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Атомно-молекулярное учение

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Niaea?aeaiea:

TOC \o “1-3″ \h \z Aaaaeaiea PAGEREF _Toc36266789 \h 3

1.ENOI?Ess ?ACAEOEss AOIIII-IIEAEOEss?IIAI O*AIEss PAGEREF
_Toc36266790 \h 4

2. INIIAIUA IIIssOEss E CAEIIU OEIEE PAGEREF _Toc36266791 \h 7

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u: PAGEREF _Toc36266793 \h 15

Aaaaeaiea

Ia?eiae n 1200 ii 1700 a. a enoi?ee oeiee i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
aeoeie/aneei. Aeaeaeouae neeie aeoeiee a oa/aiea 5 aaeia yaeyeny
aanieiaeiue iiene iaeiaai oeeinioneiai eaiiy, i?aa?auathuaai
aeaai?iaeiua iaoaeeu a cieioi. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia anth aano?aeiinoue
iniiaiie eaeae, aeoeiey iaeiieea aiaaoaeoee a?naiae ii?aaeaeaiiuo ciaiee
e i?aeoe/aneeo i?eaiia, iicaieythueo inouanoaeyoue iiiaiia?aciua
oeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey. A ia/aea XVIII a. iaeiieaiiua ciaiey
i?eia?aoatho i?aeoe/aneoth aaaeiinoue, /oi naycaii n ia/aeii
eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey iaoaeeo?aee e n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iauynieoue
niioonoaothuea i?ioeannu ai?aiey, ieeneaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey.
Ia?aianaiea eioa?ania a aeooaeueioth i?aeoe/aneoth noa?o /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieeei noaaeoue e ?aoaoue caaea/e, i?eaaaeoea e
ioe?uoeth iniiaiuo caeiiia oeiee, e niinianoaiaaei noaiiaeaieth oeiee
eae iaoee.

1.ENOI?Ess ?ACAEOEss AOIIII-IIEAEOEss?IIAI O*AIEss

Eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey oeiee eiaei aoiiii-iieaeoey?iia
o/aiea, eieuaaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey. Aoiienoeea
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iaoa?eaeenoia ioaeaeaia io ian 25-aa-eiaui ia?eiaeii,
iaeiaei eiaeea a?aeia ii?aaeaao ianoieueei, /oi oeeinioneia o/aiea i
aeene?aoiii no?iaiee iaoa?ee, ?acaeoia eie, iaaieueii neeaaaony a
niciaiee n iaoeie naaiaeiyoieie i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

Eae aea ca?iaeeeanue aoiienoeea? Iniiaiui iao/iui iaoiaeii
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia yaeyeenue aeeneonney, nii?. Aeey iienea
“ia?aii?e/ei” a nii?ao ianoaeaeaeenue iiiaea eiae/aneea caaea/e, iaeiie
ec eioi?uo yaeyeanue caaea/a i eaiia: /oi i?iecieaeao anee ia/aoue aai
ae?iaeoue? Aieueoeinoai oeeinioia n/eoaei, /oi yoio i?ioeann iiaeii
i?iaeieaeaoue aaneiia/iu. E oieueei Eaaeei (500—440 aei i. y.) e aai
oeiea ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi yoio i?ioeann ia aaneiia/ai: i?e ae?iaeaiee a
eiioea eiioeia iieo/eony oaeay /anoeoea, aeaeueiaeoaa aeaeaiea eioi?ie
aoaeao i?inoi iaaiciiaeii. Iniiauaaynue ia yoie eiioeaioeee, Eaaeeii
ooaa?aeaeae: iaoa?eaeueiue ie? aeene?aoai, ii ninoieo ec iaeue/aeoeo
/anoeoe e ionoiou.

O/aiee Eaaeeiia Aeaiie?eo (460—370 aei i. y.) iacaae iaeue/aeoea
/anoeoeu “iaaeaeeiua”, /oi ii-a?a/anee cia/eo “aoii”. Yoi iacaaiea iu
eniieuecoai e naaiaeiy. Aeaiie?eo, ?acaee iiaia o/aiea — “aoiienoeeo”,
i?eienae aoiiai oaeea “nia?aiaiiua” naienoaa, eae ?acia? e oi?io,
niiniaiinoue e aeaeaeaieth.

