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?AOA?AO II OEIEE

IIAeAIOIAEAI:

I.Ooeoiiaa

I.Naiaiiaa.

AEIAC.

(Eaaaiaea e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.)

Aeiac! Yoi iacaaiea ecaanoii eaaeaeiio. N iei annioeee?oaony
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ian?aaiaiiii aeanea e iai?aacaeaeaiiie oaa?aeinoe. Ni
aoi?ui naienoaii naycaii e iacaaiea ieia?aea, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo eee io
a?aaneiai neiaa ae-ian (“oaa?aeaeoee”), eee io a?a/aneiai aaeaian
(“iai?aiaeieeiue”, ”ianie?ooeiue”).

Aeiacu ecaeaaii eniieueciaaeenue a ea/anoaa naiuo ecuneaiiuo oe?aoaiee.
THaaee?u ?acaeaeytho aeiacu ii/oe ia ouny/e ni?oia a caaeneiinoe io
i?ic?a/iinoe, oiia, aonoiou e ?aaiiia?iinoe ie?anee, iaee/ea o?auei,
ieia?aeueiuo aeeth/aiee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo i?eciaeia. A eiioea
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea aeiacu ia/eiatho i?eiaiyony ia i?iecaiaenoaa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae iaeaieaa ?acaeouo ainoaea?noa a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a naycuaaaony n eniieueciaaieai eie aeiacia.

Eaeea aea naienoaa aeiaca ii?aaeaeytho aai oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea a
naiuo ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa? A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
eiia/ii, eneeth/eoaeueiay oaa?aeinoue, eioi?ay, anee noaeeoue ii
nei?inoe enoe?aiey, a 150 ?ac auoa, /ai o ei?oiaea, e a aeanyoee ?ac
eo/oa, /ai o eo/oeo nieaaia, i?eiaiyaiuo aeey ecaioaaeaiey ?acoeia.
Aeiac i?eiaiyaony i?e ao?aiea ai?iuo ii?iae e iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioea
naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo iaoa?eaeia, aeey i?ioyaeaaiea (aiei/aiey) oiieie
i?iaieee, a ea/anoaa aa?aceaa e o.i.

Aieaa iieiaeiu aeiau/e oaoie/aneeo aeiacia eaeao ia ecaioiaeaiey
niaoeeaeueiiai ein?oiaioa aeey ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
I?eiaiaiea aeiaciuo ?acoeia e naa?e ia ia?aaioea oeaaoiuo e /a?iuo
iaoaeia, oaa?aeuo e naa?ooaa?aeuo nieaaia , noaeea , eao/oea, ieaniann e
ae?oaeo neioaoe/aneeo aauanoa aeaao ia?iiiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ii
n?aaiaieth n eniieueciaaieai oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa. *a?acau/aeii
aaaeii, /oi i?e yoii ia oieueei a aeanyoee ?ac iiauoaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea (i?e oiea?iie ia?aaioea ieanoiann aeaaea a
nioie ?ac!), ii iaeiia?aiaiii cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaaony ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee. Ia?aaioaiiua aeiaciui ?acoeii iiaa?oiinoue ia o?aaotho
oeeoiaee, ia ieo i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho iee?i o?auaiu, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eaaaony n?ie neoaeau iieo/aaiuo aeaoaeae.

I?aeoe/anee ana nia?aiaiiua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay, ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiay e i?eai?ino?ieoaeueiay, a ia?iiiuo
eieee/anoaao eniieuecotho oiieoth i?iaieeo, ecaioaaeeaaaioth ec
?acee/iuo I?e yoii i?aaeuyaeythony no?iaea o?aaiaaiey e e?oaiaie oi?ia e
iaeciaiiinoe aeeaiao?a iiia?a/iiai na/aiey i?iaieee i?e aunieie /enoioa
iiaa?oiinoe.Oaeay i?iaieea ec oaa?aeuo iaoaeeia e nieaaia (aieueo?aia,
o?iiiieeaeaaie noaee e ae?.) iiaeao auoue ecaioiaeaia eeoue n iiiiuuth
aeiaciuo oeeuea?.Oeeuea?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ieanoei/aoua aeiacu n
i?inaa?eaiiuie a ieo oii/aeoeie iaa?noeyie.

