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Законодательное обеспечение реформы 1861года

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Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea PAGEREF _Toc445998958 \h 2

1. Enoi?e/aneea oneiaey i?iaaaeaiey e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu 1861 a.
PAGEREF _Toc445998959 \h 4

1.1. Yeiiiieea eae oaeoi? i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu PAGEREF _Toc445998960 \h
4

1.2.Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay nenoaia eae oaeoi? i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu
PAGEREF _Toc445998961 \h 7

2. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia iaania/aiea ?aoi?iu PAGEREF _Toc445998962 \h 9

2.1. Iaieoano i anaieeinoeaaeoai aea?iaaiee e?aiinoiui ethaeyi i?aa
ninoiyiey naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo iauaaoaeae e ia ono?ienoaa eo auoa
PAGEREF _Toc445998963 \h 9

2.1. Iauaa iieiaeaiea i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe
PAGEREF _Toc445998964 \h 13

2.3. Iieiaeaiea i aueoia e?anoueyiaie, auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe, e i niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo oaiaeee
PAGEREF _Toc445998965 \h 25

2.4. I?aaeea i ii?yaeea i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea iieiaeaiee i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe PAGEREF _Toc445998966
\h 31

2.5. Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai o/?aaeaeaieyo
PAGEREF _Toc445998967 \h 34

2.6. Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea ia ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi, aiaeai?aiiuo a
eiaieyo iaeeiiiianoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa, e i iiniaee nei aeaaeaeueoeai
PAGEREF _Toc445998968 \h 34

Caeeth/aiea PAGEREF _Toc445998969 \h 36

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u PAGEREF _Toc445998970 \h 40

Aaaaeaiea

A na?aaeeia 19 a. a ?innee auee i?iaaaeaiu enoi?e/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey,
ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieeenue iauanoaaiiua oneiaey ?acaeoey no?aiu, a oii
/enea i?aaiaua, auee nicaeaiu i?aaeiinueee aeey ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia.
Ia?aie e aaaeouae ?aoi?iie noaea eeeaeaeaoeey e?aiinoiiai i?aaa,
inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa. Aa i?iaaaeaiea auei i?aaeii?aaeaeaii anai
i?aaeoanoaothuei oiaeii ?acaeoey no?aiu, nouanoaiaaee yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua i?aaeiinueee. Iiaeaioiaea ?aoi?iu i?ioiaeeea ianeieueei
eao. I?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?iu caoyioeinue ia aeanyoeeaoey. Aa oiae aue
ii?aaeaeai 17 caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie, eioi?ua auee ecaeaiu 19 oaa?aey
1861 a:

Iauaa iieiaeaiea,

Iieiaeaiea ia ono?ienoaa aeai?iauo,

Iieiaeaiea i aueoia,

Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai
o/?aaeaeaieyo,

I?aaeea i ii?yaeea i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Iieiaeaiee,

Ianoiia iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi 29-oe
aaeeei?inneeneeo, o?ao iiai?inneeneeo e aeaoo aaei?onneeo aoaa?iee,

Ianoiia iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi o?ao
iaei?inneeneeo aoaa?iee, ninoaaeyaoeo Eaaiaa?aaeioth Oe?aeio,

Ianoiia iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi o?ao aoaa?iee
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu,

Ianoiia iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi Eeoau e /anoe
Aaei?onnee,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao iaeeiiiianoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i i?eienaiiuo e /anoiui ai?iui caaiaeai ethaeyo
Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao. ioauaathueo ?aaiou ia
iiiaue/ueeo oaa?eeao,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao e ?aaioieeao, ioauaathueo ?aaiou
ia Ia?ineeo /anoiuo ai?iuo caaiaeao e nieyiuo i?iiuneao,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao e aeai?iauo ethaeyo Iaeanoe
aienea Aeiineiai,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao e aeai?iauo ethaeyo
Noaa?iiieueneie aoaa?iee,

Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea i e?anoueyiao e aeai?iauo ethaeyo Neae?e,

I?aaeea i ethaeyo, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe a Aanna?aaneie
iaeanoe.

?anniio?aieth nouiinoe iniiaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
iaania/aiey ?aoi?iu, iinayuaia aeaiiay eo?niaay ?aaioa. A i?ioeanna
?aaiou auee enneaaeiaaiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou
?aoi?iu, oaeno eo aue acyo ii ecaeaieth “?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai”
(I., 1958 a.).

1. Enoi?e/aneea oneiaey i?iaaaeaiey e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu 1861 a.

1.1. Yeiiiieea eae oaeoi? i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu

?aoi?ia 1861 aa. au?inea ec an? oaeoaeyaoaainy ianiioaaonoaey iaaeaeo
ainiiaenoaiaaaoeie a ?innee noa?uie oaiaeaeueiuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
ioiioaieyie e iiaui oa?aeoa?ii iaoeeiiii aic?anoaaoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee.

Caeii iaycaoaeueiiai niioaaonoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?o
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee i?iaeaae naaa aei?iao, ii?aaeaeye iauaeoeaioth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eeeaeaeaoeee onoa?aaoae oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu,
oi?iiceaoae iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, o?aaiaae
onoaiiaeaiey iiauo — eaieoaeenoe/aneeo — i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

E 50-i aiaeai XIX a. eiioeeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee ianoieueei iaino?eeny, a eaieoaeenoe/aneea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey ianoieueei au?inee, /oi oaiaeaeeci ieacaeny aeoaiei
?anoaoaiiui e noa?ay nenoaia oicyenoaa—iiaei?aaiiie a naiae iniiaa.
Eiaiii yoi aucaaei e?ao oaiaeaeecia, aicieeiiaaiea e?ecena
?aaiethoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a e ia?aoiae e iiaiio — eaieoaeenoe/aneiio —
niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu 1861 a. eaieoaeenoe/aneea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey noaee ainiiaenoaothuae oi?iie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ianiio?y ia ana nio?aieaoeany iinea ?aoi?iu
ia?aaeeoee oaiaeaeecia.

Cia/eoaeueiue ?ino iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ii
naiaio oa?aeoa?o e eaieoaeenoe/aneiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa, e ?ino
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee io/?oeeai aeaeiu i?aaeaea
anaai ec ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iniiaaiiie ia i?eiaiaiee
aieueiiia?iiiai o?oaea. Oaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue nouanoaiaaea e a ia/aei
XIX a., ii a ?acoeueoaoa a? eioaineaiiai ?inoa a oa/aiea ia?aie iieiaeiu
noieaoey iia a 50-o aiaeao oaea noaea caieiaoue ea/anoaaiii iiaia ianoi
a iauae nenoaia oicyenoaa no?aiu: e 1860 a. ec 859 950 ?aai/eo, caiyouo
a ?onneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (aeeth/ay iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth), 61,4% ?aai/eo
oaea auee aieueiiia?iiuie. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eaieoaeenoe/aneea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey noaee oaea ea?aoue i?aiaeaaeathuoth ?ieue a
?onneii i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii e anooieee a ?aceee eiioeeeo
n ia?i/iui iieiaeaieai ?aai/eo. A ioaeaeueiuo aea io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe — oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie, oaeeioeaoeeie — e?aiinoiie o?oae a
50-o aiaeao aue oaea ii/oe iieiinoueth auoaniai aieueiiia?iiui.

?aceia iaino?aiea eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo noa?uie e?aiinoie/aneeie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie e ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
iaeaieaa io/?oeeai aeaeii ia i?eia?a iniaaiii auno?i ?acaeaaaoaeny e
ia?aaeiaie a oaoie/aneii ioiioaiee oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aaea
iaeaieaa ynii i?iyaeyeenue i?eciaee ia/aaoaainy a ?innee i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?aai?ioa. A Iaoa?ao?aa e Iaoa?ao?aneie aoaa?iee, ii nio?aieaoaeny a
a?oeaa aaaeiiinoe 1860 a., a oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
i?aiaeaaeathuoth ?ieue ea?atho oaea n?aaieoaeueii e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey —
ia?iaua oaa?eee n eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo io 150 aei 1 200 /aeiaae, i?e/?i
?aai/ea ia ieo ii/oe nieioue aieueiiia?iiua. A Iineaa e Iineianeie
aoaa?iee oaeaea ia/eiatho i?aiaeaaeaoue e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey. Ii
aaaeiiinoe ca 1856 a. ec 198 i?aaei?eyoee n eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo aieaa 16
/aeiaae 120 oaa?ee, eee 60,6%, i?aaenoaaeyee niaie i?aaei?eyoey n
eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo aieaa 50 /aeiaae; ec 31 132 ?aai/eo, caiyouo ia 198
i?aaei?eyoeyo, 24451 /aeiaae, eee 78,5% anao ?aai/eo, ?aaioaee ia
oaa?eeao n eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo io 100 aei 1 400 /aeiaae. Iiiaea ec yoeo
oaa?ee n /eneii ?aai/eo aieaa ouny/e /aeiaae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iauaaeeiyee oieueei /anoue yoeo ?aai/eo a noaiao iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey, a
inoaeueiua ?aai/ea auee e?anoueyiaie, ?aaioaaoeie ia aeiio ii
iiaeiineiaiui aea?aaiyi, ii e i?e yoeo oneiaeyo oaa?eea inoa?ony ii oiio
a?aiaie e?oiiui i?aaei?eyoeai n ianeieueeeie nioiyie ?aai/eo. ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee yaii i?eiaaeeaaeaei eaieoaeenoe/aneiio niiniao
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaeaeo oai ?aca??ouaaeinue iii a e?aiinoiie no?aia, aaea
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
iaoiaeeeinue a e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e aeaaea aieueiiia?iiua ?aai/ea
e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eae i?aaeei, auee e?aiinoiuie e?anoueyiaie,
ioiouaiiuie ia ia?ie. Oaiaeaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey anooiaee,
oaeei ia?acii, a ?aceee eiioeeeo n oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

E?aiinoiia i?aai i?eeiauaaei e?anoueyieia e aea?aaia — iaiaaeo oai ?ino
eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe o?aaiaae an? aieueoaai eiee/anoaa
aieueiiia?iiuo ?aai/eo. A aeoaieii i?ioeai?a/ee n oaiaeaeueiuie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie, ?anoaouaay eo iniiau, a ?innee
?aca??ouaaaony i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ?aai/eo eaae?ia aeey
eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o. a. ia/aeueiue i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
?aai/aai eeanna, caaa?oeaoeeny eeoue a ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae. Eaae?u
?aai/eo ?ae?ooe?iaaeenue ec ?aciuo neiaa ianaeaiey — ec ai?iaeneeo
iauai, aann?i/ii-ioioneiuo nieaeao, iniiaiui aea enoi/ieeii eo
iiiieiaiey yaeyeinue yeni?ii?ee?iaaiiia e?anoueyinoai. ?aceiaeaiea
aa?ueiiie nenoaiu oicyenoaa, auyaeeinue a ?aci?aiee e?anoueyi iiiaueeaie
aneaaenoaea ?inoa yenieoaoaoeee, oaaee/aiey aa?ueiu e iaaccaiaeeaaiey
e?anoueyi iiiaueeaie. ?aci?aiea i?eaiaeeei e?anoueyi e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
eneaoue ca?aaioie, aneaaenoaea /aai e na?aaeeia XIX a. au?in
iacaieaaeaeue/aneee iooiae ec aea?aaie. Iaee/ea e?aiinoiiai i?aaa
oi?iiceei ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, iiiauee /anoi
caaea?aeeaae a aea?aaia eiaiii aaaeiaeoeo e?anoueyi, “iaiaae?aeiuo” n
oi/ee c?aiey naiaa?aiaiiie oieaou ia?iea, ii an? aea eiee/anoai
iooiaeieeia a 50-o aiaeao ?ano?o n eaaeaeui aiaeii. N?aaee e?aiinoiuo
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi a i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?ieyo i?ioeaio ioiouaiiuo ia
ia?ie, ii aeaiiui ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee, nia?aiiui a 1859 a.,
ninoaaeye a Eino?iineie aoaa?iee 88, a ss?ineaaneie — 87, a Aieiaiaeneie
— 84, a Ieiiaoeeie — 72, a Iaoa?ao?aneie — 70, ai Aeaaeeie?neie — 70, a
Iineianeie aoaa?iee—68. Aieueoeinoai iooiaeieeia ec ia?i/iuo e?anoueyi
auee aieueiiia?iiuie ?aai/eie, iaeioi?ay eo /anoue caieiaeanue
?ai?neaie, iaeeie oi?aiaeae e o. ae. Iaeiaei a ethaii neo/aa oaeie
aunieee i?ioeaio iooiaeieeia iaaeyaeii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
oaiaeaeueiue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa aue iiaei?aai a naiie iniiaa.
I?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?iee,
th?eaee/anee yaeyynue e?aiinoiie, auea oaea caiyoa a eaieoaeenoe/aneii
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oaeeo i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?ieyo, eae Aeaaeeie?neay eee Iineianeay,
?anoe?aiea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oneeeaaei e onei?yei i?ioeann
io?uaa e?anoueyi io caieaaeaeey. Eoioeu-i?aaei?eieiaoaee oe?iei
i?aeoeeiaaee i?aaiecaoeeth naieo oaa?ee a aeooeo oacaeiuo ai?iaeao eee
aeaaea a aea?aaaineie ianoiinoe, /oi i?eaiaeeei e oaeoe/aneiio
i?aa?auaieth /anoe e?aiinoiuo iiiaue/ueeo e eac?iiuo e?anoueyi a
iinoiyiiuo oaa?e/iuo ?aai/eo. Oae, iai?eia?, a Iineianeii oacaea ia
eac?iiie caiea e?anoueyi naeueoea ?inoieeia iino?iee neooeaiaaeaioth
oaa?eeo eiiia?oeee niaaoiee Iie/aiia, oae eae caeanue ii iia iieo/eoue
aeao?aoth ?aai/oth neeo. Yoa aieueoay aeey oiai a?aiaie oaa?eea n aeaoiy
ia?iauie iaoeiaie a 18 e 40 e. n., n aiaeiaui iai?ioii ii/oe a ieeeeii
?oaeae, ?aniieiaeaiiay a 6 eaiaiiuo e 16 aea?aayiiuo ei?ionao, caieiaea
a oa/aiea aiaea io 630 aei 910 ?aai/eo. I?e A?enoiaii iinaaea a
Aiai?iaeneii oacaea auea ioe?uoa oaeeioeaoeeay oaa?eea iineianeiai
eoioea Oeoiaa, ia eioi?ie ?aaioaei 416 ?aai/eo. Anaai ec 198
oaenoeeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eiaaoeony a 1856 a. a Iineianeie aoaa?iee, 83
auee ?aniieiaeaiu ia a Iineaa, a a aoaa?iee. Ec 14 iaeaieaa e?oiiuo
iaoa?ao?aneeo oaenoeeueiuo oaa?ee 9 auee ?aniieiaeaiu a naiii ai?iaea, a
5 — a oacaea.

Iaee/ea e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, e?aiinoie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee
caaea?aeeaaei ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ay ia
iiaea iieo/eoue aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa naiaiaeiuo ?oe, oi?iiceei
?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa, yaeyeinue
i?e/eiie oiaaeea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iniiaaiiie ia i?eiaiaiee o?oaea
e?aiinoiuo ?aai/eo, /oi iniaaiii y?ei aeaeii ia i?eia?a o?aeueneie
iaoaeeo?aee.

Aeaenoaea iauaeoeaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai caeiia iaycaoaeueiiai niioaaonoaey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee aaei e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oie/oiaeaiey e?aiinoiiai no?iy a ?innee. Caeii yoio
i?iaeaae naaa aei?iao, ianiio?y ia nii?ioeaeaiea eeanna iiiaueeia,
e?iaii caeioa?aniaaiiiai a nio?aiaiee noa?iai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

1.2.Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay nenoaia eae oaeoi? i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu

Iniiaiie iauanoaaiiie neeie, ai?iaoaeny ca oie/oiaeaiea
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneiai no?iy, auei cae?aiiu?iiia e?anoueyinoai.
Aioeoaiaeaeueiay ai?ueaa e?anoueyinoaa auea noeoeeiie; onoaiiaeaiea
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee yaeyeinue iauaeoeaiui
?acoeueoaoii yoie ai?ueau.

E?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea i?ioea iiiaueeia ia?anoaei n eaaeaeui
aeanyoeeaoeai. ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oeeaaea a oneiaeyo
ainiiaenoaa oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneiai no?iy auei io/eoaeueiui
i?ioeannii aeey oaiao?iiuo iann. I?ioeann yoio, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeeny
iaieuaieai iiiaue/ueeo, ainoaea?noaaiiuo e oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi,
iniaaiii oneeeeny ai a?aiy e iinea E?uineie aieiu. Aieia iaino?eea e
onei?eea ?acaeoea yoeo i?ioeannia, /oi aucuaaei au? aieueoaa oneeaiea
ieuaou e aaaenoaee o?oaeyueony iann, niaeaenoaiaaei aic?anoaieth eo
iaoenea ia oaiaeaeueiue no?ie.

E?anoueyinoai ioaa/aei ia ?ino iiiaue/ueae yenieoaoaoeee, ia
iaaccaiaeeaaiea e ?aci?aiea oneeaieai noeoeeiiai aeaeaeaiey, ioaaoeaoaai
e eiioeo 50-o aiaeia anth Aa?iiaeneoth ?inneth.

Nio?aiaiea e?aiinoiiai ?aanoaa noaiiaeeinue an? aieaa iaauiineiui aeey
e?anoueyi.