Iineaaeiaaoaeue Aeaiie?eoa Yieeo? (342—270 aei i. y.) i?eaeae
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie aoiienoeea caaa?oaiiinoue, i?aaeiieiaeea, /oi o aoiiia
nouanoaoao aioo?aiiee enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey e iie naie niiniaiu
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Ana iieiaeaiey ae?aaiaa?a/aneie aoiienoeee auaeyaeyo oaeeaeoaeueii
nia?aiaiii, e iai iie, anoanoaaiii, iiiyoiu. Aaaeue ethaie ec ian,
nnueaynue ia iiuo iaoee, iiaeao iienaoue iiiaeanoai eioa?aniuo
yenia?eiaioia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo ni?aaaaeeeainoue ethaie ec auaeaeioouo
eiioeaioeee. Ii niaa?oaiii iaiiiyoiu iie auee 20–25 aaeia iacaae,
iineieueeo ieeaeeo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo ni?aaaaeeeainoue naieo eaeae, ae?aaiaa?a/aneea
aoiienou i?aaenoaaeoue ia iiaee.

Eoae, oioy aoiienoeea ae?aaieo a?aeia e auaeyaeeo oaeeaeoaeueii
nia?aiaiii, ie iaeii ec aa iieiaeaiee a oi a?aiy ia auei aeieacaii.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii” aoiienoeea, ?acaeoay E aa e e i i i i, Aeaiie?eoii e Y
i e eo? i i, auea e inoaaony i?inoi aeiaaaeeie, niaeui i?aaeiieiaeaieai,
oeeinioneie eiioeaioeeae, ii iiaee?aieaiiie i?aeoeeie. Yoi i?eaaei e
oiio, /oi iaeia ec aaieaeueiuo aeiaaaeie /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iinoaiaiii
auea i?aaeaia caaaaieth.

Auee e ae?oaea i?e/eiu, ec-ca eioi?uo o/aiea aoiienoia auei iaaeieai
caauoi. E niaeaeaieth, aoiienou ia inoaaeee iinea naay nenoaiaoe/aneeo
o?oaeia, a ioaeaeueiua caiene nii?ia e aeeneonnee, eioi?ua auee
naeaeaiu, eeoue n o?oaeii iicaieyee ninoaaeoue i?aaeeueiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia o/aiee a oeaeii. Aeaaiia aea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iiiaea eiioeaioeee aoiienoeee auee a?aoe/iu e ioeoeeaeueiay oea?eiaue ia
iiaea eo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue.

Ia o/aiee aoiienoia ia aniiieiaee ii/oe 20 aaeia. E eeoue a XVII a.
eaeae ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo aoiienoia auee aic?iaeaeaiu aeaaiaea?y ?aaioai
o?aioeocneiai oeeinioa Iuea?a Aannaiaee (1592—1655 aa.). Ii/oe
20 eao ii iio?aoee; /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue e nia?aoue aiaaeeii caauoua
eiioeaioeee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia, eioi?ua ii iiae?iaii eceiaeee a
naieo o?oaeao “N) aeecie, i?aaao e o/aiee Yieeo?a” e “Naiae oeeinioee
Yieeo?a”. Yoe aeaa eieae, a eioi?uo aicc?aiey ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo
iaoa?eaeenoia aia?aua auee eceiaeaiu nenoaiaoe/anee, noaee “o/aaieeii”
aeey aa?iiaeneeo o/aiuo e oeeinioia. Aei yoiai aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii,
aeaaaaoei eioi?iaoeeth i aicc?aieyo Ae a i i e ? e o a -a y i e e o ? a,
auea iiyia ?eineiai iiyoa E o e ? a oe e y “I i?e?iaea aauae”.

Enoi?ey iaoee ciaao iaiaei oaeeaeoaeueiuo niaiaaeaiee. Aio iaeii ec ieo:
aic?iaeaeaiea ae?aaiaa?a/aneie aoiienoeee niaiaaeaao ii a?aiaie n
onoaiiaeaieai ?. Aieeai (1627—1691 aa.) ooiaeaiaioaeueiie
caeiiiia?iinoe, iienuaathuae eciaiaiey iauaia aaca io aai aeaaeaiey.
Ea/anoaaiiia iauyniaiea oaeoii, iaaethaeaaiuo Aieeai, iiaeao aeaoue
oieueei aoiienoeea: anee aac eiaao aeene?aoiia no?iaiea, o. a. ninoieo
ec aoiiia e ionoiou, oi eaaeinoue aai naeaoey iaoneiaeaia naeeaeaieai
aoiiia a ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaiey naiaiaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa iaaeaeo ieie.

