiai iiaiai eaea?noaaiiiai
aauanoaa, iaoiaeyo naia i?eiaiaiea ia i?aeoeea. Iiiaea oe?iei
eniieueciaaaoeany ?aiaa eaea?noaa auoaniythony ec noa?u i?eiaiaiey ec-ca
oiai, /oi iiyaeythony aieaa yooaeoeaiua aiaeiae, eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho
ia i?e/eio aieacie ai?acaei naeaeoeaiaa, eiatho iaiueoa i?ioeaiiieacaiee
e iiai/iuo yooaeoia. A 1995 aiaeo e i?eiaiaieth a ?innee auei ?ac?aoaii
nauoa 3 ouny/ iaeiaiiaaiee eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia, niaea?aeaueo ieiei
2 ouny/ ?aciiia?aciuo oeie/aneeo aauanoa neioaoe/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey[12,13]. Iaeiei ec e?oiiuo oniaoia oa?iaeieiaee aoi?ie
iieiaeiu iaoaai aaea yaeeinue nicaeaiea e aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo
aioeaeioeeia oe?ieiai niaeo?a aeaenoaey: noeueoaieaeiuo i?aia?aoia,
aeoaieiia, n?aaenoa, aeeythueo ia aeayoaeueiinoue oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie
nenoaiu o?aieaeeecaoi?ia, iae?ieaioeeia, ineoioiieiaoeeia e ae?. Iiiaea
ec yoeo eaea?noa auee ioe?uou e aia?aua i?eiaiaiu a iaoae no?aia
(ooi?ioo?, oaiacaiai, oeeeeiaeie, aeoaieiiua i?aia?aou e ii.ae?.)

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ie?a nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iao/iuo oeaio?ia,
aaaeoueo ?aciiia?aciua oeieei-aeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.
No?aiaie-eeaea?aie a yoie iaeanoe yaeythony NOA, aa?iiaeneea no?aiu:
Aiaeey, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey, Oaaoeey, Aeaiey, ?inney e ae?. A iaoae
no?aia nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iao/iuo oeaio?ia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a Iineaa e
Iiaeiineiauea (Ioueii, Iaieine, *a?iiaieiaea), Iaoa?ao?aa, Iiaineae?nea,
E?aniiy?nea, Aeaaeeainoiea…Oioy, ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee, iaaei
caiaoeoue, /oi e a yoie iaeanoe (eae e ai anae ?inneeneie iaoea a
oeaeii) iaaethaeaaony iaeioi?ue “oiaaeie”, naycaiiue eae n iaaeinoaoeii
oeiaine?iaaiey e iauei yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii a ?O, oae e n i?iaeaiie
brain-drain /”ooa/ee iicaia”/ a aieaa yeiiiie/anee aeaaii?eyoiua no?aiu.
Iaeiaei iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaeueneea einoeooou Aeaaeaiee Iaoe ?innee,
?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee Iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe, ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo Iaoe, Ieienoa?noaa Cae?aaiio?aiaiey e
Iaaeeoeeineie I?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iaeieaeatho iao/iua ecuneaiey (iiea
aua…), oioy e ia ia iieioth iiuue. Iaeie ec aaaeoueo oeaio?ia ii
no?aia Einoeooo aeii?aaie/aneie oeiee ei.I.A.Oaiyeeia e
TH.A.Ia/eiieeiaa, Einoeooo iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee ei.A.A.Yiaaeueaa?aeoa,
Einoeooo i?aaie/aneiai neioaca ei.I.Ae.Caeeineiai, Einoeooo
oeceeioeie/aneie aeieiaee IAO ei.Aaeica?neiai e ae?. A NaieoIaoa?ao?aa
iiaeii ioiaoeoue Einoeooo Oeeoieiaee ?AI, oeie/aneee e aeieiae/aneea
o-ou Ain. Oieaa?neoaoa, Einoeooo yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu ?AII,
Einoeooo iieieiaee ?AII ei. Iao?iaa, Einoeooo iniai /enouo aeii?aia?aoia
ICeII e o.i.

