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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea.

1. Niioiioaiea nioeeaeueiie e th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue eae iniaue aeae
i?aaiioiioaiee………………………….……………..4

2. I?aaiia?ooaiea eae iniiaaiea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?eciaee
e ninoaa
i?aaiia?ooaiey………………………………………………….
…………………………8

3. I?eioeeiu th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe………………………….………………..….15

4. Aeaeu th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe……………………………..……………………
..…18

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………..………………………….23

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
………..24

1. Niioiioaiea nioeeaeueiie e th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue eae iniaue aeae i?aaiioiioaiee

TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue – iaeia ec oi?i nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Nouiinoue nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ninoieo a
iaycaiiinoe eiaeeaeaea auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iaio
iauanoaii, ainoaea?noaii, ethaeueie. E?iia th?eaee/aneie a iauanoaa
aeaenoaotho e eiua oi?iu nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe: ii?aeueiay,
iieeoe/aneay, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay, iauanoaaiiay, ia?oeeiay e eiay.
I?aaiecaoeeiiiay e iieeoe/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoe ciatho oaeea oi?iu eae
io/ao, ionoaaea, ii?aeueiay – inoaeaeaiea iauanoaaiiui iiaieai,
ia?oeeiay – eneeth/aiea ec ia?oee e o.i. A niaieoiiinoe ana yoe aeaeu e
i?aaeiacia/athony aeey iaania/aiey oii?yaei/aiiinoe, noaaeeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a ?acee/iuo noa?ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa.

Ioiioaiea eiaeeaeaea e iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, auoaeathuaa ec
i?aaeeueiiai iiieiaiey e auiieiaiey ei naieo iaycaiiinoae, ii?aaeaeaiiuo
nioeeaeueiuie ii?iaie, i?aaenoaaeyao noauaeoeaioth noi?iio nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Nioeeaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue eae niaieoiiinoue
ii?iaoeaiuo o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e eiaeeaeaeo, anoue iauaeoeaiay
noi?iia nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Yoei o?aaiaaieyi niioaaonoaotho
iiceoeaiua e iaaaoeaiua naieoeee. *aeiaae ioaa/aao ca naie aeaenoaey,
oaea niaa?oaiiua (?ao?iniaeoeaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue) eee ca aeaenoaey,
eioi?ua niaa?oathony, eeai ei i?aaenoieo niaa?oeoueny (ia?niaeoeaiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue).

Iiae ia?niaeoeaiie (iiceoeaiie) nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth,
iiieiatho i?aaeeueiia, aeoeaii-niciaoaeueiia auiieiaiea /aeiaaeii naieo
nioeeaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae, iaoneiaeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaethaeaiey
iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Oi anoue eiaeeaeae aeieaeai aua?aoue aeoeaioth,
oai?/aneoth eeieth iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ay au a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie
niioaaonoaiaaea iio?aaiinoyi e eioa?anai ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Nioeeaeueiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue a aa iiceoeaiii niunea iiaeao auoue ia?ooaia
niciaoaeueii-aieaaui aeoii aioenioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey eiaeeaeaea,
?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai yaeyaony ianooieaiea ?ao?iniaeoeaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

?ao?iniaeoeaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue – yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?ioeia
iiaaaeaiea, ia?ooathuaa o?aaiaaiey nioeeaeueiuo ii?i e aeaeouaa ca niaie
iauanoaaiiia inoaeaeaiea e iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey aeey ia?ooeoaey.
A caaeneiinoe io noa?u nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nioeeaeueioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eae oaea auei ioia/aii auoa, ?acaeaeytho ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoue iieeoe/aneoth, th?eaee/aneoth, ii?aeueioth,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue o?aaeeoeeiiii ?ac?aaaouaaeanue a i?aaiaie
iaoea eae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?ao?iniaeoeaiay, oi anoue iia iai?yioth
naycuaaaony n i?ioeaii?aaiui iiaaaeaieai. Ii ioiioaieth e noauaeoai
i?aaa th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?eia?aoaao
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca oiai,
/oi ainoaea?noai, cae?aieyy ii?iu i?aaa, ii?aaeaeyao th?eaee/aneoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue iacaaeneii io aiee e aeaeaiey i?aaiia?ooeoaeae.

