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Биологическая роль каротиноидов

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ENOI?E*ANEEA AeAIIUA

Aia?aua ea?ioei aue auaeaeai a 1831 aiaeo Aaeai?iaea?ii ec
aeaeoie ?aiu e ii?eiae. Ii eiaie yoie iineaaeiae – Daucus carota
– ii e iieo/ee naia iacaaiea. Ianeieueei eao nionoy, a 1837
aiaeo, Aa?oeaeeon iooai yeno?aae?iaaiey nie?oii auaeaeee ec
inaiieo eenoueaa caeaiuo ?anoaiee aeaeoia e?anyuaa aauanoai,
iacaaiiia ei enaioioeeeii. A 1847 aiaeo Oeaeca iienae ieaiaio
ii?eiae i?enaiea aio i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo N5
I 8. Iicaeiaa, a 1861 aiaeo, Aocaiai i?eienae ea?ioeio iiaoth
yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo N18 I24I ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo yeaiaioa?iiai
aiaeeca ia oaea?iae e aiaei?iae ( N = 84,14, I = 9,80 e N =
83,98, I = 9,77 ).

Na?ey ?aaio A?ii ( 1885 – 1889 aa. ) auea iai?aaeaia e
aeaeueiaeoaio auyniaieth oeie/aneie i?e?iaeu ea?ioeia. A?ii
auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi aeaeoia e?anyuaa aauanoai,
i?enoonoaothuaa a caeaiuo eenoueyo ?aciuo ?anoaiee ( enaioioeee
Aa?oeaeeona ), eaeaioe/ii e?anyuaio aauanoao ii?eiae ( ea?ioeio
Aaeai?iaea?a ). Yeaiaioa?iue aiaeec ieaiaioa, i?iaaaeaiiue A?ii,
aeae neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou a o?ao ii?aaeaeaieyo:

I. N = 88,55 II. N = 88,75 III. N =
88,70

I = 10,59 I = 10,67 I =
10,62

A?ii i?eienae enneaaeiaaiiiio aeaeoiio e?anyuaio aauanoao iiaoth
yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo N26I38 ( oai?aoe/anee aeey oaeie oi?ioeu N
= 89,14 e I =10,86 ) e iacaae aai ea?ioaiii. Iaeiaei yoio
oa?iei aiineaaenoaee ia i?eaeeny, e ca ieaiaioii inoaeinue aai
i?aaeiaa iacaaiea – ea?ioei.

Auaiaeu A?ii, ca eneeth/aieai eiinoaoaoeee ianiiiaiiiai
oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?a ea?ioeia, auee a iineaaeothuai
iiaeaa?aioou ia?aioeaiea. Aua a 1883 aiaeo Ai?iaeeiui auei
naeaeaii iaaethaeaiea, eaaoaa a iniiao anao aeaeueiaeoeo
enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe E?anii – aeaeoi – i?aiaeaauo i?e?iaeiuo
ieaiaioia. Ai?iaeei aeieacae, /oi aeaeoue ieaiaio, ecaea/aiiue ec
caeaiuo ?anoaiee, ia aiieia eaeaioe/ai ea?ioeio ii?eiae e
ninoieo ec niane ieieioi aeaoo ?acee/iuo ieaiaioia, a eioi?ie
ea?ioei i?enoonoaoao eeoue eae ninoaaiay /anoue a oao eee eiuo
eiee/anoaao. I?aaeeiaeaiea Ai?iaeeia Iiaeoaa?aeeeinue a ?aaioao
aua iaeiiai ?onneiai aioaieea – Iiioaaa?aea e ae?oaeo
enneaaeiaaoaeae. Oae auei iieiaeaii ia/aei eco/aieth eiiieaena
ea?ioeiiauo e?anyueo aauanoa, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaaony e aei
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

I?aaeeiaeaiiay A?ii yiie?e/aneay oi?ioea aeey ea?ioeia
inoaaaeanue ia ii?iaa?aiooie a oa/aiee 20 eao. Oneeey o/aiuo a
eiioea XIX e a ia?aua aiaeu XX no. auee iai?aaeaiu e oiio,
/oiau aianoe eaeoth-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiinoue a oa?aeoa?enoeee e
eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeoi-i?aiaeaauo ?anoeoaeueiuo ieaiaioia. Aoaa?aeue
iieo/ee ea?ioei ec caeaiuo eenoueaa a e?enoaeee/aneii aeaea e
iacaae aai y?eo?ioeeeii. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee iuoaeenue
?acaeaeeoue e eeanneoeoee?iaaoue niooieeia ea?ioeia. A naieo
?aaioao iie i?eiyee i?inoaeoea oeceei-oeie/aneea i?eaiu –
oeeueo?iaaiea /a?ac aeoeaiue oaieue, ia?aaioeo ?acee/iuie
?anoai?eoaeyie e o.ae. Iaeioi?ay iaiaoea ia aiciiaeiinoue
eeanneoeeaoeee aeaeouo ieaiaioia iiyaeeanue oiaaea, eiaaea a
Ni?ae e E?aon ia?aoeeenue e iiiiue niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca,
ii?aaeaeea iieinu iiaeiuaiey ?anoai?ia aauanoa, auaeaeaiiuo ec
?acee/iuo ?anoai?eoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iaeiaei e ooo, eae
i?aaeeueii ioia/aao Ethaeiaiei, “ianiio?y ia iaee/iinoue
iioe/aneeo ioee/ee o enneaaeiaaiiuo E?aonii ieaiaioia, yoio
o/aiue ia neeiiai aue i?eaeaaaoue ei aieueoiai cia/aiey e
aianoi oiai, /oiau aeeaea eco/eoue oeie/aneea e oece/aneea
i?eciaee ioaeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaia/aiiuo a?oii, ii i?inoi
iauyaee eo oi?iaie enaioioeeea”.

Iaeioi?ia iaeeaeaiea a enneaaeiaaiee i?e?iaeiuo e?anyueo
iaiaoeeinue a ia/aea oaeouaai noieaoey. Iii naycaii n ?aaioaie
Aaeueooaooa?a ii enneaaeiaaieth oei?ioeeea, ?acaeaeaieth e
eaeaioeoeeaoeee ieaiaioia, niioonoaothueo aio a ?anoeoaeueiuo
i?aaiao. A naiae ?aaioa “Enneaaeiaaiea oei?ioeeea” Aeeueooaooa?
iinayuaao ioaeaeueioth aeaao “aeaeoui niooieeai” yoiai
?ani?ino?aiaiaeoaai a i?e?iaea ieaiaioa.

Aeeueooaooa? e Iea a 1907 aiaeo auaeaeyee ea?ioei ec nooaiiuo
eenoueaa aeao/ae e?aieau iooai yeno?aae?iaaiey iao?ieaeiui
yoe?ii. Ii naiei naienoaai yoio ieaiaio ieacaeny niaa?oaiii
eaeaioe/iui ea?ioeio ec ii?eiae. Aiaeec i/euaiiiai aauanoaa aeae
neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou a o?ao i?iaao:

I. N = 89,09 II. N = 89,50 III. N = 89,23

I = 10,48 I = 10,59 I =
10,54

N?aaeiaa niioiioaiea iaaeaeo N e I a aiaeecao Aeeueooaooa?a e
Ieaa auei iieo/aii ?aaiui 1,406 ( o A?ii – 1,428 ). Oaeie
?acoeueoao aieaa anaai i?eaeeaeaaony e yiie?e/aneie oi?ioea N5
I7. Ii?aaeaeaiey aea iieaeoey?iiai aana aauanoaa ii oi/ea eeiaiey
a oei?ioi?ia e na?ioaea?iaea i?eaaee aaoi?ia e ieii/aoaeueiie
oi?ioea N40I56. Aeeueooaooa? e Iea iiaeoaa?aeaeatho i?aaeeueiinoue
naieo auaiaeia oaeaea ia i?eia?a aiaeeca eiaeeaea ea?ioeia, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai auei iieo/aii:

I. N = 51,62 II. N = 51,69

I = 6,20 I = 6,25

I = 41,53 I = 41,71

Yoe aeaiiua aieaa niioaaonoaotho oi?ioea N40I56I3 ( N = 52,35;
I = 6,15; I = 41,50 ), /ai oi?ioea aeey eiaeeaea,
i?aaeiieiaeaiiie A?ii ( N26I38I ).

Aieueooaooa? ?aca?aie/ee iiiyoey “ea?ioei” e “enaioioeee” e
oa?aeoa?eciaae enaioioeee, eae ienei?iecaiaeiia ea?ioeia.
Aieueooaooa? oeacae oaeaea ia ioeaeo Aocaiaia, i?eieiaaoaai naia
ieneniaaeeiaiea ca ea?ioei, a oi a?aiy eae ii ?an/aoai
Aeeueooaooa?a iii eae ?ac niioaaonoaiaaei enaioioeeeo, eiathuaio
oi?ioeo N40I56I2.

Oaeei ia?acii ec ?aaio Aeeueooaooa?a auoaeaao, /oi a ?anoaieyo
iaia?oaeaii eae aoaeoi oieueei aeaa aeaeouo ieaiaioa – ea?ioei e
enaioioeee. Yiie?e/aneay oi?ioea ea?ioeia, aeaiiay Aeeueooaooa?ii,
iieo/eea aiineaaenoaee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea niaeanii no?oeoo?iiio
aiaeeco. Nouanoaiaaiea aea, e?iia ea?ioeia, oieueei iaeiiai
enaioioeeea auei niiieoaeueiui, oae eae aua aei enneaaeiaaiee
Aeeueooaooa?a auei niiieoaeueiui, aioaieeaie aue iaeiieai
cia/eoaeueiue iaoa?eae ii ecaea/aieth ?anoeoaeueiuo aeaeouo
ieaiaioia, iaeaaeathueo ?acee/iuie niaeo?aeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
e ?anoai?eiinoyie. Eiaaony a aeaeo oeeoe?iaaiiua auoa ?aaiou
Ai?iaeeia e ae?oaeo aaoi?ia. Ai?i/ai e nai Aeeueooaooa?, a
eiioea eiioeia, au?acee niiiaiea a iaeii?iaeiinoe iieo/aiiuo ei
i?aia?aoia, /oi a iineaaenoaee oeaeeeii ii?aaaeaeinue.

Caia/aoaeueiia ioe?uoea ?onneiai aioaieea Oeaaoa, iioaeeeiaaaoaai
a 1910 aiaeo naith ?aaioo “O?iiioeeeu a ?anoeoaeueiii e
aeeaioiii ie?a”, iieacaei aaeeinoaaiii yooaeoeaiue iooue e
?ac?aoaieth aeaiiiai aii?ina. Oeaao i?aaeeiaeee iieueciaaoueny
aeey ?acaeaeaiey aeaeouo, e?aniuo e i?aiaeaauo ieaiaioia iaoiaeii
o?iiaoia?aoe/aneie aaeni?aoeee, naeaeaaoeiny aiineaaenoaee iaeiei
ec iaeaieaa oiieeo i?oaeee a i?aaie/aneii aiaeeca.

Oeaaoo oaeaeinue, eciee?iaaa ea?ioei, ?aniieiaeeoue oo nianue,
eioi?oth Aeeueooaooa? iacaae “enaioioeeeii”, aua ia /aou?a
ioaeaeueiuo ieaiaioa. Aaoi? iacaae eo enaioioeeeaie (, (’ (’’ e (,
ii ia oniae iiaeaa?aiooue ananoi?iiiaio eco/aieth. Iaeiaei iooue
aeey aeaeueiaeoaai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiey ?anoeoaeueiuo ieaiaioia aue
iaia/ai niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii e iaania/ee oniao iineaaeothueo
enneaaeiaaiee.

?aciiia?acea aeaeouo, e?aniuo e i?aiaeaauo e?anyueo aauanoa
?anoaiee a yoi a?aiy auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii oaeaea oaeoii
auaeaeaiey oaeaaiaei?iaea eeeiieia a oeaeii ?yaea ?anoaiee, aaea
ii niioonoaoao ea?ioeio enaioioeeeo. Auei onoaiiaeaii oaeaea
iaee/ea eeeiieia a oiiaoao. Iac?aaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaanoe oioy
au i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth ?aoeeiiaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth ea?ioeiiauo
e?anyueo aauanoa.

Ia?aay iiiuoea a yoii iai?aaeaiee naeaeaia a 1916 aiaeo
Ethaeiaiei a aai ?aaioa “I i?aa?auaieyo ieaiaioia ieanoeae a
aeeaie oeaie ?anoaiey”. Eeanneoeeaoeey Ethaeiaiei aace?iaaeanue ia
aeaoo i?eciaeao – ?anoai?eiinoe ieaiaioia a iaeiii e oii aea
i?aaie/aneii ?anoai?eoaea e noiaenoaa niaeo?ia iiaeiuaiey a
na?ioaeaaiaei?iaea, ii?aaeaeythueony aecoaeueii i?e iiiiue
niaeo?ineiia. Aaoi? aeaeee, i?aaeaea anaai, ana ieaiaiou
oei?iieanoia ia aeaeoua e e?aniua. AEaeoua, a naith i/a?aaeue,
ii ioiioaieth e io?aaueeiie eeneioa aeaeeeenue ia a?oiio
ea?ioeia, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?ie ia?anoai?eiu a eeneioa, e a?oiio
enaioioeeea, /eaiu eioi?ie eaaei ?anoai?eiu a io?aaueeiie
eeneioa. E e?aniui ieaiaioai Ethaeiaiei ioiinee a?oiio eeeiieia
e a?oiio ?iaeienaioeia.

A?oiia ea?ioeia, niaeanii Ethaeiaiei, ian/eouaaea oanoue
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae. Aaoi? ?aniieaaae eo a neaaeothuea
aeaa ?yaea (ni. oaae.).