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoiaeyo e aeiaciua ii?ioee. Eo
iieo/atho iooai ae?iaeaiea ieceini?oiuo i?e?iaeiuo aeiacia, a oaeaea
ecaioaaeeaatho ia niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ii i?iecaiaenoai
neioaoe/aneeo aeiacia. Aeiaciua ii?ioee eniieuecothony a aeeneiauo
aeiaciuo ieeao,iaeeiaeiaciuo ao?iauo ei?iieao, niaoeeaeueiuo
iaieeueieeao e a ea/anoaa aa?aceaa. Oieueei n i?eiaiaieai aeiaciuo
ii?ioeia oaeaeinue nicaeaoue oieeaeueiua naa?ea, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho
iieo/aiea aeoaieeo oiieeo ioaa?noee a oaa?aeuo e o?oaeeo iaoa?eaeao.

Aeiaciua ii?ioee iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiey ia a?aieeueiuo oaa?eeao, aaea ana
naiioeaaou, e a oii /enea aeiacu, iiaeaa?aathony i?aaieea e oeeoiaea,
aeaaiaea?y /aio iaac?a/iua aei yoiai eaiie noaiiayony oaeinoaaiii
naaoyueieny eee ineaieoaeueii naa?eathueie ae?aaioeaiiinoyie, e ia
iiaoi?eiie e?anioa eio?uo ieeoi ia inoaiaony ?aaiiaeooiui. A aeiaca iiae
aeaenoaeai ca?yaeaiiie /anoeoea i?ienoiaeeo naaoiaay aniuoea e aicieeaao
eiioeuen oiea. Yoe naienoaa iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue aeiacu a ea/anoaa
aeaoaeoi?ia yaea?iiai eceo/aiey. Naa/aiea aeiacia e aicieeiiaaiea
eiioeuenia yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea i?e iaeo/aiee iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue eo a
n/ao/eeao auno?uo /anoeoe. Aeiac a ea/anoaa oaeiai n/ao/eea iaeaaeaao
iainii?eiuie i?aeiouanoaaie ii n?aaiaieth n aaciauie e ae?oaeie
e?enoaeee/aneeie i?eai?aie.

A Niaaoneii Nithca iinea ioe?uoey yeooneeo ianoi?iaeaeaiee auea nicaeaia
aeiaciaeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A cia/eoaeueiuo ianooaaao o ian
i?iecaiaeyony e neioaoe/aneea aeiacu.

Aeiacii, eae e ae?oaei e?enoaeee/aneei oaeai, naienoaaiia aiecio?iiey
iaeioi?uo oa?aeoa?enoee a oii /enea e aiecio?iiey oaa?aeinoe, /oi
iaoneiaeaiii iniaaiiinoyie aioo?aiiaai no?iaiey e?enoaeeia. Oaa?aeinoue
iaiyaony ia oieueei io a?aie e a?aie, ii e ia ?aaeei a i?aaeaeao iaeiie
a?aie e?enoaeea, /oi ia iaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e ia?aaioea aeiaca e i?e
?aaioa n aeiaciui eino?oiaioii.

I?i/ea oeceei-iaoaie/aneea naienoaa. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao i/aiue
ieceee eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey aeiaca ii iaoaeeo ia aicaeooa – anaai 0.1,
/oi naycaii n ia?aciaaieai ia iiaa?oiinoe e?enoaeea oiieeo ieaiie
aaeni?ae?iaaiiiai aaca, ea?athueo ?ieue naiaia?aciie niacee. Eiaaea
oaeea ieaiee ia ia?acothony, eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey aic?anoaao e aeinoeaaao
0.5-0.55. Ieceee eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey iaoneaaeeaaao eneeth/eoaeueioth
eciininoieeinoue aeiaca ia enoe?aiea, eioi?ay i?aauoaao eciininoieeinoue
ei?oiaea a 90 ?ac, a ae?oaeo aa?aceaiuo iaoa?eaeia – a nioie e ouny/e
?ac. A ?acoeueoaoa, iai?eia?, i?e oeeoiaaiee ecaeaeee ec oaa?aeuo
nieaaia aeiaciiai ii?ioea ?anoiaeoaony a 600-3000 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai
ethaiai ae?oaiai aa?aceaa.