5

Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea a aeecie i?iyaeyaony /a?ac ?acee/iua
oi?iu, ii?ie ia naycaiiua n th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. Oaeei
ia?acii, th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioee/aao ia i?inoi
ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea, a eeoue ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea e
eniieiaieth ii?i i?aaa. Iineaaeiaa au?aaeaaony a ?acee/iuo aeaeao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Ai-ia?auo, a eiio?iea ca
th?eaee/anee cia/eiui iiaaaeaieai noauaeoia i?aaa. Ai-aoi?uo, a
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaoaioiuo i?aaiia ii ?anneaaeiaaieth e onoaiiaeaieth
oaeoia i?aaiia?ooaiee. A-o?aoueeo, a i?eiaiaiee e i?aaiia?ooeoaeyi
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii naieoeee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea e eniieiaieth ii?i i?aaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oaeaea oai, /oi naia yoa aeayoaeueiinoue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaia
caeiiii, eiaao naie i?aaiaua ?aiee.

TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey, ii aicieeaao oieueei iinea onoaiiaeaiey
oaeoa i?aaiia?ooaiey, iniaaiii iaee/ey a iai ninoaaa i?aaiia?ooaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, ninoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey anoue oaeoe/aneia iniiaaiea
th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a ii?ia i?aaa – i?aaiaia iniiaaiea, aac
iaa th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia nouanoaoao.

Ii?aaeaeaiii, i?aaiia?ooaiea e th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ia?ac?uaiu, oae eae i?aaiia?ooaiea anaaaea e n?aco ii?iaeaeaao
th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. ?aaeueiia niaea?aeaiea e ia?o
th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca niaa?oaiea i?aaiia?ooeoaeai
i?ioeaii?aaiiai iauanoaaiii iianiiai aeayiey au?aaeaaony a i?eiaiaiee e
iaio naieoeee.

Aeaaiui a i?aaiaii iieiaeaiee i?aaiia?ooeoaey yaeyaony iaycaiiinoue
ioaaoeoue ca niaeayiiia, aicieeathuay aneaaenoaea niaa?oaiey ei
i?aaiia?ooaiey, caeeth/athuayny a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaeyo ee/iiai
eee eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, ii?aaeaeyaiuo naieoeeae i?aaiaie ii?iu.
I?e/ai caeiiii i?aaeoniio?aia ia oieueei iaycaiiinoue ioaa/aoue ca
niaeayiiia, ii e iaeaaeaiea iauaiii i?aa.

Aa?iainy e naieoeee, iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie: iaaeaaii?eyoiua
iineaaenoaey i?aaiia?ooaiey, oeacaiiua a niioaaonoaothuae ii?ia i?aaa,
eioi?ua i?eiaiythony e i?aaiia?ooeoaeth eiiiaoaioiuie i?aaiaie.
I?eiaiaiea naieoeee a i?aaiaii ainoaea?noaa iaeiia?aiaiii naycaii n
iauanoaaiiui inoaeaeaieai i?aaiia?ooeoaey, i?e/eiythuaai a?aae
iauanoaaiiui eee ee/iui eioa?anai. Oioy ia ana naieoeee iinyo
ea?aoaeueiue oa?aeoa? (ia?aie/eaatho i?aaa e aiceaaatho iaycaiiinoe ia
i?aaiia?ooeoaey), ii ana iie eiatho a aeaeo i?eiaiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?eioaeaeaiey /a?ac eniieiaiea iaycaiiinoe iiae i?eioaeaeaieai e
niaea?aeao a naaa iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeey iaai iineaaenoaey, eioi?ua e
yaeythony th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. TH?eaee/aneay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue oanii naycaia n naieoeeae i?aaiaie ii?iu e ?aaeecoaony
/a?ac i?eiaiaiea yoie ii?iu eiiiaoaioiui ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii. Oaeei
ia?acii, th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?eioaeeoaeueii eniieiyaioth iaycaiiinoue, eioi?ay aicieeea a nayce n
i?aaiia?ooaieai e ?aaeecoaony a eiie?aoiii i?aaiioiioaiee.