A?OIIA EA?IOEIA

niaeo?u iiaeiuaiey

a na?ioaea?iaea

eioaineaiinoue iiein

1 iieina 2 iieina

ia?aue ?yae

Ea?ioei (,

ia?anoai?.

a nie?oa 538 – 510 492 – 475 I = II

Ieaiaio ieiaeia Lycium ovatum, ?anoai?. a ai?y/ai nie?oa 538 – 503
491 – 472 II > I

Ea?ioei ( eaaei ?anoai?. a nie?oa 538 – 505 492 – 472 II > I

aoi?ie ?yae

Ea?ioei (’, ?anoai?. a eeiyuai nie?oa 53 – 508 492 – 473 I
= II

Ieaiaio ieiaeia Solanum pseudocapsicumpseudocapsicum, ?anoai?. a
oieiaeiii nie?oa 533 – 502 490 – 470 II > I

Ea?ioei (’, eaaei ?anoai?. a nie?oa 580 – 505 490 – 470
II > I

Eaaeaeue aa ?yae, ninoiyuee ec o?ao i?aaenoaaeoaeae,
iauaaeeiyaony noiaeiie niaeo?aeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie. Ieaiaiou a
i?aaeaeao eaaeaeiai ?yaea ?aniieaaathony a ii?yaeea oeo/oaiey
eo ?anoai?eiinoe a nie?oa. Aaoi? ioia/aao, /oi eo/oay
?anoai?eiinoue a nie?oa nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaeaea oeo/oaieai
?anoai?eiinoe a oenoniie eeneioa. O ea?ioeia (, eaaei
?anoai?ythuaainy a iaieo ?anoai?eoaeyo iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue
iaee/ea a iieaeoea eenei?iaea, iaoiaeyuaainy , iaeiaei, ia a
o?iiioi?iie a?oiia. Oaeei ia?acii Ethaeiaiei aeeth/ae a a?oiio
ea?ioeia ia oieueei oeie/iue oaeaaiaei?iae ea?ioei (, eioi?ue ii
eaeaioeoeoee?iaae n ieaiaioii ii?eiae, ii oaeaea e
eenei?iaeniaea?aeauea niaaeeiaiey. Iiaue e iaeaieaa ieiaeioai?iue
ia?eiae a eco/aiee ea?ioeia e ?iaenoaaiiuo aio ieaiaioia ia/aeny
ia?eiae a eco/aiee ea?ioeia e ?iaenoaaiiuo aio ieaiaioia
ia/aeny iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, eiaaea o aeioeieeia ia/ae
iaeaieeaaoueny eioa?aniue iaoa?eae i aiciiaeiie acaeiinayce
iaaeaeo ea?ioeiii e iaaeaaii ioe?uoui aeoaieiii A e ia iauiinoe
eo oeceieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey. A ia?eiae 1928 – 1933 aiaeia
ea?ioei e ea?ioeiieaeu yaeeenue iauaeoii oaeoaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
oeaeiai ?yaea oeieeia-i?aaieeia. Oeaeueth yoeo ?aaio auei
ieii/aoaeueiia auyniaiea oeie/aneie i?e?iaeu e naienoa ea?ioeia e
niioonoaothueo aio ?iaenoaaiiuo ieaiaioia.

A 1928 aiaeo Oeaeoiaenoa? e aai nio?oaeieee, eaoaeeoe/anee
aeae?e?oy ea?ioei, onoaiiaeee, /oi aai iieaeoea niaea?aeeo
aieueooth aeeoaoe/aneoth a?oiie?iaeo. Aeaeueiaeoea ?aaiou ii
auyniaieth no?iaiey ea?ioeia i?eiaaeeaaeao, aeaaiui ia?acii,
Ea??a?o, oe?iei eniieueciaaaoaio o?iiaoia?aoe/aneee iaoiae Oeaaoa
aeey ?acaeaeaiey ieaiaioia e eo eciia?ia. A 1930 aiaeo, o.a.
ii/oe /a?ac noi eao iinea ioe?uoey ea?ioeia, auea onoaiiaeaia
aai no?oeoo?iay oi?ioea. A yoio aea ia?eiae a?aiaie auee
auaeaeaiu e eco/aiu iaeioi?ua eciia?u ea?ioeia e ?yae
ea?ioeiieaeia.

Aicieeea iiaay nia?aiaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey ea?aoeiiauo e?anyueo
aauanoa. Niaeanii yoie eeanneoeeaoeee ana ecaanoiua iai
ea?ioeiiaua e?anyuea aauanoaa ii no?oeoo?iiio i?eciaeo iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa iniiaiuo a?oiiu: niaaeeiaiey n 40
oaea?iaeiuie aoiiaie a iieaeoea e niaaeeiaiey n /eneii aoiiia
oaea?iaea a iieaeoea iaiueoei 40. E ia?aie a?oiia i?eiaaeeaaeao
oaeaaiaei?iaeu (ea?ioei, aai eciia?u e eeeiiei), ieneniaaeeiaiey –
iai?a?uaiua nie?ou, iieo/eaoea niae?aoaeueiia iacaaiea
“enaioioeeeia”, e ieniniaaeeiaiey (eaoiiu). Aoi?ay a?oiia
ea?ioeiiauo e?anyueo aauanoa i?aaenoaaeaia ea?aiiiauie e
ieneea?aiiiauie eeneioaie. E?iia oiai, iaia?oaeaii aua ianeieueei
niaoeeoe/aneeo ea?ioeiieaeia, auaeaeaiiuo ec i?aaiia aeeaioiuo.
*enei oaea?iaeiuo aoiiia a eo iieaeoea aeinoeaaao 80 ( aoaieoeei
).

ONOAIIAEAIEA OEIE*ANEIE NO?OEOO?U EA?IOEIA

Eiee/anoai aeaieiuo naycae a iieaeoea ea?ioeia auei ii?aaeaeaii
ii iiaen/aoo eiee/anoaa iieaeoe aiaei?iaea, ?anoiaeoaiuo i?e
eaoaeeoe/aneii aeae?e?iaaiee. Auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi iaeia iieaeoea
ea?ioeia i?eieiaao 11 iieaeoe I2 e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaea?aeeo
11 aeaieiuo naycae. Oaeea aea ?acoeueoaou iieo/aiu i?e ?aaeoeee
ea?ioeia n oei?eaeii.

?yae oeaiiuo auaiaeia naeaeai ec ?acoeueoaoia iiuoia
ieeneeoaeueiiai ?anuaieaiey ea?ioeia. Ieeneaiea aaicieueiiai
?anoai?a ea?ioeia aiaeiui ?anoai?ii ia?iaiaaiaoa i?e ano?yoeaaiee
aea/ao ca niaie auyaeaiey caiaoa oeaeie. Oaeia aea yaeaiea, ii
a iaiueoae noaiaie, iaaethaeaeinue e i?e naiiieeneaiee ea?ioeia
eenei?iaeii aicaeooa. Ecaanoii, /oi oeie/aneei oaeoi?ii,
iaoneiaeeaathuei caiao oeaeee, yaeyaony (-eiiii:

eioi?ue i?e ieeneaiee ia?iaiaaioii niiniaai aeaaaoue neaaeothuee
?yae i?iaeoeoia ?anuaieaiey :(-(-aeeiaoeeaeooa?iaoth eeneioo (1),
(-(-aeeiaoeeyioa?ioth eeneioo (2) e aeeiaoeeiaeiiiaoth eeneioo
(3):

Iiaeiaiue aea ?yae i?iaeoeoia ?anuaieaiey aue ioia/ai e
Ea??a?ii i?e aeeeoaeueiii ieeneaiee ia?iaiaaiaoii ea?ioeia.

I?E?IAeIUA ECIIA?U EA?IOEIA

Enneaaeiaaiey ii auyniaieth no?oeoo?u ea?ioeia i?iaiaeeeenue
ia?aiia/aeueii n ieaiaioii, auaeaeaiiui ec ii?eiae e i?eiyoui ca
/enoue ea?ioei. Anei?a auea auyniaia i?e/eia iaeioi?uo
eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoaycie a ?acoeueoaoa iiuoia, iaueyniythuayny oai,
/oi ea?ioei ii?eiae i?aaenoaaeye niaie nianue ioaeaeueiuo
eciia?ia. I?eaaaeaiiia auoa no?iaiea ieacaeinue i?enouei eeoue
iaeiiio eciia?o ea?aoeia.

Ieaiaio ii?e?iae o?iiaoia?aoe/anee aue ?acaeaeai ia o?e
eciia?iuo eiiiiiaioa. Eciia? neiiao?e/iiai no?iaiey ninoaaeye
ieiei 85% niane. A eiee/anoaa ieiei 15% aue i?aaenoaaeai aoi?ie
eciia?. A i?iaeoeoao aai ieeneaiey auei iaia?oaeaii iaiueoaa
eiee/anoai aa?iiiaie eeneiou e iaee/ea eciaa?iiiaie eeneiou,
iieo/athuaeny, iau/i, a ?acoeueoaoa ieeneeoaeueiiai ?aniaaea
(-eiiiiiaiai oeeeea:

Ionthaea, aiieia anoanoaaiii, iiaeii auei caeeth/eoue, /oi a
iieaeoea aoi?iai eciia?a n oie aea yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie N40I56
niaea?aeaony aeaa ?acee/iuo oeeeea – iaeei (-eiiiiiaue e aoi?ie
(-eiiiiiaue:

I?aaeeueiinoue oaeie no?oeoo?iie oi?ioeu iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e
iioe/aneie aeoeaiinoueth ( i?aaui a?auaieai ) yoiai niaaeeiaiey,
iaoneiaeaiiie iaee/eai anneiao?e/aneiai aoiia oaea?iaea.

Eciia? neiiao?e/iiai no?iaiey aue iacaai (-ea?ioeiii, eciia? n
iaeiei (-eiiiiiaui oeeeeii – (- ea?ioeiii.

O?aoee eciia? ieaiaioa ii?eiae – (-ea?ioei – aue auaeaeai e
enneaaeiaai Eoiii e A?ieiaiii. I?e eaoaeeoe/aneii aeae?e?iaaiee
ii i?eniaaeeiyao aeaaiaaeoeaoue iieaeoe aiaei?iaea e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaea?aeeo oaea aeaaiaaeoeaoue iaianuuaiiuo
naycae. A i?iaeoeoao iciie?iaaiey (-ea?ioei aue iaia?oaeai
aoeaoii a eiee/anoaa 0,85 iieaeoe ia iieaeoeo (-ea?ioeia. Ec
yoeo aeaiiuo aue naeaeai auaiae i iaee/ee ia iaeiii eiioea
iieaeoeu (-ea?ioeia ioe?uoie iaianuuaiiie aeeoaoe/aneie a?oiie?iaee
( n iaeiie aeiiieieoaeueiie aeaieiie naycueth )

eioi?oth iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue, eae ?aci?aaiiia eieueoei eiiiia,
o.a. eae inaaaeieiiiiia:

Oaeei ia?acii iieaeoea (-ea?ioeia aoaeao eiaoue neaaeothuee
aeae:

(-, (- e (-ea?ioei yaeythony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie
i?e?iaeiuie no?oeoo?iuie eciia?aie ea?ioeia. Eiay iaeeiaeiaoth
yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo N40I56, iie ioee/athony iaeei io ae?oaiai
?yaeii naienoa – oaiia?aoo?ie ieaaeaiey, niiniaiinoueth
aaeni?ae?iaaoueny ia ieenyo iaoaeeia, niaeo?aeueiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. No?oeoo?iie i?e/eiie, iaoneiaeeaathuae yoe
eciaiaiey, eae aeaeii ec anaai eceiaeaiiiai auoa, yaeyaony
?acee/iia ?aniieiaeaiea aeaieiuo naycae ia iaeiii ec eiioeia
iieaeoeu.

Ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acaeoea oaoieee /?acau/aeii oiieiai
o?iiaoia?aoe/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey ieaiaioia ii Oeaaoo iicaieeei i?e
enneaaeiaaiee ?anoeoaeueiuo iaaeoia iaia?oaeeoue iiaua eciia?u
ea?ioeia, ano?a/athueany a i?e?iaea, i?aaaea, a cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoeo eiee/anoaao. Oae, Aeioa?ooaei ec ieiaeia aiiiea?eoia,
iaeaieaa aiaaoiai (-ea?ioeiii, auaeaeee 4-e eciia?, iacaaiiue
(-ea?ioeiii. Noaey ii iaeneioiai iiaeiuaiey (-ea?ioeia, eaaeauei
iaaeaeo oaeiauie aeey (-ea?ioeia e aeey ea?ioeiieaea eeeiieia,
iiaiio eciia?o i?eienaia neaaeothuay i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiay oi?ioea:

Iyoue i?e?iaeiue eciia? ea?ioeia iaia?oaeai a 1941 aiaeo
O?ainii e Eaiia?a?ii i?e o?iiaoia?aoe/aneii ?acaeaeaiee ieaiaioia
aeaeoie eoeo?ocu. Ia o?iiaoia?aiia ii aeaaae naaoeiaeaeoia
eieueoei, ?aniieiaeaiiia ianeieueei auoa /aoeiioaeaeaiiiai
i?aiaeaaiai eieueoea (-ea?ioeia. Iiaue ieaiaio, iacaaiiue
e-ea?ioeiii, i?eieiaee nia/aea ca (-ea?ioei, ii niaeo?ineiie/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea iieacaei, /oi iiaue eciia? iaia?oaeeaaao iaeneioi
iiaeiuaiey, ia niioaaonoaothuee oaeiaiio aeey (-ea?ioeia. No?iaiea
iiaiai eciia?a ieii/aoaeueii aua ia onoaiiaeaii. Ecaanoii eeoue,
/oi a aai iieaeoea eiaaony iaeei (-eiiiiiaue oeeee.

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu oaeaea iaia?oaeaii aua aeaa i?e?iaeiuo
?anoeoaeueiuo ieaiaioa, eioi?ua anoue iniiaaiey ?anniao?eaaoue,
eaeeciia?u ea?ioeia. Yoi (-ea?ioei No?aeia, iaeaeaiiue a ii?eiae,
e (-ea?ioei No?aeia e Iaiieiaa, auaeaeaiiue ec aeeaoiiiauo
aiaei?ineae. Iineaaeiee iieo/ai aaoi?aie a e?enoaeee/aneii
ninoiyiee. Ii naiei oeie/aneei naienoaai yoio oaeaaiaei?iae ii/oe
eaeaioe/ai (-ea?ioeio. Iaeiaei aai niaeo?aeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?eaeaaeaaony e oaeiaie ea?aoeiieaea aeieaenaioeia.

I?e?iaeiua no?oeoo?iua eciia?u ea?ioeia iiae aeeyieai
anoanoaaiiuo eee niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo oneiaee niiniaiu, a
naith i/a?aaeue, eciia?eciaaoueny. I?e yoii iiaeao auoue iieo/aii
aieueoia eiee/anoai, aeaaiui ia?acii, noa?eieciia?ia. Aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie i?eiyoi auei n/eoaoue yoe noa?eieciia?u
ea?ioeia i?iaeoeoaie eneeth/eoaeueii eneonnoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.
Iaeiaei nia?aiaiiua aeaiiua ?yaea enneaaeiaaoaeae
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaee/ee oaeeo noa?eieciia?ia a iaeioi?uo
?anoaieyo. Oaeei ia?acii ?acaeaeaiea eciia?ia ea?ioeia ia
i?e?iaeiua e eneonoaaiiua noaiiaeony oaea aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie
oneiaiui.