Aeey aeiaca oaeaea oa?aeoa?iu naiue aunieee (ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
ecaanoiuie iaoa?eaeaie) iiaeoeue oi?oainoe e naiue ieceee eiyooeoeeaio
naeaoey.

Oa?ie/aneea naienoaa. Oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey aeiaca ninoaaeyao
3700-4000’C. Ia aicaeooa aeiac nai?aao i?e 850-1000’N, a a no?oa /enoiai
eenei?iaea ai?eo neaai-aieoaui ieaiaiai i?e 720-800’N, iieiinoueth
i?aa?auaynue a eiia/iii n/aoa a oaeaeeneue aac. I?e iaa?aaa aei
2000-3000’N aac aeinooia aicaeooa aeiac ia?aoiaeeo a a?aoeo.

?anniao?eaaaiue ieia?ae iaeaaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie
oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao auno?ue iooiae oaiea,
aicieeathuaai a i?ioeanna ia?aaioee aeaoaeae eino?oiaioii, ecaioiaeaiiui
ec iaai. E?iia oiai, aeey aeiaca oa?aeoa?ai ieceee oaiia?aoo?iue
eiyooeoeeaio eeiaeiiai ?anoe?aiey (ieaea, /ai o oaa?aeuo nieaaia e
noaee). Yoi naienoai aeiaca o/eouaaaony i?e anoaaea aai a ii?aao ec
?aciuo iaoaeeia e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia.

Iioe/aneea naienoaa. N?aaeiee iieacaoaeue i?aeiieaiey aanoeaaoiuo
e?enoaeeia aeiaca a aeaeoii oeaaoa ?aaai i?eia?ii 2.417, a aeey
?acee/iuo oeaaoia niaeo?a ii aa?uee?oao io 2.402 (aeey e?aniiai) aei
2.465 (aeey oeieaoiaiai). Niiniaiinoue e?enoaeia ?aceaaaoue aaeue oeaao
ia ioaeaeueiua ninoaaeythuea iacuaaaony aeenia?neae. Aeey aeiaca
aeenia?ney ?aaia 0.063. Eae iieacaoaee i?aeiieaiey, oae e aeenia?ney
aeiaca iaiiiai i?aauoatho aiaeiae/iua naienoaa anao ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo
i?ic?a/iuo aauanoa, /oi e iaoneiaeeaaao a ni/aoaiee n oaa?aeinoueth
iai?aacaeaeaiiua ea/anoaa aeiacia eae ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae. Aunieia
i?aeiieaiea a niaieoiiinoe n /?acau/aeii neeueiie aeenia?neae aucuaaao
oa?aeoa?iue aeane ioiiee?iaaiiiai aeiaca, iacaaiiui aeiaciui.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo naienoa aeiacia yaeyaony ethieianoeaioeey. Iiae
aeaenoaeai nieia/iiai naaoa e iniaaiii eaoiaeiuo, oeueo?aoeieaoiauo e
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae aeiacu ia/eiatho ethieianoee?iaaoue – naaoeoueny
?acee/iuie oeaaoaie. Iiae aeaenoaeai eaoiaeiiai e ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey naaoyony ana ?aciiaeaeiinoe aeiacia, a iiae aeaenoaeai
oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai – oieueei iaeioi?ua. ?aioaaiiethieianoeaioeey oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony ia i?aeoeea aeey ecaea/aiey aeiacia ec ii?iaeu.

Oi?ia e?enoaeeia. Aieueoay /anoue aeiacia ano?a/aaony a i?e?iaea a aeaea
ioaeaeueiuo oi?ioi ioi?ieaiiuo e?enoaeeia eee eo iaeiieia. I?aiaeaaeatho
ieoayae?u, ?iiaiaeiaeaeayae?u e eoau, a oaeaea eo eiiaeiaoeee. Yoi
e?enoaeeu n ?iaiuie ieineeie a?aiyie. Oae eo e iacuaatho –
ieineia?aiiuie. ?aaea ano?a/athony e?eaia?aiiua, ie?oaeua e?enoaeeu,
iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo iie i?aiaeaaeatho. Ca/anooth
e?enoaeeu aeiaca n?anoathony ae?oa n ae?oaii eee aea eae au
“i?i?anoatho” ae?oa ae?oaa, ia?acoy niioaaonoaaiii oae iacuaaaiua
aeaieieee n?anoaiey e i?i?anoaiey.