Iaeioi?ua o/aiua ?anniao?eaatho th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue eae
i?aaiioiioaiea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e a?aaeaeaieiii, i?e eioi?ii
ainoaea?noai a

6

eeoea naieo i?aaiia eiaao i?aai iaeacaoue i?aaiia?ooeoaey, a ii iaycai
i?aoa?iaoue yoi iaeacaiea. Ii yoei acaeyaeai, o i?aaiia?ooeoaey
aicieeaao eae au iaycaiiinoue i?aoa?iaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eeoaiey,
onoaiiaeaiiua ainoaea?noaaiii-aeanoiui iooai ca i?aaiia?ooaiea. Ii yoi
ana aea neeoeii oi?iaeueiia e eaeaaeece?iaaiiia iiieiaiea th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, o.e. ia anyeee i?aaiia?ooeoaeue, iniaaiii i?anooiiee,
i?eieiaao ia naay iaycaiiinoue “i?aoa?iaoue” iaeacaiea, iai?ioea, ii
any/anee no?aieony aai ecaaaeaoue.

Noiie?oy auoaneacaiiia, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi th?eaee/aneay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue – yoi onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii ia?u aicaeaenoaey ia
i?aaiia?ooeoaey, niaea?aeauea iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeey iaai iineaaenoaey,
i?eiaiyaiua ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie a ii?yaeea, oaeaea onoaiiaeaiiii
ainoaea?noaii.

TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, yaeyynue iaeiie ec oi?i nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a oi aea a?aiy ii oeaeiio niaeo?o i?eciaeia ioee/aaony
io anao ae?oaeo aeaeia.

I?aaeaea anaai, iia anaaaea ioeaieaaao i?ioeia: yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aeaenoaea (aacaeaenoaea), eioi?ia oaea eiaei ianoi, i?iecioei, oi anoue
th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue – ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?ao?iniaeoeaiay. Yoei
th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioee/aaony io i?aaiecaoeeiiiie,
iieeoe/aneie e ae?oaeo aeaeia ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ia?auaiiuo a aoaeouaa
(iai?eia?, a iinoaiiaeaiee eaeie-eeai iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee
ii?aaeaeyaony, /oi “oiaa?eu Eiy?ae ioaa/aao ca i?iaaaeaiea ia?ii?eyoey).
Caeanue iaeeoei eeai i?aaiecaoeeiiiay, eeai iieeoe/aneay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ?a/ue eaeao ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe oiaa?eua Eiy?ae a
aoaeouai, anee yoi ia?ii?eyoea aoaeao ni?aaii”.

Aeaeaa, th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue onoaiaaeeaaaony ca ia?ooaiea
i?aaiauo o?aaiaaiee, a ia ca eo auiieiaiea. Oau, aanueia /anoi iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ooaiiu, eiaaea “i?iienuaatho” a caeiiii?iaeoao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaethaeaiea i?aaiauo iieiaeaiee: ca aeinoiaa?ioth
eioi?iaoeeth (a iaaei ca iaaeinoiaa?ioth), ca auiieiaiea aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa (a iaaei ca ia?ooaiea e o.i.).

I nayce th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe n ainoaea?noaii oaea oiiieiaeinue.
Ii caeanue aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi oieueei ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao
ia?u yoie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e oieueei i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa eo inouanoaeytho
a ii?yaeea, eioi?ue oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaaony ainoaea?noaii. E ia?u yoe
anaaaea eiatho iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey aeey i?aaiia?ooeoaey:
eiouanoaaiiua, oece/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e eiua. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
yoe iineaaenoaey eiaeaony aeiiieieoaeueiui a?aiaiai ia aai iea/e. Anee,
e i?eia?o, acyaoaai aeaiueae a aeiea i?eioaeaeatho eo ioaeaoue eee
naiiaieueii caiyaoaai aeeeoth ieiuaaeue aunaeytho, oi caeanue iaeuecy
aanoe ?a/ue i th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Anee aea i?aaiia?ooeoaeue
iiianao eaeie-eeai o?ii, ia?aiaiaiea, a ia oieueei i?eioaeeoaeueii
eniieieo naith iaycaiiinoue, eioi?oth ii ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai
aeia?iaieueii ia auiieiye, oi iaeeoei aoaeao th?eaee/aneay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Iai?eia?, i?aaiia?ooeoaeue aica?auaao ia oieueei
iioeuaiioth aauue, ii e oiea/eaaao oo?ao ca niaa?oaiiia ei iaeeia
oeuaiea.