Ia?aay ?iaeay iiiuoea i?eiaiaiey aoiienoeee aeey iauyniaiey
eiee/anoaaiii iaaethaeaaiuo yaeaiee i?e?iaeu iicaieyao naeaeaoue aeaa
i/aiue aaaeiuo auaiaea:

1. I?aa?aoeaoenue ec oeeinioneie aeiioacu a iao/ioth eiioeaioeeth,
aoiienoeea iiaeao noaoue iiuiui eino?oiaioii, iicaieythuei aeaaaoue
aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueioth o?aeoiaeo naiui ?aciiia?aciui yaeaieyi
i?e?iaeu.

2. Aeey nei?aeoaai i?aa?auaiey aoiienoeee ec oeeinioneie aeiioacu a
iao/ioth eiioeaioeeth aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey aoiiia iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeaea anaai eneaoue i?e eco/aiee aacia, a ia aeeaeeeo e oaa?aeuo
aauanoa, eioi?uie aei yoiai caieiaeenue oeieee.

Iaeiaei i?ieaeao aua ieiei 100 eao, i?aaeaea /ai oeieee aieioioth
caeioony enneaaeiaaieai aacia. Oiaaea-oi e iineaaeoao eaneaae ioe?uoee
i?inouo aauanoa: aiaei?iae, eenei?iae, acio, oei?. A ianeieueei iicaea
aacu iiiiaoo onoaiiaeoue oa caeiiu, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iniiaiuie
caeiiaie oeiee. Iie e iicaieyo noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
aoiiii-iieaeoey?iiai o/aiey.

2. INIIAIUA IIIssOEss E CAEIIU OEIEE

Caeii nio?aiaiey iannu. Eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea aeey oeiee eiaei
onoaiiaeaiea caeiia nio?aiaiey iannu, yaeythuaainy neaaenoaeai anaiauaai
anoanoaaiiiai caeiia nio?aiaiey iaoa?ee e aeaeaeaiey, noi?ioee?iaaiiiai
I.A.Eiiiiiniaui (1711—1765 aa.) eae anaiauee anoanoaaiiue caeii a 1748
a. a ienueia e Ae. Yeea?o: “Ana ia?aiaiu, a iaoo?a neo/athueany, oaeiai
nooue ninoiyiey, /oi, neieueei /aai o iaeiiai oaea ioieiaony, noieueei
i?eniaieoieony e ae?oaiio, aaeaee, aaea oaoaeao ianeieueei iaoa?ee, oi
oiiiaeeony a ae?oaii ianoa… Nae anaiauee caeii i?inoe?aaony e a naiua
i?aaeea aeaeaeaiey; eai oaei, aeaeaeouaa naiae neeie ae?oaia, noieueei
aea ii o naay oa?yao, neieueei niiauaao ae?oaiio, eioi?ia io iaai
aeaeaeaiea iieo/aao” (Eiiiiinia I. A. O?oaeu ii oeceea e oeiee.— I.,
1951.—O. II.-” N. 188).

Yoi iieiaeaiea, auneacaiiia a aeaea oeeinioneie eiioeaioeee. I. A.
Eiiiiinia iiaeoaa?aeee yenia?eiaioaeueii a 1756 a., iiaoi?ea iiuou ?. A
i e e y ii i?ieaeeaaieth iaoaeeia a caiayiiuo noaeeyiiuo ninoaeao
(?aoi?oao). ?onneee o/aiue onoaiiaee, /oi anee ninoae, niaea?aeauee
iaoaee, acaaneoue aei e iinea i?ieaeeaaiey, ia ane?uaay aai, oi ianna
inoaaony aac eciaiaiee. I?e iaa?aaaiee aea iaoaeea ai ane?uoie ?aoi?oa
ianna oaaee/eaaaony ca n/ao aai niaaeeiaiey n aicaeooii, i?iieeathuei a
ninoae.

Aiaeiae/iuo auaiaeu ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioii ii i?ieaeeaaieth iaoaeeia
naeaeae a 1777 a. e A. Eaaoacuea (1743–1794 aa.), eioi?ue (iinea
ioe?uoey e 1774 a. Ae. I?enoee eenei?iaea) oaea ciae ea/anoaaiiue e
eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa aicaeooa.