Ec anao ecaanoiuo aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie i?e?iaeiuo eciia?ia
ea?ioeia iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaao (-ea?ioei. E oiio aea ii
iaeaaeaao /?acau/aeii iaoe?iui ?ani?ino?aiaieai a i?e?iaea. I/aiue
/anoi aio niioonoaoao a oii eee eiii eiee/anoaa (- e
(-ea?ioei. Iaa yoeo iineaaeieo, eae aoaeao oeacaii aeaeaa,
oaeaea yaeythony i?iaeoaieiaie A, n aaeaia iaiueoae ii
n?aaiaieth n (-ea?ioeiii aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth. Iiyoiio i?e
ecaioiaeaiee ea?ioeiiauo i?aia?aoia iau/ii iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
?acaeaeaiee o?ao eciia?ia. Nianue yoeo eciia?ia, auaeaeaiiay ec
eaeiai eeai nu?ueaaiai enoi/ieea, iai?eia? ec ii?eiae, i/euaiiay
e ia?ae?enoaeeeciaaiiay, iineo iaiauathuaa iacaaiea “ea?ioei”.
Iaia?ae?enoaeeeciaaiiay nianue eciia?ia ea?ioeia ecaanoia ea?ioeia
ecaanoia eae “nu?ie ea?ioei”.

EA?IOEIIEAeU

A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eciia?u ea?ioeia a
i?e?iaeiuo enoi/ieeao nii?iaiaeaeathony oai eee eiui eiee/anoaii
/?acau/aeii ?iaenoaaiiuo ei ii no?iaieth ae?oaeo ?anoeoaeueiuo
ieaiaioia – ea?ioeiieaeia. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo ea?ioeiieaeia, eae
aoaeao oeacaii aeaeaa, iaeaaeatho oaeaea i?iaeoaieiiie
aeoeaiinoueth.

Ae?oaea eeoaiu yoeo naienoa, ii, aoaeo/e /anouie niooieeaie
ea?ioeia a enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeao, yaeythony aaeeanoii, io eioi?iai
ioaeii inaiaiaeaeaoueny i?e i?eaioiaeaiee /enouo i?aia?aoia
ea?ioeia e i?e aiaeeoe/aneiiii?aaeaeaiee aeoeaiinoe.

Ea?aoeiieaeu, oae aea eae e eciia?u ea?ioeia, i?eiaaeeaaeao e
iieeaiiaui anoanoaaiiui e?anyuei aauanoaai. Eo iieaeoeu iino?iaiu
ii aiaeiae/iiio n ea?ioeiii no?oeoo?iiio i?eioeeio – oeeeeu eee
inaaaeioeeeeu niaaeeiaiu aeeoaoe/aneie a?oiie?iaeie ec ecii?aiiauo
inoaoeia. Iaaeaeo ea?ioeiii e ea?aoeiieaeaie nouanoaoao,
iiaeaeeiiio, oaeaea e ii?aaeaeaiiay aaiaoe/aneay naycue.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeioi?ua ?anoeoaeueiua i?iaeoeou
iaeaieeaatho a naaa, ia?yaeo n ea?ioeiii, i?aeiouanoaaiiua
eiee/anoaa eaeiai-eeai eee ianeieueeeo ea?ioeiieaeia ( iai?eia?,
eeeiiei a oiiaoao, e?eioienaioei a aeaeoie eoeo?oca eae?. )
Eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo ea?ioeiieaeia, ia?acothueony a i?aaiao
?anoaiee, iiaeao auoue /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciui e ian/eouaaao
eiiaaea ianeieueei aeanyoeia ioaeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.
Ea?ioeiieaeu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua aeaeaei ia iieiinoueth
eco/aiu. Aieaa eee iaiaa oi/iua aeaiiua i no?iaiee e naienoaao
ecaanoiu eeoue aeey iniiaiuo ieaiaioia aeaiiie a?oiiu.

Ec ea?ioeiieaeia oaeaaiaei?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?a ecaanoai iaeei
eeeiiei, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiue a i?e?iaea ( oiiaou, iaeioi?ua
o?oeou e yaiaeu ). Ii naiae no?oeoo?a ii ioee/aaony io
(=ea?ioeia iaee/eai ia eiioeao iieaeoeu ia (-eiiiiiauo oeeeeia,
a inaaaeieiiiiia:

A nouiinoe yoi /enoi aeeoaoe/aneia niaaeeiaiea, oi?ioeo
eioi?iai iiaeii caienaoue oae:

Oioy eeeiiei e i?eiyoi ioiineoue e ea?ioeiieaeai, ii ii
oaeoe/anee yaeyaony aeeoaoe/aneei eciia?ii ea?ioeia, oae aea eae
e iineaaeiee, oaeaaiaei?iaeii n yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie N40I56.

Ioaeaeueioth a?oiio ea?ioeiieaeia ninoaaeyao ?yae iaiacuuaiiuo
nie?oia i?iecaiaeiuo ea?ioeia. Iie iinyo iauaa iacaaiea
enaioioeeeia, aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi eo ia?aue i?aaenoaaeoaeue aue
iaia?oaeai a aeaeouo eenoueyo.

Ec enaioioeeeia iaeaieaa aeecie e ea?ioeio e?eioienaioei (
ieaiaio eoeo?ocu ), eiathuee yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo N40I56I e
neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o:

Eae aeaeii, e?eioienaioei ioee/aaony io (-ea?ioeia eeoue
no?oeoo?ie iaeiiai ec oeeeeia, eioi?ue yaeyaony
aeae?ieneee?iaaiiui.

Ae?oaie i?aaenoaaeoaeue iiaea?oiiu enaioioeeeia n yiie?e/aneie
oi?ioeie N40I56I – ?oaeenaioei. O iaai eiaaony oaeaea iaeei
aeae?ieneee?iaaiiue aoii (-eiiiiiaue oeeee, aoi?ie aea ?ane?uoue
(inaaaeieiiii):

Ea?ioeiieae-enaioioeee n aeaoiy aeae?ieneee?iaaiiuie (-eiiiiiauie
oeeeeaie e yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie N40I56I2 ( ieaiaio ye/iiai
aeaeoea ) iineo iacaaiea caaenaioei:

Eciia?ii caaeniioeia yaeyaony enaioioeee aeaeouo eenoueaa
(ethoaei), o eioi?iai ia?aue aeae?ieneee?iaaiiue oeeee
(-eiiiiiaue, aoi?ie aea (-eiiiiiaue :

Aeaeaa a nienea ea?ioeiieaeia iiaea?oiiu enaioioeeeia neaaeoao
oeaaienaioei ( ieaiaio ethoeea ) n yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie N40I56I3,
aeaa eciia?a -aeieaenaioei ( ieaiaioaithoeiuo aeacie ) e
oa?aenaioei ( ieaiaio iaeoaai/eea ) n yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie
N40I56I4. No?iaiea yoeo ienei?iecaiaeiuo ea?ioeia aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii auyniaii.

E enaioioeeeai ioiineony oaeaea ooeienaioei ( ieaiaio ao?uo
aiaei?ineae ) n yiie?e/aneie oi?ioeie N40I60I6. No?oeoo?a enaioeia
auyniaia iaaeaaii e i?aaenoaaeyaony a neaaeothuai aeaea:

Eainaioei N40I58I3 – aeaaiue ieaiaio eiaeeoeu ieiaeia iai?eee –
iiaeiaii e?eioienaioeio eiaao a naiae iieaeoea iaeei
aeae?ieneee?iaaiiue (-eiiiiiaue oeeee. Ia ae?oaii aea eiioea
iieaeoeu eainaioeia – inaaaeioeeee:

Neaaeothuay iiaea?oiia ea?ioeiieaeia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
ieniniaaeeiaieyi. Ec ieo iaeaieaa eco/ai ?iaeienaioei N40I50I2:

A naia a?aiy ?iaeienaioei n/eoaeny aaeeinoaaiiui
eaoii?iecaiaeiui ea?ioeia. Iaeiaei oaia?ue ecaanoiu oaeaea aoaiei
N40I54I, yaeythueeny iiiieaoii?iecaiaeiui (-ea?ioeia:

e ieenienaioei N40I54I – aiaeiae/iia i?iecaiaeiia (-ea?ioeia:

E iiiieaoiiai ioiineony oaeaea, eae auynieeinue, e ea?ioeiieae
aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey yoeiaiii N40I58I + I2.

Ec ea?ioeiieaeia n /eneii oaea?iaeiuo aoieia, iaiueoei 40,
iaeaieaa ecaanoiu e?ioeaoei e aeenei ( ea?aiiiaua eeneiou ) e
acao?ei (ieneeeneioa). Aiiaua aiai?y, i?aaenoaaeoaee yoie a?oiiu
ea?ioeiieaeia ai?acaei ?aaea ano?a/athony a i?e?iaea e
iaeaieeaathony oieueei a ?anoaieyo. N?aaee ieo ia iaeaeaii
oaeaaiaei?iaeia. Nouanoaotho i?aaeiieiaeaiey, a nayce n yoei, /oi
ea?ioeiieaeu n /eneii oaea?iaeiuo aoiiia 40 ia?acothony a
i?aaiao ?anoaiee iooai ieeneaiey ea?ioeiieaeia n 40 oaea?iaeiuie
aoiiaie a iieaeoea.

E?ioeaoei N20I24I4 yaeyaony aeaeoui ieaiaioii oao?aia. A iai
/aou?a eenei?iaeiuo aoiia iaoiaeyony a aeaoo ea?aieneeueiuo
a?oiiao:

Iiioey?iue e?aneoaeue aeey ieuaauo aee?ia aeenei N24I30I –
e?aniue ieaiaio naiyi Bixa orellana – i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iaoeeiaue yoe? aeeea?aiiiaie eeneiou ii?aeeneia N24I28I4:

Ae?oaie e?aneoaeue aeey aee?ia – acao?ei N27I38I4, iieo/aaiue ec
o?iie/aneeo ?anoaiee aeaeia Scrophulariacea, yaeyaony ieneeeneioie
ni neaaeothuei no?iaieai:

Ec ea?ioeiieaeia aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaeuecy aua ia
oiiiyiooue ?aoeiai, ecaea/aiiue ec nao/aoee aeaca,
aaeaioe?iaaiiie a oaiiioa. ?aoei yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii ?aniaaea
c?eoaeueiiai io?io?a – ?iaeiineia e ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a
iaoaiecia i?ioeanna c?aiey.

NAIENOAA EA?IOEIA

E?enoaeee/aneee ea?ioei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aauanoai oaiiiai
iaaeii-e?aniiai oeaaoa n aeanoyuei iaoaeee/aneei iooaieii. *enoua
eciia?u ea?ioeia ioee/athony ii iooaieo ie?anee. E?enoaeeu
(-ea?ioeia – i?aiaeaai-e?aniua n y?eei aeaneii, (-ea?ioei ia?acoao
oeieaoiaua e?enoaeeu n iaoaeee/aneei aeaneii, (-ea?ioei
-oaiiie?aniua.

Oi?ia e?enoaeeia ea?ioeia aua iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aia. Neaaeoao
i?aaeiieaaaoue iaee/ea iieeii?oecia, aeaaiui ia?acii a caaeneiinoe
io i?e?iaeu ?anoai?eoaey. Ieeiae/ e Iaooeee ioia/atho, e?iia
oiai, caaeneiinoue oi?iu e?enoaeeia io oneiaee e?enoaeeecaoeee –
oaiia?aoo?u, eiioeaio?aoeee, nei?inoe ioeaaeaeaiey,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe noiyiey ?anoai?a. Ii Oeaoiaenoa?o, ea?ioei ec
niane na?ioaea?iaea e nie?oa aue?enoaeeeciauaaoueny a /aoei
au?aaeaiiuo eoaeeao, ec iao?ieaeiiai yoe?a, auiaaeaao a aeaea
i?eci; (-ea?ioei ec aaiceia aue?enoaeeeciauaaaony a aeaea i?eci
eee io/eia eae. Ieeiae/ e Iaooeee iaaethaeaee i?e
e?enoaeeecaoeee ea?ioeia ia?aciaaiea ?iiaiyae?ia ( ec iao?ieaeiiai
yoe?a ), o?aoaieueiuo ieanoeiie (ec aoeaoiia), eae (ec oei?ioi?ia
e iaoaiiea ), io/eia eae (ec na?ioaea?iaea e aanieaoiiai
nie?oa), eaaae?aoiuo ieanoeiie (ec iao?ieaeiiai yoe?a e
iaoaiiea). Aaoi?u n/eoatho, /oi, ianiio?y ia ?acee/ea oi?iu,
ea?ioei anaaaea e?enoaeeecoaony a aaenaaiiaeueiie nenoaia.

Niaa?oaiii /enoue ea?ioei ia eiaao caiaoa. Iaeiaei a nayce n
oai, /oi aeaaea i?e naiii ouaoaeueiii o?aiaiee ea?ioeia a iai
anaaaea ia?acoaony iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia ?aceiaeaiey,
ea?ioei i?eia?aoaao i?eyoiue caiao ei?iae oei?aioeeneie oeaeee,
aucuaaaiue (-eiiiiii.

EA?IOEI EAE I?IAEOAIEI A

iauea naaaeaiey

I?iaeoaieiiay nouiinoue ea?ioeia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi yoio
ieaiaio niiniaai ?anuaieyoueny a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea e iiiaeo
aeeaioiuo n ia?aciaaieai aeoaieia A. Oaeia, iiaeaeeiiio,
aaeeinoaaiiue iooue ia?aciaaiey aeoaieia A, ia neioace?othuaainy
naiinoiyoaeueii a i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo. A 1931 aiaeo Ea??a?
onoaiiaee, /oi aeoaiei A yaeyaony iaianuuaiiui nie?oii ninoaaa
N20I29II n iyoueth eiithae?iaaiiuie aeaieiuie naycyie e
(-eiiiiiaui oeeeeii:

Eia/a aiai?y, aeoaiei A i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeae?ieeciaaiioth
iieiaeio iieaeoeu neiiao?e/iiai (-ea?ioeia e iieo/aaony ec iaai
iooai ieeneeoaeueiiai ?aniaaea ii n?aaeiae (oeaio?aeueiie)
aeaieiie nayce:

N40I56 + 2I2I = 2N20I29II

Iaeiaei i?ioei aeiaieueii iiiai a?aiaie, iiea auea iaia?oaeaia
yoa acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ea?ioeiii e aeoaieiii A. A oa/aiee
ii/oe noieaoey ea?ioei ?anniao?eaaeny eneeth/eoaeueii, eae oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiue ?anoeoaeueiue ieaiaio – niooiee oei?ioeeea, ia
eiathuee ia?niaeoea i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa
e?aneoaey aneaaenoaea naiae eaaeie ieeneyaiinoe.

