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Oinoi?

?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue a i?e?iaea. Ianiaay aeiey oinoi?a a caiiie ei?a
ninoaaeyao 0,08%. Aaaeiaeoeie ieia?aeaie oinoi?a, ano?a/athueieny a
i?e?iaea, yaeythony ooi?aiaoeo Ca5(PO4)3F e oinoi?eo Ca3(PO4)2.

Naienoaa. Oinoi? ia?acoao ianeieueei aeeio?iiiuo iiaeeoeeaoeee,
eioi?ua caiaoii ?acee/athony ii naienoaai. Aaeue oinoi? – iyaeia
e?enoaeee/aneia aauanoai. Ninoieo ec iieaeoe P4. Ieaaeony i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 44,1(N. I/aiue oi?ioi ?anoai?ei a na?ioaea?iaea CS2.
*a?acau/aeii yaeiaeo e eaaei caai?aaony.

I?e iaa?aaaiee aaeiai oinoi?a ia?acoaony E?aniue oinoi?. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue ianeieueeeo iiaeeoeeaoeee, eioi?ua eiatho
?acee/ioth aeeeio iieaeoe. Oeaao e?aniiai oinoi?a a caaeneiinoe io
niiniaa e oneiaee iieo/aiey iiaeao iaiyoueny io naaoei-e?aniiai aei
oeieaoiaiai e oaiii-ei?e/iaaiai. Oaiia?aoo?a aai ieaaeaiey 585-600(.

*a?iue oinoi? – iaeaieaa onoie/eaay iiaeeoeeaoeey. Ii aiaoiaio
aeaeo ii iioiae ia a?aoeo. A ioee/ea io aaeiai oinoi?a e?aniue e /a?iue
oinoi? ia ?anoai?ythony a na?ioaea?iaea, iie ia yaeiaeou e ia
iaiaiianiu.

Oinoi? oeie/anee aieaa aeoeaai, /ai acio. Oeie/aneay aeoeaiinoue
oinoi?a caaeneo io aeeio?iiiie iiaeeoeeaoeee, a eioi?ie ii iaoiaeeony.
Oae, iaeaieaa aeoeaai aaeue oinoi?, a iaeiiaa aeoeaai /a?iue oinoi?.

A o?aaiaieyo oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee aaeue oinoi? iau/ii caienuaatho
oi?ioeie P4, eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao ninoaao aai iieaeoe. E?aniay e /a?iay
iiaeeoeeaoeee oinoi?a iau/ii caienuaathony oi?ioeie P. Yoio aea neiaie
eniieuecotho, anee iiaeeoeeaoeey iaecaanoia eee iiaeao auoue ethaie.

1. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n i?inouie aauanoaaie – iaiaoaeeaie. Oinoi?
iiaeao ?aaae?iaaoue ni iiiaeie iaiaoaeeaie: eenei?iaeii, na?ie,
aaeiaaiaie, n aiaei?iaeii oinoi? ia ?aaae?oao. A caaeneiinoe io oiai,
iaoiaeeony oinoi? a ecauoea eee iaaeinoaoea, ia?acothony niaaeeiaiey
oinoi?a (III) e (V), iai?eia?:

2P + 3Br2 = 2PBr3 eee 2P + 5Br2 = 2PBr5

2. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n iaoaeeaie. I?e iaa?aaaiee oinoi?a n iaoaeeaie
ia?acothony oinoeaeu:

3Mg + 2P = Mg3P2

Oinoeaeu iaeioi?uo iaoaeeia iiaoo ?aceaaaoueny aiaeie n ia?aciaaieai
aaciia?aciiai oinoeia PH3:

Mg3P2 + 6H2O = 3Mg(OH)2 + 2PH3

Oinoei PH3 ii oeie/aneei naienoaai iioiae ia aiieae NH3.

3. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ni uaei/aie. I?e iaa?aaaiee aaeiai oinoi?a a
?anoai?a uaei/e ii aeeni?iii?oeeiie?oao:

0 -3 +1

P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O = PH3 + 3NaH2PO2

Iieo/aiea. Oinoi? a i?iiuoeaiiinoe iieo/atho ec oinoaoa eaeueoeey
Ca3(PO4)2, eioi?ue auaeaeytho ec oinoi?eoia e ooi?aiaoeoia. Iaoiae
iieo/aiey iniiaai ia ?aaeoeee ainnoaiiaeaiey Ca3(PO4)2 aei oinoi?a.