Iai?eia?, ieneae oaea?iaea (IV) iiaeii iieo/eoue ii ethaie ec oeacaiiuo
ieaea ?aaeoeee:

N+I2=NI2; 2NI+02=2N02; NaNIc=N02+NaI

A oeie/anee /enoii ia?acoea yoiai ieneaea anaaaea niaea?aeeony 27,29% N
e 72,71% I. Ioeeiiaiea io oeacaiiiai ninoaaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
i?enoonoaee i?eianae. Ooaa?aeaeaiea, ia?aoiia caeiio i iinoiyinoaa
ninoaaa aauanoa: eaaeaeiio ii?aaeaeaiiiio ninoaao ioaa/aao oieueei iaeii
oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea, iaaa?ii. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeeiaoeeiaue yoe? e
yoeeiaue nie?o eiatho iaeeiaeiaue oeie/aneee ninoaa — N2IaI, ii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa no?oeoo?ie iieaeoe, o. a. ii?yaeeii
niaaeeiaiey a ieo aoiiia (eciia?u).

Caeii yeaeaaeaioia. Oeie/aneea yeaiaiou niaaeeiythony ae?oa n ae?oaii a
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaao, niioaaonoaothueo eo yeaeaaeaioai (A.
?eooa?, 1792—1794 aa.). Iiiyoea yeaeaaeaioa aaaaeaii a oeieth aeey
niiinoaaeaiey niaaeeieoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia.
Yeaeaaeaioii oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa iacuaatho oaeoth aai ianno, eioi?ay
niaaeeiyaony n 1,008 /. i. (/anoe iannu) aiaei?iaea eee 8 /. i.
eenei?iaea eee caiauaao yoe iannu a niaaeeiaieyo*

Ioiaoei, /oi iaeei e oio aea yeaiaio iiaeao eiaoue ia iaeei, a
ianeieueei yeaeaaeaioia. Oae, yeaeaaeaio oaea?iaea a ieneaea oaea?iaea
(IV) ?aaai o?ai, a a ieneaea oaea?iaea (II) — oanoe.

Iiiyoea yeaeaaeaioa iiaeii ?ani?ino?aieoue e ia neiaeiua niaaeeiaiey
oeia eeneio, nieae e iniiaaiee.

Yeaeaaeaioii neiaeiiai niaaeeiaiey iacuaatho ianno yoiai niaaeeiaiey,
niaea?aeauoth yeaeaaeaio aiaei?iaea (eeneiou) eee yeaeaaeaio
iaoaeee/aneie ninoaaiie /anoe (iniiaaiey, niee).

A iauai aeaea caeii yeaeaaeaioia iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

Ai anao oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo acaeiiaeaenoaea ?acee/iuo aauanoa ae?oa n
ae?oaii i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n eo yeaeaaeaioaie, iacaaeneii io
oiai, yaeythony ee yoe aauanoaa i?inouie eee neiaeiuie.

Caeii e?aoiuo ioiioaiee. Anee aeaa yeaiaioa ia?acotho ae?oa n Ae?oaii
ianeieueei oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, oi ia iaeio e oo aea ianno iaeiiai ec
ieo i?eoiaeyony oaeea iannu ae?oaiai, eioi?ua ioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie
eae i?inoua oeaeua /enea (Ae. Aeaeueoii, 1803 a.).

^Ae. Aeaeueoii (1776—1844 aa.) a aeaeueiaeoai, eniieuecoy ioe?uoue ei
caeie e?aoiuo ioiioaiee, caeii yeaeaaeaioia e caeii iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa,
nicaeae iiaoth aa?neth aoiienoe/aneie oai?ee, iniiaaiioth ia
eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiioaieyo, aicieeathueo i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo
oeie/aneeie yeaiaioaie.

Iao?oaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi caeii e?aoiuo ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea caeiia yeaeaaeaioia, iniiaaiiia ia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii aiaeeca ?yaeia oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, ia?acothueony
i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee ae?oa n ae?oaii aeaoo ethauo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia. A
i?inoaeoai neo/aa oeacaiiue ?yae iiaeao ninoiyoue ec aeaoo niaaeeiaiee.
Iai?eia?, i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee oaea?iaea e eenei?iaea: ia?acothony aeaa
niaaeeiaiey: ieneae oaea?iaea (II) e ieneae oaea?iaea- (IV).