Iniiaiuie i?iaeaiaie, ?aoaaiuie a iineaaeiea aiaeu oeceei-oeie/aneie
aeieiaeae, yaeythony neioac aaeeia e ioeeaeiiauo eeneio, onoaiiaeaiea
ioeeaioeaeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aaiiia iiiaeo i?aaieciia (a oii /enea
ii?aaeaeaiea iieiie ioeeaioeaeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aaiiia /aeiaaea),
iai?aaeaiiue o?ainii?o aauanoa /a?ac aeieiae/aneea iaia?aiu; ?ac?aaioea
iiauo eaea?noa, iiauo iaoa?eaeia aeey iaaeeoeeineiai eniieueciaaiey,
iai?eia?, aeey aeii?ioace?iaaiey. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?ac?aaioea
aeioaoiieiaee, eioi?ua /anoi auaatho aieaa yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiu,
yooaeoeaiu, /ai o?aaeeoeeiiiua “oaoie/aneea”, ia aiai?y oaea ia eo
yeieiae/aneie /enoioa. Aaaeoony aeoeaiua ?aaiou ii eeiie?iaaieth
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea ii iieo/aieth ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia aia
i?aaiecia. Iniai i?eia/aoaeai iaaeaaiee oniao oaaeoea?neeo o/aiuo (
ia?aua niiauaiey a ia/aoe iiyaeeenue a eiioea oaa?aey 1997 a.),
iieo/eaoeo iooai eeiie?iaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiia aeeaioiia iaoeo,
eioi?ay auea au?auaia ec eeaoee auiaie iaoa?e-iaoeu; aei/a?iyy
aaiaoe/aneay eiiey auea iacaaia Aeieee [11]. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi eeiie?iaaiea ec noa?u /enoi iao/iuo yenia?eiaioia ia?aoiaeeo a
noa?o i?aeoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue e i ea/aiee caaieaaaiee iiaui
iaoiaeii aaiioa?aiee eciaiaieai ianeaaenoaaiiinoe. Ea/aaiue yooaeo
aeinoeaaaony iooai ia?aiina “eni?aaeaiiiai” aaia eeai n iiiiuueth
?ao?iae?ona, eeai aiaae?aieai eeiinii, niaea?aeaueo aaiaoe/aneea
eiino?oeoeee. Aaiioa?aiaaoe/aneea iaoiaeu oieueei ca?iaeaeathony, ii
eiaiii n eo iiiiuueth oaea auea auea/aia iaeaiueeay aeaai/ea, aieueiay
ioeiaenoeeaeicii; iniai ia?niaeoeaii i?eiaiaiea aaiioa?aiee a ea/aiee
aieaciae, ia?aaeathueony ii ianeaaenoao eee aicieeathueo iiae aeaenoaeai
ae?onia. Aa?iyoii, n i?eaea/aieai eiaiii yoeo iaoiaeia aoaeoo
iiaaaeaeaiu NIEAe, ?ae, a?eii e iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo, iaiaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aieaciae.

E?iia oiai, iinoiyiii enneaaeothony iaoaieciu i?aa?auaiee oeie/aneeo
aauanoa a i?aaieciao e ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo ciaiee aaaeaony
iai?ae?auathueeny iiene eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa. Aieueoia eiee/anoai
?aciiia?aciuo eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieo/atho eeai
aeioaoiieiae/anee (eioa?oa?ii, einoeei, eioa?eaeeei, ?aoiieei,
niiaoiaai, aioeaeioeee, eaea?noaaiiua aaeoeeiu e i?.), eniieuecoy
iee?ii?aaieciu (iiiaea ec eioi?uo yaeythony i?iaeoeoii aaiiie
eiaeaia?ee), eeai iooai noaaoaai ii/oe o?aaeeoeeiiiui oeie/aneiai
neioaca, eeai n iiiiuueth oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoiaeia auaeaeaiey ec
i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey (/anoae ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo).

Ae?oaie aeieiae/aneie caaea/ae oeiee yaeyaony iiene iiauo iaoa?eaeia,
niiniaiuo caiaieoue aeeaoth oeaiue, iaiaoiaeeiuo i?e i?ioace?iaaiee.
Oeiey iiaea?eea a?a/ai nioie ?aciiia?aciuo aa?eaioia iiauo iaoa?eaeia.

E?iia iiiaeanoaa eaea?noa, a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ethaee noaeeeaathony n
aeinoeaeaieyie oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee a ?acee/iuo noa?ao naiae
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e a auoo. Iiyaeythony iiaua i?iaeoeou
ieoaiey eee niaa?oainoaothony oaoiieiaee nio?aiaiey oaea ecaanoiuo
i?iaeoeoia. I?iecaiaeyony iiaua einiaoe/aneea i?aia?aou, iicaieythuea
/aeiaaeo auoue caei?iaui e e?aneaui, caueuathuea aai io iaaeaaii?eyoiiai
aicaeaenoaey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A oaoieea iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea
?acee/iua aeiaeiaaaee ei iiiaei i?iaeoeoai i?aneioaca. A naeueneii
oicyenoaa i?eiaiythony aauanoaa, niiniaiua iiauneoue o?iaeae
(noeioeyoi?u ?inoa, aa?aeoeeaeu e ae?.) eee ioioaiooue a?aaeeoaeae
(oa?iiiiu, ai?iiiu ianaeiiuo), ecea/eoue io aieaciae ?anoaiey e
aeeaioiuo e iiiaea ae?oaea…

Ana yoe auoaia?a/eneaiiua oniaoe auee aeinoeaioou n i?eiaiaieai ciaiee e
iaoiaeia nia?aiaiiie oeiee. A nia?aiaiiie aeieiae e iaaeeoeeia oeiee
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeia ec aaaeoueo ?ieae, e cia/aiea oeie/aneie iaoee
aoaeao oieueei aic?anoaoue. “Noue iaoe” oeiee e aeieiaee ieacaeny ia
?aaeeinoue ieiaeioai?iui.