I?aeoe/anee ai anao aeiaciuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo i?enoonoaotho iee?i- e
ne?uoie?enoaeee/aneea aa?aaaou, neiaeaiiua nioiyie oanii n?inoeony
iaeue/aeoeo ca?ai aeiaca. Iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia ai?o, aaeean e
ea?aiiaaei. Ai?oii iau/ii iacuaatho iai?aaeeueiua iaeeica?ienoua
n?inoee. Aaeeanu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oa?iia?aciua aa?aaaou,
?aaeeaeueii-eo/enoiai no?iaiey, ea?aiiaaei – oiieica?ienoua aa?aaaou,
eiathuea ianneaiia, ii?enoia, eieniaeaeiia e oeaeiaeaeiia no?iaiea.
Iaeaieaa oeaiyony ianneaiua ea?aiiaaei, iie?uoea yiaeaaeaeiie ei?i/eie,
eioi?ay oaa?aea naiiai aeiaciiai yae?a. Ea?aiiaaei iacaiaieiu aeey
ecaioiaeaiey aeiaciuo ao?iauo ei?iiie.

Eeanneoeeaoeey aeiacia. Iiiuoee eeanneoeoee?iaaoue aeiacu
i?aaei?eieiaeenue n iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai. Oae, ae?aaiea eiaeonu
?acaeaeyee aeiacu, eae e ethaeae, ia /aou?a eanou: a?aoiaiu, eoao?ee,
aaeoee e ooae?u. E a?aoiaiai ioiineeenue i?ic?aiua aunieiea/anoaaiiua
e?enoaeeu, e eoao?eyi e aaeoeyi – eaiie eaiie aieaa ieceini?oiua n
e?aniiaaoui iooaieii, e ooae?ai – iaeaieaa ieceiea/anoaaiiua aeiacu
na?iai oeaaoa. Niioaaonoaaiii ooae?u ioeaieaaeenue a /aoaa?oue, aaeoee –
a iieiaeio, a eoao?ee – a o?e /aoaa?oe noieiinoe a?aoiaiia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai eeanneoeeaoeee aeiacia,
iniiaaiiuo ia ?acee/iuo i?eioeeiao. A iaeieo eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo noaiao
naeaeaiu iiiuoee o/anoue ana naienoaa aeiacia, a ae?oaeo – a iniiao
iieiaeai aaiaoe/aneee i?eioeei, o.a. i?aaenoaaeaiey ia oneiaeyo
ia?aciaaiey oao eee eiuo a?oii aeiacia. A Niaaoneii Nithca iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?iiaiea iieo/eee eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua noaiu TH.E.I?eiaa e
C.A.Aa?oioeineiai. A oi aea a?aiy thaaee?u, iiaeoiaey e aeaiiiio aii?ino
ni naieo iiceoeee, ?acaeaeytho aeiacu ii/oe ia ouny/o ni?oia a
caaeneiinoe io i?ic?a/iinoe, oiia, aonoiou e ?aaiiia?iinoe ie?anee,
iaee/ey o?auei, ieia?aeueiuo aeeth/aiee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo i?eciaeia.

A iaoae no?aia i?eiyoa eeanneoeeaoeey, aaea o/eouaaaony ea/anoai
aeiacia, eo ?acia?iinoue, ianna e noa?a i?eiaiaiey. Ii ea/anoao
ii?aaeaeyaony 9 eaoaai?ee i?e?iaeiiai aeiaciiai nu?uey. E eaoaai?eyi 1e
2 ioianaiu thaaee?iua aeiacu, e inoaeueiui – ?acee/iua ni?oa
oaoie/aneeo. A naith i/a?aaeue, eaoaai?ee iiae?acaeaeythony ia a?oiiu n
o/aoii iannu e ?acia?ia e?enoaeeia, a a?oiiu – ia iiaea?oiiu n oeacaieai
iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey aeiacia.

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