Ieii/aoaeueiiio onoaiiaeaieth acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ea?ioeiii e
aeoaieiii A i?aaeoanoaiaaea aeeeoaeueiay iao/iay aeeneonney iaaeaeo
aeioeieeaie e oeceieiaaie.

A 1918 aiaeo a ia/aoe iiyaeeanue noaouey Noeiaiea e
nio?oaeieeia. Aaoi?u i?eaiaeeee ?acoeueoaou naieo iaaethaeaiee
iaae oeceieiae/aneie ?inoiaie aeoeaiinoueth iiiaeo ?anoaiee e
?anoeoaeueiuo auoyaeae, eioi?ay auea aiaeiae/ia ii naiaio
oa?aeoa?o aeoeaiinoe ?aiaa oaea ecaanoiiai oaeoi?a A ?uaueeo
aee?ia. A yoie ?aaioa e a iineaaeothueo enneaaeiaaieyo Noeiaiea
e aai nio?oaeieeia, auei ioia/aii, /oi niaoeeoe/aneia
oeceieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ?anoeoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeeony a
i?yiie caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey a ieo eeiio?iiia, o.a.
aee?i?anoai?eiuo e?anii-i?aiaeaauo e aeaeouo ieaiaioia. Ae?aiiiiae
a 1919 aiaeo auneacae ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeeiaeaiea i oii, /oi
iaeei ec yoeo ieaiaioia aeieaeai auoue eaeaioe/ai aeoaieio A.
Noeiaie ia?aoee aieiaiea ia ea?ioei e iaoae, /oi ii niiniaai
noeioee?iaaoue ?ino e?un a ionoonoaee aeoaieia A. Iaeiaei a
iineaaeothueo naieo ?aaioao Ae?aiiiiae e nio?oaeieee aunooieee n
aic?aaeaieai i?ioea eaeaioe/iinoe ea?ioeia n aeoaieiii A. *enoue
e?enoaeee/aneee ea?ioei a iiuoao yoeo aaoi?ia ia ieacuaae
iaeeaeaaiiai oeceieiae/aneiai yooaeoa. Ae?aiiiiae ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao o Noeiaiea iieo/ai ca n/ao eaeeo-eeai
i?eianae e iaaeinoaoi/ii /enoiio i?aia?aoo ea?ioeia. Ae?oaia
aic?aaeaiea, aunoaaeaiiia Ae?aiiiiaeii, caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue i?aia?ao aeoaieia A – aee? ia/aie ?ua, a
oaeaea e ?yae ae?oaeo aee?ia, iaeaaeathueo A-aeoaieiiie
aeoeaiinoueth, ia niaea?aeao ea?ioeia e ia ie?aoaiu a
oa?aeoa?iue aeey iaai e?anii-i?aiaeaaue oeaao.

Aeeneonney iaaeaeo aia?eeaineei aeioeieeii Noeiaieii e
aiaeeeneei oeceieiaii Ae?aiiiiaeii oea ii yaii iai?aaeeueiiio
iooe. Aii?in aue ?ac?aoai eeoue iinea iiyaeaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
?aaio Yeea?a e aai nio?oaeieeia e Io?a. Iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi
ea?ioei niiniaai auoue oaeoi?ii ?inoa eeoue i?e iaee/ee aeoaieia
D, eioi?ue niioonoaoao aeoaieio A a ?uaueeo aee?ao, ii a
i?eiaiyaiie Ae?aiiiiaeii aeeaoa aeey e?un, ei?iyueony ea?ioeiii,
iieiinoueth ionoonoaiaae. Aoi?ay ioeaea Ae?aiiiiaea caeeth/aeanue
a oii, /oi ii ia o/eouaae iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ?ani?aoeee
e?enoaeee/aneiai ea?ioeia i?aaieciii aac aee?iaie N?aaeu.

A 1929-1930 aa. auea ieii/aoaeueii onoaiiaeaia A-aeoaieiiay
oeceieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia, iieo/aiiiai ec ?acee/iuo
?anoeoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, e aia?aua iaia?oaeaii, /oi a ia/aie
e?ieeeia, ieoathueony ii?eiaueth, ioeeaaeuaaaony ia ea?ioei, a
eaeia-oi aieaa aeaaeii ie?aoaiiia aauanoai. Anei?a auynieeinue,
/oi yoi aauanoai e yaeyaony aeoaieiii A. I?e ei?ieaiee e?un
aee?iaie aeeaoie, eeoaiiie aeoaieia A, ii niaea?aeauae
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeicu i?inoaeoaai, eaaiaaeoeaoue ?ac
ia?ae?enoaeeeciaaiiiai ea?ioeia, Io? iaia?oaeeaae iiyaeaiea a
ia/aie aeoaieia A n oa?aeoa?iie aeey iaai iieinie iiaeauaiey i?e
328 m(, aeathuaai ii Ea??-I?aeno eioaineaioth ie?aneo n
o?aooei?enoie no?ueiie a oei?ioi?ia n iaeneioiaie iiaeiuaiey 606 e
572 m(. Eaiia?, iiaeaa?aioa niaeo?aeueiiio enneaaeiaaieth
i?aia?aou Io?a, i?eoae e aiaeiae/iiio caeeth/aieth.

Iaee/ea aeieacaiiie nayce iaaeaeo ea?ioeiii e aeoaieiii A oaea
cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/eei ?anoeo?iaeo no?iaiey iineaaeiaei. Aiaeec
aeoaieia A, i?iecaaaeaiiue Ea??a?ii, aeae yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo
niaaeeiaiey N20I30I.

A 1933 aiaeo aue neioace?iaai ia?aeae?iaeoaiei A ( N20I39II ),
niaa?oaiii eaeaioe/iue ia?aeae?iniaaeeiaieth i?e?iaeiiai aeoaieia A,
a a 1937 aiaeo inouanoaeai neioac e naiiai aeoaieia A. Oaeei
ia?acii ieii/aoaeueii iiaeoaa?aeeeinue no?iaiea iieaeoeu aeoaieia A
e aai acaeiinaycue n ea?ioeiii.

ONAIAIEA EA?IOEIA I?AAIECIII E IA?ACIAAIEA AEOAIEIA A

Aeoaiei A i?enoonoaoao a ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao a aeaea yoe?ia
?aoeiiea, a iniiaiii, n iaeueieoeiiaie eeneioie. Ia?yaeo n ieie,
/?acau/aeii aaaeiui enoi/ieeii aeoaieia A a ieoaiee neoaeeo
ea?ioei.

Ea?ioei, iiiaaeay a i?aaieci /aeiaaea, ananuaaaony /a?ac noaiee
eeoa/ieea, iaeaieeaaaony, i?aeiouanoaaiii, a ia/aie, aaea e
?anueieyaony n ia?aciaaieai aeoaieia A. Oaeiaa iauay noaia
onaiaiey ea?ioeia. Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue aeaiiiai i?ioeanna ia
iaeaeueiuo aai yoaiao iiaeaa?aeaia cia/eoaeueiui eieaaaieyi a
caaeneiinoe io aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia.

Yoe?u ?aoeiiea e ea?aoeiieaeu, iinooieaoea n ieuae a
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iue o?aeo, a aeaea aee?iauo aeiaoe iinooiatho a
oiieoth eeoeo, aaea a i?enoonoaee aeae/iuo eeneio i?ienoiaeeo eo
yioeueae?iaaiea e ia?aciaaiea ieoeaee.

Aeae?ieec yoe?ia ?aoeiiea aei ?aoeiiea e naiaiaeiuo aee?iuo
eeneio inouanoaeyaony ianiaoeeoe/aneie iaie?aaoe/aneie eeiacie.
Naiaiaeiue ?aoeiie e (-ea?ioei ia?acotho a i?inaaoa eeoa/ieea
niaoaiiua ieoeaeeu, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo aea/iua eeneiou,
aee?iua eeneiou, iiiiaeeoea?eaeu, oieanoa?ei e ae?., e a oaeii
aeaea aeinoeaatho iiaa?oiinoe iee?iai?neiie yioa?ioeeoia.
Ia?aciaaiea ieoeaee nouanoaaiii iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue ananuaaiey
ea?ioeia e ?aoeiiea.

Ananuaaiea ea?ioeia e ea?ioeiieaeia i?ienoiaeeo, aeaaiui ia?acii,
a aa?oiae o?aoe eeoa/ieea iooai ianneaiie aani?aoeee n o/anoeai
ia?aiin/eeia – i?e oeceieiae/aneeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo aeoaieia, eee
ianneaiie aeeooocee – i?e aieaa aunieeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo. Ii
ae?oaei aeaiiui, ananuaaiea ?aoeiiea eaeao ii aeoeaiiio iaoaiecio
eee iooai ieiioeeoica.

?ani?aoeey ea?ioeia a e?iaue /a?ac eeoa/iue yieoaeee caaeneo,
i?aaeaea anaai, io oa?aeoa?a aini?eieiaaiiai i?aaieciii
ea?ioeiiaiai i?aia?aoa. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi ea?ioei nu?uo
iaeciaeue/aiiuo iaiuae e ieiaeia ?ani?ae?oaony a ieieiaeueiie
noaiaie, eai ii iaoiaeeony aioo?e iaiiaeaeaeiie eeaoee e
ie?oaeai aiaeiie n?aaeie, ia yaeythuaeny aeey iaai ?anoai?eoaeai.
Cia/eoaeueii eo/oa i?ioaeaao aeey iaai ?ani?aoeey a neo/aa
i?eiaiaiey iaeei eciaeue/aiiiai i?aia?aoa eee iiaeaa?aiooi
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ia?aaioea, ineaaeythuae eeaoi/iua noaiee.

?aoathuei oaeoi?ii aeey ?ani?aoeee ea?ioeia yaeyaony iaee/ea
aee?iaie n?aaeu. Aiaaoay aee?ii aeeaoa iaeaa/aao onaiaiea
ea?ioeia. I?e aaaeiie aee?aie aeeaoa aeaaea /enoue
e?enoaeee/aneee ea?ioei, i?eiyoue aioo?ue aac aee?a, ia iaeaaeaao
ii/oe ieeaeei oeceieiae/aneei aeaenoaeai. Ionthaea ynii, /oi
iaeeo/oae oi?iie i?aia?aoa ea?ioeia yaeyaony aai ianeyiue ?anoai?
eee eiioeaio?ao. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai ea?ioeia, ?anoai?aiiiai a
ianea, niiniaiu onaaeaaoueny i?aaieciii ia 70-80 e aeaaea 90%.
I?e yoii i?e?iaea naiiai ianea eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea, i
/ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua iaaethaeaiey. Ooo ea?aao
?ieue, iiaeaeeiiio e ?anoai?eiinoue ea?ioeia a ianea e iaee/ea
a ianea ieeneythueo ea?ioei i?eianae eee noaaeeecaoi?ia,
oeie/aneee ninoaa ianea e ae?oaea oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia noaiaiue
?ani?aoeee ea?ioeia. I?iaaaeaiiua ia e?unao iiuou Aiineia e
?ooa iieacaee, /oi ?ani?aoeey ea?ioeia, ?anoai?aiiiai a
ia?aa?eia, i?aeoe/anee ?aaia ioeth. I?e aeiaaaeaiee e ia?aa?eio
iaeiiai i?ioeaioa iaianuuaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio ?ani?aoeey ea?ioeia
i?aauoaao 20%. I?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua, i?aaaea, ia niaeanothony n
iicaeiaeoeie enneaaeiaaieyie Aa?ainiia e A?thieona, eioi?ua iaoee,
/oi (-ea?ioei iaeeiaeiai auyaeyao naienoaa oaeoi?a ?inoa,
aoaeo/e ?anoai?aiiui a a?aoeaeiii ianea eee ia?aa?eia. I/aaeaeii,
?aoeaioo?a ia?aa?eia eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea.

Onaiyaiinoue i?aaieciii ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A cia/eoaeueii
iiauoaaony a i?enoonoaee (-oieioa?iea (aeoaiei A ), yaeyauaainy
noaaeeecaoi?ii-aioeieneaeaioii. Eo/oa anaai ?ani?ae?oaony ea?ioei
oao i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho iaeaieaa aunieei niaea?aeaieai
aeoaieia A. Eneonnoaaiiia aeiaaaeaiea (-oieioa?iea e ea?ioeio a
ieeoeiaii ianea e e ii?eiae oaeaea aea/ao ca niaie oaaee/aiea
onaiyaiinoe. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi i?e yoii oaaee/eaaaony e
niaea?aeaiea ea?ioeia a eaea aeeaioiuo, /oi oaeaea iiaeao auoue
iauaniaii i?aaeio?aiythuei aeaenoaeai (-oieioa?iea. Aoaaaiaaei
n/eoaao iaee/ea aeoaieia Aaaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii onaiaiey ea?ioeia e
aeoaieia A. Aaoi? eco/ae aeeyiea i?e?iaeu ianea ia onaiyaiinoue
ea?ioeia. A niaoeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiuo iiuoao aeeaioiui aeaaaeny
ianeyiue ?anoai? ea?ioeia n eiioeaio?aoeeae 1,6 ia ieaiaioa a 1
ie. Iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou:

Ianei
Niaea?aeaiea aeoaieia A Aeieiae/aneay

a ia% oeaiiinoue

Ieeaeiaia
?aoeie?iaaiiia………………………………………………….
.. 0,08 44

Eieiniaia
ia?aoeie?iaaiiia………………………………………………..
..0,03 45

Nacaiiaia
ia?aoeie?iaaiiia………………………………………………..
..0,05 44

Oeiieiaia
ia?aoeie?iaaiiia………………………………………………..
. 0,92 72

Eueiyiia
ia?aoeie?iaaiiia………………………………………………..
……0,23 61

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ianiiiaiiii aeeyiee
niaea?aeaiey aeoaieia A a ianeao ia aeieiae/aneoth oeaiiinoue
?anoai?aiiiai a ieo ea?ioeia.