INIIAIAss EEOA?AOO?A

1. TH.A.Ia/eiieeia. Aeii?aaie/aneay oeiey. I.:I?inaauaiea,1987

2. A.I.?aaeaoeeee. I?aaie/aneay oeiey e iaaeeoeeia.//Oeiey a
oeiea(1995),N3:4043

3. TH.A.Ia/eiieeia. Oeiey aeecie (Eca?aiiua o?oaeu). I.:Iaoea,1990

4. E.A.Iaea?ia. Oeiey e iaaeeoeeia. I.:I?inaauaiea,1981

5. A.O.E?aia?aiei. Oieneeieiae/aneay oeiey. Eeaa: Aeua oeiea,1989

6. A.A.A?aoiooaei. Ia nouea oeiee e aeieiaee. I.:Iaoea,1987

7. A.A.Ooeueiei. Oeiey aeey anao. I.:Ciaiea,1987

8. A.A.Ieeeoi?iae/. Eaea?noaa ii iiaeneacea. Ieine:Auoaeoay oeiea,1990

9. E.TH.Oaaei?iaa. ?anneacu i yaeao, i?ioeaiyaeeyo, eaea?noaao e
o/aiuo. I.:Ciaiea,1983

10. Aeieiaey e iaaeeoeeia: oeeinioneea e nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu
acaeiiaeaenoaey. //Na. o?oaeia. I.:Iaoea,1985

11. I.Wilmut, A.E.Schnieke, J.McWhir, A.J.Kind & K.H.S.Campbell. Viable
offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells (Letter to
Nature) //Nature(1997), v.385, No6619, pp.810-819

12. Eaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aou ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i a ?innee: ni?aai/iee.
I.:Ano?aOa?iNa?aen,1993

13. I.Ae.Iaoeianeee. Eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa: ni?aai/iee.A 2o o. Ecae
13, ia?a?aa. I.:Iaaeeoeeia,1995

I?EEIAEAIEA 1

Iiaaeaaneea i?aiee ii oeiee a iaeanoe oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee

1902

Emil H. Fischer (Germany, 1852/10/09 – 1919/07/15)

Synthetic studies in the area of sugar and purine groups

1907

Eduard Buchner (Germany, 1860/05/20 – 1917/08/13) Biochemical studies,
discovery of fermentation without cells

1915

Richard Willstotter (Germany, 1872/08/13 – 1942/08/03) Investigation of
plant pigments, particularly of chlorophyll

1925

Richard A. Zsigmondy (Germany, Austria, 1865/04/01 – 1929/09/29)

Colloid chemistry (ultramicroscope)

1926

Theodor Svedberg (Sweden, 1884/08/30 – 1971/02/26)

Disperse systems (ultracentrifuge)

1928

Adolf Windaus (Germany, 1876/12/25 – 1959/06/09)

Study of sterols and their relation with vitamins (vitamin D)

1929

Hans von EulerChelpin (Sweden, Germany, 1873/02/15 – 1964/11/06)

Arthur Harden (United Kingdom, 1861/10/12 – 1940/06/17) Studies on
fermentation of sugars and enzymes

1930

Hans Fischer (Germany, 1881/07/27 – 1945/03/31)

Studies on blood and plant pigments, synthesis of hemin

1937

Sir Walter N. Haworth (United Kingdom, 1883/03/19 – 1950/03/19)

Studies on carbohydrates and vitamin C

Paul Karrer (Switzerland, 1889/04/21 – 1971/06/18)

Studies on carotenoids and flavins and vitamins A and B2

1938

Richard Kuhn (Germany, 19001203 19670731) Studies

on carotenoids and vitamins

1939

Adolf F. J. Butenandt (Germany, 1903/03/24 – 1995/01/18)

Studies on sexual hormones

Leopold Ruzicka (Switzerland,1887/09/13 – 1976/09/26)

Studies on polymethylenes and higher terpenes

1945

Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland, 1895/01/15 – 1973/11/11)

Discoveries in the area of agricultural and food chemistry, method of
preservation of fodder

1946

John H. Northrop (USA, 1891/07/05 – 1987/05/27)