Aeieacaoaeuenoai iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa aeey naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oeie/aneeo
niaaeeiaiee oaea yaeyeinue naii ii naaa naeaeaoaeuenoaii a iieueco
aeene?aoiiai no?iaiey iaoa?ee. I?eiaiaiea aea caeiia iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa
aeey aiaeeca ethaiai ec oeacaiiuo ?yaeia iieacuaaao, /oi nouanoaiaaiea
aeaoo (eee ianeieueeeo) niaaeeiaiee, ia?acothueony i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee
ethaie ia?u oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, aiciiaeii eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
ninoaa niaaeeiaiee aoaeao ioee/aoueny iaeei io ae?oaiai ia oeaeua aoiiu.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoe ?acee/ey a ninoaaa oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ?yaea,
ai?i/ai, eae e naie iniiaiua caeiiu oeiee, ni?aaaaeeeau eeoue i?e
oneiaee, /oi iaoa?ey aeaenoaeoaeueii ninoieo ec iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo
/anoeoe.

Auaeaeaay iiaoth aa?neth aoiienoe/aneie oai?ee, iie?athuothny ia
iniiaiua oeie/aneea caeiiu, e ioaeaaay aeaiue oaaaeaiey ae?aaiaa?a/aneei
oeeinioai-aoiienoai, Ae. Aeaeueoii nio?aiee i?aaeeiaeaiiia eie iacaaiea
aeey iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe iaoa?ee — aoii.

E iaeiiaoe, eniieueciaaiea caeiia iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa e caeiia e?aoiuo
ioiioaiee iicaieeei Ae. Aeaeueoiio onoaiiaeoue cia/aiey ioiineoaeueiuo
aoiiiuo iann yeaiaioia, i?eieiay ca aaeeie/ioth — ianno aoiia
aiaei?iaea. Oae, oii Aeaeueoiia, iaeaaeathuee eiie?aoiui iaoa?eaeueiui
naienoaii — aoiiiie iannie, ec ioaea/aiiie iiaeaee i?aa?aoeeny a
eiie?aoiia oeie/aneia iiiyoea. N aaaaeaieai a oeieth iiiyoey “aoiiiay
ianna” iaoea ia?aoiaeeo ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue naiaai ?acaeoey.

Aianoa n oai aoiienoeea Aeaeueoiia aua ia naiaiaeia io iaaeinoaoeia: a
iae iao ianoa iieaeoeai, a nouanoaotho oieueei “neiaeiua aoiiu ”.

Caeii iauaiiuo ioiioaiee e caeii Aaiaaae?i. Iauaiu anooiathueo a
?aaeoeeth aacia ioiinyony ae?oa e ae?oao, a oaeaea e iauaio
iieo/athueony aaciia?aciuo i?iaeoeoia eae i?inoua oeaeua /enea (AE.
Aae-Ethnnae, 1805 a.). Yoio caeii iaoiaeeony a na?ueaciii i?ioeai?a/ee n
auaiaeaie aoiienoeee Aeaeueoiia.

Aeey iauyniaiey iaaethaeaaoeony AE. Aae-Ethnnaeii caeiiiia?iinoae
niaaeeiaiey aacia ieacaeinue iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaeiieiaeeoue neaaeothuaa:

1) ethaua aacu (a oii /enea e i?inoua) ninoiyo ia ec aoiiia, a ec
iieaeoe;

2) a ?aaiuo iauaiao ?acee/iuo aacia i?e iaeeiaeiauo oaiia?aoo?a e
aeaaeaiee niaea?aeeony iaeeiaeiaia /enei iieaeoe.

Iineaaeiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, auneacaiiia eoaeueyineei o/aiui A. A ai aa
ae?ia 1811 a., aioei a oeieth iiae eiaiai caeiia Aaiaaae?i. Iaeiaei a
ia/aea XIX a. yoe aicc?aiey ia iieo/eee aeieaeiiai i?eciaiey: aeaaea
e?oiiua oeieee oiai a?aiaie Ae. Aeaeueoii e E. Aa?oeaeeon io?eoeaee
aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iieaeoe, ninoiyueo ec ianeieueeeo
iaeeiaeiauo aoiiia. I?ioei aua iieaaea, i?aaeaea /ai ia 1
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii nuacaea oeieeia, ninoiyaoainy a Ea?en?oy (Aa?iaiey) a
naioya?a 1860 a., auee ieii/aoaeueii i?eiyou iniiaiua oeie/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey (iiiyoey ia aoiiao e iieaeoeao), ca?iaeeaoeany a aeaea
oeeinioneiai o/aiey a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee (Eaaeeii, Aeaiie?eo, Yieeo?),
aia?aua ?acaeoua a aeaea iao/iie eiioeaioeee Ae. Aeaeueoiiii,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua iiuoaie AE. I?onoa, AE. Aae-Ethnnaea e ieii/aoaeueii
noi?ioee?iaaiiua a o?oaeao A. Aaiaaae?i e aai o/aieea N.Eaiieoeoea?i.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aoiiii-iieaeoey?iiai o/aiey iiaeii
noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Ana aauanoaa ninoiyo ec aoiiia.