TH?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ni/aoaaony n ainoaea?noaaiiui
inoaeaeaieai, ii?eoeaieai iiaaaeaiey i?aaiia?ooeoaey. Eiaiii
ainoaea?noaaiiia inoaeaeaiea

iiiiaaao aucaaoue oaeea /oanoaa, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoue nouanoaaiiia
ainieoaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia eeoe, aeiionoeaoeo i?ioeaii?aaiia
aeayiea. Iai?eia?, iiiauaiea aieueiiai a ineoeao?e/aneoth aieueieoeo eee
oaiiaeaiiue aeiniio? eeoe, ia?anaeathueo a?aieoeu ainoaea?noa, eee
ecuyoea eiouanoaa aai nianoaaiieeii o aeia?iniaanoiiai i?eia?aoaoaey ia
nii?iaiaeaeathony inoaeaeaieai, ii?eoeaieai yoeo eeoe, oioy e iinyo ia
nianai aeaaii?eyoiue aeey ieo oa?aeoa?.

N?aaee i?eciaeia th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue:

-iaycaoaeueiia iaee/ea i?aaiia?ooaiey eae iniiaaiea aeey
ianooieaiey th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

-ioeoeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? ainoaea?noaaiiiai inoaeaeaiey (ii?eoeaiey)
iiaaaeaiey i?aaiia?ooeoaey;

-i?e/eiaiea i?aaiia?ooeoaeth no?aaeaiey: ii?aeueiiai,
oece/aneiai, eiouanoaaiiiai (iaoa?eaeueiiai);

-eniieueciaaiea iaoaieciia ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey.

Eoae, a ia?aie aeaaa aeaiiie ?aaiou ?anniio?aii niioiioaiea nioeeaeueiie
e th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ?ane?uoi iiiyoea th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiu aa i?eciaee, ioee/athuea e ?iaeiyuea aa n
ae?oaeie aeaeaie nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

8

2. I?aaiia?ooaiea eae iniiaaiea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?eciaee
e ninoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey.

Aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ninoieo ec iinooieia. Iinooiie – aeaaiue
yeaiaio /aeiaa/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee, a eioi?ii i?iyaeythony ?acee/iua
ea/anoaa ee/iinoe, eae oi?ioea, oae e aeo?iua, ioiioaiea e i?iaeaiai
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e ie?oaeathuei ethaeyi. Anyeee iinooiie aea/ao ca
niaie iaecaaaeiua ?acoeueoaou: eciaiaiey a ioiioaieyo ethaeae, a eo
niciaiee, ii oaeaea aea/ao iineaaenoaey e aeey naiiai aeaenoaothuaai
eeoea. Iinooiie anaaaea naycai n ii?aaeaeaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth
/aeiaaea ca naie aeaenoaey.

A noa?a i?aaiauo ioiioaiee iinooiie iiaeao eiaoue aeaieiia cia/aiea.
Iniiaioth /anoue aeoia iiaaaeaiey ee/iinoe ninoaaeytho iinooiee
i?aaiia?iua -oi anoue niioaaonoaothuea ii?iai i?aaa , o?aaiaaieyi
caeiiia. Aioeiiaeii i?aaiia?iiai iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony iiaaaeaiea
iai?aaiia?iia, oi anoue i?ioeai?a/auaa ii?iai i?aaa. Iai?aaiia?iia
iiaaaeaiea au?aaeaaony a i?aaiia?ooaieyo, eae yoi neaaeoao ec naiiai
oa?ieia, aeoao, ia?ooathueo i?aai, i?ioeaiuo aio.

Iiiyoea “i?aaiia?ooaiea” ninoieo ec niaieoiiinoe i?eciaeia,
?ane?uaathueo nioeeaeueioth i?e?iaeo e th?eaee/aneoth oi?io
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea aeayiee. Iauanoaaiiay iianiinoue, a?aae
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea /aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee aeey nouanoaothuae nenoaiu
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, aeey aeaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy iacuaaaony
nioeeaeueiie nouiinoueth i?aaiia?ooaiey. I?e yoii aaeeie/iia aeayiea ia
niiniaii aeaci?aaieciaaoue neiaeeaoeany iauanoaaiua ioiioaiey, oieueei a
naie niaieoiiinoe iie ia?ooatho ii?iaeueiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey
iauanoaa. Aeayiea iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaii eae iauanoaaiii iianiia ia a
neeo oiai, /oi iii naii ii naaa i?eiineo a?aae, a iioiio, /oi iiaeiaiua
yaeaiey noaiiayony ianniauie. Niaieoiiinoue yoeo aeayiee ia?ooaao
ii?yaeie e ii?iaeueiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey iauanoaa, a cia/eo,
aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?aaiia?ooaieyi ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa.