Oe?ieee ?aciao i?eia?aoaao e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea ia?iaeia ?innee a
aiaeu E?uineie aieiu a nayce n?inoii iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie e ?aceei
oooaeoaieai iieiaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa. Aianoa n oai iaiaeiie?aoiua
ia?auaiey oea?y ei anai nineiaeyi n i?ecuaii e iao?eioe/aneei aea?oaai,
n iauyaeaieai i iaai?ao iiie/aioeaa i?iaoaeaeaee a e?anoueyinoaa
oaa?aiiinoue, /oi o/anoeai a aieia iii eoieo naaa naiaiaeo. A ai?aea
1854 a. auoae oeac i iaai?a a ii?neia iiie/aiea. Iaai? i?iecaiaeeeny n
oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey a?aaiie oeioeeee aeey iai?iiu Aaeoeeneiai
iiaa?aaeuey e ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia /aou?a aoaa?iee — Iaoa?ao?aneoth,
Ieiiaoeeoth, Oaa?neoth e Iiaai?iaeneoth. Io e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi i?e
caiene a iiie/aiea o?aaiaaeinue ?ac?aoaiea iiiaueea. A e?anoueyinoaa
i?io?e neoo i oii, /oi anooieaiea a iiie/aiea inaiaiaeeo iiie/aioeaa e
eo naiuee io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe. Ia yoie ii/aa aicieeee aieiaiey,
ioaaoeaoea e?iia oeacaiiuo ?yae aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee (?ycaineoth,
Oaiaianeoth, Aeaaeeie?neoth e ae?.). Aeaeaeaiea auei i?ae?auaii aiaiiie
neeie. A 1855 a. a nayce n i?ecuaii a iauaainoaea?noaaiiia iiie/aiea
aieiaiey e?anoueyi i?eiyee au? aieaa a?iciua ?acia?u. Iniaaiii ino?i
i?ioaeaee iie ia Oe?aeia — a Eeaaneie aoaa?iee, aaea iaiaaenoue e
iieueneei iaiai-iiiaueeai e ainiiieiaiey i eaca/anoaa i?eaeaee ei
naiaia?acioth oi?io. A ia?iaea caaiai?eee i nouanoaiaaiee ne?uaaaiiai
iaiaie e iiiaie oeaca, eioi?ui ana e?anoueyia yeiau i?ecuaathony “a
eacaee” e inaiaiaeaeathony io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe n ia?aaea/ae ei a
nianoaaiiinoue caiaeue e eiouanoaa iiiaueeia. E?anoueyia ioeacuaaeenue
io ?aaiou ia ainiiae, aaiaeeee yai/iui ii?yaeeii naiioi?aaeaiea, ia
neooaeenue “oaaaeaeaiee” ia/aeuenoaa e a ?yaea neo/aaa ieacuaaee
nii?ioeaeaiea aieneai. A ?acoeueoaoa noieeiiaaiee ian/eouaaeinue iiiai
oaeouo e ?aiaiuo e?anoueyi. Yoi aeaeaeaiea ia?aa?ineeinue e a
Iiaieaeuea. *?acau/aeii ?aceoth oi?io iii i?eiyei n?aaee oaoa? Eacaineie
e Ieaeaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee, ioeacuaaaoeony ianoe aiaiioth neoaeao.

A aaeeei?inneeneeo aoaa?ieyo aeaeaeaiea 1855 a. au?aceeinue a ianniaii
aaanoaa e?aiinoiuo a ai?iaea, aaea iie o?aaiaaee ca/eneaiey a
iauaainoaea?noaaiiia iiie/aiea. Cia/eoaeueiui oii?noaii ioee/aeenue
aieiaiey a Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?iee. A 1856 a. e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea
i?iyaeeinue a iiaie oi?ia — a naiinoiyoaeueiii ooiaea aeanyoeia ouny/
e?aiinoiuo, aeaaiui ia?acii oe?aeineeo e?anoueyi Oa?niineie e
Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee, ia E?uineee iieoino?ia, a “Oaa?eth ca
aieae”. Oie/eii e yoiio aeaeaeaieth iineoaeeee neooe, /oi a E?uio
e?anoueyia iieo/ao aieth. I?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeioei e?oiiua aiaiiua neeu,
/oiau iiaeaaeoue yoi aeaeaeaiea.

Iniaaiii oneeeaaaony e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea a iineaaeiea aiaeu ia?aae
?aoi?iie. A n?aaeiai a ia?aoth /aoaa?oue XIX a. aaeaaiaeii eiaei ianoi
aieaa 11 aieiaiee, a 1826—1854 aa.— aieaa 24 e a 1855—1861 aa.— aieaa
79.

I?ioeann ?anneiaiey e?aiinoiie aea?aaie auaeaeye e?anoueyineoth aaaeiioo
e noaaee a? a oyae?eoth iaoa?eaeueioth caaeneiinoue io aea?aaaineiai
aiaaoay. Ai a?aiy iao?iaeaaa e?anoueyia ieoaeenue “oeaaii” ec aeaeoaeae,
iyeeiu e eaaaaeu. E?uineay aieia yaeeanue enoiaeiui iiiaioii
cia/eoaeueiiai oooaeoaiey a iieiaeaiee oaiao?iiuo iann: ia?iiiua
?ae?ooneea iaai?u au?uaaee ec aea?aaie aieueoia eiee/anoai ei?ieeueoeaa
a aic?anoa iaeaunoae o?oaeiniiniaiinoe. Aaaenoaey e?anoueyi, au? ?aiueoa
oaaee/eaoeany a nayce n ?aceiaeaieai e?aiinoiiai oicyenoaa e oneeaieai
yenieoaoaoeee, iaino?eeenue ai a?aiy aieiu. E?anoueyineea oicyenoaa
i?eoiaeeee a oiaaeie, naiuee e?anoueyi n ooiaeii ei?ieeueoeaa /anoi
ia?aeaeenue ia ieuaoo e aieiae. ?yae iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo iao?iaeaaa,
ia/aaoeony au? aei aieiu e i?iaeieaeaaoeony ai a?aiy ia?, onoaoaeye
oyaeanoue iieiaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa. Iionoioaiea eaciu aiaiiuie
?anoiaeaie aaei e oneeaieth iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, iaaeaaoaai ia o?oaeiaia
ianaeaiea.

2. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia iaania/aiea ?aoi?iu

2.1. Iaieoano i anaieeinoeaaeoai aea?iaaiee e?aiinoiui ethaeyi i?aa
ninoiyiey naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo iauaaoaeae e ia ono?ienoaa eo auoa

Iaieoano 19 oaa?aey yaeeny iniiaiui aeieoiaioii ?aoi?iu, eiaiii ii
i?iaicaeanee ?aoi?io, ia iieiaeaiey iaieoanoa iie?aeenue i?i/ea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, ?aaoee?othuea oiae ?aoi?iu, iaieoano ii?aaeaeye
oaeaea iaoaieci aa ?aaeecaoeee (i?aaiaua aeou e ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaiu).

Iaieoano ii?aaeaeye oeaeue ?aoi?iu: “..e?aiinoiua ethaee iieo/ao a naia
a?aiy iieiua i?aaa naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo iauaaoaeae”, o.a. ia i?inoi
ioiaio e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, a iaaeaeaiea auaoeo e?aiinoiuo
aeiiieieoaeueiuie i?aaaie e aiciiaeiinoyie, eioi?ua ia oio iiiaio
eiaeenue o naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyi, e io eioi?uo e?aiinoiuo ioaeaeyea ia
oieueei ee/iay caaeneiinoue io iiiaueea.

Iiiaueee nio?aiyee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth – yoi auei aoi?ui
eeth/aaui ioieoii ?aoi?iu. Iie iaycuaaeenue iaaeaeeoue naieo auaoeo
e?aiinoiuo caieae e aeeeueai ca auiieiaiea oaie iiaeiiinoae –
naiaia?acioth a?aiaeioth ieaoo. Oae eae nicaeaoaee iaieoanoa iiieiaee,
/oi ioiaia e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe naia ii naaa ia aeaeaao e?anoueyieia
naiaiaeiui, aeey iaicia/aiey aaccaiaeueiuo auaoeo e?aiinoiuo auei
aaaaeaii iniaia iaicia/aiea: “a?aiaiii-iaycaiiua”.

E?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeanue aiciiaeiinoue aueoiaoue onaaeueau, a n
niaeaney iiiaueeia – i?eia?aoaoue iaoith e ae?oaea oaiaeuey, ioaaaeaiiua
ei a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea. N i?eia?aoaieai a nianoaaiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa caiee, e?anoueyia inaiaiaeaeaeenue io
iaycaiiinoae e iiiaueeai ii aueoieaiiie caiea e anooiaee a ninoiyiea
naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia.

Iniaui iieiaeaieai i aeai?iauo ethaeyo ii?aaeaeyeinue aeey ieo e
ia?aoiaeiia ninoiyiea, i?eniiniaeaiiia e eo caiyoeyi e iio?aaiinoyi; ii
enoa/aiee aeaooeaoiaai n?iea io aeiy ecaeaiey Iieiaeaiey, iie iieo/aee
iieiia inaiaiaeaeaiea e n?i/iua eueaiou.

Ia yoeo aeaaiuo ia/aeao ninoaaeaiiuie Iieiaeaieyie ii?aaeaeyeinue
aoaeouaa ono?ienoai aeecie e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae, onoaiaaeeaaeny
ii?yaeie iauanoaaiiiai e?anoueyineiai oi?aaeaiey, e oeacuaaeenue
iiae?iaii aeaiiua e?anoueyiai e aeai?iaui ethaeyi i?aaa e aiceaaaaiua ia
ieo iaycaiiinoe a ioiioaiee e ainoaea?noao e e iiiaueeai.

Ana Iieiaeaiey, iauea, ianoiua, e iniaua aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea aeey
iaeioi?uo ianoiinoae, aeey eiaiee iaeeiiiianoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa e aeey
e?anoueyi, ?aaioaaoeo ia iiiaue/ueeo oaa?eeao e caaiaeao, ii
aiciiaeiinoe auee i?eniiniaeaiu e ianoiui oicyenoaaiiui iio?aaiinoyi e
iau/ayi. *oiau nio?aieoue iau/iue ii?yaeie oai, aaea ii i?aaenoaaeyao
“iaithaeiua auaiaeu” (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, eiia/ii, iiiaueeai),
iiiaueeai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai caeeth/aoue n e?anoueyiaie
aeia?iaieueiua niaeaoaiey i ?acia?a iicaiaeueiiai iaaeaea e?anoueyi e i
neaaeothueo ca iaai iiaeiiinoyo, n niaethaeaieai i?aaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo
aeey iaania/aiey iaia?ooeiinoe oaeeo aeiaiai?ia.

Iaieoano onoaiaaeeaae, /oi iiaia ono?ienoai ia iiaeao auoue aaaaeaii
aae?oa, a o?aaoao a?aiaie, i?eia?ii ia iaiaa aeaoo eao; a oa/aiea yoiai
a?aiaie, “a ioa?auaiea caiaoaoaeuenoaa, e aeey niaethaeaiey iauanoaaiiie
e /anoiie iieuecu”, nouanoaiaaaoee a iiiaue/ueeo eiaieyo ii?yaeie
aeieaeai aue auoue nio?aiai “aeioiea, eiaaea, ii niaa?oaiee iaaeeaaeaueo
i?eaioiaeaiee, ioe?uo aoaeao iiaue ii?yaeie”.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae iinoaiiaeyeinue:

Ioe?uoue a eaaeaeie aoaa?iee Aoaa?ineia I?enoonoaea ii e?anoueyineei
aeaeai, eioi?iio aaa?yeinue aunoaa aaaeaiea aeaeaie e?anoueyineeo
iauanoa ia iiiaue/ueeo caieyo.

Aeey ?anniio?aiey ia ianoao iaaei?acoiaiee e nii?ia, iiaoueo aicieeiooue
i?e eniieiaiee Iieiaeaiee, iacia/eoue a oacaeao Ie?iauo Iin?aaeieeia, e
ia?aciaaoue ec ieo Oacaeiua Ie?iaua Nuacaeu.

Ia?aciaaoue a iiiaue/ueeo eiaieyo ie?neea oi?aaeaiey, aeey /aai,
inoaaeyy naeueneea iauanoaa a i?aaeiai ninoaaa, ioe?uoue a cia/eoaeueiuo
naeaieyo aieinoiua oi?aaeaiey, a iaeeea naeueneea iauanoaa niaaeeieoue
iiae iaeii aieinoiia oi?aaeaiea.

Ninoaaeoue ii eaaeaeiio naeueneiio iauanoao eee eiaieth onoaaioth
a?aiioo, a eioi?ie aoaeao en/eneaii, ia iniiaaiee ianoiiai Iieiaeaiey,
eiee/anoai caiee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie e?anoueyiai a iinoiyiiia
iieueciaaiea, e ?acia? iiaeiiinoae, i?e/eoathueony n ieo a iieueco
iiiaueea, eae ca caieth, oae e ca ae?oaea auaiaeu.

Onoaaiua a?aiiou i?eaiaeeoue a eniieiaiea ii ia?a ooaa?aeaeaiey eo aeey
eaaeaeiai eiaiey, a ieii/aoaeueii ii anai eiaieyi aaanoe a aeaenoaea a
oa/aiea aeaoo eao, ni aeiy ecaeaiey Iaieoanoa.

Aei enoa/aiey yoiai n?iea, e?anoueyiai e aeai?iaui ethaeyi i?aauaaoue a
i?aaeiai iiaeiiaaiee iiiaueeai e aani?aeineiaii eniieiyoue i?aaeiea eo
iaycaiiinoe.

Iiiaueeai nio?aieoue iaaethaeaiea ca ii?yaeeii a eo eiaieyo, n i?aaii
noaea e ?ani?aau, ai?aaeue aei ia?aciaaiey aieinoae e ioe?uoey aieinoiuo
noaeia.

Oaeno Iaieoanoa, aicaauaaoaai inaiaiaeaeaiea e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi, aue
iaienai ii ii?o/aieth Aeaenaiae?a II iineianeei ieo?iiieeoii Oeea?aoii
(Ae?icaeiaui). Eae e ae?oaea aeieoiaiou ?aoi?iu, ii aue iiaeienai
eiia?aoi?ii 19 oaa?aey 1861 a.

A Iaieoanoa aeieacuaaeanue caeiiiinoue nouanoaiaaaoae aei yoiai aeanoe
iiiaueeia iaae e?anoueyiaie, iauyniyeinue, /oi oioy i?aaeiea caeiiu e ia
ii?aaeaeyee i?aaeaeu i?aaa iiiaueea iaae e?anoueyiaie, iaeiaei iie
iaycuaaee aai ono?ieoue… aeaaininoiyiea e?anoueyi. ?eniaaeanue
eaeeeee/aneay ea?oeia ia?aiia/aeueiuo aeia?uo iao?ea?oaeueiuo ioiioaiee
ene?aiiae i?aaaeeaie iiia/eoaeueiinoe e aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoe iiiaueea e
aeia?iaeooiiai iiaeiiaaiey e?anoueyi, e eeoue a aeaeueiaeoai, i?e
oiaiueoaiee i?inoiou i?aaia, i?e oiiiaeaiee ?aciiia?acey ioiioaiee…
aeia?ua ioiioaiey ineaaaaaee e ioe?uaaeny iooue i?iecaieo,
ioyaioeoaeueiiio aeey e?anoueyi. Oai naiui aaoi? Iaieoanoa no?aieeny
aiooeoue e?anoueyiai, /oi eo inaiaiaeaeaiea io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe —
aeo aeaaiaeayiey aunoae aeanoe (naiiaea?aeaaey), eioi?ay iiaoaeeea
iiiaueeia e aeia?iaieueiiio ioeaco io naieo i?aa ia ee/iinoue e?aiinoiuo
ethaeae.

A Iaieoanoa e?aoei eceaaathony e iniiaiua oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey
e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe (aeaoaeueii iie eceiaeaiu a
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. ainueie Iieiaeaieyo e aeaayoe
Aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaeeao).

Ii Iaieoanoo, e?anoueyiei n?aco iieo/aao ee/ioth naiaiaeo (iieiua i?aaa
naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo iauaaoaeae).

Eeeaeaeaoeey oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia — ia aaeeiia?aiaiiue aeo,
a aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, ?anoyioaoeeny ia ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee.
Iieiia inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyia iieo/aee ia n?aco n iiiaioa
iaia?iaeiaaiey Iaieoanoa e Iieiaeaiee, o. a. 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. A
Iaieoanoa iauyaeyeinue, /oi e?anoueyia a oa/aiea aeaoo eao (aei 19
oaa?aey 1863 a.) iaycaiu ioauaaoue oa aea naiua iiaeiiinoe (aa?ueio e
ia?ie), /oi e i?e e?aiinoiii i?aaa, e iaoiaeeoueny a i?aaeiai
iiaeiiaaiee iiiaueeai. Iiiaueee nio?aieee i?aai iaaethaeaiey ca
ii?yaeeii a eo eiaieyo, n i?aaii noaea e ?ani?aau, ai?aaeue aei
ia?aciaaiey aieinoae e ioe?uoey aieinoiuo noaeia. Oaeei ia?acii, /a?ou
aiayeiiiie/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey i?iaeieaeaee nio?aiyoueny e iinea
iauyaeaiey “aiee”. Ii e ii enoa/aiee aeaoo ia?aoiaeiuo eao (o. a. iinea
19 oaa?aey 1863 a.) e?anoueyia aua aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaoiaeeeenue ia
iieiaeaiee a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuo. A eeoa?aoo?a eiiaaea iaaa?ii oeacuaaaony,
aoaeoi n?ie a?aiaiii-iaycaiiiai ninoiyiey e?anoueyi ca?aiaa aue
ii?aaeaeai a 20 eao (aei 1881 aiaea). A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ie a
Iaieoanoa, ie a Iieiaeaieyo 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. ieeaeiai oeene?iaaiiiai
n?iea i?ae?auaiey a?aiaiii-iaycaiiiai ninoiyiey e?anoueyi ia
onoaiaaeeaaeinue. Iaycaoaeueiue ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi (o.a.
i?ae?auaiea a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuo ioiioaiee) aue onoaiiaeai Iieiaeaieai i
aueoia iaaeaeia inoathueieny aua a iaycaoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo e iiiaueeai
a aoaa?ieyo, ninoiyueo ia Aaeeei?inneeneii e Iaei?inneeneii ianoiuo
iieiaeaieyo 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea io 28 aeaeaa?y 1881 a., a a aeaayoe
caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo (Aeeaineie, A?iaeiaineie, Eiaaineie, Ieineie,
Aeoaaneie. Iiaeeaaaeie. Eeaaneie, Iiaeieueneie e Aieuineie) e?anoueyia
auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia iaycaoaeueiue aueoi a 1863 a.

Iaieoano i?iaicaeaoae nio?aiaiea i?aaa iiiaueee” ia anth caieth a eo
eiaieyo, a oii /enea e ia e?anoueyineoth iaaeaeueioth, eioi?oth
e?anoueyia iieo/aee a iieueciaaiea ca ii?aaeaeaiiua ianoiuie
iieiaeaieyie iiaeiiinoe. *oiau noaoue nianoaaiieeii naiaai iaaeaea,
e?anoueyiei aeieaeai aue aueoieoue aai. Oneiaey aueoia iiae?iaii
eceiaeaiu a Iieiaeaiee i aueoia e?anoueyiaie, auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe e i niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo oaiaeee.

Oeeoe?oy “Iineaiea aiinoiea Iaaea e ?eieyiai” (aeaaa 13, noeoe 1-e e
7-e); “anyeay aeooa aeieaeia iiaeiiaaoueny aeanoyi i?aaea?aeauei” e
“aicaeaaaoue anai aeieaeiia, e a iniaaiiinoe, eiio aeieaeii, o?ie,
aeaiue, no?ao, /anoue”, aaoi? Iaieoanoa oaaaeaeae e?anoueyi nio?aiyoue
iieiia iiaeiiaaiea aeanoyi e iiiaueeai.

Iaieoano i?aaeaa?ye iaia?iaeiaaiea ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a oio aea aeaiue 17-oe
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, niaea?aeaueo oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi.