A i?ioeanna ananuaaiey ea?ioeia eeoa/ieeii i?eieiatho o/anoey
aeae/iua eeneiou, i?yii eee einaaiii ea?athuea ?ieue a ia?aiina
ea?ioeia /a?ac eeoa/iue yieoaeee. Iiuou, i?iaaaeaiiua ia e?unao,
iieacaee, /oi iaeaieueoee yooaeo ?ani?aoeee ea?ioeia ec eeoa/ieea
eiaao ianoi oiaaea, eiaaea ea?ioei ?anoai?ai a o?eieaeia eee
40% ?anoai?a aeae/e. I?e i?eiaiaiee eieiniaiai e ei?iaueaai
ianea ?ani?aoeey iiieaeaeanue. Ia?ooaiea aeae/iiai aiia?aoa
io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia onaiyaiinoe ea?ioeia, /oi
iaaethaeaaony o eeoe, no?aaeathueo ?ano?ienoaii aeae/iiai iocu?y.
A neo/aa o?iie/aneie aeea??ae e caeoii?eaaiea aeae/iuo i?ioieia,
a oaeaea e i?e ae?oaeo ?anno?ienoaao, naycaiiuo n aeeeoaeueiui
ia?ooaieai aee?iaiai iaiaia, ?ani?aoeey ea?ioeia iiaeao auoue
iieiinoueth eneeth/aia, a onaiyaiinoue aeoaieia A cia/eoaeueii
nieaeaia. Iae Aaei neeiiai i?eienuaaoue aeae/iui i?iaeoeoai ii
ioiioaieth e ea?ioeio e aeoaieio A aeaenoaea, aiaeiae/iia oaeiaiio
eiaa?oiuo iue (oeo/oaiea ?anoai?eiinoe). Nouanoaotho oeacaiey i
oii, /oi nei?inoue ?ani?aoeee ea?ioeia iiaeao nieaeaoueny i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eioaeoeeiiiuocaaieaaaieyo e a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai
a?aiaie iinea ieo.

E?iia anao ioia/aiiuo auoa oaeoi?ia, ia onaiyaiinoue ea?ioeia
aeeaioiui i?aaieciii ieacuaaao caiaoiia aeeyiea e noaiaiue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ianuuaieyyoiai i?aaiecia i?iaeoaieiii A, a
oaeaea e ?acia?u aeice?iaee. I?e iaoia?aiiii iio?aaeaiee
i?aaieciii ea?ioeia iaonaieaoeeny aai ecauoie ?aceaaaaony a
eeoa/ieea eee, i?e iaee/ee noaaeeecaoi?ia, auoiaeeo ec i?aaiecia
n eaeii a /anoe/ii ia iia?aaeaeaiiii ninoiyiee. Anea aea,
aneaaenoaee oi?ioi ?aaioathuaai ?ani?aoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa,
/?acia?iia eiee/anoai ea?ioeia aninaeinue a e?iaue ec
ieuaaa?eoaeueiiai o?aeoa, ecauoie ea?ioeia niiniaai auaeaeyoueny
aeaaea /a?ac eiaeo, eioi?ay aeaaiaea?y yoiio i?eia?aoaao aeaeoue
oeaao.

?ani?aoeey ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A a ianeyiuo ?anoai?ao i?e
i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo i?ioaeaao, i?eia?ii, n iaeeiaeiaui eiia/iui
yooaeoii, anee yoi ioiineony e oia?aiiui aeice?iaeai. Iaeiaei
aieueoea eiee/anoaa ea?ioeia ia onaaeaathony oae oi?ioi eae
aeoaiei A. A iniaaiiinoe yoi i?aaeeueii, eiaaea ea?ioei aaiaeeony
aac aee?a eee i?e ieceie aee?iaie aeeaoa. Nei?inoue ?ani?aoeee
ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A oaeaea ia iaeeiaeiaa, /oi caaeneo,
aeaeeii, io aaea/eiu iieaeoeu. Aeaaen e Io? ii?aaeaeeee, /oi
iaeneiaeueiue o?iaaie ea?ioeia a e?iae o e?un aeinoeaaaony i?e
?ani?aoeee nionoy 7-8 /ania iinea aaaaeaiey i?aia?aoa. A neo/aa
aeoaieia A aiaeiae/iue yooaeo aeinoeaaaony ca 3-5 /ania.

Iinea iinooieaiey a yioa?ioeeo ?aoeiie yoa?eoece?oaony aee?iuie
eeneioaie, i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeueieoeiiaie, oiaaea eae ea?ioei
iiaeaa?aaaony ?anuaieaieth n ia?aciaaieai aeaoo iieaeoe ?aoeiiea.
Yoa?eoeeaoeey ?aoeiiea a yioa?ioeeoao i?ienoiaeeo iooai aai
acaeiiaeaenoaey n aoeee-EiA, eaoaeece?oaiiai iee?iniiaeueiie
aoeee-EiA: ?aoeiieaoeeeo?ainoa?acie.

I?aa?auaiea (-ea?ioeia a ?aoeiie i?ienoiaeeo a aeaa noaaeee.
Ia ia?aie noaaeee iiae aeeyieai (-ea?ioei-15,15’-aeeieneaaiacu
ea?ioei ?anuaieyaony ii ianoo oeaio?aeueiie aeaieiie nayce
iieeaiiaie oeaie, niaaeeiythuae aeaa aai (-eiiiiiauo eieueoea,
aei aeaoo iieaeoe ?aoeiaey. Ia aoi?ie noaaeee ?aoeiaeue
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony a ?aoeiie i?e o/anoee ae?oaiai
IAAeI-(IAAeOI)-caaeneiiai oa?iaioa neecenoie oiieie eeoee –
?aoeiaeueaeaaeae?aaeoeoacu. Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae,
aieueoay /anoue ea?ioeia a eeoa/ieea ?anuaieyaony ia ii
oeaio?aeueiie, a ii ia?eoa?e/aneei aeaieiui naycyi, n
ia?aciaaieai aiiea?aoeiaeae e ieceiiieaeoey?iuo i?iaeoeoia
ieeneaiey. Aiiea?ioeiaee i?e o/anoee IAAe-(IAAeO) – caaeneiie
ea?ioeiieueieneaeacu i?aa?auathony caoai a aiiea?ioeiiaaua eeneiou.
Iaeiaei oaaaeeoaeueiua yenia?eiaiou aeieacaoaeuenoaa a iieueco
oeceieiae/aneie cia/eiinoe iiaeiaiiai iaoaiecia ia iieo/aiu.

Ia?aeaey a e?iaue, ea?ioei, eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa,
eiioeaio?e?oaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a ia/aie. Ecaanoii oaeaea, /oi
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ea?ioeia /a?ac e?iaue ioeeaaeuaaaony a
aee?iauo oeaiyo /aeiaaea, ei?iau, eioaaee. Ecaanoiue o?iaaiue
niaea?aeaiey ea?ioeia iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iinoaiaiii a e?iae. O
ieaeiieoathueo ea?ioei /anoe/ii ia?aoiaeeo a iieiei,
ioeeaaeuaaaony a iaaeii/a/ieeao e aeaeouo oaeao ye/ieea.

Aeieacaii, /oi o aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aeeaioiuo ea?ioei,
iinooiathuee a ia/aiue, iiaeaa?aaaony ?anuaieaieth ii ine
neiiao?ee iieaeoeu n ia?aciaaieai aeoaieia A. Eiiaa?ney
i?ienoiaeeo a eeaoeao Eoioa?a e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaaeeaiiue,
eciai/eaue i?ioeann, ii anai aa?iyoeyi oa?iaioaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Ea?ioei iinoaiaiii en/acaao, e ia?aeeaeueii n yoei iaeaieeaathony
cia/eoaeueiua eiee/anoaa aeoaieia A. Aeeiaieea aeaiiiai i?ioeanna,
a oaeaea niiniaiinoue ia/aie aeeoioee?iaaoue a naaa ea?ioei e
aeoaiei A caaenyo io iniae. Ia/aei eiiaa?nee o e?un, e?ieeeia,
eo? e ei?ia iaaethaeaaony oieueei /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea
aaaaeaiey ea?ioeia a i?aaieci aeeaioiiai.

Niiniaiinoue ia/aie iaeioi?uo aeeaioiuo iaeaieeaaoue a naaa
aieueoea eiee/anoaa aeoaieia A iienoeia ecoieoaeueia. E?una iiaeao
ca ianeieueei aeiae ioeiaeeoue oaeia eiee/anoai aeoaieia A,
eioi?ia oaaoeei au ia ieuaaua iio?aaiinoe ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa.
Ecaanoai iiuo Io?a, eioi?ue niaoeeaeueiie aeeaoie aeiaeeny
ianuuaiey ia/aie e?unu caianaie aeoaieia A ia noi eao aeecie.
Ia?yaeo n yoei e?ieee e ii?neay naeiea oaea?aeeaatho
n?aaieoaeueii iaeia eiee/anoai aeoaieia A aeaaea i?e aiaaoie
ea?ioeiii aeeaoa. O /aeiaaea iaeiieaiea aeoaieia A a ia/aie
eiaao oaiaeaioeeth oaaee/eaaoueny n aic?anoii.

Ioiineoaeueii iaaunieay noaiaiue eiiaa?nee ea?ioeia iaaethaeaaony
o ei?ia. Iiyoiio e iieiei ei?ia, a caaeneiinoe io ii?iaeu
aeeaioiiai, iiaeao niaea?aeaoue a naaa i?aiaeaaeathuea eiee/anoaa
eee ea?ioeia eee aeoaieia A.

Niiniaiinoue eiiaa?oe?iaaoue ea?ioei a aeoaiei A iaeaaeatho ia
ana aeeaioiua. Aa eeoai i?aaieci eioae. Aa??en io?eoeaao aa
aiiaua o anao ieioiyaeiuo, eioi?ua auioaeaeaiu, oaeei ia?acii,
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ii?iaeueiue o?iaaiue aeoaieia A a i?aaiecia ca
n/ao aeeaioiie ieue.

Oaeo eiiaa?nee ea?ioeia eiaiii a ia/aie auyniai n aeinoaoi/iie
oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth. Aeieacaii, /oi i?e ?acee/iuo
caaieaaaieyoia/aie, i?e oinoi?iii io?aaeaiee, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aieaciyo neioa, naycaiiuo n ia?ooaieai ooieoeee ia/aie, ea?ioei
inoaaony iaeiiaa?oe?iaaiiui a eeaoeao Eoioa?a a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao. Nei?inoue ?anuaieaiey ea?ioeia a ia/aie cia/eoaeueii
iiieaeaaony oaeaea i?e caaieaaaiee aeeaaaoii.

*?acau/aeii eioa?aniue n oeie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey i?ioeann
eiiaa?nee ea?ioeia, niaeanii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi,
i?ienoiaeeo i?e o/anoee niaoeeaeueiiai oa?iaioa, iacaaiiiai
ea??ioeiacie. Nouanoaiaaiea yoiai oa?iaioa , ai?i/ai, iaeuecy
n/eoaoue aua iieiinoueth aeieacaiiui. Ea?ioeiaco eco/aee
Ieueeioo e Iae Eyii, eioi?ua aeaiiino?e?iaaee ?aaeoeeth eiiaa?nee
ea?ioeia in vitro i?e aeaenoaee ia/aii/iie oeaie eee aiaeiiai
yeno?aeoa ia/aie aeeaioiuo. Iiaeiaiua aea iiuou auee inouanoaeaiu
aiineaaenoaee e ae?oaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie. Iaeiaei oeaeue ?yae
aaoi?ia niiauaao i oii, /oi ei ia oaeaeinue aini?iecaanoe yoie
?aaeoeee. Yeea? neeiiai io?eoeaoue nouanoaiaaiea ea?ioeiacu,
i?eienuaay aa ?ieue e?iae. I?e aeaenoaee ia ea?ioei naaaeae
e?iayiie nuai?ioee auea aio oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny iaeioi?iai
yooaeoa eiiaa?nee.

Eaieaineee e Aaeaaa onoaiiaeee, /oi i?aa?auaiea ea?ioeia a
aeoaiei A iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a oeaiyo ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu iiae
aeaenoaeai oe?aiaeiaoeeia. I?e eiaee?iaaiee eacaeia, nuai?ioi/iiai
aeiaoeeia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aaeeia aaoi?ai oaeaeinue iieo/eoue
i?aia?aou, i?eaeaaeathueany e oe?aiaeiaoeeio ii naiaio
ai?iiiaeueiiio aeaenoaeth. I?e ia?aaioea eieeieaeiiai ?anoai?a
ea?ioeia eiaee?iaaiiui eacaeiii ioia/aii ia?aciaaiea iaeioi?iai
eiee/anoaa aeoaieia A, iaia?oaeeaaaiiai niaeoioioiiao?e/aneei iooai.

?ac?aoaiea aii?ina i aiciiaeiiioe eiiaa?nee ea?ioeia oeie/aneei
iooaii eiaao eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. I?e
iaee/ee oaeiai iaoiaea, ia naycaiiiai ni neeoeii neiaeiuie
iia?aoeeyie e aeathuaai oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua auoiaeu, auea au
?ac?aoaia i?iaeaia iieo/aiey i?aia?aoia aeoaieia A ec
?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey. Ec i?eaiaeeiuo oaeoia aeaeii, /oi oioy
ea?ioei i?e iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo aai onaiaiey e ?aaiioeaiai
ii/oe iieiinoueth aeoaieio A, ana aea iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
aaaaeaieth a i?aaieci i?aia?aoia aeoaieia A niioonoaoao aieaa
auno?ay ?ani?aoeey. Ioiaaeaao i?e yoii e iaoneiaeaiiue oaeoi?aie
i?ioeann eiiaa?nee. Eeoa?aoo?iua aeaiiua, eanathueany aii?iny ia
eneonnoaaiiie eiiaa?nee ea?ioeia aac i?eiaiaiey eaeeo-eeai
auoyaeae aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, i/aiue iaiiiai/eneaiiu. Aiaae
onoaiiaee, /oi iaeioi?ua aiay?iaiua aaeoa?ee iaeaaeatho
niiniaiinoueth ia?aaiaeeoue ea?ioei a aauanoaa, ii niaeo?aeueiie
oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eaeeaeathueany e aeoaieio A. Aaoaeai e Niao
iiaeaa?aaee ?anoai?u ea?ioeia a oeeeeiaaenaia iaeo/aieth a
aoiinoa?a acioa iiiio?iiaoe/aneei oeueo?ioeieaoii (265 m() e
iieo/eee i?iaeoeou, aeeceea ii oa?aeoa?enoeea e aeoaieio A.
Aeueaeaaeae aeoaieia A aue iieo/ai Oaioa?ii e Aeeueyinii n
i/aiue iaeui auoiaeii i?e aeaenoaee ia ?anoai? (-ea?ioeia a
oei?ioi?ia e eaaeyiie oenoniie eeneioa ia?aeenueth aiaei?iaea i?e
ouaoaeueii eiio?iee?oaiuo oneiaeyo. Iinea o?iiaoia?aoe/aneiai
ioaeaeaiey io i?i/eo i?iaeoeoia ieeneaiey aeueaeaaeae
ainoaiaaeeaaeny ii Iiiaei?ooo a aeoaiei A – nie?o, iaeaaeaaoee
iaeeaeaaiie aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth.