Wendell M. Stanley (USA, 1904/08/16 – 1971/06/15)

Preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form

James B. Sumner (USA,1887/11/19 – 1955/08/12)

Crystallizability of enzymes

1947

Sir Robert Robinson (United Kingdom, 1886/09/13 – 1975/02/08) Studies on
alkaloids

1948

Arne W. K. Tiselius (Sweden, 1902/08/10 1971/10/29)

Analysis by means of electrophoresis and adsorption, discoveries about
serum proteins

1952

Archer J. P. Martin (United Kingdom, *1910/03/01 – )

Richard L. M. Synge (United Kingdom, 1914/1028 1994/08/18)

Invention of distribution chromatography

1953 Hermann Staudinger (Germany, 1881/03/23 – 1965/09/08)

Discoveries in the area of macromolecular chemistry

1954

Linus Carl Pauling (USA, 1901/02/28 – 1994/08/19)

Studies on the nature of the chemical bond (molecular structure of
proteins)

1955

Vincent du Vigneaud (USA, 1901/05/18 – 1978/12/11)

Synthesis of a polypeptide hormone

1957

Sir Alexander R. Todd (United Kingdom, *1907/0702 – )

Studies on nucleotides and their coenzymes

1958

Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, *1918/08/13 – )

Structure of proteins, especially of insulin

1961 Melvin Calvin (USA, *1911/04/07 – )

Studies on the assimilation of carbonic acid by plants photosynthesis)

1962

John Cowdery Kendrew (United Kingdom, *1917/03/24 – )

Max Ferdinand Perutz (United Kingdom, Austria, *1914/05/19 –

Studies on the structures of globulin proteins

1964

Dorothy CrowfootHodgkin (United Kingdom, *1910/05/12)

Structure determination of biologically important substances by means of
X rays

1965

Robert Burns Woodward (USA, 1917/04/10 – 1979/07/08)

Syntheses of natural products

1969

Odd Hassel (Norway, 1897/05/17 1981/05/13)

Derek H.Barton (United Kingdom, *1918/09/08 – )

Development of the concept of conformation

1970

Luis F. Leloir (Argentina, *1906/09/06 – )

Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of
carbohydrates

1972

Christian B. Anfinsen (USA, *1916/03/26 – )

Studies on ribonuclease

Stanford Moore (USA, 1913/09/04 – 1982/08/23)

William H. Stein (USA, 1911/06/25 – 1980/02/02)

Studies on the active enter of ribonuclease

1975

John W. Cornforth (United Kingdom, *1917/09/07 – )

Stereochemistry of enzyme catalysis reactions

Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland, Yugoslavia, *1906/07/23 – )

Studies on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions

1977

Ilya Prigogine (Belgium, *1917/01/25 – )

Contributions to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes,
particularly to the theory of dissipative structures

1978

Peter D. Mitchell (United Kingdom, *1920/09/29 – )

Studies of biological energy transfer, development of the chemiosmotic
theory

1980

Paul Berg (USA, *1926/06/30 – )

Studies on the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly hybrid DNA
(technology of gene surgery)

Walter Gilbert (USA, *1932/03/21 – )

Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, 1918/08/13 – )

Determination of base sequences in nucleic acids

1982

Aaron Klug (United Kingdom, *1926/08/11)

Development of crystallographic methods for the elucidation of
biologically important nucleic acid protein complexes

1983

Henry Taube (Canada, *1915/11/30 – )

Reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially with metal
complexes

1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA, *1921/07/15 – )

Method for the preparation of peptides and proteins

1985

Herbert A. Hauptman (USA, 1917/02/14 – )

Jerome Karle (USA, 1918/06/18 – )

Development of direct methods for the determination of crystal
structures

1987

Donald J. Cram (USA, *1919/04/22 – )

Charles J. Pedersen (USA, 1904/10/03 – 1989/10/26)

JeanMarie Lehn (France, *1939/09/30 – )

Development of molecules with structurally specific interaction of high
selectivity

1988

Johann Deisenhofer (Germany, *1943/09/30 – )

Robert Huber (Germany, *1937/02/20 – )

Hartmut Michel (Germany, *1948/07/18 – )

Determination of the threedimensional structure of a photosynthetic
reaction center

1989

Sidney Altman (Canada, *1939/05/08 – )

Thomas Robert Cech (USA, *1947/12/08 – )

Discovery of the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acid (RNA)

1990

Elias James Corey (USA, *1928/07/12 – )

Development of novel methods for the synthesis of complex natural
compounds (retrosynthetic analysis)

1992 Rudolph A. Marcus (USA, *1923 – )

Theories of electron transfer

1993

Kary Banks Mullis (USA, *1944 -)

Invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Michael Smith (Canada, *1932 – )

Development of site specific mutagenesis

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