19 oaa?aey 1861 a. oea?ai aue iiaeienai oeac I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio
naiaoo, eioi?iio iiaaeaaaeinue “naeaeaoue caaenyuaa ?anii?yaeaiea i
iaiaaeeaiiii iaia?iaeiaaiee e i?eaaaeaiee a aeaenoaeoaeueiia eniieiaiea”
i?ai?iaiaeaeaiiuo a Naiao oeacaiiuo 17-oe caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe. Naiaoo
i?aaeienuaaeinue “i?eiyoue ia?u, /oiau Iieiaeaiey iauea,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua e eniieiaieth iianaianoiiio, auee aeinoaaeaiu iiiaueeai
e a naeueneea iauanoaa e?anoueyi, aiaeai?aiiuo ia iiiaue/ueeo caieyo, a
Iieiaeaiey ianoiua e aeiiieieoaeueiua e iiui i?aaeea auee
i?ai?iaiaeaeaiu ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iiiaueeai e a naeueneea iauanoaa
oao ianoiinoae, aei eieo eaaeaeia ec neo ocaeiiaiee eanaaony”. Oaenou
Iieiaeaiee e Iaieoanoa 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. auee iioaeeeiaaiu oaeaea a
ea/anoaa I?eeiaeaiey e ? 20 “Naiaoneeo aaaeiiinoae” io 10 ia?oa 1861 a.
A ia/aea ia?oa 1861 a. auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea: “Aeaau iaeaa/eoue
eco/aiea neo Iieiaeaiee, i?eciaii iieaciui ecaeaoue e?aoeia ec ieo
ecaea/aiea, nianoaaiii i ii?yaeea iinoaiaiiiai aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea
iiauo iinoaiiaeaiee, ioiinyueony aei i?aa e iaycaiiinoae e?anoueyi e
aeai?iauo ethaeae”. A “E?aoeii eceiaeaiee” niaea?aeaeenue noaouee: i
ee/iuo i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo e?anoueyi, i?aaeea i eo iicaiaeueiii
ono?ienoaa e i?aaeea i aeai?iauo.

Iaia?iaeiaaiea Iaieoanoa e Iieiaeaiee 19 oaa?aey 1861 a., niaea?aeaiea
eioi?uo iaiaioei iaaeaaeaeu e?anoueyi ia “iieioth aieth”, aucaaei ac?ua
e?anoueyineiai i?ioanoa oaea aaniie 1861 aiaea: ca ia?aua iyoue ianyoeaa
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 1340 ianniauo e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee, a anaai ca aiae —
1859 (i?eia?ii noieueei aea, neieueei eo o/oaii ca anth ia?aoth iieiaeio
XIX aaea). A 937 neo/ayo e?anoueyineea aieiaiey a 1861 aiaeo auee
onie?aiu n i?eiaiaieai aiaiiie neeu . Oaeoe/anee ia auei ie iaeiie
aoaa?iee, a eioi?ie a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie ia i?iyaeeny au
i?ioano e?anoueyi i?ioea “aea?iaaiiie” ei “aiee”. Iaeaieueoee ?aciao
e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea i?eiyei a oeaio?aeueii-/a?iicaiiuo aoaa?ieyo, a
Iiaieaeuea e ia Oe?aeia. aaea iniiaiay ianna e?anoueyi iaoiaeeeanue ia
aa?ueia e iaeaieaa ino?ui aue aa?a?iue aii?in. Aieueoie iauanoaaiiue,
?aciiain eiaee ainnoaiey e?anoueyi, eii/eaoeany eo ?anno?aeii, a ai?aea
1861 a. a naeao Aacaeia (Eacaineay aoa.) e Eaiaeaaaea (Iaicaineay aoa.),
a eioi?uo i?eiyee o/anoea aeanyoee ouny/ e?anoueyi.

2.1. Iauaa iieiaeaiea i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe

Iieiaeaiea ii?aaeaeyei a iaueo /a?oao ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e?anoueyi, ia?aciaaiea e
ooieoeee naeueneeo e aieinoiuo i?aaiia e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
oa?aeoa? “iiia/eoaeuenoaa” iaae e?anoueyiaie eo auaoeo iiiaueeia ia
ia?eiae a?aiaiii-iaycaiiiai ninoiyiey, a oaeaea ii?yaeie ioauaaiey
eacaiiuo, caineeo e ie?neeo iiaeiiinoae. I?i/ea Iieiaeaiey e
Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea, ooaa?aeaeaiiua 19 oaa?aey 1861 a., yaeyeenue
?acaeoeai e aeaoaeueiie eiie?aoecaoeeae ii?i, eioi?ua eceiaeaiu a Iauai
iieiaeaiee.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e i?aaeinoaaeaiea ei
i?aaa caaiaeeoue oi?aiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, caeeth/aoue
eiouanoaaiiua naeaeee, aunooiaoue io naiaai eiaie a noaeao,
aicaoaeaeaoue noaeaaiua enee, i?eia?aoaoue iaaeaeaeeioth nianoaaiiinoue,
ia?aoiaeeoue (oioy e n ii?aaeaeaiiuie ia?aie/aieyie) a ae?oaea nineiaey
— ana yoi aeaaaei aieueoee i?inoi? e?anoueyineiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao,
niinianoaiaaei ?inoo iooiaea e?anoueyi ia ca?aaioee, neeaaeuaaieth ?uiea
?aai/ae neeu, o. a. a eiia/iii n/aoa nicaeaaaei aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a ?innee. Aianoa n oai a oa/aiea
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea aua i?iaeieaeaee nio?aiyoueny /a?ou
aiayeiiiie/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey: a?aiaiii-iaycaiiia ninoiyiea e?anoueyi,
i?aai aio/eiiie iieeoeee iiiaueea, caaeneiinoue e?anoueyi e naeueneeo
i?aaiia e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey io ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee. Ii e
iinea ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea nio?aiyeanue nineiaiay ia?aaiii?aaiinoue
e?anoueyi, i?ee?aieaiea eo e iaueia, e iaaeaeo. E?anoueyinoai
i?iaeieaeaei inoaaaoueny iecoei, iiaeaoiui nineiaeai, eioi?ia iaycaii
auei ianoe ?aciiai ?iaea aeaiaaeiua e iaoo?aeueiua iiaeiiinoe,
iiaeaa?aaeinue oaeaniui iaeacaieyi, io /aai auee inaiaiaeaeaiu
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua nineiaey — aeai?yinoai, aeooiaainoai, eoia/anoai.

A Iauai iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe,
io?aceeny i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa? ?aoi?iu — aaiaey ii?iu ao?aeoaciiai
i?aaa, iii iaeiia?aiaiii nio?aiyei e ?yae e?aiinoie/aneeo /a?o.

Noaouee 1—2 i?aaeinoaaeytho ee/ioth naiaiaeo e?aiinoiui e?anoueyiai,
iaeiaei n oaie ia?aie/aieyie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeyeenue ii?iaie eae
aeaiiiai Iieiaeaiey, oae e ae?oaeo aeoia e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.

Ee/ioth naiaiaeo, a oaeaea ?yae eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, oeacaiiuo a
iineaaeothueo noaoueyo Iauaai iieiaeaiey, e?anoueyia iieo/aee n iiiaioa
iaia?iaeiaaiey Iaieoanoa e Iieiaeaiee 19 oaa?aey 1861a. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiae/a?eiooue aieueooth cia/eiinoue aeoa i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?anoueyiai
ee/iie naiaiaeu e naycaiiuo n iae a?aaeaeaineeo e eiuo i?aa,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noaoueyie 21—39 aeaiiiai Iieiaeaiey. Ai?ueaa e?anoueyi
ca “aieth” auea aaaeouei iai?aaeaieai a iiiaiaaeiaie enoi?ee
e?anoueyineiai aeaeaeaiey.

N iiiaioa iaia?iaeiaaiey caeiia ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa auaoee
e?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei, o eioi?iai ?aiaa iiiauee iia ioia?aoue ana aai
aeinoiyiea e aai naiiai i?iaeaoue, caeiaeeoue. iiaea?eoue, i?iea?aoue a
ea?ou, naeaoue aia i/a?aaee a ?ae?oou, aac anyeie ni noi?iiu
e?anoueyieia aeiu nineaoue a Neae?ue, iieo/ae ia oieueei aiciiaeiinoue
naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny naiae ee/iinoueth, ii e i?eia?aoae ?yae
ae?oaeo ee/iuo e eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa. Iineaaeothuea ao?aeoaciua ?aoi?iu,
i?aaeinoaaeyaoea e?anoueyiai i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a noaea a ea/anoaa
i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, ecae?aoue e auoue eca?aiiuie a caineea
o/?aaeaeaiey e o. ae., aua aieaa ?anoe?yee i?aaa e?anoueyi, a aeaaiia —
eiinieeaee?iaaee e?anoueyinoai, noe?aee a?aie iaaeaeo auaoeie
iiiaue/ueeie, oaeaeueiuie e ainoaea?noaaiiuie e?anoueyiaie.

Ii 10-e ?aaecee (1858 aiae) a ?innee ian/eouaaeinue 23069631 /aeiaae
iaiaai iiea e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi, a oii /enea 22 563 086 iaoiaeeeenue a
Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e Neae?e e 506 545 /aeiaae a Caeaaeacneii e?aa. Ec
/enea 22 563 086 /aeiaae iaiaai iiea e?aiinoiuo Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e
Neae?e 542 599 /aeiaae /eneeeenue “i?eienaiiuie e /anoiui caaiaeai e
oaa?eeai” e 40 544 /aeiaaea — e?aiinoiuie “?aciuo aaaeiinoa”. Nianoaaiii
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e a Neae?e /eneeeinue 21 979
933 /aeiaaea iaiaai iiea, ec ieo “iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi ia iauai i?aaa”
— 21 625 609 /aeiaae e “ia oneiaiii i?aaa” — 354324. Ec 21625609 /aeiaae
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi 20 158 231 ninoaaeyee “iinaeaiiua e?anoueyia”, o.
a. eiaaoea naie iaaeaeu e eniieiyaoea oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe, e 1 467
378 /aeiaae iaiaai iiea — aeai?iaua ethaee. Anao aeai?yi, aeaaeaaoeo
e?aiinoiuie e?anoueyiaie a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e a Neae?e, a 1858 aiaeo
ian/eouaaeinue 106 897 (oi/iaa, aeaaeaeueoeaa eiaiee, a aianoa n
naiueyie /eneaiiinoue iiiaue/ueaai eeanna ninoaaeyea ieiei 0,5 iei.
/aeiaae iaiaai iiea). Aaniiianoiuo aeai?yi, aeaaeaaoeo oieueei
aeai?iauie, ian/eouaaeinue 3703. O ieo auei 12286 ioaeneiai iiea (aeaeaa
— i. i.) aeoo aeai?iauo. Nianoaaiii iiiaueeia, aeaaeaaoeo caieyie e
iinaeaiiuie ia yoeo caieyo e?anoueyiaie, ian/eouaaeinue 103 194. O ieo
e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae iaoiaeeeinue ai aeaaeaiee 10683853 aeooe
i. i.

Iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia, iieo/eaoea a 1861 aiaeo ee/ioth naiaiaeo,
ca/eneyeenue a ninoaa iiaeaoiuo nineiaee, eioi?ua a ioee/ea io
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee (aeai?yi, ii/aoiuo a?aaeaeai, aeooiaainoaa,
eoioeia 1—2 aeeueaeee) iaycaiu auee ieaoeoue iiaeooioth iiaeaoue,
ioauaaoue i?i/ea ainoaea?noaaiiua iiaeiiinoe, a oii /enea e ?ae?ooneoth.

Oeaio?aeueiui aii?inii ?aoi?iu aue aii?in i caiea. Caeii iiae/a?eeaae
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe iiiaueeia ia anth caieth a eiaiee, a oii /enea e ia
e?anoueyineoth iaaeaeueioth, a e?anoueyia iauyaeyeenue eeoue
iieueciaaoaeyie yoie iaaeaeueiie caiee, iaycaiiuie ioauaaoue ca iaa
iiiaueeo onoaiiaeaiiua Iieiaeaieyie iiaeiiinoe — aa?ueio eee ia?ie.
Iaaeaeaiea e?anoueyi caieae ca iiaeiiinoe e ii?aaeaeyei
a?aiaiiiiaycaiiia ninoiyiea auaoaai e?aiinoiiai e?anoueyinoaa iinea
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

Auaeaeaaaoeany a oiaea iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?iu iiiaueeaie-e?aiinoieeaie
i?iaeou i aaccaiaeueiii inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi auee ioaa?aioou.
I?eiyoay 4 aeaeaa?y 1838 a. i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia ?ac?aaioee
?aoi?iu i?aaeoniao?eaaea iaycaoaeueiia iaaeaeaiea e?anoueyi iaiaoiaeeiui
eiee/anoaii caiee. I?e iaaeaeaiee e?anoueyi caieae i?aaeoaeuenoai
enoiaeeei ec aeaoo i?eioeeieaeueiuo niia?aaeaiee: 1) ec eioa?ania
nio?aiaiey e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa eae iauaeoa yenieoaoaoeee e 2)
iaania/aiey niieienoaey a no?aia ec iianaiey e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee.
Aeanoe aaeeeieaiii ciaee, /oi iaeiei ec aeaaiuo o?aaiaaiee a
e?anoueyineii aeaeaeaiee auei i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?anoueyiai caiee (“aiee
aac caiee ia auaaao”—oaeia aue eicoia e?anoueyi). Ii anee iieiia
iaaccaiaeaiea e?anoueyi a neeo oeacaiiuo niia?aaeaiee auei iaaiciiaeii,
oi e iaaeaeaiea e?anoueyi aeinoaoi/iui eiee/anoaii caiee, eioi?ia
iinoaaeei au e?anoueyineia oicyenoai a iacaaeneiia iieiaeaiea io
iiiaue/ueaai, auei iaauaiaeii iiiaueeo. Iiyoiio auea iinoaaeaia caaea/a
i?aaeinoaaeoue e?anoueyiai caieth a oaeii ?acia?a, /oiau iie auee
i?eaycaiu e naiaio oicyenoao, e naiaio iaaeaeo, a aneaaenoaea
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iineaaeiaai — i?eaycaiu e iiiaue/ueaio oicyenoao.
Ionthaea e ?iaeeeanue nenoaia io?aceia io e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea,
caoeene?iaaiiay a ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo.

I?e e?aiinoiii i?aaa iiiauee iaycai aue ii caeiio i?iaeiaieuenoaiaaoue
e?anoueyi a aieiaeiua aiaeu, a oaeaea i?ec?aaaoue (o. a. aeaaaoue
niaea?aeaiea) i?anoa?aeuo e “oaa/iuo” e?anoueyi, o eioi?uo ia auei
aeeaeaeoeo ?iaenoaaiieeia. Ia i?aeoeea e a oi a?aiy iiiauee aiceaaae yoo
iaycaiiinoue ia naieo e?anoueyi: ii iaycuaae eo nicaeaaaoue “caianiua
oeaaiua iaaaceiu” (no?aoiaie ca?iiaie caian), aaiaeee aeey yoiai
niaoeeaeueiua “ie?neea caiaoee” e iaeaaae e?anoueyi aeiiieieoaeueiui
ie?neei nai?ii ia niaea?aeaiea iaeeiieeo eiaaeeaeia e i?anoa?aeuo. Ia
iiiaueea oaeaea auea aiceiaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oieaoo e?anoueyiaie
iiaeooiie iiaeaoe; io aai aiee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaenaea e ioaea/a
e?anoueyi a ?ae?oou. Eiiiaioe?oaiay noaouey inaiaiaeaeaao iiiaueea io
yoeo iaycaiiinoae.

Noaouey 10 aiceaaaao ia e?anoueyi oa iaycaiiinoe (ii iauanoaaiiiio
i?iaeiaieuenoaeth, i?ec?aieth), eioi?ua nieiaeenue n iiiaueea. Noaouee
11—16 i?aaeoniao?eaatho i?aai e?anoueyi aueoieoue naie iaaeaeu a
nianoaaiiinoue. Oneiaey yoiai aueoia e i?aaa e?anoueyi ia aueoieaiioth
eie iaaeaeueioth caieth eceiaeaiu a Iieiaeaiee i aueoia e?anoueyiaie,
auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe e i
niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie a
nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo oaiaeee.

A noaoueyo 18—20 ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaia oi?aaeaiey e?anoueyiaie,
auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe: aio/eiiay iieeoeey, iauea e
niaoeeaeueiua ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu. Iineaaeiea oeacaiu a Iieiaeaiee i
aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai o/?aaeaeaieyo.

Noaouee 21—39 ii?aaeaeytho iiaue noaoon e?anoueyieia. E?anoueyia
iinooiaee a eaoaai?eth naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo iauaaoaeae, o. a.
i?eia?aoaee i?aaa (a oaeaea e iiaua iaycaiiinoe) iacae?aiiuaiiuo
iiaeaoiuo nineiaee.

Noaouey 21 ioiaiyao iniaaiii iaiaaenoiia aeey e?anoueyi i?aai iiiaueea
aiaoeaaoueny a eo naiaeioth aeeciue. Iaeeueiue aeieoiaioaeueiue
iaoa?eae, ioiinyueeny e yiioa e?aiinoiiai i?aaa (a oaeaea e eeoa?aoo?iua
i?iecaaaeaiey), niaea?aeeo iio?ynathuea iienaiey o?aaaaeee e?anoueyi
aneaaenoaea aiaoaoaeuenoaa a eo ee/ioth aeeciue iiiaueeia e “ii caeiio”
e a ii?yaeea “ceioiio?aaeaiey iiiaue/ueae aeanoueth”.

Noaouee 22—23 niaea?aeao ia?a/eneaiea eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo inaiaiaeaeaiiui io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e?anoueyiai.
Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao caeanue naiaiaea
oi?aiai-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. E?anoueyia i?eia?aoaee
i?aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiua onoaaaie Oi?aiaui e Oaa?e/iui: caieiaoueny
oi?aiaeae, anyeiai ?iaea ?aianeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ono?aeaaoue
oaa?eee e caaiaeu, caienuaaoueny a ?aianeaiiua oeaoe oiai eee eiiai
ai?iaea (ii i?e yoii inoaaaynue a naiai caaiee e?anoueyi), caieiaoueny
eacaiiuie iiae?yaeaie e o. ae. I?eia/aiea e no. 23 eiaao a aeaeo noaouee
ianoiuo iieiaeaiee: no. 107 aeey aoaa?iee aaeeei?inneeneeo,
iiai?inneeneeo e aaei?onneeo, no. 107 aeey aoaa?iee iaei?inneeneeo, no.
84 aeey aoaa?iee I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu e no. 79 aeey
eeoianei-aaei?onneeo aoaa?iee. Oeacaiiua noaouee i?aaeinoaaeyee
e?anoueyieio i?aai, “ia eni?aoeaay ia oi iniaiai ?ac?aoaiey ie o
iiiaueea, ie o iauanoaa”, ono?aeaaoue e niaea?aeaoue ia naiae onaaeaaiie
caiea iinoiyeua aeai?u, i?iiuoeaiiua e oi?aiaua caaaaeaiey (niaeanii
Onoaao oi?aiaiio, i?aaeinoaaeyaoaio oaeiaia i?aai anai naiaiaeiui
nineiaeyi).