Aoiiu eaaeaeiai aeaea iaeeiaeiau iaaeaeo niaie, ii ioee/athony io aoiiia
ethaiai ae?oaiai aeaea.

I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee aoiiia ia?acothony iieaeoeu: aiiiyaea?iua eee
aaoa?iyaea?iua.

I?e oece/aneeo yaeaieyo iieaeoeu nio?aiythony; i?e oeie/aneeo –
?ac?ooathony; i?e oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeeyo aoiiu a ioee/ee io iieaeoe
nio?aiythony.

Oeie/aneea ?aaeoeee caeeth/athony a ia?aciaaiee iiauo aauanoa ec oao aea
naiuo aoiiia, ec eioi?uo ninoiyo ia?aiia/aeueiua aauanoaa.

Iieue ?aaai eiee/anoao aauanoaa, niaea?aeauaai noieueei aea no?oeoo?iuo
/anoeoe aeaiiiai aauanoaa, neieueei aoiiia niaea?aeeony a oaea?iaea
iannie 12 a.

Oeceei-oeie/aneee niune iiiyoey “iieue” iiaeao auoue ooi/iai iinea
aaaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ecioiiao.

Aeey oaeianoaa ?an/aoia, i?iaiaeeiuo ia iniiaaiee oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee e
o/eouaathueo eiee/anoaa enoiaeiuo ?aaaaioia e i?iaeoeoia acaeiiaeaenoaey
a iieyo, aaiaeeony iiey?iay ianna aauanoaa.

Iiey?iay ianna I aauanoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioiioaiea aai iannu e
eiee/anoao aauanoaa: I =m

V

aaea m — ianna a a?aiiao, v — eiee/anoai aauanoaa a iieyo, I — iiey?iay
ianna a a/iieue — iinoiyiiay aaee/eia aeey eaaeaeiai aeaiiiai aauanoaa.

Cia/aiea iiey?iie iannu /eneaiii niaiaaeaao n ioiineoaeueiie
iieaeoey?iie iannie aauanoaa eee ioiineoaeueiie aoiiiie iannie yeaiaioa.

Ii?aaeaeaiea, aeaiiia iieth, iie?aaony ia /enei no?oeoo?iuo /anoeoe,
niaea?aeaueony a 12 a oaea?iaea. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi oeacaiiay ianna
oaea?iaea niaea?aeeo 6,02o10/23 aoiiia yoiai yeaiaioa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ethaie oeie/aneee eiaeeaeae eiee/anoaii 1 iieue niaea?aeeo 6,02o10/23
no?oeoo?iuo /anoeoe (aoiiia eee iieaeoe).

*enei N/A=6.02*10/23 iineo iacaaiea iinoiyiiie Aaiaaae?i e auaaaeaii n
eniieueciaaieai caeiia Aaiaaae?i.

Ec caeiia Aaiaaae?i neaaeoao, /oi aeaa aaca iaeeiaeiauo iauaiia i?e
iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo, oioy e niaea?aeao iaeeiaeiaia /enei iieaeoe,
eiatho iaiaeeiaeiaua iannu: ianna iaeiiai aaca ai noieueei ?ac aieueoa
iannu ae?oaiai, ai neieueei ?ac ioiineoaeueiay iieaeoey?iay ianna
ia?aiai aieueoa, /ai ioiineoaeueiay iieaeoey?iay ianna aoi?iai, o. a.
ieioiinoe aacia ioiinyony eae eo ioiineoaeueiua iieaeoey?iua iannu.

Iacaaeneiay ioeaiea cia/aiey iiey?iie iannu I iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia ia
iniiaaiee iaiauaiiiai o?aaiaiey Eeaiae?iia — Iaiaeaeaaaa: PV=m o RT

M

Aaea ? – aeaaeaiea aaca a caieiooie nenoaia, V – iauai nenoaiu, m –
ianna aaca, R – iiey?iay aaciaay iinoiyiiay, ?aaiay 8, 31*AeAE/E*iieue,
O – aaniethoiay oaiia?aoo?a.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.Oeiey. Ni?aai/iua iaoa?eaeu.I.-1989 a.

2. Iauay e iai?aaie/aneay oeiey. O.Aa?eaiiaa, A. E?aeiaa.I.-2000 a.

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