A ea/anoaa ainnoaiiaeoaey niaaeeiaiee oinoi?a eniieuecotho eien
(oaea?iae). Aeey naycuaaiey niaaeeiaiee eaeueoeey a ?aaeoeeiiioth
nenoaio aeiaaaeytho eaa?oeaaue ianie SiO2. I?ioeann i?iaiaeyo a
yeaeoiia/ao (i?iecaiaenoai ioiinyo e yeaeo?ioa?ie/aneei). ?aaeoeey
i?ioaeaao ii o?aaiaieth:

2Ca3(PO4)2 + 6SiO2 + 10C = 6CaSiO3 + P4 + 10CO

I?iaeoeo ?aaeoeee – aaeue oinoi?. Ec-ca iaee/ey i?eianae oaoie/aneee
oinoi? eiaao aeaeoue oeaao, iiyoiio a i?iiuoeaiiinoe aai iacuaatho
aeaeoui oinoi?ii.

Oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey. Oinoi?, oae aea eae e acio, yaeyaony aaaeiui
yeaiaioii aeey iaania/aiey ?inoa e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ?anoaiee.
?anoaiey ecaeaeatho oinoi? ec ii/au, iiyoiio aai caianu iaiaoiaeeii
ainiieiyoue, ia?eiaee/anee aeiaaaeyy oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey. Oinoi?iua
oaeia?aiey i?iecaiaeyo ec oinoaoa eaeueoeey, eioi?ue aoiaeeo a ninoaa
i?e?iaeiuo oinoi?eoia e ooi?aiaoeoia.

I?inoaeoaa oinoi?iia oaeia?aiea – oinoi?eoiay ioea i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia?aiieioue oinoi?eo Ca3(PO4)2. Yoi oaeia?aiea o?oaeii?anoai?eii,
iii iiaeao onaaeaaoueny ?anoaieyie oieueei ia eeneuo ii/aao.

Aeaenoaeai na?iie eeneiou ia oinoao eaeueoeey iieo/atho i?inoie
noia?oinoao, iniiaiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?iai yaeyaony aeeaeae?ioinoao
eaeueoeey Ca(H2PO4)2. Yoi – ?anoai?eiia aauanoai, e iii oi?ioi
onaaeaaaony ?anoaieyie. Iaoiae iieo/aiey i?inoiai noia?oinoaoa iniiaai
ia ?aaeoeee

Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 = Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4

E?iia iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa noia?oinoao niaea?aeeo aei 50% noeueoaoa
eaeueoeey, eioi?ue yaeyaony aaeeanoii. Aeey iiauoaiey niaea?aeaiey
oinoi?a a oaeia?aiee i?iaiaeyo ia?aaioeo oinoi?eoa oinoi?iie eeneioie:

Ca3(PO4)2 + 4H3PO4 = 3Ca(H2PO4)2

Iieo/aaiia oaeia?aiea iacuaaaony aeaieiui noia?oinoaoii. Aua iaeii
oinoi?iia oaeia?aiea n aunieei niaea?aeaieai oinoi?a – i?aoeeieoao
CaHPO4(2H2O.

Aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiiua oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey i?eaioaaeeaatho ia
iniiaa noia?oinoi?iie eeneiou – niane iieeoinoi?iuo eeneio H4P2O7,
H5P3O10, H6P4O13 e ae?. Yoe eeneiou ia?acothony i?e iaa?aaaiee oinoi?iie
eeneiou H3PO4 a aaeooia.

I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iieeoinoi?iuo eeneio n aiieaeii ia?acothony
iieeoinoaou aiiiiey, eioi?ua eniieuecothony eae eiiieaeniua
acioii-oinoi?iua oaeia?aiey.

Aianoa n acioii oinoi? aoiaeeo a ninoaa iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
eiiieaeniuo oaeia?aiee, iai?eia? aiiioina NH4H2PO4 e aeeaiiioina
(NH4)2HPO4.

Ooeei Aaaaiee Aaea?ueaae/

NIa?O, a?. 9A-144

I?e iaienaiee ?aoa?aoa auea eniieueciaaia

neaaeothuay eeoa?aoo?a:

E.A. Oii/aiei ‘Iauay oeiey’, I. ‘Oeiey’ 1987

A.I. Oii/aiei ‘Oeiey aeey iinooiathueo a AOCu’,

I.’Aunoay oeiea’ 1994

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