Noaouey 24 i?aaeinoaaeyao e?anoueyiai i?aainiiniaiinoue a noa?a
a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna. Oa?aeoa?ii aeaeea?e?oaiia a
i?eia/aiee 2 e aeaiiie noaouea i?aai enea e aeaeiau e?anoueyi eae ia
iinoi?iiieo eeoe, oae e ia aeaaeaeueoea caiee, ia eioi?ie iie
aiaeai?aiu, o. a. ia naiaai auaoaai iiiaueea. Iaiiiiei, /oi e?anoueyiai
i?e e?aiinoiii i?aaa auei cai?auaii aeaeiaaoueny ia iiiaueeia. A noaouea
niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eeaaaony ionoonoaea o aa ii?i ia?aoiie neeu, /oi
eiaei iniaue niune, iineieueeo iiiaueee a i?aaeaeaa?ee ?aoi?iu i?eieiaee
aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?u e ia?aaeaieth e i?eoaniaieth e?anoueyi: i?iaeaaea
e?anoueyi ioaeaeueii io caiee (“ia naic”), /oi i?ioeai?a/eei aeaaea
oiaaeaoiei caeiiai, ianeeuenoaaiiia ia?anaeaiea ia iaoaeiaiua caiee,
ia?aaiae a aeai?iaua, ioiyoea eiouanoaa, nnueea a Neae?ue e o. i.

I?e acuneaiee oo?aoia, iaiae, iaaeieiie e i?. i?eiaiyeenue noaouee
Onoaaa i aeaaiono?ienoaa eacaiiuo naeaiee. Noaouee 384—407 yoiai Onoaaa
?aaeaiaioe?otho “ii?yaeie e niiniau eniieiaiey i?eaiai?ia naeueneeo e
aieinoiuo ?ani?aa” a naeaieyo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi, i?ioeaaeo?o
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eiouanoaaiiuo eneia (a /anoiinoe, ii?yaeie i?iaeaaee
e?anoueyineiai eiouanoaa ca aeieae, ioaea/e aeieaeieea eee iaaeieiueea a
iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou, “ii?yaeie e niiniau eniieiaiey ?aoaiee noaeaaiuo
iano”). A aeaiiii neo/aa i?eiaiyeenue ii?iu ecaeaiiiai 30 ai?aey 1838 a.
O/?aaeaeaiey ia oi?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuie eiouanoaaie a aoaa?ieyo.

Noaouey 25 eeoaao iiiaueea iaeiie ec aai nouanoaaiiuo oaiaeaeueiuo
i?eaeeaaee — i?aaa aio/eiiie thnoeoeee. A e?aiinoioth yiioo iiiauee
iieueciaaeny a naiai eiaiee oe?ieie aaeieieno?aoeaiie e iieeoeaeneie
aeanoueth: eiae i?aai aea?aeaoue naie oth?ueiu, iaeacuaaoue oaeanii
e?anoueyi. A 1857 aiaeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaeinue i?aai iiiaueeia iaeacuaaoue
e?anoueyi ?icaaie aei 40 oaea?ia, iaeeaie aei 15 oaea?ia, caeeth/aoue a
nie?eoaeueiua aeiia ia n?ie aei o?ao ianyoeaa eee naeaaaoue a
a?anoaioneea ?iou a?aaeaeaineiai aaaeiinoaa ia n?ie aei oanoe ianyoeaa.
Aan yoi niaa?oaeinue aac noaea, ii ee/iie aiea iiiaueea, ?aoaiea
eioi?iai auei aacaiaeeyoeeiiiui e i?eaiaeeeinue a eniieiaiea
iaiaaeeaiii. Ia iiiaueeia aiiaua auea aiceiaeaia ooieoeey
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iieeoeaeneee ii?yaeie a e?aiinoiie aea?aaia.

Iiiaueee iieueciaaeenue naieie i?aaaie ai?acaei oe?a, /ai yoi ei auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii ii caeiio. A niunea ?ani?aa e iaeacaiee e?anoueyi
i?iecaie ia ciae a?aieoe. A?oeau oiaaeaoieo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee iieiu aeaeiaaie e?anoueyi ia i?iecaie iiiaueeia. Caeii e
oaia?ue, iaeiaei, inoaaeyao ca iiiaueeii iaeioi?ia i?aai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
a oaieiaiua aeaea aai auaoeo e?anoueyi. Oaeei ia?acii, anee no. 9 Iauaai
iieiaeaiey nieiaea n iiiaueea iaycaiiinoue oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ca
e?anoueyi ii aeaeai a?aaeaeaineei e oaieiaiui, oi no. 28 ia ioieiaea o
iaai i?aaa aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaea e?anoueyi.

Oeacaiiua a no. 29 i?aaa iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu a no.no. 47, 71, 75,
130—140 aeaiiiai Iieiaeaiey, a oaeaea iaaeeaaeaueie noaoueyie ae?oaeo
caeiiia: Onoaaa i neoaeaa io i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Onoaaa i iiaeaoyo. Caeiiia
iaaeaauo e i?. Yoe i?aaa i?aaeinoaaeyee aiciiaeiinoue (?acoiaaony,
caaeeoi/iiio e?anoueyinoao) iooai iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothuaai
ia?aciaaiey, inoaaeaiey iaaeaea n oieaoie anao ca iaai iiaeiiinoae eee
aein?i/iiai aueoia aueoe ec iaueiu, i?eienaoueny a iauaia eee a eoioeu.
Ii?aoi?iaiiay noaoenoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i cia/eoaeueiii ?inoa
/eneaiiinoe iauai e eoia/anoaa ca n/ao auoiaeoeaa ec e?anoueyi.

Noaouey 30 aeiiieiyao oi?ioee?iaeo no. 25, eiay a aeaeo eeoue iaeio
eiie?aoioth oi?io aicaeaenoaey — ii?aaeaiea a nineiaiuo i?aaao.

Noaouey 31 eiie?aoece?oaony a no. 8—26 Iieiaeaiey i aueoia.
Eiiiaioe?oaiay noaouey i?iaicaeaoaao aa?aioeth io iinyaaoaeuenoa ni
noi?iiu iiiaueea ia aeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e?anoueyi, ia eo iauanoaaiiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e oeaaiua caianu. Yoa aa?aioey aanueia nouanoaaiia,
eai i?e e?aiinoiii i?aaa e?anoueyineia eiouanoai ieneieueei ia auei
caueuaii io i?iecaiea iiiaueea.

Aei 1848 aiaea caeii ia ?ac?aoae iiiaue/ueei e?anoueyiai i?eia?aoaoue
iaaeaeaeeioth nianoaaiiinoue (caieth) ia naia eiy. Anyeea iieoiee caiee
(eae e ae?oaie iaaeaeaeeiinoe) e?anoueyia iiaee i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei ia
eiy naieo iiiaueeia. Oai naiui iiiaueee noaiiaeeenue th?eaee/anee
nianoaaiieeaie iieoiiuo e?anoueyineeo caiaeue. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaa
e?anoueyi ia yoi eiouanoai caeiiii ia auee caueuaiu. Oeac 3 ia?oa 1848
a. i?aaeinoaaee e iiiaue/ueei e?anoueyiai i?aai iieoiaoue caiee, aeiia.
eaaee, iaeueieoeu e i?., ii n niaeaney iiiaueeia. Noaey ii
iineaaeothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, oaeia niaeanea iie iieo/aee ia
anaaaea, ii/aio e iinea 1848 aiaea auioaeaeaiu auee iieoiaoue caieth ia
eiy ainiiaeeia. Iaeiaei iniiaiay ianna oaeeo caiaeue auea eoieaia,
eiia/ii, aei oeaca. Eneeth/ea ec aeaenoaey caeiia caiee, eoieaiiua
e?anoueyiaie aei 1848 aiaea. oeac 3 ia?oa 1848 a. ioe?uaae ia?aae
iiiaueeaie oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?yiiai caoaaoa yoeo caiaeue. Oaeea
neo/ae iniaaiii o/anoeeenue a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.
Iiiaueee a i?aaeaeaeaiee ?aoi?iu oee ia anyeea ooeu?aiey aeey caoaaoa
iieoiiuo e?anoueyineeo caiaeue: ioae?aee eo ca ia?i/iua iaaeieiee, ca
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua a aeiea aeaiueae, ioae?aee iiae aeaeii “iieoiee” ca
ie/oiaeioth iaio, i?eniaaeeiyee eo e iaaeaeaiee caiea, i?iaeaaaee eo eae
naith nianoaaiiinoue, iieuecoynue oo?aoie e?anoueyiaie aeieoiaioia ia
iieoiiua caiee, e o. i.

Noaouey 32 ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaao ca e?anoueyiaie i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia
caiee, i?eia?aoaiiua eie a e?aiinoiia a?aiy, ia oneiaeyo, eioi?ua
noi?ioee?iaaiu a niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaeeao, i?eeiaeaiiuo e noaouea.

“Aoaea iiiauee ia niaeaneony auaeaoue e?anoueyiai iaaeeaaeauea aeaiiua
ia eiouanoaa, i?eia?aoaiiua eie ia eiy eo iiiaueeia, e?anoueyia iiaoo
cayaeyoue i oii, ia i?iioneay aeanyoeeaoiae aeaaiinoe ni a?aiaie
i?eia?aoaiey iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, ie?iaiio iin?aaeieeo aeey
?anii?yaeaiee ia iniiaaiee ieaeaneaaeothueo noaoae.

Anee ie?iaiio iin?aaeieeo aoaeao cayaeaii e?anoueyiaie i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ei iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, i?eia?aoaiiiai eie ia
nianoaaiiua aeaiueae, oioy e ia eiy iiiaueea, oi ie?iaie iin?aaeiee
iaycai ni?ineoue i oii aeaaeaeueoea e, eiaaea ioaeii, iio?aaiaaoue aai
ienueiaiiiai ii naio i?aaeiaoo iocuaa. Aoaea a nai iocuaa eee a onoaaiie
a?aiioa aeaaeaeaoe, aaconeiaii i?eciaao i?aai e?anoueyi ia nea
eiouanoai, oi ie?iaie iin?aaeiee ooaa?aeaeaao iiia ca e?anoueyiaie e
auaeaao ei eiieth n naiaai i oii iinoaiiaeaiey. Caiey, i?eciaiiay ia nai
iniiaaiee nianoaaiiinoueth e?anoueyi, ia aeeth/aaony a ninoaa ie?neiai
iaaeaea e ia iaeaaaaony ieeaeie a iieueco iiiaueea iiaeiiinoueth..

7) I?e noaeaeaiee naai ?iaea aeae eae ie?iaie iin?aaeiee, oae e ie?iaie
nuacae e aoaa?ineia i?enoonoaea iaycaiu i?eieiaoue a oaaaeaiea oieueei
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ienueiaiiua, eae oa, eie i?eieiathony noaeaie ia
iniiaaiee a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ii aeaeai oyaeaaiui, oae e
aeiiaoiea, ia iiaeeaaeauea a iiaeeeiiinoe naiae ieeaeiio nii?o e
niiiaieth aoiaae.

8) Eiaaea i?aai nianoaaiiinoe e?anoueyi ia eiouanoai oaeiai ?iaea aoaeao
i?eciaii e ooaa?aeaeaii aoaa?ineei i?enoonoaeai, aeaenoaothuei a
ea/anoaa aunoaai niaanoiiai noaea, oacaeiue noae ii i?aaeuyaeaiee iiiio
iieo/aiiie e?anoueyieiii eee e?anoueyiaie eiiee n ?aoaiey aeaea
iaiaaeeaiii auaeaao ei ia icia/aiiia eiouanoai aeaiioth ia aa?aiaie
aoiaaa iecoaai aeinoieinoaa aac aceiaiey iioeei.

9) Caeiaeaiiia eiouanoai, i?eciaiiia ia iniiaaiee i?aaeuaeoueo noaoae
nianoaaiiinoueth e?anoueyieia eee e?anoueyi, ia inaiaiaeaeaaony io
caeiaa, e eiouanoai, i?iaeaiiia n ioaee/iiai oi?aa eee ia?ai?iaeaiiia a
ae?oaea ?oee, inoaaony o iineaaeiaai iieoiueea, ii e?anoueyiai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony a neo neo/ayo iouneeaaoue noaeaaiui ii?yaeeii
iiianaiiua eie oauoee n iiiaueea, ia eiy eioi?iai auei i?eia?aoaii
eiouanoai, eee aea n aai ianeaaeieeia”.

I?eaaaeaiiua i?aaeea, eae aeaeii ec eo niaea?aeaiey, noaaeee e?anoueyiai
aeanoeea oneiaey aeey aica?aoa eo iieoiiuo caiaeue. I?aaeaea anaai,
i?aaeea ia?aie/eaaee ene n?ieii aeaaiinoe iieoiee: ii ia aeieaeai aue
i?aauoaoue 10 eao. Aeaiiua ii naie oeaio?aeueii-i?iiuoeaiiui aoaa?ieyi
?innee (Aeaaeeie?neie, Eaeoaeneie, Eino?iineie, Iineianeie.
Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Oaa?neie e ss?ineaaneie), a eioi?uo aieaa, iaaeaee a
ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao no?aiu, iieoiaeinue e?anoueyiaie ia eiy iiiaueeia
caiee, iieacuaatho, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa /enei iieoiie, i?iecaaaeaiiuo
e?anoueyiaie (90%), e eoieaiiie caiee (97%) i?eoiaeeeinue ia a?aiy aei
1851 aiaea (o. a. aei i?aaeaeueiie aeaou n?iea aeaaiinoe). Aeaeaa, aeey
ooaa?aeaeaiey naieo i?aa ia caieth e?anoueyia iaycaiu auee i?aaenoaaeoue
ienueiaiiua aeieoiaiou ia aeaaeaiea yoie caieae. Eae i?aaeei, oaeea
aeieoiaiou iaoiaeeeenue o iiiaueea, iineieueeo iieoiee niaa?oaeenue ia
aai eiy. Naia i?ioeaaeo?a ?anniio?aiey nii?a i iieoiiuo caieyo anaoeaei
caaenaea io ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia, oacaeiuo ie?iauo nuacaeia e aoaa?ineeo
ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai i?enoonoaee (aeai?yineeo ii naiaio ninoaao),
eioi?ua aeaeaei ia anaaaea ?aoaee nii?u a iieueco E?anoueyi.

Ii niuneo aeaiiuo i?aaee, aoaa?ineia ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai i?enoonoaea
yaeyeinue ieii/aoaeueiie einoaioeeae a ?aoaiee nii?ia e?anoueyi n
iiiaueeaie i iieoiiuo caieyo. Iaeiaei, eae iieacuaatho a?oeaiua
aeieoiaiou aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, e?anoueyia i?e ioeacao
ei a eneao aoaa?ineeie i?enoonoaeyie ia?auaeenue n oiaeaoaenoaaie a
Aeaaiue eiieoao ia ono?ienoaa naeueneiai ninoiyiey e a Caineee ioaeae
Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae (a a?oeaiuo oiiaeao eioi?uo e nio?aieeenue
iiiai/eneaiiua oyaeaaiua aeaea auaoeo e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi i iieoiiuo
caieyo). Noaey ii yoei aeieoiaioai, iieiay ae?aiaoecia ai?ueaa e?anoueyi
ca nianoaaiiua caiee i?iaeieaeaeanue ii/oe aeaa aeanyoeeaoey iinea
iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee 19 oaa?aey 1861 a.

A 1862 aiaeo Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae i?aaeeiaeeei Aeaaiiio eiieoaoo
ia ono?ienoaa naeueneiai ninoiyiey ia?aniio?aoue oneiaey cae?aieaiey
eoi/eo e?anoueyineeo caiaeue, niya aeanyoeeaoiee n?ie aeaaiinoe aeey
i?aaeuyaeaiey enea e ?anoe?ea e?oa i?eieiaaiuo e ?anniio?aieth
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ii ooaa?aeaeaiiia 6 iay 1863 a. oea?ai iiaiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa inoaaeei a iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe yoe i?aaeea . A
1871 aiaeo iineaaeiaaei ?acuyniaiea Aeaaiiai eiieoaoa: “Iiiauee eiaao
i?aai caieth, eoieaiioth e?anoueyiaie ia aai eiy aei 3 ia?oa 1848 a.,
ia?aaeaoue ei eee inoaaeoue ca niaith, e caoai i?iaeaoue a ninoaaa
i?i/aai naiaai eiaiey eae nianoaaiiinoue” . Oai naiui naiiio iiiaueeo
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai ?aoaoue, aica?auaoue e?anoueyiai eo iieoiioth
caieth eee ?anii?yaeaoueny ath eae naiae nianoaaiiinoueth.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea no. 33—35 e?anoueyiai i?aaa i?eia?aoaoue a iieioth
nianoaaiiinoue caieth, eae a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea, oae e
iauanoaaie e oiaa?euanoaaie, eiaei aeaeaei eaeouea yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey. Ca 1863—1892 aiaeu e?anoueyiaie auei eoieaii
12 110 816 aeanyoei caiee, ec ieo a aaeeiiee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue — 5 789
862 aeanyoeiu, oiaa?euanoaaie — 4 847 643 aeanyoeiu e naeueneeie
iauanoaaie — 1473311 aeanyoei. Iniiaiui iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee
auee iiiaue/uee caiee, oae eae e?anoueyineea iaaeaeueiua caiee ia
aeieaia a?aiy auee oaeoe/anee eneeth/aiu ec oi?aiaiai iai?ioa.
Aiaea/aiea iiiaue/ueae .caiee a oi?aiaue iai?io e oi?ie?iaaiea
ao?aeoaciie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Eae yanoaoao ec niaea?aeaiey no. 36, a neo/ayo, eiaaea caiey
i?eia?aoaeanue ia aieueiii ?uiea iauanoaaie e oiaa?euanoaaie, ethaiio
o/anoieeo yoeo iieoiie i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai, aeaaea aac niaeaney
iauanoaa e oiaa?euanoaa, iio?aaiaaoue auaeaeaiey a aaeeiiee/ioth
nianoaaiiinoue naiaai iay eee aea aeaiaaeiiai ca iaai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.
Cia/eiinoue oaeiaie aiciiaeiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii. /oi e?anoueyieio,
nianoaaiieeo caiee, ioe?uaaeny iooue auoiaea ec iaueiu: ii iia
ioeacaoueny io naiaai iaaeaea (auiieiea i?e yoii ana i?i/ea
oi?iaeueiinoe) e no?ieoue naia oicyenoai ia iieoiiie caiea.

Aoi?ie ?acaeae Iieiaeaiey ?aaoee?iaae ono?ienoai naeueneeo iauanoa e
aieinoae e eo oi?aaeaiey.