N oi/ee c?aiey iauai?eiyoie aeiioacu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeoaieia
A eneeth/eoaeueii ec ea?ioeia, ia ia?aue acaeyae, eaaeaony
iayniui – eaeei ia?acii a aee?a ia/aie oeaeiai ?yaea ii?neeo e
i?aniiaiaeiuo ?ua iaeaieeaaaony ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aeoaieia A, a
iieoi?u ouny/e ?ac i?aauoathuea iaeneiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea
ea?ioeia a ?anoaieyo. Nouanoaoao caneoaeeaathuay aieiaiey oai?ey
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeoaieia A a ?uaueeo aee?ao ec ea?ioeia caeaiuo
aiaei?ineae. Iooue yoeo i?aa?auaiee, iaeiaei, ai?acaei aieaa
neiaeai, /ai i?e iienaiiie auoa iaiin?aaenoaaiiie eiiaa?nee. Ca
n/ao aiaaouo ea?ioeiii aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae ?acaeaaaony
oeoiieaieoii, yaeythueeny ieuae aeey iaeeeo ?ua. Oeuiua ?uau,
ieoathony iaeeeie, naie oaea ia niiniaiu eiiaa?oe?iaaoue ea?ioei.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaea-oi a n?aaeiae oeaie yoeo i?aa?auaiee
aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue ia?aciaaiea aeoaieia, oae eae aieueoaio
eiee/anoao oeoiieaieoiia a ii?a niioaaonoaoao aieueoaa
niaea?aeaiea aeoaieia A a ia/aie e?oiiuo ?ua. niiniaiinoue
n?aaeieo ?ua oaaee/eaaoue niaea?aeaiea aeoaieia A i?e
eneonnoaaiiii aeiaaaeaiee ei a ieuo ea?ioeia oaeaea aiai?eo a
iieueco yoie oai?ee. Iaeiaei o eiiaiiae, yaeythueony iniiaiie
ninoaaiie /anoueth oeoiieaieoiia naaa?iuo ii?ae, iaeaeaiu eeoue
neaaeu ea?ioeia e iaaeoeaiue ea?ioeiieae anoaoeei. Iineaaeiee
iaia?oaeai oaeaea a yeoeao iaeioi?uo aeaeia oa?aee. Anoue
i?iaeieaeaiea, /oi anoaoeei yaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui i?iaeoeoii i?e
ia?aciaaiee aeoaieia A a i?aaiecia ?ua.

Eiiaa?ney ea?ioeia i?ioaeaao, iiaeaeeiiio, eiiaaea e ia ii
oeaio?aeueiie aeaieiie nayce, a ii ninaaeiae n iae. A oaeii
neo/aa ec iaeiie iieiaeiu iieaeoeu ea?ioeia iiaeao ia?aciaaoueny
(-aii-5-ea?ioeiie – aiiieia aeoaieia A – n 22 oaea?iaeiuie aoiiaie
e 6 eiiuthae?iaaiiuie aeaieiuie naycyie. Iaee/ea yoiai aiiieiaa
iacaaiiiai aeoaieiii A2, ioia/aii a aee?ao i?aniiaiaeiuo ?ua.

AEIEIAE*ANEAss AEOEAIINOUe EA?IOEIA E EA?IOEIIEAeIA

Aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia, o.a. noaiaiue niiniaiinoe
aai ieacuaaoue ia i?aaieci oaeia aea aeaenoaea, eae e aeoaiei
A, caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna aai onaiaiey e ii?iaeueiie
ooieoeee eiiaa?oe?othuaai aiia?aoa. Aeoaiei A, eae auei oeacaii
auoa, ?ani?ae?oaony a eeoa/ieea auno?aa ea?ioeia e a oaaee/aiiuo
aeicao niaa?oaiiaa. E oiio aea aeoaiei A, eae i?aia?ao,
iinooiaao a i?aaieci eneeth/eoaeueii a aee?iaii ?anoai?a. Yoai
eiiaa?nee i?e i?eiaiaiee aeoaieia A iieiinoueth ioiaaeaao. Ea?ioei
aea iiaeao aaiaeeoueny a i?aaieci a naiii ?aciiia?aciii aeaea,
i?ienoiaey ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia. Oaeei ia?acia A-aeoaieiiay
aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeiiauo i?aia?aoia – ooieoeey iiiaeo ia?aiaiiuo
oaeoi?ia.

Ia?aua enneaaeiaaiey ea?ioeia, eae i?iaeoaieia A, n/eoaee aai
aeoeaiinoue ?aaiie aeoeaiinoe naiiai aeoaieia (a ?aaiuo aaniauo
eiee/anoaao). Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai a eaeaaeueiii neo/aa, eiaaea
/enoue (-ea?ioei, ?anoai?aiiue a ianea, niaea?aeauai
aioeieneaeaiou, aaiaeeony iaaieueoeie aeicaie a ii?iaeueii
ooieoeeiie?othuee i?aaieci. Oiaaea onaiyaiinoue oiai e ae?oaiai
i?aia?aoa aeieaeia auoue, i?eia?ii, iaeeiaeiaie, e eiiaa?ney
ea?ioeia a ia/aie i?iecieaeao eiee/anoaaiii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aoaeao ee aaaaeai a i?aaieci aeoaiei A eee (-ea?ioei a oii aea
eiee/anoaa – ?acoeueoe?othuae oeceieiae/aneee yooaeo aeieaeai auoue
oio aea naiue. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi iiaeiaiia yaeaiea
iiaeao eiaoue ianoi oieueei i?e iaee/ee iaeiiai (-eciia?a
ea?ioeia, neiiao?e/iay iieaeoea eioi?iai i?e eiiaa?nee
?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa ?aaiioeaiiuo iieaeoeu aeoaieia A. A aaniaii
eiee/anoaa aeoaiei A iieo/aaony i?e yoii aeaaea iaiiiai aieueoa,
anee i?eiyoue a ?an/ao aeaa i?eniaaeeiythueony i?e eiiaa?nee
iieaeoeu aiaeu.

Oeaeue ?yae yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaaethaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi (-ea?ioei e aeoaiei A a ?aciuo
aaniauo eiee/anoaao ii/oe iaeeiaeiaiainnoaiaaeeaatho ?ino e?un i?e
iaaieueoeo aeice?iaeao. Iaeiaei, ia?yaeo n yoei, eiaaony
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaiiuo, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i aieaa
ieceie aeoeaiinoe ea?ioeia ii n?aaiaieth n aeoaieiii A. Aeaeeeai
n nio?oaeieeaie n/eoatho, /oi, aiiaua aiai?y, aeoeaiinoue
aeoaieia A a 1,66 ?aca auoa aeoeaiinoe ea?ioeia. Aiaea?oeee e
Eaoa?ae ia iniiaaiee aeieiae/aneie i?iaa?ee i?eoee e caeeth/aieth
i aaeaia aunoae aeoeaiinoe aeoaieia A ii n?aaiaieth n
ea?ioeiii. Ea??a?ii auea iaeaeaia aeaaea a aeanyoue ?ac aunoay
aeoeaiinoue aeoaieia A.

Ana yoe ?acii?a/eaua aeaiiua n o?oaeii iiaeaeathony n?aaiaieth,
oae eae ?aciui enneaaeiaaoaeyi ii/oe iaaiciiaeii nicaeaoue
eaeaioe/iua oneiaey aeieiae/aneie i?iau. E oiio aea e i?aaeaeu
ioeaie i?e aeieiae/aneii eniuoaiee aeoeaiinoe iiaoo i?aauoaoue
100 i?ioeaioia (Eaoa?ae).N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aiciiaeiu ioeaee e
i?e oeie/aneii ii?aaeaeaiee ea?ioeia a i?iaeoeoao aneaaenoaee
iao/eouaaaiiai ?aceiaeaiey e eciia?ecaoeee. E?iia oiai,
A-aeoaieiiay aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia iiaeao eieaaaoueny a caaeneiinoe
io aeaea aeeaioiiai. Onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe aeey e?un
iaeuecy iaoaie/anee ia?aiineoue ia ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo. Ea?aao,
iiaeaeeiiio , iaeioi?oth ?ieue e aic?ano iniae. Oiaa?
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aeey caei?iaiai ac?ineiai /aeiaaea iao ?acee/ey
onaiyaiinoe iaaeaeo aeoaieiii A e ea?ioeiii. Iaeiaei aeey aeaoae
e noa?eeia ea?ioei, aoaeoi au, ia iiaeao caiaieoue aeoaiei A.
Ia?yaeo n yoei Naiaeea? iiae/a?eeaaao aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea
ea?ioeia ia aeaoae, /oi iaaeaeo i?i/ei, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e
ecaanoiie iai i?aeoeeie ioa/anoaaiiuo oa?aiaaoia.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe ea?ioeia eiaao
ninoaa eciia?ia a i?aia?aoa. Anee iieaeoea (-ea?ioeia i?e
eiiaa?nee iaoeaei ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa iieaeoeu aeoaieia A, oi
i?e eiiaa?nee iieaeoeu (- eee (-ea?ioeiaa aeieaeia auoue ?aaia
oieueei iieiaeia aeoeaiinoe (-ea?ioeia, /oi e aeieacaii aua Eoiii
e A?ieiaiii a 1933 aiaeo. Iaeiaei e a yoii, eacaeinue au
aiieia yniii aii?ina, ia iaioeinue aac i?ioeai?a/ee. Yeea?,
Ea??a? e Oeoa?en ia onoaiiaeee aieueoie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo (- e
(-ea?ioeiaie, eae oaeoi?aie ?inoa e?un. Ai?i/ai ?inoiaay ooieoeey
ea?ioeia, niaeanii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, oaea ia n/eoaaony
aeaaiaeoei e oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii aai oeceieiae/aneiai
aeaenoaey.

Aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia, aaiaeeiiai n anoanoaaiiuie
i?iaeoeoaie, caaeneo oaeaea io i?ienoiaeaeaiey yoeo i?iaeoeoia,
io eo ia?aaioee ia?aae oiio?aaeaieai a ieuo, io niiniaa
aaaaeaiey eo a i?aaieci e aaee/eiu aeice?iaee, io aeeyiey
niioonoaothueo aauanoa e io noaiaie ianuuaiiinoe i?aaiecia
ea?ioeiii. Eeoa?aoo?iua aeaiiua ii yoiio aii?ino, iaeiaei,
aeinoaoi/ii ?acii?a/eau. Niaeanii A?aeano ea?ioei caeaiuo
?anoeoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia aieaa aeoeaai, /ai ea?ioei aeaeouo e
i?aiaeaauo i?iaeoeoia. Oae, iai?eia?, aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia a
aa?aiiie ii?eiae, ii aeaiiui aaoi?a aeinoeaaao eeoue 25%
aeoeaiinoe aeoeieia A. Aeoeaiinoue aea ea?ioeia nia?aee ?aaia
aeoeaiinoe aeoaieia A. Ii aeaiiui Y?eenaia e Oaeaaa?aea ea?ioei
nu?ie ii?eiae onaaeaaaony i?aaieciii oieueei ia 1%, ea?ioei
aa?aiie ii?eiae – ia 19%. Aeey oieiaoa aea yoe aeaiiua
niioaaonoaaiii ?aaiu 45 e 48%. Oa?iai iaoae, /oi ea?ioei a
oieiaoa iaeaaeaao aaeaia aieueoae aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth, /ai
ea?ioei a ii?eiae. Ia?yaeo n yoei Nien e Ioen ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi aeoeaiinoue ea?ioeia a oieiaoa ?aaia ?aaia aeoeaiinoe
/enoiai e?enoaeee/aneiai ea?ioeia, ?anoai?aiiiai a ianea;
aeoeaiinoue aea ii?eiae – a oanoue ?ac iaiueoa. Oaeea aea
ianiaiaaeaiey eiatho ianoi e aeey ethoea?iu, anee n?aaieoue
aeaiiua ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia. Iiaeiaiuo i?eia?ia iiaeii auei au
i?eaanoe aua aieueoaa eiee/anoai. I?aaei?eiyoua Oa?iaiii, a
oaeaea A?aeanii, iiiuoee iaiaueoue ana yoe iaaethaeaiey, neaaeoao
i?eciaoue ianinoiyoaeueiuie. A aii?ina i n?aaieoaeueiie
aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe aeoaieia A e ea?ioeia, iiiaaeathuaai a
i?aaieci n ?acee/iuie i?iaeoeoaie, iao aua ieii/aoaeueii
onoaiiaeaoaeny ii?aaeaeaiiinoe.

Aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue niaea?aeaueo ea?ioei eee aeoaiei A
i?aia?aoia eee i?iaeoeoia au?aaeaaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaeeieoeao ( I. U.). Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
eiioa?aioeey ii aeoaieiai, ninoiyaoayny a 1931 aiaeo a Eiiaeiia,
i?eiyea a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe /enoue,
iiiaie?aoii ia?ae?enoaeeeciaaiiue ea?ioei, iieo/aiiue ec ii?eiae.
Ca eioa?iaoeeiiaeueioth aaeeieoeo aeoeaiinoe oneiaeeenue n/eoaoue
oo aeoeaiinoue, eioi?ie iaeaaeaao 1 ( (iaeia ouny/iay
ieeeea?aiia) yoiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai noaiaea?oa ea?ioeia.
Aiineaaenoaee, iaeiaei, auynieeinue, /oi ea?ioei ii?eiae ninoieo
ec niane eciia?ia e /oi (-eciia? ioee/aaony ii aeoeaiinoe io
(-eciia?a. Iiyoiio ia neaaeothuae eiioa?aioeee, 1934 aiaeo, a
ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe aue i?eiyo /enoue
(-ea?ioei, ?anoai?aiiue a eieiniaii ianea. Ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey
aeoeaiinoe noa?iai noaiaea?oa n aeoeaiinoueth (-ea?ioeia auei
iaeaeaii, /oi eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay aaeeieoea ?aaia 0,6 (
(-ea?ioeia. Oaeia au?aaeaiea A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe nouanoaoao e
aei neo ii?. Ai?acaei ?aaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue a eeoa?aoo?a
au?aaeaiea A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe a oae iacuaaaiuo “e?uneiuo
aaeeieoeao”. E?uneiay aaeeieoea – yoi oi ieieiaeueiia aaeaaeiaaiia
eiee/anoai (-ea?ioeia, eioi?ia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau i?aaeio?aieoue
e?uno io A-aaeoiieiica (1,8-3,0 ( (-ea?ioeia).

Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi eiee/anoai eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaeeieoe a
aaeeieoea aana eaeiai-eeai ea?ioeiniaea?aeauaai i?iaeoeoa
au?aaeaao eiaiii aeieiae/aneoth A-aeoaieiioth aeoeaiinoue aeaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa, ii ioithaeue ia yaeyaony ia?eeii eiee/anoaaiiiai
niaea?aeaiey ea?ioeia, /oi aeieaeii auoue yniui ia iniiaa anaai,
neacaiiiai auoa. Eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie aaeeieoea niioaaonoaoao
oieueei 0,6 ( /enoiai (-ea?ioeia a eieiniaii ianea, ii ia 0,6
( ea?ioeia, aini?eieiaaiiai n ?acee/iuie i?iaeoeoaie. Aoon e
nio?oaeieee ioeai/ii e?eoeeotho iioaeeeiaaiiua Iaeeii aeaiiua i
A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe iaiuae, iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa
aeieiae/aneeo eniuoaiee. Naeaeaa i?inoie ia?an/ao ea?ioeia,
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeie/aneei iooai a ii?eiae, ia aeoaiei A, yoe
aaoi?u ia iniiaaoaeueii ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aeieiae/aneay
aeoeaiinoue ii?eiae aeieaeia auoue ai?acaei aieueoae, /ai yoi
auei ii?aaeaeaiii Iaeeii. Yoi, e niaeaeaieth, ia aaeeie/iue
neo/ay. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee eiiaaea oaeaea neeiiiu
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue aeoeaiinoue i?aia?aoia iooai i?inoiai aeaeaiey a
ieo ea?ioeia ia yeaeaaeaio eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie aaeeieoeu. Oaeea
aeaiiua niioaaonoaotho, eiia/ii, ia aeaenoaeoaeueiie, a, oae
neacaoue, “iioaioeeaeueiie aeoeaiinoe”, o.a. oaeie, eioi?ay eiaea
au ianoi, anee au ea?ioei i?aia?aoa i?e eaeaaeueiuo oneiaeyo
iaeneiaeueii onaieeny i?aaieciii. Aeaenoaeoaeueiay aea aeoeaiinoue
ethaiai i?aia?aoa eee i?iaeoeoa iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaiia a
?acoeueoaoa aeieiae/aneiai aai eniuoaiey ii n?aaiaieth n i?eiyoui
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oii.

Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aii?in i caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo
aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoueth e no?iaieai eciia?ia ea?ioeia e
?iaenoaaiiuo ei niaaeeiaiee. Aaeaia iaiueoay aeoeaiinoue (- e
(-ea?ioeiia ii n?aaiaieth n (-ea?ioeiii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii,
/oi eae ia?aiauaiea aeaieiie nayce a oeeeea, oae e ?ane?uoea
oeeeea aea/ao ca niaie iioa?th aeoeaiinoe. Iineaaeiaa
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oaeaea iieiui ionoonoaeai A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoe
o ea?ioeia e eeeiieia. Iaeiaei e aac ?ane?uoey (-eiiiiiaiai
oeeeea i?eniaaeeiaiea e iaio eenei?iaea n ia?aciaaieai eaoia?oiiu
oaeaea naycaiii n iioa?ae aeoeaiinoe. Aiaeiae/ii aeeyao ia
aeoeaiinoue e aaaaeaiea a oeeee aeae?ieneea. Oae, iai?eia?,
ea?ioeiieaeu aoaiei (iiii-eaoi-(-ea?ioei) e e?eioienaioei
(iiii-aeae?iene-(-ea?ioei) eiatho iieiaeiiothii n?aaiaieth n
(-ea?ioeiii A-aeoaieiioth aeoeaiinoue ca n/ao nio?aieaoeony a
iaeiie iieiaeia iieaeoeu iaeciaiaiiuo (-eiiiiiauo oeeeeia.

Iaiauay yoe iaaethaeaiey, iiaeii auei au auaanoe iauaa
caeeth/aiea, /oi iieiaeiiie, ii n?aaiaieth n (-ea?ioeiii,
aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoueth iaeaaeatho oieueei oa ea?aoeiiaua
e?anyuea aauanoaa, o eioi?uo a iaeiie iieiaeia iieaeoeu eiaaony
iaeciaiaiiue (-eiiiiiaue oeeee (e?eioienaioei, aoaiei,
ieenienaioei, naie-(-ea?ioeiii, aeeaeae?i-(-ea?ioei,
(-ea?ioei-iiii-yiieneae, iooaoio?ii e ae?.).

?acoeueoaou aeieiae/aneeo eniuoaiee niioaaonoaotho yoei
caeeth/aieyi. A 1940 aiaeo Oi?ieeea? yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeee
ia aieueoii eiee/anoaa iauaeoia, /oi iaee/ea a iieaeoea
iaeciaiaiiiai (-eiiiiiaiai oeeeea yaeyaony eae au iai?aiaiiui
oneiaeai aeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe niaaeeiaiee iiaeiaiiai oeia.

Iaeiaei ec yoiai i?aaeea anoue iaeioi?ua eneeth/aiey.
Niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi aeeaie i?aaieci niiniaai
ia?aaiaeeoue iaeioi?ua ia?ae/iua i?iaeoeou ieeneaiey,
aeae?e?iaaiey e aaeieaee?iaaiey (-eiiiiiaiai oeeeea ia?aoii a
(-eiiii. Neacaiiia ioiineony e (-ea?ioei-iiii- e aee-yiieneaeo,
aeeaeae?iea?ioeio e (-ea?ioei-aee-eiaeeaeo, ia?aoiaeyuai a
i?aaiecia a oie eee eiie noaiaie niiaa a (-ea?ioei. Aeioa?ooaei
e Ooie ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi oaeei iooai iiaeii iieo/eoue
A-aeoaieiii-aeoeaiia niaaeeiaiea ec caaaaeiii iaaeoeaiiai
ea?aoeiieaea ?iaeienaioeia. Aeeaeae?iniaaeeiaiea iineaaeiaai eiaao
(-eiiiiiaia no?iaiea, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue naiiio ?iaeienaioeio,
iaeaaeathuaio (-eiiiiiaui no?iaieai. Yeea?, Ea??a? e Oeoa?en
iieo/eee aeoeaiua niaaeeiaiey ec iaaeoeaiuo ea?ioeiieaeia
caaenaioeia e ethoaeia, eiathueo aeae?ieneee?iaaiiua oeeeeu, iooai
caiauaiey aeae?ieneeia ia a?ii aeaenoaeai o?aoa?iienoiai oinoi?a.

Niiniaiinoue aeeaioiiai i?aaiecia ainoaiaaeeaaoue yiieneaeu aei
ia?aciaaiey naiaiaeiuo io eenei?iaea niaaeeiaiee ioia/aia a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy oaeaea Ea??a?ii e aai nio?oaeieeaie.
A-aeoaieiiay aeoeaiinoue (-ea?ioei-yiieneaea, (-ea?ioei-aee-yiieneaea
e ethoaio?iia auea onoaiiaeaia yenia?eiaioaeueii ia e?unao.
Iaia?oaeaii, /oi (-ea?ioei-yiieneae aeoeaai a aeica 10 (,
(-ea?ioei-aee-yiieneae a aeica 17 ( e ethoaio?ii aaeica 18 (.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeeaioiue i?aaieci niiniaai /anoe/ii ia?aaiaeeoue
yoe niaaeeiaiey niioaaonoaaiii a (-ea?ioei, (-ea?ioei e
iooaoio?ii. Noaiiaeony oaeaea iiiyoiui ionoonoaea aeoeaiinoe o
ao?io?iia, oae eae iineaaeiee iaeaaeaao eenei?iaeiuie aoiiaie,
caeeth/aiiuie a aeaoo oo?aiieaeiuo a?oiie?iaeao, ia niiniaiuo e
ainnoaiiaeaieth.

Aoi?ie no?oeoo?iue yeaiaio iieaeoeu – i?iiaaeooi/iay aeeoaoe/aneay
oeaiue – i?aaenoaaeyaony, n ia?aiai acaeyaea, ia eiathuae
ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia aeoeaiinoue, oae eae iia niaa?oaiii
iaeeiaeiaa o anao ea?ioeiiauoe?anyueo aauanoa – aeoeaiuo e
iaaeoeaiuo. Iaeiaei yoi ia oae. Iaeei (-eiiii, eae ecaanoii,
A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoueth ia iaeaaeaao. Iaee/ea iieeiaoeiiaie
oeaie yaeyaony iai?a?uaiui oneiaeai oeceieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey aai
i?iecaiaeiuo. Ea??a? a oiiieiaaoeo auoa ?aaioao ii iieo/aieth
(-aii-ea?ioeiaeae e niioaaonoaothueo ei ea?ioeiieia onoaiiaee, /oi
(-aii-2- e (-aii-4-ea?ioeiaee e ea?ioeiieu iaeaaeatho
A-aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoueth. Iaeaaeaao ath, anoanoaaiii, e
(-aii-6-ea?ioeiie. I?e aeaeueiaeoai aea oei?i/aiee aeeoaoe/aneie
oeaie aeoeaiinoue en/acaao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii aeoeaiinoue i?e
iaee/ee (-eiiiiiaiai oeeeea iaoneiaeeaaaony oaeaea e iaee/eai
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeiu oeaie eiiuthaaoeee, aeeth/athuae a naay ia
iaiaa iyoe aeaieiuo naycae.Oaeei ia?acii aeoaiei A yaeyaony
iaeaieaa yeiiiiiie i?e?iaeiie oi?iie aeoeaiiai niaaeeiaiey,
niaea?aeauaai iaeie eeoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeieiae/aneie
aeoeaiinoe no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou.

Ia?ooaiea eiiuthaaoeee a aeeoaoe/aneie oeaie aea/ao ca niaie
iioa?th aeoeaiinoe. E oaeiio aea ?acoeueoaoo i?eaiaeeo e aiieia
ianuuaiea aeaieiuo (ia?aeae?iea?ioei).Aeoeaiinoue nio?aiyaony eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaeai?eiueathuay e (-eiiiiiaiio oeeeeo /anoue
aeeoaoe/aneie oeaie iino?iaia ieieioi ec aeaoo ecii?aiiauo
inoaoeia.

Enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao iieacaee, /oi A-aeoaieiioth
aeoeaiinoue (-ea?ioeia, iaoiaeyuaainy a iieiie o?ainoi?ia, ca
100, oi iieo/aaony neaaeothuay ea?oeia ioiineoaeueiuo aeoeaiinoae
iaeioi?uo noa?eieciia?ia (ii ?acoeueoaoai aeieiae/aneiai eniuoaiey
ia e?unao):

(-ea?ioei………………………………………………………
…100

iai-(-ea?ioei
U………………………………………………..38

(-ea?ioei………………………………………………………
….53

iai-(-ea?ioei
U……………………………………………….13

(-ea?ioei………………………………………………………
…..28

i?i-(ea?ioei……………………………………………………
..44

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo aiieia i/eaeaeii, /oi iaee/ea
oeen-eiioeao?aoeee a iieaeoea ea?ioeia naycaii n caiaoiui
iiieaeaieai aeoeaiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii n oeaeueth i?aaeio?aiaiey
io iioa?e aeoeaiinoe i?e i?iecaiaenoaa i?aia?aoia ea?ioeia
iaiaoiaeeii ecaaaaoue oneiaee, aeaaii?eyonoaothueo aai
eciia?ecaoeee (aeeeoaeueiia iaa?aaaiea, aeaenoaothueo eeneio, naaoa
e o.ae.).

AEOAIEI A E CEIEA*ANOAAIIUE ?INO

Yoi aii?in neoaeeo a iineaaeiea aiaeu i?aaeiaoii iiiai/eneaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee, iieo/eaoeo io?aaeaiea a ?yaea ianoiyoaeueiuo
iaci?ia.

Enneaaeiaaiey ia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeeaioiuo iieacaee, /oi
?aoeiieaeu iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth oi?iiceoue ?acaeoea iiooieaai
i?ioeanna. Iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueiue yooaeo ?aoeiieaeu i?iyaeytho a
ioiioaiee oeie/aneiai eaioea?iaaiaca, a iniaaiiinoe, a neo/aa
?aea eiaee, a?oaeiie aeaeacu e ii/aaiai iocu?y. Ai anao yoeo
neo/ayo ?acaeoea ?aea i?ienoiaeeo, eae iieaaatho, a niioaaonoaee
n aeaoonoaaeeeiie noaiie (noaaeey eieoeeaoeee e noaaeey
i?iiioee), i?e/ai ?aoeiieaeu aunooiatho a ea/anoaa oeie/iuo
aioei?iiioi?ia, oi anoue niaaeeiaiee, aeiee?othueo ia eieoeeaoeeth
eaioea?iaaiaca, a aai i?ia?anne?iaaiea. A nayce n yoei eo
aeaenoaea ieacuaaaony yooaeoeaiui e i?e aeinoaoi/ii cia/eoaeueiii
a?aiaiiii eioa?aaea iaaeaeo aicaeaenoaeai eaioea?iaaia e
i?eiaiaieai ?aoeiieaeia.