“Naeueneia iauanoai” ninoaaeyeinue ec e?anoueyi, ia caiea iaeiiai
iiiaueea: iii iiaei ninoiyoue eeai ec oeaeiai naeaiey (naea eee
aea?aaie), eeai ec iaeiie /anoe ?aciiiiianoiiai naeaiey, eeai ec
ianeieueeeo iaeeeo, ii aiciiaeiinoe niaaeiuo, e, ai anyeii neo/aa,
aeeaeaeoeo iaaeaeo niaie iinaeeia (aunaeeia, ii/eieia, oooi?ia,
canoaieia, iaeiinaeee, eee ioaeaeueiuo aeai?ia, e o.i.), iieuecothueony
anaie oaiaeueyie, eee iaeioi?uie ec ieo niiaua, eee aea eiathueo ae?oaea
iauea oicyenoaaiiua auaiaeu.

“Aieinoe” ia?aciauaaeenue ec ninoiyueo a iaeiii oacaea e, ii
aiciiaeiinoe, niaaeiuo, naeueneeo iauanoa. I?e niaaeeiaiee a aieinoe
naeueneea iauanoaa ia ?acae?iaeyeenue. Naeueneia iauanoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea
ninoaaeyee naeueneee noiae e naeueneee noa?inoa. Naa?o oiai, iauanoaa
iiaee eiaoue: iniauo nai?ueeia iiaeaoae; niio?eoaeae oeaaiuo iaaaceiia,
o/eeeu e aieueieoe; eaniuo e iieaauo noi?iaeae; naeueneeo iena?ae, e o.
i.

“Naeueneee noiae” ninoaaeyaony ec e?anoueyi-aeiiioicyaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e ninoaao naeueneiai iauanoaa, e, e?iia oiai, ec anao
iacia/aiiuo ii auai?o naeueneeo aeieaeiinoae eeoe. Ia aini?auaeinue
aeiiioicyeio, a neo/aa ioeo/ee, aieacie e aiiaua iaaiciiaeiinoe ee/ii
yaeoueny ia noiae, i?enueaoue aianoi naay eiai-eeai ec /eaiia naiaai
naiaenoaa; n aeai?ia aea iiiaioyaieueiuo aeicaieyaony i?enueaoue ia
noiae aeaoo eee aieaa e?anoueyi, anee nea niaeanii n ianoiui iau/aai.

Aaaeaieth naeueneiai noiaea iiaeeaaeaee:

auai?u naeueneeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e iacia/aiea auai?iuo ia aieinoiie
noiae;

i?eaiai?u ia oaeaeaiee ec iauanoaa aai /eaiia; a?aiaiiia ono?aiaiea
e?anoueyi io o/anoey a noiaeao ia aeieaa, eae ia o?e aiaea;

oaieueiaiea ec iauanoaa /eaiia aai e i?eai iiauo;

iacia/aiea iiaeoiia e iiia/eoaeae; i?iaa?ea eo aeaenoaee;

?ac?aoaiea naiaeiuo ?acaeaeia;

aeaea, ioiinyueany aei iaueiiiai iieueciaaiey ie?neith caieath: ia?aaeae
caiaeue, iaeeaaeea e neeaeea oyae, ieii/aoaeueiue ?acaeae iaueiiuo
caiaeue ia iinoiyiiua o/anoee e o.i.;

i?e o/anoeiaii eee iiaeai?iii (ianeaaenoaaiiii) iieueciaaiee caieath,
?anii?yaeaiea o/anoeaie ie?neie caiee, ia ninoiyueie a iiaeai?iii
iieueciaaiee;

niaauaiey e oiaeaoaenoaa ia iauanoaaiiuo ioaeaeao, aeaaiono?ienoaa,
iao/aiee a?aiioa;

i?eianaiea, aeaeia e i?inuea, ii aeaeai iauanoaa, /a?ac iniauo auai?iuo;

iacia/aiea nai?ia ia ie?neea ?anoiaeu;

?aneeaaeea anao eaaeaueo ia e?anoueyiao eacaiiuo iiaeaoae, caineeo e
ie?neeo aeaiaaeiuo nai?ia, ?aaii eae caineeo e ie?neeo iaoo?aeueiuo
iiaeiiinoae, e ii?yaeie aaaeaiey n/aoia ii icia/aiiui iiaeaoaeyi e
nai?ai;

o/ao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, naeueneei iauanoaii eca?aiiuo, e iacia/aiea ei
aeaeiaaiuey eee eiiai ca neoaeao aiciaa?aaeaeaiey;

aeaea ii ioauaaieth ?ae?ooneie iiaeiiinoe, a oie noaiaie, a eaeie iie
eanathony naeueneiai iauanoaa;

?aneeaaeea ia?iea e ecaeaeueiie iiaeiiinoe ii oyaeai, ii aeooai, eee
eiui i?eiyoui niiniaii, oai, aaea iiaeiiinoe, a iieueco iiiaueea,
ioauaathony ca e?oaiaoth ii?oeith oeaeiai iauanoaa;

i?eiyoea ia? e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth e acuneaieth iaaeieiie;

iacia/aiea nnoae ec caianiuo naeueneeo iaaaceiia e anyeiai ?iaea
aniiiiuanoaiaaiee;

aea/a aeiaa?aiiinoae ia oiaeaeaiea ii aeaeai iauanoaaiiui;

54. Aeey ?aoaiey ieaeaneaaeothueo aeae o?aaoaony niaeanea ia iaiaa aeaoo
o?aoae anao e?anoueyi, eiathueo aiein ia noiaea:

i caiaia iaueiiiai iieueciaaiey caieath o/anoeiaui eee iiaeai?iui
(ianeaaenoaaiiui);

i ?acaeaea ie?neeo caiaeue ia iinoiyiiua ianeaaenoaaiiua o/anoee;

i ia?aaeaeao ie?neie caiee;

ia onoaiiaeaiee ie?neeo aeia?iaieueiuo neeaaeie e oiio?aaeaiee ie?neeo
eaieoaeia;

ia oaeaeaiee ii?i/iuo e?anoueyi ec iauanoaa e i?aaeinoaaeaiee eo a
?anii?yaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Naeueneee noa?inoa eniieiye, a i?aaeaeao aaaeiinoaa naeueneiai
iauanoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, neaaeothuea iaycaiiinoe:

nicuaae e ?anioneae naeueneee noiae e nio?aiye ia iai ii?yaeie;

i?aaeeaaae ia ?anniio?aiea noiaea ana aeaea, eanathueany ioaeae e iieuec
naeueneiai iauanoaa;

i?eaiaeee a eniieiaiea i?eaiai?u naeueneiai noiaea, ?anii?yaeaiey
aieinoiiai oi?aaeaiey e ie?iauo o/?aaeaeaiee;

iaaethaeae ca oeaeinoueth iaae e iaaeaauo ciaeia, ia caieyo, a
iieueciaaiee e?anoueyi iaoiaeyueony eee i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei a
nianoaaiiinoue;

iaaethaeae ca eni?aaiui niaea?aeaieai aei?ia, iinoia, aaoae, ia?aaicia e
i?., ia caieyo, ioaaaeaiiuo naeueneiio iauanoao a iaaeae eee
i?eia?aoaiiuo e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue;

iaaethaeae ca eni?aaiui ioauaaieai e?anoueyiaie iiaeaoae e anyeiai ?iaea
iiaeiiinoae eae eacaiiuo, caineeo e ie?neeo, oae ia?iea eee ecaeieueiie
iiaeiiinoe a iieueco iiiaueea, e niae?ae nee iiaeaoe e ia?iee a oao
iauanoaao, aaea ia auei iniauo nai?ueeia;

iiioaeaeae e eniieiaieth oneiaee e aeiaiai?ia e?anoueyi iaaeaeo niaith,
a ?aaii caeeth/aiiuo n iiiaueeaie e iinoi?iiieie eeoeaie, eiaaea oaeea
aeiaiai?u ia inia?eaathony naieie e?anoueyiaie;

iaaece?ae ca ii?yaeeii a o/eeeuao, aieueieoeao, aiaiaeaeueiyo e ae?oaeo
iauanoaaiiuo caaaaeaieyo, anee iie o/?aaeaeaiu naeueneei iauanoaii ia
naie nianoaaiiue n/ao;

iaaethaeae ca naiaa?aiaiiui ninoaaeaieai ?aaecneeo neacie, e iiaeaao
iiua, eoaea neaaeoao;

ii i?inueaai e?anoueyi i auaea/a ei onoaiiaeaiiuo aeeaoia e ianii?oia ia
ioeo/ee, eee ia oaieueiaiee aiana ec iauanoaa, aeaaae aieinoiiio
noa?oeia iaaeeaaeauaa oaeinoiaa?aiea a oii, /oi e oaieueiaieth
icia/aiiuo e?anoueyi i?aiyonoaey iao;

caaaaeuaae, a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii iauanoaii, ie?neei oicyenoaii e
ie?neeie noiiaie; iaaece?aao ca oeaeinoueth caianiiai iauanoaaiiiai
oeaaa e ca i?aaeeueiui ?anii?yaeaieai iiui;

io?aiye io ?ano?aou oa eiouanoaa iaeni?aaiuo ieaoaeueueeia, eieie
iaania/eaaaony acuneaiea iaaeieiee.

Aieinoiia oi?aaeaiea ninoaaeyee aieinoiie noiae, aieinoiie noa?oeia n
aieinoiui i?aaeaieai e aieinoiie e?anoueyineee noae.

“Aieinoiie noiae” ninoaaeyeny ec naeueneeo e aieinoiuo aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe, caiauaaiuo ii auai?o, e ec e?anoueyi, ecae?aaiuo io eaaeaeiai
naeaiey eee iinaeea, e aieinoe i?eiaaeeaaeauaai, ii iaeiiio io eaaeaeuo
aeanyoe aeai?ia, eae iieuecothueony caieath ca iiaeiiinoe, oae e
i?eia?aooeo o/anoee a nianoaaiiinoue.

Aaaeaieth aieinoiiai noiaea iiaeeaaeaee:

auai?u aieinoiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e noaeae aieinoiiai noaea;

iinoaiiaeaiea i anao aiiaua i?aaeiaoao, ioiinyueony aei oicyenoaaiiuo e
iauanoaaiiuo aeae oeaeie aieinoe;

o/?aaeaeaiea aieinoiuo o/eeeu; ?anii?yaeaiey ii aieinoiui caianiui
iaaaceiai, aaea iie anoue;

i?eianaiea, eoaea neaaeoao, aeaeia e i?inuea, ii aeaeai aieinoe, /?ac
iniauo auai?iuo;

iacia/aiea e ?aneeaaeea ie?neeo nai?ia e iiaeiiinoae, ioiinyueony aei
oeaeie aieinoe;

iiaa?ea aeaenoaee e o/ao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, aieinoueth ecae?aaiuo;

iiaa?ea ?ae?ooneeo nieneia e ?aneeaaeea ?ae?ooneie iiaeiiinoe,

aea/a aeiaa?aiiinoae ia oiaeaeaiea ii aeaeai aieinoe.

Ii iieeoeaeneei aeaeai, aieinoiie noa?oeia a i?aaeaeao aaaeiinoaa
aieinoiiai oi?aaeaiey aue iaycai:

iauyaeyoue, ii i?aaeienaieyi caineie iieeoeee, caeiiu e ?anii?yaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, e iaaethaeaoue ca ia?ani?ino?aiaieai iaaeaeo
e?anoueyiaie iiaeeiaeiuo oeacia e a?aaeiuo aeey iauanoaaiiiai
niieienoaey neooia;

io?aiyoue aeaai/eiea a iauanoaaiiuo ianoao e aaciianiinoue eeoe eiouanoa
io i?anooiiuo aeaenoaee, a oaeaea i?eieiaoue ia?aiia/aeueiua ia?u aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?ooaiiie oeoeiu, ii?yaeea e aaciianiinoe, ai?aaeue aei
?anii?yaeaiey caineie iieeoeee;

caaea?aeeaaoue a?iaeya, aaaeuo e aiaiiuo aeaca?oe?ia, e i?aaenoaaeyoue
eo iieeoeaeneiio ia/aeuenoao;

aeiiineoue caineie iieeoeee i naiiaieueii ioeo/eaoeony ec aieinoe e i
i?anooieaieyo e aanii?yaeeao, neo/eaoeony a aieinoe;

iaaethaeaoue ca oi/iui eniieiaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo ianoiyuei Iieiaeaieai
i?aaee i i?eienea, oaieueiaiee e ia?a/eneaiee e?anoueyi ec iaeiiai
iauanoaa a ae?oaia, e aeiiineoue i nai caineie iieeoeee, aeey
oaaaeiieaiey Oacaeiiai Eacia/aenoaa e Eacaiiie Iaeaou;

?anii?yaeaoueny a /?acau/aeiuo neo/ayo, eae iai?eia?: i?e iiaea?ao,
iaaiaeiaieyo, iiaaeueiuo aieaciyo, iaaeaaea neioa e ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo
aaaenoaeyo, e iaiaaeeaiii aeiiineoue iieeoeaeneiio ia/aeuenoao i
/?acau/aeiuo i?ienoanoaeyo a aieinoe;

i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoue e i?anaeaoue i?anooieaiey e i?inooiee, i?eieiaoue
iieeoeaeneea ia?u aeey ioe?uoey e caaea?aeaiey aeiiaiuo, e
i?aaenoaaeyoue eo ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?anii?yaeaiea iiaeeaaeauaai
ia/aeuenoaa;

iaaethaeaoue ca eniieiaieai i?eaiai?ia ie?iauo o/?aaeaeaiee e aieinoiiai
noaea.

Aieinoiia i?aaeaiea ninoaaeyeinue ec noa?oeiu, anao naeueneeo noa?ino
eee iiiiuieeia noa?oeiu, e ec nai?ueeia iiaeaoae, oai, aaea anoue iniaua
nai?ueee.

?aoaieth i?aaeaiey, aaeeiiaeaniiio eee ii aieueoeinoao aieinia iaee/iuo
/eaiia, iiaeeaaeaee oieueei neaaeothuea aeaea:

i?iecaiaenoai ec aieinoiuo noii aeaiaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo
oaea aieinoiui noaeii;

i?iaeaaea /anoiiai e?anoueyineiai eiouanoaa, ii acuneaieyi eaciu,
iiiaueea eee /anoiiai eeoea, e?iia oao neo/aaa, eioi?ua ii caeiio
aiceaaathony ia iauoth iieeoeeth,

ii?aaeaeaiea e oaieueiaiea aieinoiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, neoaeaueo ii
iaeio.

Noa?oeia, ii anai ae?oaei aeaeai aai aaaeiinoaa, oieueei niaaooaony n
i?aaeaieai, ii ?anii?yaeaaony ii naiaio oniio?aieth, iiae ee/iith naith
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

Aeey ninoaaeaiey aieinoiiai noaea ecae?aaony aaeaaiaeii aieinoiui
noiaeii (eee naeueneei, anee aieinoue ninoieo ec iaeiiai naeueneiai
iauanoaa) io /aou?ao aei aeaaiaaeoeaoe i/a?aaeiuo noaeai. Ii?aaeaeaiea
/enea neo auai?iuo e onoaiiaeaiea iaaeaeo ieie i/a?aaee i?aaeinoaaeyaony
noiaeo, ia neaaeothueo iniiaaieyo:

i?enoonoaea noaea aeieaeii auei ninoiyoue ia iaiaa, eae ec o?ao noaeae;

noaeuee iiaee auoue eca?aiu, eee aeey aanniaiiiai a oa/aiea oeaeiai
aiaea, ioi?aaeaiey naiae aeieaeiinoe, eee aeey ioi?aaeaiey iiie ii
i/a?aaee, ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiie noiaeii;

a iineaaeiai neo/aa, ec eca?aiiuo a /enea io 4-o aei 12-oe noaeae,
aeieaeiu auauaaoue, a iacia/aiiua n?iee (eae iai?eia?: /a?ac aeaa,
/aou?a eee oanoue ianyoeaa), ia aieaa iieiaeiu, e caoai auauaoea
caiauathony ae?oaeie eca?aiiuie noaeueyie, ii i/a?aaee.

Aieinoiie noae aaaeae, ia iniiaaiee neaaeothueo noaoae, eae nii?u e
oyaeau iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie, oae e aeaea ii iaeiaaaeiui eo i?inooieai.

Aieinoiie noae ?aoae ieii/aoaeueii: ana nii?u e oyaeau nianoaaiii
iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie, oeaiith aei noa ?oaeae aeeth/eoaeueii, eae i
iaaeaeaeeiii e aeaeaeeiii eiouanoaao a i?aaeaeao e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea,
oae e ii caeiai, iieoieai, i?iaeaaeai e anyeiai ?iaea naeaeeai e
iaycaoaeuenoaai, a ?aaii e aeaea ii aiciaa?aaeaeaieth ca oauoee e oua?a,
i?e/eiaiiua e?anoueyineiio eiouanoao.

Ieii/aoaeueiiio ?aoaieth aieinoiiai noaea iiaeeaaeaee ana, aac
ia?aie/aiey oeaiith enea, iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie nii?u e oyaeau, eioi?ua
oyaeoueany noi?iiu i?aaeinoaayo ?aoaieth aieinoiiai noaea. Nii?u e
oyaeau, a eieo, e?iia e?anoueyi, o/anoaiaaee iinoi?iiiea eeoea, iiaee
auoue oaeaea, ii aeaeaieth oyaeoueony noi?ii, i?aaeinoaaeyaiu
ieii/aoaeueiiio ?aoaieth aieinoiiai noaea.

Aieinoiie noae ?acae?ae e i?eaiaa?eaae e iaeacaieth e?anoueyi,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e aieinoe, ca iaeiaaaeiua i?inooiee, eiaaea iiua
niaa?oaiu a i?aaeaeao naiie aieinoe i?ioea eeoe, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e oiio
aea ninoiyieth, e aac o/anoey eeoe ae?oaeo ninoiyiee, a oaeaea, eiaaea
icia/aiiua i?inooiee ia iaoiaeeeenue a nayce n oaieiaiuie
i?anooieaieyie, eie iiaeeaaeao ?anniio?aieth iaueo noaeaaiuo iano. Anee
a niaa?oaiee i?inooiea o/anoaotho e?anoueyia, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e ae?oaie
aieinoe, oi aeiiaiuo i?eaiaa?eaae e iaeacaieth noae oie aieinoe, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?ie i?inooiie aue niaa?oai.

Aieinoiie noae aue aeanoai i?eaiaa?eaaoue aeiiaiuo: e iauanoaaiiui
?aaioai – aei oanoe aeiae, eee e aeaiaaeiiio acuneaieth – aei o?ao
?oaeae, eee e a?anoo – aei naie aeiae, eee, iaeiiaoe, eeoe, io oaeaniiai
iaeacaiey ia ecuyouo, – e iaeacaieth ?icaaie aei aeaaaeoeaoe oaea?ia.
Iacia/aiea ia?u iaeacaiey ca eaaeaeue i?inooiie i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
oniio?aieth naiiai noaea. I?eaiai?u aieinoiiai noaea ii i?inooieai,
iiaeeaaeauei aai ?anniio?aieth, n/eoaeenue ieii/aoaeueiuie. Iie
i?eaiaeeeenue a eniieiaiea naeueneeie noa?inoaie, eee eiaaea aieinoue
ninoiyea ec iaeiiai naeueneiai iauanoaa, iiiiuieeii aieinoiiai noa?oeiu,
iiae iaaethaeaieai noa?oeiu e ca iauath eo ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

2.3. Iieiaeaiea i aueoia e?anoueyiaie, auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe, e i niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo oaiaeee

Aeaiiia Iieiaeaiea oaeaea ea?aei aaaeioth ?ieue a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
iaania/aiee ?aoi?iu. A iai eceaaaeenue i?aaeea:

i aueoia a nianoaaiiinoue, auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe,
a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuie e?anoueyiaie onaaeaa, ioaeaeueii io iieaauo oaiaeee;

i niaeaenoaee ainoaea?noaa e i?eia?aoaieth oaie aea e?anoueyiaie a
nianoaaiiinoue, aianoa n onaaeueaaie anaai, eee /anoe iieaaiai iaaeaea,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai ei io iiiaueeia a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea ca
ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeiiinoe.

E?anoueyiai, auoaaeoei ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeyeinue
i?aai aueoiaoue a nianoaaiiinoue eo onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue.

I?eia?aoaiea a nianoaaiiinoue e?anoueyiaie iieaauo caiaeue e oaiaeee,
ioaaaeaiiuo ei a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea, aeiioneaeinue ia eia/a, eae n
niaeaney iiiaueea.

I?e i?eia?aoaiee e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue, aianoa n onaaeaaiith
inaaeeinoueth, iieaaiai iaaeaea, ieacuaaeinue niaeaenoaea io
ainoaea?noaa. Niaeaenoaea caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi I?aaeoaeuenoai
nnoaeaei, iiae i?eia?aoaaiua ia yoii iniiaaiee caiee, ii?aaeaeaiioth
noiio, n ?ann?i/eith e?anoueyiai oieaou ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue n?ie, e
naii acuneeaaei neaaeothuea n ieo ieaoaaee, eae a n/ao i?ioeaioia ii
auaeaiiie noiia, oae e ia iinoaiaiiia iiaaoaiea aeieaa. Yoa noiia
auaeaaaeanue iiiaueeo i?ioeaioiuie e?aaeeoiuie aoiaaaie, ii eiei
I?aaeoaeuenoai i?eieiaao ia naay oieaoo i?ioeaioia e eaieoaea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a aueoia ca onaaeueau, ia iniiaaiee niaeaoaiey,
canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiiiai Ie?iaui Iin?aaeieeii, a i?enoonoaee iinoi?iiieo
naeaeaoaeae, a /enea io 3-o aei 6-oe, caaeneo io aeiaiaa?eaathueony
noi?ii. Io yoiai niaeaoaiey caaenaei oaeaea iinoaiiaeaiea anao oneiaee,
ioiineoaeueii ii?yaeea e ?ann?i/ee ieaoaaeae. Anee aea aeia?iaieueiuo
niaeaoaiee ia auei, oi aueoi i?iecaiaeeeny ia iniiaaiee i?aaee
Iieiaeaiey.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoie aeiee onaaeueau eaaeaeiai naeaiey i?e/eneythony
iaeiiio ec /aou?ao ?ac?yaeia, onoaiiaeaiiuo a icia/aiiii Ianoiii
Iieiaeaiee. Ec ia?iea, i?e/eoathuaainy ca aanue e?anoueyineee iaaeae a
naeaiee, ioiineony nianoaaiii ia onaaeaaiua caiee: ia?aiai ?ac?yaea – ia
aieaa 1 ?. 50 eii aoi?iai ?ac?yaea – ia aieaa 2 ?. 50 eii., o?aoueaai
?ac?yaea – ia aieaa 3 ?. 50 eii. ia ?aaecneoth aeooo. A /aoaa?oii
?ac?yaea, e eiaio i?e/eneythony onaaeueau a naeaieyo, iaeiaeaiiuo, ia
iniiaaiee icia/aiiiai Iieiaeaiey, ca i?aaenoaaeaiiua e?anoueyiai iniaua
auaiaeu, aicauoaiiui ia?ieii, aeaiaaeiay iiaeiiinoue ca onaaeueau iiaeao
auoue ii?aaeaeaia ii?yaeeii, oeacaiiui a oii Iieiaeaiee, e nauoa 3 ?. 50
eii. ia aeooo.

Aeey en/eneaiey aueoiiie noiiu ca onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue,
i?e/eoathuayny n iaa, ii onoaaiie a?aiioa /anoue ia?iea iiiiiaeaaony ia
oanoiaaeoeaoue e aeaa o?aoe; oaeei ia?acii ca eaaeaeue ?oaeue
aaeaaiaeiiai ia?iea iaaeathuaai ia onaaeueau, iieaaaaony aueoiiay noiia
a 16 ?oa. 67 eii.

En/eneaiiay ca ana onaaeueau naeueneiai iauanoaa aueoiiay noiia
?acaa?nouaaeanue iaaeaeo aeiiioicyaaaie ii ie?neiio i?eaiai?o, n
ooaa?aeaeaiey iiiaueea. A neo/aa ianiaeaney iiiaueea ia ie?neoth
?acaa?noeo, aicieeoaa iaaei?acoiaiea ?ac?aoaaony Ie?iaui Iin?aaeieeii.
Iaaeiaieueiay ?aoaieai Ie?iaiai Iin?aaeieea noi?iia iiaea i?eiineoue
aeaeiau Oacaeiiio Ie?iaiio Nuacaeo.

Eiaaea ana aeiiioicyaaa naeaiey aianoa aeaeaee aueoieoue naie onaaeueau
inaaeeinoue, a oaeii neo/aa iie aeieaeiu auee aianoe niieia aueoiioth
noiio, ii?aaeaeaiioth ca ana onaaeueau. Eiaaea iaeei aeiiioicyei aueoiae
naith onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue ioaeaeueii io ae?oaeo, oi ii aiinee
aaeeiia?aiaiii noiio, i?e/eoathuony ia ath onaaeueao ii ?acaa?noea. A
oao naeaieyo, aaea nouanoaiaaei iaueiiia iieueciaaiea oaiaeueyie,
e?anoueyiei, ioaeaeueii aueoiathuee naith onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue,
oiea/eaae iiiaueeo yoo noiio, n i?eaaaeaieai e iae aeaaaeoeaoe eiiaae ia
eaaeaeue ?oaeue.

Ii?yaeie aueoia onoaiaaeeaaeny neaaeothuee. E?anoueyia, aeaeaaoea
i?enooieoue e aueoio naiae onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe, ia?auaeenue n
i?inueaie e iiiaueeo; ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii, iie iaycaiu auee aianoe
aueoiioth noiio a Oacaeiia Eacia/aenoai, aeey o?aiaiey e auaea/e,
aiineaaenoaee iiiaueeo i?e ieii/aoaeueiii cae?aieaiee ca e?anoueyiaie
aueoieaiiuo onaaeaa.

Iiiaueeo i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai, ia iaeeaeay i?aaeeiaeaiey ni noi?iiu
e?anoueyi, naeaeaoue oaeia cayaeaiea a onoaaiie a?aiioa, i?e ninoaaeaiee
aa, eee aiineaaenoaee, /?ac Ie?iaiai Iin?aaeieea. Anee yoiai cayaeaiey
ia auei naeaeaii, a iaaeaeo oai, ii ionoonoaeth iiiaueea, eee ii ae?oaei
i?e/eiai, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia niaeaoaiea n iei e?anoueyi, ioiineoaeueii
aueoia onaaeaa, ia auei aeinoeaiooi, oi i?aaeinoaaeyeinue e?anoueyiai
i?aai ia?auaoueny i?yii e Ie?iaiio Iin?aaeieeo.

E?anoueyia, ni aeiy auaea/e ei “aeaiiie”, inaiaiaeaeaeenue io ieaoaaea
iiiaueeo oie aeiee ia?iea, eioi?ay iaaeaao ia aueoieaiiua onaaeueau, e
iieo/aee aa a nianoaaiiinoue, n oai eeoue ia?aie/aieai, /oi a
i?iaeieaeaiea ia?auo aeaayoe eao ni a?aiaie ooaa?aeaeaiey Iieiaeaiey,
onaaeueau ia iiaee auoue ia?aaeaaaaiu, eee caeeaaeuaaaiu iinoi?iiiei
eeoeai, ia i?eiaaeeaaeauei e iauanoao. Ii i?ioanoaee yoiai n?iea,
e?anoueyia iiaee ?aniieaaaoue aueoieaiiuie onaaeueaaie, eae naiae
nianoaaiiinoueth, ia iniiaaiee iaueo caeiiia. Aeiiioicyei, aueoieaoee
naith onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue, nio?aiye i?aai o/anoey a iieueciaaiee
iauanoaaiiui auioneii e ae?oaeie /anoyie nae inaaeeinoe, ninoiyueie a
?anii?yaeaiee anaai iauanoaa.

Caaa?oathuei yoaiii eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a auaoae
iiiaue/ueae aea?aaia yaeyeny ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi. Yoio i?ioeann
ia/aeny iaeiia?aiaiii n aaaaeaieai onoaaiuo a?aiio e ?anoyioeny ia
aeanyoeeaoey. Iieiaeaiey 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. ia onoaiaaeeaaee ieeaeiai
ieii/aoaeueiiai n?iea i?ae?auaiey a?aiaiiiiaycaiiiai ninoiyiey
e?anoueyi: ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi anaoeaei caaenae io aiee
iiiaueea, eioi?ue eiae i?aai caeeth/aoue aueoiiua naeaeee eae ii
iaithaeiiio niaeaoaieth n e?anoueyiaie, oae e a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea.
Oaea ia 3 yiaa?y 1862 a. ec 2796 i?aaenoaaeaiiuo onoaaiuo a?aiio ii 322
a?aiioai ia?aaiaeeeenue ia aueoi 2782 aeooe ioaeneiai iiea (aeaeaa—i.
i.) e?anoueyi, ia 3 yiaa?y 1863a. ec 95300 i?aaenoaaeaiiuo onoaaiuo
a?aiio ii 5808 a?aiioai ia aueoi ia?aaiaeeeenue 678811 aeoo i. i.
e?anoueyi. E ia/aeo 1864 aiaea ia aueoi ia?aoei 959 892 aeooe i. i.
e?anoueyi.

A 1863 aiaeo a nayce n ainnoaieai a Iieueoa e ?acaa?ioaoeiny oe?ieei
e?anoueyineei aeaeaeaieai a Eeoaa, Aaei?onnee e ia I?aaiaa?aaeiie
Oe?aeia, aaea aeaaeaeueoeaie ianaeaiiuo eiaiee auee i?aeiouanoaaiii
iieueneea aeai?yia, i?aaeoaeuenoai eciaieei oneiaey ?aoi?iu a noi?iio
iaeioi?uo onooiie e?anoueyinoao, /oiau, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ineaaeoue
iaeae eeanniaie ai?ueau a aea?aaia a yoeo ?aaeiiao, n ae?oaie —
iiiuoaoueny iia?aoueny ia ianoiia e?anoueyinoai, i?aaenoaaeaiiia
i?aeiouanoaaiii eeoiaoeaie, aaei?onaie e oe?aeioeaie, a ai?ueaa n
iieueneei iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiui aeaeaeaieai. Oeacaie 1 ia?oa,
30 ethey e 2 iiya?y 1863 a. onoaiiaeaiiue ii onoaaiui a?aiioai ia?ie
iiieaeaeny ia 20%, iaoiaeeaoeany ia aa?ueia e?anoueyia ia?aaiaeeeenue ia
ia?ie, i?iecaaaeaiiua io iaaeaea io?acee aica?auaeenue e?anoueyiai,
ie?iaua iin?aaeieee iieueneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey caiaiyeenue ?onneeie,
i?eneaiiuie ec aioo?aiieo aoaa?iee, a e?anoueyia n?aco ia?aaiaeeeenue ia
aueoi . “Aeey iiaa?ee aeaiaaeiuo iiaeiiinoae e ninoaaeaiey aueoiiuo
aeoia” 9 ai?aey 1863 a. auee o/?aaeaeaiu a eaaeaeii oacaea iniaua
iiaa?i/iua eiiennee. A niioaaonoaee n oeacaie 1 ia?oa, 30 ethey e 2
iiya?y 1863 a. ia iaycaoaeueiue aueoi auee ia?aaaaeaiu 2 517 919 aeoo i.
i. a 9-oe caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo (Aeeaineie, Aeoaaneie, Aieuineie,
A?iaeiaineie, Eeaaneie. Eiaaineie, Ieineie, Iiaeeaaneie e Iiaeieueneie),
ninoaaeyaoeo Eeoao, Aaei?onneth e I?aaiaa?aaeioth Oe?aeio.

Ia 19 oaa?aey 1870 a. ia?aoei ia aueoi 6679344 aeooe i. i.. /oi
ninoaaeei 66,6% io iauaai /enea auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi. Ia 1
yiaa?y 1877a. ia?aoaaeoea ia aueoi ninoaaeyee 71,9% io iauaai /enea
e?anoueyi. Ia 1 yiaa?y 1881 a. e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia /eneeeinue oaea
84,1%, a a?aiaiiiiaycaiiuo — 15,9% (1552403 aeooe i. i.). Ia?aaiae ia
iaycaoaeueiue aueoi inoaaaaoeony e 1881 aiaeo ia a?aiaiiiiaycaiiii
iieiaeaiee iieooi?a ieeeeiia aeoo i. i. e?anoueyi i?aaeoniao?eaaeny n 1
yiaa?y 1883 a. ecaeaiiui 28 aeaeaa?y 1881 a. “Iieiaeaieai i aueoia
iaaeaeia inoathueieny aua a iaycaoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo e iiiaueeai
e?anoueyiaie a aoaa?ieyo, ninoiyueo ia Aaeeei?inneeneii e Iaei?inneeneii
ianoiuo iieiaeaieyo 19 oaa?aey 1861a.”. Ii caaa?oeeny e 1895 aiaeo.
Ecaeaiea Iieiaeaiey 28 aeaeaa?y 1881 a. i ia?aaiaea inoaaaaoeony ia
a?aiaiiiiaycaiiii iieiaeaiee e?anoueyi ia iaycaoaeueiue aueoi, a oaeaea
iauyaeaiiia iaeiia?aiaiii iiieaeaiea aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae ia 20% e
neiaeaiea iaaeieiie ii yoei ieaoaaeai, ianiiiaiii, yaeeinue iaeiie ec
onooiie e?anoueyiai, ia eioi?oth iioei i?aaeoaeuenoai a ianoaiiaea
?aaiethoeeiiiie neooaoeee 1879—1881 aiaeia. Iaeiaei aeaiiay onooiea ia
iiaea neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiii iii?aaeoue oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea
e?anoueyinoaa, inoaaaaoaainy ii-i?aaeiaio a yeiiiie/aneie caaeneiinoe io
ainoaea?noaa e naieo auaoeo iiiaueeia.

Ia 1 yiaa?y 1895 a. /eneeeinue e?anoueyi, ia?aoaaeoeo ia aueoi, —9
158754 aeooe i. i. a ianoiinoyo n iaueiiui caieaaeaaeaieai e 109 791
aeiiioicyei n iiaeai?iui caieaaeaaeaieai. Auei caeeth/aii 124 ouny/e
aueoiiuo naeaeie, ec ieo 20% ii iaithaeiiio niaeaoaieth e?anoueyi n
iiiaueeaie, 50% — ii iaeiinoi?iiiaio o?aaiaaieth iiiaueea e 30% —
“i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie ia?ie” (o. a. oeacaie 1 ia?oa, 30 ethey e 2 iiya?y
1863a. e Iieiaeaieai io 28 aeaeaa?y 1881 a.).

A Caeaaeacuea, aaea e?aiinoiia i?aai auei ioiaiaii caeiiaie 13 ieoya?y
1864a. e 13 ieoya?y 1865a. (a A?ocee) e 14 iay 1870a. (a A?iaiee e
Aca?aaeaeaeaia) ia?aaiae a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuo e?anoueyi ia/aeny n
1912—1913 aa. niaeanii Iieiaeaieyi io 20 aeaeaa?y 1912 a. e 7 ethey 1913
a. e ia caaa?oeeny aeaaea e 1917 aiaeo.

Aueoiiay iia?aoeey — ao?aeoaciay ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth ia?a,
i?iaiaeeiay e?aiinoie/aneeie iaoiaeaie ianeeey e i?eioaeaeaiey. Aueoi
e?anoueyiaie eo iaaeaeueiuo caiaeue a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iinee
i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? — a neeo iani?acia?iinoe aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae
oeaiiinoe e aeioiaeiinoe aueoiaaiuo iaaeaeia e aeeeoaeueiinoe naiie
aueoiiie iia?aoeee. Aio ii/aio ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi i?iaiaeeeny
i?aeiouanoaaiii ii iaeiinoi?iiiaio o?aaiaaieth iiiaueeia eee
“iaycaoaeueiie ia?ie” i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aueoi ia oieueei niinianoaiaae aieaa eioaineaiiio i?iieeiiaaieth
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee a e?anoueyineia oicyenoai, nioeeaeueiiio
?anneiaieth aea?aaie, ii ii aeaaae iiiaueeai (iniaaiii e?oiiui
eaoeooiaeenoai) aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa aeey ia?ano?ieee naiaai oicyenoaa
ia eaieoaeenoe/aneie iniiaa. Ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi icia/ae
aeaeueiaeoaa ioaeaeaiea e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa io iiiaue/ueaai.
Aueoiiay iia?aoeey eeeaeaee?iaaea nenoaio oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a
aea?aaia e i?aa?auaea e?anoueyieia a naiinoiyoaeueiiai nianoaaiieea
caiaeueiuo oaiaeee. Aueoiiay iia?aoeey, ieacaaoayny auaiaeiie aeey
ainoaea?noaa, ianiiiaiii, iicaieeea aio aueoe ec oyaeaeiai oeiainiaiai
e?ecena, a eaeii iii ieacaeinue iinea E?uineie aieiu, e i?iaiaeeoue
aeoeaioth yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo: no?ieoue eacaiiua aeaeaciua aei?iae e
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeinoaaeyoue cia/eoaeueiua nnoaeu
iiiaueeai e eaieoaeenoai-i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi. Aueoiiay iia?aoeey yaeeanue
aaaeiui oaeoi?ii ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey aeey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
oicyenoaa ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee.

Noaouee 1—3 onoaiaaeeaatho aeaa aeaea iicaiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
i?eia?aoaaiie auaoeie iiiaue/ueeie e?anoueyiaie iin?aaenoaii aueoia: 1)
oae iacuaaaioth onaaeaaioth inaaeeinoue e 2) iieaaie iaaeae (iaoiy,
naiieinu, auaiiu e ae?oaea oaiaeuey), eioi?ue e?anoueyia iieo/aee ii
onoaaiie a?aiioa a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea ca oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe.
Oneiaey e ii?yaeie aueoia onaaeueau ii?aaeaeaiu noaoueyie 8—26 aeaiiiai
Iieiaeaiey, aueoi a nianoaaiiinoue iieaaiai iaaeaea ii?aaeaeai noaoueyie
27—122 (?acaeae aoi?ie). Noaoon ia?aoaaeoeo ia aueoi e?anoueyi
(e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia) e eo iicaiaeueiua i?aaa ii?aaeaeaiu noaoueyie
156—179, ninoaaeythueie ?acaeae o?aoee.