Aeeiaioa?iay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue aeoaieia A o aeeaioiuo aaaeao e
iiauoaieth eo /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e aeaenoaeth eaioea?iaaiia, a
/anoiinoe, aoeaoieneia, aeeiaoeeaeae?iceia, 3-iaoeeoieaio-?aia e
ae?. A oi aea a?aiy eiathony aeaiiua e i i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
yooaeoa: aeaoeoeeo aeoaieia A iiaeaaeye ?ino iiooieae oienoie
eeoee, aucaaiiue eio?a?aeoaeueiui aaaaeaieai N – iaoee-ieo?i – N –
ieo?iciii/aaeiu.

A ioee/ee io aeaiiuo i i?aeiouanoaaiii eiaeae?othuai aeaenoaee
?aoeiieaeia ia oeie/aneee eaioea?iaaiac, aeaiiua ia eo yooaeoao
a ioiioaiee ae?oniiai eaioea?iaaiaca, o?ainieaioe?oaiuo iiooieae,
a oaeaea iiooieae, aucuaaaiuo OO-iaeo/aieai, i?ioeai?a/eau e, a
iniiaiii, oeacuaatho ia ionoonoaea niiniaiinoe ?aoeiieaeia e
oi?iiaeaieth ?inoa iiooieae yoiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

A na?ee ianniauo yieaeaieieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee auea auyniaia
naycue iaaeaeo nieaeaiiui iio?aaeaieai n ieuae aeoaieia A e
iiauoaiiie /anoioie aicieeiiaaiey ?aea. I?e yoii auea iaia?oaeaia
iniaay ?ieue aeinoaoi/iiai iio?aaeaiey n ieuae (-ea?ioeia,
eioi?ue, eae auei oaea ioia/aii, iiaeao ieacuaaoue yooaeou, ia
naycaiiua n aai i?aa?auaieai a i?aaiecia a aeoaiei A.

Auea iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?aoeiieaeia ia oieueei
aeey i?ioeeaeoeee, ii e aeey ea/aiey ceiea/anoaaiiuo
iiaiia?aciaaiee, a /anoiinoe, ?aea eaaeiai, aieiau e oae o
ethaeae. Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiui aeinoieinoaii ?aoeiieaeia yaeyaony
eo niiniaiinoue iiauoaoue, a ia iiieaeaoue, a ioee/ee io
ae?oaeo i?ioeaiiiooieaauo i?aia?aoia e eo/aaie oa?aiee, eioiiue
ioaao i?aaiecia, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaaeiaeoay ?ieue a
ai?ueaa i?aaiecia n iiooieyie. A nayce n yoei oeacuaatho ia
iniaoth ia?niaeoeaiinoue ni/aoaiey eo/aaie oa?aiee n ?aoeiieaeaie
i?e ea/aiee aieueiuo n iiaiia?aciaaieyie.

OECEIEIAE*ANEIA AeAENOAEA EA?IOEIA

Eae auei ioia/aii auoa, ea?ioei a aeeaioiii i?aaiecia
?anuaieyaony n ia?aciaaieai aeoaieia A. A niioaaonoaee n yoei e
ieacuaaaiia ea?ioeiieii oeceieiae/aneia aeaenoaea, a iniiaiii,
oaeia aea, eae e aeaenoaea aeoaieia A. Aaeoiieiicu e
aeieaeoaieiicu A /?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciu. Iie au?aaeathony a
caaea?aeea ?acaeoey e ?inoa i?aaiecia, iaaeaiea a aana,
ii?aaeaiee eiaeiuo iie?iaia e neecenouo iaiei/ae e a naycaiiii
n yoei iiieaeaieai nii?ioeaeyaiinoe eioaeoeeiiiui caaieaaaieyi.
Iaaeinoaoie aeoaieia A aucuaaao iiieaeaiea ino?iou c?aiey e
aieacie aeac – eo?eioth neaiioo, ea?aoiiaeyoeeth e ena?iooaeueieth.
Aaeoiieiicu e aeiiaeoaieiicu A nii?iaiaeaeathony oaeaea iauei
enooaeaieai, iioa?ae aiiaoeoa, ?ano?ienoaii ia?aiie nenoaiu e
aeayoaeueiinoe eeoa/ieea, ia?ooaieai aeayoaeueiinoe iieiaiai
aiia?aoa, ii?aaeaieai aeucaoaeueiuo iooae e neecenouo iaiei/ae
iina e ai?oaie e i?.

Iaoieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey aaeoiieiica A iaeeiaeiau aeey ethaeae
e aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aeeaioiuo, aeey eioi?uo i?e yoii
iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ii caaieaaaiea aeuoaoaeueiie e ieuaaa?eoaeueiie
nenoai, iaaeeaiiia yia?eiiaeueiia ?acaeoea ieiaea, neeiiiinoue e
aai?oai, iiooneiaiea aieinyiiai iie?iaa. O ioeoe nieaeathony
eieoaaoeeiiiua ea/anoaa e aeoaieiiinoue yeoe, iiauoaaony
nia?oiinoue oeuieyo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoii, /oi aieueoeinoai aeoaieiia
ioee/aaony iiiainoi?iiiei oeceieiae/aneei aeaenoaeai. Iaeiaei aeey
oeaeiai ?yaea ec ieo oa?aeoa?ia, ia?yaeo n yoei, ana aea
ii?aaeaeaiiay niaoeeoe/iinoue (aeoaiei N – oeuiaa, aeoaiei A1 –
aa?e-aa?e, aeoaiei D – ?aoeo e o.ae.). Aeey ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A
oaeie niaoeeoe/iinoe onoaiiaeoue iaeuecy.

Ia?aiia/aeueii ea?ioei e aeoaiei A n/eoaeenue oaeoi?aie ?inoa.
Ecaanoii, /oi ionoononoaea a ieua aeoaieia A aea/ao ca niaie
i?einoaiiaeo ?inoa iieiaeuo aeeaioiuo e aeaoae e iaaeaiea eo
aana. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiua yaeaiey iaaethaeathony e i?e ionoonoaee
ae?oaeo aeoaieiia, iaeioi?uo ieia?aeueiuo nieae, aieiieeneio e
i?. Iaia?oaeaiiia aiineaaenoaee naienoai ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A
niinianoaiaaoue noieeinoe i?aaiecia i?ioea eioaeoeeiiiuo
caaieaaaiee aeaei i?aai iacaaoue aeoaiei A “aioeeioaeoeeiiiui”. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?aaeio?aiythuay ?ieue aeoaieia A (e ea?ioeia)
i?ioea aeaciuo aieaciae, a /anoiinoe ena?iooaeueiee, iineoaeeea
iniiaaieai iacaaoue aai “aioeena?iooaeueie/aneei”. Ca iineaaeiea
a?aiy enneaaeiaaoaee oeceieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey ea?ioeia e
aeoaieia A neeiiiu ?anniao?eaaoue eo ai?iiiaeueioth ooieoeeth, eae
iaeio ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo aeey i?aaiecia /aeiaaea e
aeeaioiuo. Iineaaeiaa aeaao i?aai i?aaeiieaaaoue iaee/ea anee ia
iauiinoe, oi ai anyeii neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi/ae nii?eeiniiaaiey
a ?iee ea?ioeia aeey ?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo i?aaieciia.

Caei?iaue i?aaieci /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo ioaeaeaaony a
nenoaiaoe/aneii aaaaeaiee ecaia n ieuaauie i?iaeoeoaie eee
i?aia?aoaie iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey aai ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoa aeoaieia A eee ea?ioeia. I?eiaiaiea
iineaaeieo a ea/anoaa i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo e ea/aaiuo aaaioia
iieacaii oaeaea e a ?yaea niaoeeoe/aneeo neo/aaa. Ea?ioei eee
aeoaiei A iaiaoiaeei aa?aiaiiui aeaiueiai e ei?iyuei iaoa?yi aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ieoaiey e ?inoa ieiaea. *?aciaiiia oiio?aaeaiea
aeoaieia A ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo aa?aiaiiinoe iiaeao a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo i?eaanoe e iiyaeaiethaeaoaeoia o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Eae
iieacaei enneaaeiaaiea niaoeeaeenoia Ainoiineiai oieaa?neoaoa, aeey
aeaiuei, i?eieiathueo aeoaiei A a aeica nauoa 10 ouny/ IA
(iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oiuo aaeeieoe) a aeaiue, nouanoaoao
aa?iyoiinoue ?iaeaeaiey aeaoae n aeaoi?iaoeeae eeoea, aieiau,
na?aeoea eee aeaoaeoaie ia?aiie nenoaiu.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeeinue n na?aaeeiu 80-o
aiaeia, auee ianeaaeiaaiu 22748 aa?aiaiiuo aeaiuei. A 339
neo/ayo o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo iaia?oaeeee a?iaeaeaiiua aeaoaeou. I?e
yoii enneaaeiaaoaee auynieee, /oi i?eia?ii 2% aoaeoueo iai
neeoeii “iaeaaaee” ia aeoaiei A.

A iaai?ao iieeaeoaieiia, i?iaeathueony a NOA aac ?aoeaioa, eae
i?aaeei, aeoaiei A niaea?aeeony ieiei 5 ouny/ IA. A oi aea
a?aiy a i?iaeaaeo iinooiaao e aeoaiei A a eainoeao, niaea?aeaueo
aei 25 ouny/ IA. “Ana aoaeouea iaoa?e aeieaeiu ciaoue i
iioaioeeaeueiie iianoiinoe /?acia?iiai oiio?aaeaiey aeoaieia A”, –
ioiaoeeaaoi? enneaaeiaaiey aeieoi? Eaiiao ?ioiai. I?aaeinoa?aaeaiea
ia ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia (-ea?ioei, niaea?aeaueeny a ii?eiae e
ae?oaeo iaiuao. Yoo “?anoeoaeueioth” oi?io aeoaieia A
enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho niaa?oaiii aaca?aaeiie.

Aeaoyi aeoaie A iieacai aeey ii?iaeueiiai ?inoa e i?aaeeueiiai
?acaeoey i?aaiecia. Ea?ioei e aeoaiei A ieacuaatho aeaaioai?iia
aeeyiea ia oa/aiea eioaeoeeiiiuo aeaoneeo aieaciae (ei?ue,
aeeooa?eo, eieetho,a?iioeo,iiaaiiiey e ae?.). Iiaeaea?aeeaay a
ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee neecenoua iaiei/ee iina, ai?ea e ae?.,
ea?ioei e aeoaiei A iiauoatho nii?ioeaeyaiinoue i?aaiecia ethaeae
anao aic?anoia e eioaeoeeiiiui caaieaaaieyi e yaeythony
iaiaoiaeeiuie i?e ea/aiee o?iie/aneeo ianii?eia, ea?eiaeoia,
aieaciae aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae e i?.

I?aia?aou ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eieiaoue i?e
eaiiyo ia/aie, ii/ae, ii/aaiai iocu?y, i?e caaieaaaieyo naeueiuo,
iioiauo e neaciuo aeaeac, i?e aeia?ooieoeee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu
e aacaaeiaie aieacie, a oaeaea i?e ea/aiee ii?aaeaiiuo o/anoeia
eiaee, iaeiaao, iaii?aaeeaaieyo, anaioe/aneeo e aiieiuo ?aiao. O
caei?iauo ethaeae ea?ioei e aeoaiei A oeo/oatho niiniaiinoue
i?eiaiyoueny e eciaiaieth inaauaiey, iiauoatho ino?ioo c?aiey.
Ea?ioei e aeoaiei A yaeythony, iiaeaeeiiio, aaeeinoaaiiui
?aaeeeaeueiui n?aaenoaii aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e ecea/aiey
ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa aeaciuo aieaciae – aaia?aeiioee (eo?eiiie
neaiiou),ea?aoiiaeyoeee e ena?iooaeueiee.

Ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei, n/eoaoue, /oi oeceieiae/aneia aeaenoaea
ea?ioeia naycaii oieueei eeoue n oaeoii ia?aoiaea aai a aeoaiei
A. A ?yaea neo/aaa ea?ioei, iiaeaeeiiio, iaeaaeaao e
naiinoiyoaeueiui oeceieiae/aneei aeaenoaeai. Aeinoaoi/ii
oaaaeeoaeueiua aeaiiue a iieueco yoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey
i?eaiaeeony, iai?eia?, ?a/aaneei.

Enoeiiay i?e?iaea oeceieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey ea?ioeia ia
aeeaioiue i?aaieci ia iiaeaeaaony aua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
neieueei-ieaoaeue oi/iie iaiauaiiie eioa?i?aoaoeee, ianiio?y ia
iaeeea iaeiieaiiiai yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Iaeaieaa ynia ea?oeia
o/anoey no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia iieaeoeu ea?ioeia a oeie/aneeo
i?ioeannao, i?ienoiaeaeaiey a c?eoaeueiii aiia?aoa (aeaaiui
ia?acii ?aaiou Aaooa n nio?oaeieeaie e Aaeueaea). Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou iieaeoeu ea?ioeia aoiaeyo a ninoaa
?aoeiaia, yaeythuaainy i?inoaoe/aneie a?oiiie aaeeiaiai aauanoaa
?iaeiineia (c?eoaeueiiai io?io?a). Iineaaeiee auiieiyao ?ie a
i?ioeanna c?aiey, eae oioinaineaeeecaoi? e aaoiiaoe/aneee
?aaoeyoi? /oanoaeoaeueiinoe aeaca e naaoo.

Neo/ae aeia?ea?ioeiica cia/eoaeueii aieaa ?aaeeee, /ai neo/ae
aeia?aeoaieiica A. I?e /?acia?iii niaaaeaiee i?aaiecia ea?ioeiii
iineaaeiee iau/ii ?ani?ae?oaony io/anoe. Anee aea ?ani?aoeey
aeinoeaea cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ia, ecauoi/iia eiee/anoai ea?ioeia
iiaeao auaeaeyoueny aeaaea /a?ac eiaeo (“enaioic”). ?aaeeee
neo/ae aeia?aeoaieiica, iiaeaeoee ca niaie ?anoe?aiea ia/aie
eaoa?aeo e ae?oaea na?ueaciua ?ano?ienoaa.

Iio?aaiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia a ea?ioeia eee aeoaieia A,
niaeanii nia?aiaiiui aeaiiui, ?aaia 3-5 ia aeey ac?ineuo e 2-3
ia aeey aeaoae. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue aicieeiiaaiea ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu iiaie iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey ea?ioeia e aeoaieia A a
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa – i?e ?acaaaeaiee iooiuo caa?ae. Aeoaieiecaoeey
ei?iia, i?e yoii, niinianoaoao iieo/aieth aeanoyuaai, e?aneaiai e
i?i/iiai iaoa.

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