Ii niuneo no. 3, e?anoueyia ia eiaee i?aaa o?aaiaaoue ia?aaiaea eo ia
aueoi. Iii i?aaeinoaaeyeinue oieueei iiiaueeo, eioi?ue iia caeeth/aoue
aueoiiua naeaeee eae ii iaithaeiiio n e?anoueyiaie niaeaoaieth, oae e
aac eo niaeaney, a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea, ii a iineaaeiai neo/aa ii
eeoaeny io 20 aei 25% aueoiiie noiiu, ninoaaeyaoae oae iacuaaaiue
aeiiieieoaeueiue ieaoaae.

Iin?aaeie/anoai ainoaea?noaa iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie a
aueoiiie iia?aoeee, i /ai aiai?eony a noaouea, eiaei aaaeiia
nioeeaeueiia e yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea. Niaeaenoaea aueoio ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia aa?aioe?iaaei iiiaueeai aueoiiua ieaoaaee a no?iai
auaea?aeeaaaiua ei n?iee, ecaaaeyei oaeaea iiiaueea a oneiaeyo
nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe a ii?aoi?iaiiie aea?aaia io iiiai/eneaiiuo
noieeiiaaiee n e?anoueyiaie ia yoie ii/aa. Auieaoea iiiaueeo
niioaaonoaothuoth noiio, i?aaeoaeuenoai n iiiiuueth naiaai iiuiiai
aaeieieno?aoeaii-iieeoeaeneiai aiia?aoa acuneeaaei aa aianoa n
i?ioeaioaie n e?anoueyi. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia niaeaenoaea aeaeo aueoia,
ianiiiaiii, ?aoaei caaea/o onei?aiey ia?aaiaea e?anoueyi ia aueoi.

Noaouey 5 iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi Iieiaeaiea i aueoia eanaaony oieueei
caeeth/aiey naeaeie i aueoia e?anoueyineie iaaeaeueiie caiee e ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ae?oaea naeaeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea iaaeaeaeeiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Ii?yaeie caeeth/aiey iineaaeieo ?aaeaiaioe?oaony iauei
a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Noaouey 1350 oiia O Naiaea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee, oiiieiaaiay a 1-i
i?eia/aiee e no. 5, aeaneo: “Iaianaeaiiua caiee, i?iaeaiiua io eeoea
iaeiiai ninoiyiey eeoeai ae?oaiai, aueoio ia iiaeeaaeao”.

Ioieou 1—4 noaouee 6 naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iacia/eoaeueiinoe eueaio e
iaeaa/aiee i?e niaa?oaiee aueoiiuo naeaeie. Iie ianeieueei oiaiueoaee
?anoiaeu iaaeo noi?ii a i?ioeanna ioi?ieaiey naeaeee e nie?auaee aa
ath?ie?aoe/aneoth i?ioeaaeo?o. Iineieueeo iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
aueoiiuo naeaeie niaa?oaeinue ii iaeiinoi?iiiaio o?aaiaaieth iiiaueeia,
ia i?aeoeea oeacaiiua eueaiou e iaeaa/aiey aieaa anaai auee ia ?oeo
iiiaueeai.

Oiiieiaaiua a noaouea 7 iniaua oneiaey aueoia caiaeue auaoeie
iiiaue/ueeie e?anoueyiaie Neae?e e Aanna?aaneie iaeanoe eceiaeaiu a
Aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaeeao i e?anoueyiao e aeai?iauo ethaeyo, auoaaeoeo
ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe a Neae?e (no. 11—20), e a I?aaeeao i ethaeyo,
auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe a Aanna?aaneie iaeanoe (no. 8—11).
Neae?neei iiiaueeai aeaaaeinue i?aai eeai caeeth/aoue ni naieie
e?anoueyiaie naeaeee i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ei a nianoaaiiinoue eo
caiaeueiiai iaaeaea, eeai i?iaeaoue naie eiaiey a eacio. Iiiauee iia
i?aaeinoaaeoue e?anoueyiai eo iaaeaeu a nianoaaiiinoue eeai ca aeaiueae
(n ?ann?i/eie a oieaoa aueoiiie noiiu), eeai ca iniaua iiaeiiinoe
(aeaiueaaie eee ?aaioie) ii nia?oue iiiaueea, eeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie. I?e yoii oneiaey i auiieiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aaio ca iaaeae
ia?aniao?eaaeenue eaaeaeua o?e aiaea. Ii 10-e ?aaecee a Neae?e
/eneeeinue anaai 4320 aeoo ioaeneiai iiea e?aiinoiuo, a oii /enea 384
aeooe aeai?iauo. Iniiaiay ianna e?aiinoiuo Neae?e nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue a
Oiaieueneie aoaa?iee (3149 aeoo i. i.). A Aanna?aaneie iaeanoe
/eneeeinue 10 844 aeooe i. i. e?aiinoiuo, a oii /enea 3005 aeoo i. i.
Aeai?iauo. E auaoei e?aiinoiui Aanna?aaneie iaeanoe i?eiaiyeinue oi
iieiaeaiea, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeeenue aanna?aaneea oea?aia: naiaiaeiua
e?anoueyia, neaeaaoea ia iiiaue/ueeo caieyo, ca eioi?ua iie ia
aeiaiai?iuo n iiiaueeaie oneiaeyo ioauaaee oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe.
Niaeanii Aeiiieieoaeueiui i?aaeeai i auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyiao
Aanna?aaee (no. 8—11), iiiauee iaycuaaeny i?aaeinoaaeoue e?anoueyiai
caiaeueiua iaaeaeu ia a nianoaaiiinoue, a a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea.

Ainoaea?noai niaeaenoaiaaei e?anoueyiai a aueoia caiaeueiiai iaaeaea,
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii?aaeaeaiiay ii i?aaeeai Iieiaeaiey noiia,
auaeaaaaiay iiiaueeo, iiae i?eia?aoaaiua e?anoueyiaie a nianoaaiiinoue
ie?neea caiee e oaiaeuey, iaania/aiiuie (aa?aioe?iaaiiuie)
I?aaeoaeuenoaii e?aaeeoiuie aoiaaaie, eiaiiaaeanue “aueoiiie nnoaeie”.
Anyeea aeiaaai/iua, naa?o, aueoiiie nnoaeu, ieaoaaee, eaeea e?anoueyia
iaycuaaeenue oieaoeoue, iiiaueeo, ii acaeiiiio n iei niaeaoaieth, ia
iaania/eaaeenue (ia aa?aioe?iaaeenue) ainoaea?noaii. E?anoueyia,
i?eia?aooea a nianoaaiiinoue caieth, i?e iin?aaenoaa aueoiiie iia?aoeee,
iaycaiu auee aiineoue a eacio aaeaaiaeii, acaiai neaaeiaaaoaai iiiaueeo
ca caieth ia?iea, ii oanoe eiiaae ia ?oaeue n iacia/aiiie
I?aaeoaeuenoaii aueoiiie nnoaeu, ai?aaeue aei aa iiaaoaiey. Oaeiaua
ieaoaaee eiaiiaaeenue “aueoiiuie”. Aueoiiay nnoaea iiaaoaeanue aciinii
aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae a i?iaeieaeaiea ni?iea aeaayoe eao ni aeiy auaea/e
nnoaeu.

2.4. I?aaeea i ii?yaeea i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea iieiaeaiee i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe

I?aaeea ii?aaeaeyee:

i?aaa, i?eia?aoaaiua e?anoueyiaie ii iaia?iaeiaaiee Iieiaeaiee, e
ioiioaiey eo e iiiaueeai aei aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea onoaaiuo a?aiio e aei
o/?aaeaeaiey aieinoae,

ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey, ?anniio?aiey, iiaa?ee, ooaa?aeaeaiey e aaaaeaiey a
aeaenoaea onoaaiuo a?aiio eieie ii?aaeaeythony iinoiyiiua iicaiaeueiua
ioiioaiey iiiaueeia e e?anoueyi.

1. I?aaa, i?eia?aoaaiua e?anoueyiaie ii iaia?iaeiaaiee iieiaeaiee, e
ioiioaieyo eo e iiiaueeai aei aaaaeaiey onoaaiuo a?aiio e aei
o/?aaeaeaiey aieinoae aeeth/aee a naay neaaeothuaa. Ni aeiy
iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe, i?ae?auaeenue:

ia?ae?aieaiea ee/iuo i?aa ia e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae, e
ia?aonooiea neo i?aa, a eaeii au oi ie auei aeaea,

ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi n iaeieo caiaeue ia ae?oaea, eia/a, eae ia
iniiaaiee i?aaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo Ianoiuie Iieiaeaieyie i iicaiaeueiii
ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi,

ioaea/a e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae aeaaeaeueoeaie iinoi?iiiei eeoeai
a oneoaeaiea eee a ?aaiou, a oaeaea ioaea/a iaeieaoieo ec e?anoueyi e
aeai?iauo ethaeae a iao/aiea ?aianeo eee ia ainieoaiea, aac niaeaney ia
oi eo ?iaeeoaeae eee ainieoaoaeae;

ioaea/a e?anoueyi e aeai?iauo ethaeae, aac ?ac?aoaiey iiaeeaaeauaai
o/?aaeaeaiey, a eni?aaeoaeueiua caaaaeaiey eee a ?anii?yaeaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa.

E?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai, ia ni?aoeaay i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
niaeaney iiiaueea:

anooiaoue a a?ae e iieueciaaoueny anaie naiaenoaaiiuie i?aaaie, ia
iniiaaiee iaueo ocaeiiaiee;

eae oeaeiio iauanoao e?anoueyi, oae e eaaeaeiio ec ieo ioaeaeueii,
i?eia?aoaoue a nianoaaiiinoue iaaeaeaeeiua e aeaeaeeiua eiouanoaa, a
oaeaea io/oaeaeaoue nee eiouanoaa, ioaeaaaoue a caeia e aiiaua
?anii?yaeaoueny eie, n niaethaeaieai iaueo ocaeiiaiee;

aoiaeeoue, eae ioaeaeueii, oae e a ninoaaa iauanoa, a ?ac?aoaiiua
caeiiii aeiaiai?u e iaycaoaeuenoaa n eaciie e /anoiuie eeoeaie, ia iaueo
aeey anao naiaiaeiuo naeueneeo ninoiyiee iniiaaieyo;

i?iecaiaeeoue oi?aiaeth, a i?aaeaeao, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo caeiiii
naiaiaeiui naeueneei iauaaoaeyi;

caienuaaoueny a oeaoe e i?iecaiaeeoue ?aianea a naeaieyo; ioe?uaaoue e
niaea?aeaoue oaa?e/iua, oi?aiaua, i?iiuoeaiiua e ?aianeaiiua caaaaeaiey,
ia iniiaaiee iaueo ocaeiiaiee e Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao;

a/eiyoue enee e oyaeau ii aeaeai a?aaeaeaineei e ioaaonoaiaaoue ca naay,
ee/ii eee /?ac iiaa?aiiuo, a ii aeaeai oaieiaiui e iieeoeaeneei
iiaeaaaoue aeaeiau e caueuaoue e ia?aaeaeaoue naay anaie, caeiiii
aeicaieaiiuie, niiniaaie, a oaeaea auoue naeaeaoaeyie e ii?o/eoaeyie, ia
iauai aeey naiaiaeiuo nineiaee iniiaaiee.

Aeai?iaua ethaee i?eia?aoaee oa aea, eae e e?anoueyia, i?aaa ee/iua e ii
eiouanoao; ii oa ec aeai?iauo, eioi?ua ninoiyee a iaycaoaeueiii
oneoaeaiee o naieo aeaaeaeueoeaa, iiae/eiyeenue a?aiaiiui ia?aie/aieyi a
iieueciaaiee icia/aiiuie i?aaaie, ia iniiaaiee Iieiaeaiey ia ono?ienoaa
aeai?iauo ethaeae.

Ni aeiy iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao, e ai?aaeue aei
aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea onoaaiie a?aiiou, e?anoueyia, i?iaeieaeay
iieueciaaoueny oaie naiuie onaaeueaaie e iieaauie oaiaeueyie, eioi?uie
aei oiai iieueciaaeenue, iaycaiu auee: ninoiyuea ia ia?iea – ieaoeoue
ia?ie aeaaeaeueoeo a i?aaeiai ?acia?a, ninoiyuea ia aa?ueia –
ioi?aaeyoue iioth a i?aaeiai aea ?acia?a.

Ni aeiy iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee, iianaianoii ioiaiyeenue ana,
nouanoaiaaaoea aeinaea, aeiaaai/iua nai?u n e?anoueyi eee aeaie
naeueneei i?iecaaaeaieyie: ioeoeae, aa?aiaie, ianeii, yeoeaie, yaiaeaie,
a?eaaie, ?aciuie nuanoiuie i?eianaie, oienoii, noeiii, i?yaeath,
oa?noueth e o.i. Ia ioiaiyeenue eeoue nouanoaothuea a iaeioi?uo
ianoiinoyo, nai?u ca?iiaui oeaaii, naaeeiaeoeath e eueiii, ia eioi?ua
i?yii oeacaii a Ianoiuo Iieiaeaieyo.

Ni aeiy iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee, e?anoueyia ia iiaee auoue ia?aaiaeeiu
n ia?iea ia aa?ueio eee ia niaoaiioth iiaeiiinoue, eee ni niaoaiiie
iiaeiiinoe eneeth/eoaeueii ia aa?ueio, oieueei anee e?anoueyia naie
ecuyayo niaeanea ia caiaio aeaiaaeiiai ia?iea ?aaioaie a iieueco
iiiaueea.

Ana iaioiaiaiiua iiaeiiinoe, ?aaioaie eee aeaiueaaie, aeieaeiu auoue
niieia ioauaaaiua e?anoueyiaie a iieueco iiiaueeia, aac iaeaeoaai
oiouaiey.

Ii ioe?uoee naeueneeo iauanoa, e?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai
o/anoaiaaoue, ia onoaiiaeaiiuo a naeueneeo iauanoaao noiaeao, a
ninoaaeaiee ie?neeo i?eaiai?ia e a auai?ao iauanoaa, a oaeaea auoue
ecae?aaiuie a aeieaeiinoe, e io?aaeyoue iiua ia iniiaaiee i?aaee,
onoaiiaeaiiuo a Iauai i e?anoueyiao Iieiaeaiee.

Iiiauee nio?aiye i?aai:

?acae?aoue e noaeeoue acaeiiua nii?u e enee aiaeai?aiiuo ia aai caieyo
e?anoueyi;

iiaeaa?aaoue eo acuneaieyi e iaeacaieyi, n oai, /oiau iaeacaieyi
oaeaniui iie auee iiaeaa?aaaiu ia eia/a, eae /?ac iieeoeeth.

Ai?aaeue aei ono?ienoaa aieinoae, auaea/a e?anoueyiai e aeai?iaui
ethaeyi aeeaoia e ianii?oia caaeneo oaeaea io aeaaeaeueoea eiaiey.

Ai?aaeue aei ono?ienoaa aieinoae, ia iaycaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoea inoaaony
iiaoaeaeaiea, caeiiiui ii?yaeeii e, anee ioaeii, i?e niaeaenoaee caineie
iieeoeee, aiaeai?aiiuo ia aai caieyo e?anoueyi ei aciino
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iiaeaoae e e ioi?aaeaieth aeaiaaeiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo
iiaeiiinoae. Aeaaeaeaoe ia ioaa/aao naiei eiouanoaii ca oa iaaeieiee ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui iiaeaoyi e nai?ai, eie iaoiaeyony ia e?anoueyiao ii
iaia?iaeiaaiee Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao.

Ai?aaeue aei ooaa?aeaeaiey e aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea ii eaaeaeiio eiaieth
onoaaiie a?aiiou, ia aeaaeaeueoea inoaaaeenue i?aaeiea iaycaiiinoe ii
i?iaeiaieuenoaeth e i?ec?aieth e?anoueyi. Ai?aaeue aei iacia/aiey
Ie?iauo Iin?aaeieeia, aeaeiau e iaaei?acoiaiey, eie iiaoo aicieeaoue
iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie, eee aeai?iauie ethaeueie, iiaeeaaeaee
?acai?o oacaeiuo i?aaeaiaeeoaeae aeai?yinoaa. Aini?auaeinue iiaeaaaoue
aeaeiau ia iiiaueeia ii oaeei aeaeai e ?anii?yaeaieyi, eioi?ua
niaa?oeeenue a i?aaeiaa, aei iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao,
a?aiy, a neeo nouanoaiaaaoaai e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

N o/?aaeaeaieai aieinoae e ni aaaaeaieai a aeaenoaea onoaaiuo a?aiio
e?anoueyia anooiaee a iieueciaaiea i?i/eie, aea?oaiuie ei i?aaaie, ia
oi/iii iniiaaiee Iauaai e Ianoiuo Iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao e
aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaee.

2.5. Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai o/?aaeaeaieyo

I?aaeoaeuenoai i?eaeaaaei aieueoia cia/aiea o/?aaeaeaieyi. ia eioi?ua
auee aiceiaeaiu iaycaiiinoe ii i?iaaaeaieth e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu ia
ianoao. Yoei auei i?iaeeeoiaaii ecaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aeoa, a eioi?ii aeaoaeueii auee ?ac?aaioaiu no?oeoo?a
e ooieoeee oeacaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ia?aui caaiii a yoie nenoaia auee ie?iaua iin?aaeieee, aoi?ui,
ooaa?aeaeaaoei ?aoaiey ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia e ?anniao?eaaaoei
iinooiaaoea ia ieo aeaeiau, — oacaeiue nuacae ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia.
O?aoueei caaiii, ooaa?aeaeaaoei ?aoaiey ie?iauo nuacaeia,
?anniao?eaaaoei aeaeiau ia aeaenoaey ia?auo aeaoo caaiueaa, a oaeaea
?ac?aoaaoei ana ae?oaea aii?inu, naycaiiua n i?iaaaeaieai ?aoi?iu a
aeeciue, aunooiaei aoaa?ineia ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai i?enoonoaea,
aicaeaaeyaiia aoaa?iaoi?ii. Aunoaa iaaethaeaiea iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth
yoeo o/?aaeaeaiee e aiiaua iaae i?iaaaeaieai ?aoi?iu auei aiceiaeaii ia
Aeaaiue eiieoao ia ono?ienoaa naeueneiai ninoiyiey, ia?aciaaiiue
iaeiia?aiaiii n ooaa?aeaeaieai Iieiaeaiee 19 oaa?aey 1861 a. e
caiaieaoee niaie Aeaaiue eiieoao ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo, ia eioi?ue
auea aiceiaeaia iiaeaioiaea e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu. Aeaaiue eiieoao ia
ono?ienoaa naeueneiai ninoiyiey /eneeeny i?e Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa
iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iaaethaeaieai eiia?aoi?a. A ninoaa Eiieoaoa
iacia/aeenue ii ee/iiio auai?o eiia?aoi?a ?oeiaiaeeoaee aaaeiinoa,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n iiaeaioiaeie e i?iaaaeaieai e?anoueyineie
?aoi?iu: ieieno?u aioo?aiieo aeae, thnoeoeee, oeiainia, ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa, eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a, ia/aeueieee 2 e 3 ioaeaeaiee
Nianoaaiiie aai eiia?aoi?neiai aaee/anoaa eaioeaey?ee.

Ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaaeinue einoeoooo ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia. Ec
132 noaoae aeaiiiai Iieiaeaiey 122 o?aeootho i ii?yaeea iacia/aiey,
eiiiaoaioeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe yoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

2.6. Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea ia ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi, aiaeai?aiiuo a
eiaieyo iaeeiiiianoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa, e i iiniaee nei aeaaeaeueoeai

Iaeeiiiianoiui n/eoaeny iiiauee, eioi?ue eiae iaiaa 21 aeooe i. i. e
i?eoii ia aieaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai a caeiia eiee/anoaa caiee. Ii 10-e
?aaecee ec 103 194 iiiaue/ueeo naiae (aeaaeaaoeo ianaeaiiuie eiaieyie)
ian/eouaaeinue 42 978 naiae, aeaaeaaoeo iaiaa /ai 21 aeooie i. i.
eaaeaeay, o. a. 41,3% io iauaai /enea caiea- e aeooaaeaaeaeueoeaa. A
iauae neiaeiinoe o oaeeo aeaaeaeueoeaa /eneeeinue 339 586 aeoo i. i.,
eee a n?aaeiai ii 8 aeoo ia aeaaeaiea. Iaeiaei iaeeiiiianoiuo a niunea
ianoiyueo Aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaee (o. a. ioaa/athueo iaiei e?eoa?eyi —
iaei e?anoueyi e iaei caiee) auei aaeaia iaiueoa. Iiieii yoiai
ian/eouaaeinue 3703 naiuee aaniiianoiuo aeooaaeaaeaeueoeaa, o eioi?uo a
iauae neiaeiinoe iaoiaeeeinue 12 286 aeoo i. i. e?aiinoiuo, eee iaiiiaei
aieaa /ai ii 3 aeooe ia aeaaeaeueoea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ecaeaiey iniauo, aieaa eueaioiuo aeey iaeeiiiianoiuo
aeaaeaeueoeaa I?aaee aeeeoiaaeanue caaioie i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeaea?aeaoue
iaoa?eaeueii yoio neie aeai?yinoaa. Eiay a n?aaeiai ii 8 aeoo ia
aeaaeaiea (a a aieaa /ai 23 neo/aaa e iaiaa aeoo), a iaoa?eaeueiii
ioiioaiee iie iaei /ai ioee/aeenue io e?anoueyi (oioy e iaeaaeaee anaie
i?aaaie e i?eaeeaaeyie aeai?yinoaa): aeeee a oao aea e?anoueyineeo
aeiiao e ia?aaia n e?anoueyiaie ia?aaaouaaee caieth. Iiiaea ec ieo aeeee
anaoeaei ca n/ao aiaiiie e a?aaeaeaineie neoaeau. Eiaiii yoio neie
aeai?yinoaa aei ?aoi?iu ?aci?yeny i aeaeeanne?iaaeny. N 8-e (1833 a.) ei
10-th ?aaeceth /enei iaeeiiiianoiuo nie?aoeeinue a iieoi?a ?aca, a
aeooaaeaeaeueoeaa — a iyoue ?ac. Naieo e?anoueyi iie i?iaeaee ae?oaei
iiiaueeai eee ioionoeee ca aueoi ia aieth.

Caeeth/aiea

Yeiiiieea ?innee iaoeeiiii e caeiiiia?ii ?acaeaaeanue ii iooe
aeaeueiaeoaai noaiiaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. E na?aaeeia XIX
a. e?ecen oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee noae i/aaeaeiui. Iinanneiiiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ieii/aoaeueii iieacaea naith yeiiiie/aneoth
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue, a neeo /aai ii eieoeeaoeaa naieo caaiae/eeia auea
ia?ano?iaia ia iiaue eaae. Aeaaeaeueoeu iinanneiiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
iieo/eee i?aai oaieueiyoue e?aiinoiuo, eioi?ua caoai ia?aaiaeeeenue a
?ac?yaeu ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi eee ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae. Eo aea
iinea oaieueiaiey ioioii a?aee ia i?aaei?eyoey ii aieueiiio iaeio.

Aio/eiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iniiaaiiay ia o?oaea e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi,
oaeaea i?eoiaeeea a oiaaeie.

A oi aea a?aiy aeoeaii ?acaeaaeanue eaieoaeenoe/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue —
eoia/aneay e e?anoueyineay. Iaeiaei oaiaeaeeci iaoae aa naiaiaeiiio
?inoo, cao?oaeiye i?eaea/aiea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, noaeae ?uiie nauoa.

?ino eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a no?aia o?aaiaae ana aieueoa e
aieueoa naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo ?oe. Yoiio nouanoaaiii iaoaea aa?ueiiay
nenoaia oicyenoaa. I?aaenoaaeoaee ao?aeoacee e iaeioi?ay /anoue
eeaa?aeueiuo iiiaueeia o?aaiaaee ioiaiu aa?ueiiie nenoaiu e ia?aoiaea e
aieueiiiaaiiiio o?oaeo.

A 30 — 50-a aiaeu XIX a. a ?innee i?iecioae i?iiuoeaiiue ia?aai?io.
?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oanii naycaiiie n au?aaioeie
oiaa?ia ia ?uiie, i?eaiaeeei e oaaee/aieth ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey.
Iaeiaei i?ioeann ?anoe?aiey aioo?aiiaai ?uiea i?ioiaeee cia/eoaeueii
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoi iauyniyeinue oai, /oi
iiaeaaeythuay /anoue ianaeaiey no?aiu aaea iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai.
E?aiinoiua e?anoueyia ia iiaee auoue iieiioeaiiuie iio?aaeoaeyie
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ana aieaa iaauaiaeiui noaiiaeeny o?oae e?aiinoiuo e aeey iiiaueeia.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo i?aaeii/eoaee ia?aaiaeeoue e?anoueyi iiae?yaeiinoueth
ia ia?ie, a caoai iaieiaoue eo aeey ?aaiou ia aa?neie caiee. Iniiaiay
ianna iiiaueeia ana aea oea ii iooe oneeaiey yenieoaoaoeee e?anoueyi n
oeaeueth iiauoaiey aeioiaeiinoe naieo eiaiee. No?aia o?aaiaaeinue ana
aieueoa oiaa?iiai oeaaa. Iiiaueee niaoeee eniieueciaaoue yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai aeey iieo/aiey i?eaueae.

Iaeioi?ua iiiaueee, iniaaiii /a?iicaiiuo ?aeiiia, a iiaiia ca i?eaueyie
oneeeaatho yenieoaoaoeeth e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi iooae eo ia?aaiaea
iieiinoueth ia aa?ueio e aeaaea ia oae iacuaaaioth iany/eio. E?anoueyiei
iieo/ae io aa?eia neoaeiue iany/iue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiue iaae e ana a?aiy
?aaioae ia aa?neie caiea, io?uaaynue io naiaai oicyenoaa.

No?aia ia?aaeeaaao e?ecen e?aiinoie/aneiai oicyenoaa. Iiiaee iiiaueee
?aci?ythony. ?anooo ioaeaea e iaieuaiea e?anoueyi. Iieiaeaiea a aua
aieueoae ia?a iaino?yaony a nayce n oyaeaeie e iaoaea/iie aeey ?innee
E?uineie aieiie. A yoi a?aiy oneeeaathony ?ae?ooneea iaai?u,
oaaee/eaathony iaeiae. Naia aea aieia iieacaea anth aieeinoue yeiiiieee
?innee, iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea ionoaeinoue no?aiu, /oi a eiia/iii
n/aoa i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth a 1859 — 1861 aa. ?aaiethoeeiiiie
neooaoeee a no?aia.

Noeoeeiua ianniaua aunooieaiey e ainnoaiey e?anoueyi noaiiayony noieue
iiuiuie e iianiuie aeey oea?ecia, /oi oea?ue e iiiaea aai i?eaeeaeaiiua
iiieiatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoue n?i/iua ia?u aeey nianaiey
naiiaea?aeaaey.

Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa i?iecioea ia iaiiaaiii. I?iaaaeaiea
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu i?aaeoanoaiaaea aeeeoaeueiay ?aaioa ii au?aaioea
i?iaeoia caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

Oea?eci i?e au?aaioea i?iaeoa ?aoi?iu ia iia, ?acoiaaony, eaii?e?iaaoue
iiaiea aieueoeinoaa iiiaueeia. A oeaeyo aai auyniaiey oea?neia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aciaaei ec ianoiuo iiiaueeia aoaa?ineea eiieoaou,
eioi?ui i?aaeeaaaeinue au?aaioaoue naie i?aaeeiaeaiey e i?iaeoo ia
ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

Ia niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoa e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
ieacaei iiaiea aoaa?ineeo eiieoaoia, eioi?ua au?aaeaee eioa?anu
?aaeoeeiiiuo e?aiinoieeia. A ?acoeueoaoa n o/aoii iiaiey aoaa?ineeo
eiieoaoia aue iiaeaioiaeai ieii/aoaeueiue i?iaeo, ?anniio?aiiue
Ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii, aieueoeinoai /eaiia eioi?iai aai iaeia?eei. 19
oaa?aey 1861 a. oea?ue iiaeienae iaieoano ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e eiiieaen caeiiia ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey 1859—1861 aa. aeaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiue oie/ie,
eioi?ue onei?ee ?aoaiea aii?ina ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa,
iaoneiaeaiiia iauaeoeaiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

N iiiaioa iaia?iaeiaaiey iaieoanoa e?anoueyia iieo/eee ee/ioth naiaiaeo.
Iiiaueee iioa?yee i?aai aiaoeaaoueny a ee/ioth aeeciue e?anoueyi, ia
iiaee ia?anaeyoue eo a ae?oaea ianoiinoe, oai aieaa ia iiaee i?iaeaaaoue
ae?oaei eeoeai n caieae eee aac caiee. Ca iiiaueeaie nio?aiyeenue eeoue
iaeioi?ua i?aaa ii iaaeci?o ca iiaaaeaieai auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe e?anoueyi.

Eciaieeenue oaeaea e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e?anoueyi, i?aaeaea anaai eo
i?aai ia caieth. Iaeiaei a oa/aiea aeaoo eao nio?aiyeenue ii nouanoao
i?aaeiea e?aiinoie/aneea ii?yaeee. Ca yoi a?aiy aeieaeai aue
niaa?oeoueny ia?aoiae e?anoueyi ai a?aiaiiiiaycaiiia ninoiyiea.
Iaaeaeaiea caieae i?iecaiaeeeinue a niioaaonoaee n ianoiuie
iieiaeaieyie, a eioi?uo aeey ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia no?aiu (/a?iicaiiuo,
noaiiuo, ia/a?iicaiiuo) ii?aaeaeyeenue aunoea e iecoea i?aaeaeu
eiee/anoaa caiee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie e?anoueyiai. Yoe iieiaeaiey
eiie?aoece?iaaeenue a onoaaiuo a?aiioao, a eioi?uo oeacuaaeinue, eaeoth
caieth iieo/aee e?anoueyia.

A oeaeyo o?aaoee?iaaiey acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e
e?anoueyiaie Naiaoii ii i?aaenoaaeaieth aoaa?iaoi?ia iacia/aeenue
ie?iaua iin?aaeieee ec /enea aeai?yi-iiiaueeia. Onoaaiua a?aiiou
ninoaaeyeenue iiiaueeaie eee ie?iauie iin?aaeieeaie. Iinea yoiai eo
niaea?aeaiea iaycaoaeueii aeiaiaeeeinue aei naaaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai
e?anoueyineiai noiaea eee noiaeia, anee a?aiioa eanaeanue ianeieueeeo
aea?aaaiue. Caoai iiaee aiineoueny iii?aaee ii caia/aiea yi e
i?aaeeiaeaieyi e?anoueyi, a ie?iaie iin?aaeiee ?aoae nii?iua aii?inu.
A?aiioa anooiaea a neeo iinea oiai, eae e?anoueyia auee iciaeiieaiu n aa
oaenoii e eiaaea ie?iaie iin?aaeiee i?eciaaaeny niaea?aeaiea
niioaaonoaothuei o?aaiaaieyi caeiia. Niaeanea e?anoueyi ia oneiaey,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua a?aiioie, auei ia iaycaoaeueii. I?aaaea, iiiaueeo auei
auaiaeiaa aeiaeoueny oaeiai niaeaney, eai a yoii neo/aa i?e
iineaaeothuai aueoia caiee e?anoueyiaie ii iieo/ae oae iacuaaaiue
aeiiieieoaeueiue ieaoaae.

A oeaeii ii no?aia e?anoueyia iieo/eee caiee iaiueoa, /ai aei oao ii?
eiaee. Iniaaiii cia/eoaeueiuie ieacaeenue io?acee a /a?iicaiiuo ?aeiiao.
E?anoueyia auee ia oieueei ouaieaiu a ?acia?ao caiee iie, eae i?aaeei,
iieo/aee iaoaeiaiua aeey ia?aaioee iaaeaeu, oae eae naiay eo/oay caiey
inoaaaeanue o iiiaueeia.

A?aiaiiiiaycaiiue e?anoueyiei iieo/ae caieth ia a nianoaaiiinoue, a
oieueei a iieueciaaiea. Ca iieueciaaiea ii aeieaeai aue ?aniea/eaaoueny
iiaeiiinoyie — aa?ueiie eee ia?ieii, eioi?ua iaei ioee/aeenue io
i?aaeieo aai e?aiinoiuo iiaeiiinoae.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi aue ia?aoiae eo a ninoiyiea
nianoaaiieeia. Aeey yoiai e?anoueyiei aeieaeai aue aueoieoue onaaeaaioth
e iieaaua caiee. Oeaia aueoia cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaea aeaenoaeoaeueioth
noieiinoue caiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e?anoueyia ieaoeee ia oieueei ca
caieth, ii e ca naia ee/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea.

*oiau iaania/eoue ?aaeueiinoue aueoia caiee, i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaieciaaei
oae iacuaaaioth aueoiioth iia?aoeeth. Iii caieaoeei ca e?anoueyi
aueoiioth noiio, i?aaeinoaaea e?anoueyiai, oaeei ia?acii, e?aaeeo. Yoio
e?aaeeo aeieaeai aue iiaaoaoueny a oa/aiea 49 eao n auieaoie aaeaaiaeii
6% ia nnoaeo.

Iinea caeeth/aiey aueoiiie naeaeee e?anoueyiei eiaiiaaeny nianoaaiieeii.
Iaeiaei aai nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth auea ianoaaeaia ?aciiai ?iaea
ia?aie/aieyie. Iieiui nianoaaiieeii e?anoueyiei noaiiaeeny eeoue iinea
auieaou anao aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae.

Ia?aiia/aeueii n?ie i?aauaaiey ai a?aiaiiiiaycaiiii ninoiyiee ia aue
onoaiiaeai, iiyoiio iiiaea e?anoueyia oyioee n ia?aoiaeii ia aueoi. E
1881 a. oaeeo e?anoueyi inoaaaeinue i?eia?ii 1%. Oiaaea aue i?eiyo caeii
ia iaycaoaeueiii ia?aoiaea ia aueoi a oa/aiea aeaoo eao. A yoio n?ie
neaaeiaaei caeeth/eoue aueoiiua naeaeee eeai iioa?youe i?aai ia
caiaeueiua iaaeaeu. A 1883 a. eaoaai?ey a?aiaiii-iaycaiiuo e?anoueyi
en/acea. *anoue ec ieo ioi?ieea aueoiiua naeaeee, /anoue eeoeeanue
caiee.

A 1863 e 1866 aa. ?aoi?ia auea ?ani?ino?aiaia ia oaeaeueiuo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi. Oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia iieo/eee caieth ia
aieaa eueaioiuo oneiaeyo, /ai iiiaue/uee. Ca ainoaea?noaaiiuie
e?anoueyiaie nio?aieeanue any caiey, eioi?ie iie iieueciaaeenue.

?aoi?ia i?aaeoniao?eaaea i?aaiecaoeeth e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey.
E?anoueyia inaiaiaeeeenue io aeanoe iiiaueeia e aio/eiiie iieeoeee. Eo
ianoi a aieueoie ia?a caiyee naeueneea aieinoiua i?aaiu naiioi?aaeaiey.
Aeey aueiea/eaaiey ec e?anoueyi aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae aue eniieueciaai
noa?eiiue einoeooo — naeueneay iaueia n aa e?oaiaie ii?oeie.

I?aaiii iaueiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey aue naeueneee noiae. Ii ?aoae aii?inu,
naycaiiua n ?ani?aaeaeaieai caiee n?aaee /eaiia iaueiu ia iniiaa
o?aaieoaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey. Noa?inoa neaaeee aeaaiui ia?acii ca
naiaa?aiaiiui e oi/iui auiieiaieai e?anoueyiaie iiaeiiinoae. Ii iia
iiaeaa?aaoue a?anoo eee iauanoaaiiui ?aaioai ia n?ie aei aeaoo aeiae,
oo?aoiaaoue ia noiio ?aoaiey, eioi?ua eanaeenue anae aieinoe.

Ia aieinoiii noiaea auae?aee aieinoiiai noa?oeio, eioi?ue auiieiye
?aoaiey noiaea e ?acee/iua iieeoeaeneea ooieoeee (caaea?aeeaae a?iaeya,
aeaca?oe?ia, i?eieiae ae?oaea ia?u ii io?aia ii?yaeea). Noa?oeio
ecae?aee, eae i?aaeei, ec eoeaeia. Aieinoiie noiae ecae?ae aieinoiie
noae aeey ?anniio?aiey iaeicia/eoaeueiuo oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae.

E?anoueyineia iauanoaaiiia naiioi?aaeaiea ooieoeeiie?iaaei iiae
eiio?ieai iieeoeaeneeo i?aaiia. A eiioaeoa n iei aeaenoaiaaee noa?inou e
iniaaiii aieinoiua noa?oeiu. E?anoueyia e iinea aueoia caiaeueiuo
iaaeaeia ioiineeenue e nineiaeth n nouanoaaiiuie ia?aie/aieyie i?aa ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie neiyie ianaeaiey.

A oeaeii e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia iineea ao?aeoaciue oa?aeoa? e
niinianoaiaaea aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth a ?innee eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Iaci? enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. ?inoia, 1995
a.

Caiie/eianeee I.A. Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a ?innee. I., 1968.

Enaaa E.A. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?innee. I., 1996 a.

Enoi?ey ioa/anoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa (iiae ?aae. *enoyeiaa I.E.).

Enoi?ey NNN?. Oii 2. /Iiae ?aae. Ia/eeiie I.A./. I., 1954.

I.,1996 a.

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