TH?eaee/aneei au?aaeaieai iianiinoe, a?aaeiinoe aeayiey aeey iauanoaa
yaeyaony aai i?ioeaii?aaiinoue. Eae i?eciae ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
iiaaaeaiey, i?ioeaii?aaiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniciaiiia ia?ooaiea
o?aaiaaiee i?aaa. Aeayiea i?ioeaii?aaii, n/eoaao E.N. Naiiuaiei, anee
iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeniieiaiea th?eaee/aneie iaycaiiinoe eee
ceioiio?aaeaiea i?aaii, oi anoue anee iii i?aaii cai?auaii e aea/ao ca
niaie i?eiaiaiea naieoeee i?aaiauo ii?i a neo/aa aai niaa?oaiey.1 I?e/ai
ia yaeyaony i?aaiia?ooaieai oi, /oi i?aaii ia cai?auaii. Oi anoue ieeoi
ia iiaeao ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeayiea, eioi?ia a iiiaio aai
niaa?oaiey ia i?eciaaaeinue i?aaiia?ooaieai. Ii anee iinea niaa?oaiey
i?aaiia?ooaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaai ono?aiaia eee niya/aia.
Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi yoe iieiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiythony ia ana
i?aaiia?ooaiey, eioi?ua ii aaea?oneiio i?aao iiae?acaeaeythony ia
i?anooieaiey (oieueei oaieiaiua) e i?inooiee.

1 .Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: o/aaiee iiae ?aae.A.E.Ei?ieaaa e EN.
ssae/a., Eaieia?aae, 1987, – n.504.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth i?ioeaii?aaiinoe yaeyaony i?aaiia?iinoue.
Aeaenoaey a?aaeaeai (aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, ainoaea?noaaiiuo, iauanoaaiiuo
e /anoiuo i?aaiecaoeee) i?aaiia?iu oiaaea, eiaaea niioaaonoaotho
aeicaieaieyi e iaycuaaieyi (noauaeoeaiui i?aaai e iaycaiiinoyi),
onoaiiaeaiiui a ii?iao i?aaa. I?aaiia?iia iiaaaeaiea – oaeia iiaaaeaiea
ethaeae, eioi?ia niioaaonoaoao i?aaeienaieyi i?aaiauo ii?i.1 Yoi
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia e iauanoaaiii iieaciia yaeaiea, eioi?ia
yaeyaony i?aaeiinueeie ii?iaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey iauanoaa e
niaeaenoaoao ?acaeoeth e aeaaiiieo/eth a?aaeaeai. I?aaiia?iia iiaaaeaiea
e i?ioeaii?aaiia iiaaaeaiea – aioeiiaeu. Ia?aia ia auoiaeeo ca ?aiee
ii?i i?aaa, aoi?ia yaeyaony iiaaaeaieai, ia?ooathuei ii?iu, cae?aieaiiua
caeiiiaeaoaeueii.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth i?ioeaii?aaiiai iiaaaeaiey ethaeae yaeyaony
i?aaiia?ooaiea, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiuie
i?eciaeaie, eioi?ua ioee/atho aai io ia?ooaiee iai?aaiauo i?aaee
iiaaaeaiey (ii?i ii?aee, iau/aaa, ii?i iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e i?,).
O A.I. O?iiaieaea i?eaaaeaiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaiia?ooaiey.

I?aaiia?ooaiea – oaeia iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, eioi?ia au?aaeaaony a
aeaenoaee eee aacaeaenoaee. Ia iiaoo auoue i?aaiia?ooaieyie iunee,
/oanoaa e aeaeaiey /aeiaaea, aai eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue, anee
iie ia aiieioeeenue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo iinooieao e ia ?aaoee?othony i?aaii.
Aacaeaenoaea yaeyaony i?aaiia?ooaieai anee /aeiaae aeieaeai aue
niaa?oeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua ii?iie i?aaa, ii ia
niaa?oee (ia ieacae iiiiuue iino?aaeaaoaio).

I?aaiia?ooaiea – oaeia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea, eioi?ia i?ioeai?a/eo ii?iai
i?aaa, oi anoue, iai?aaeaii i?ioea oao iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua
?aaoee?othony e io?aiythony yoeie ii?iaie (iieo/eei iacaaiea
i?ioeaii?aaiinoe). Oi anoue iii iai?aaeaii i?ioea eioa?ania ae?oaeo
eeoe, iaoiaeyueony iiae caueoie caeiia, ii ia ana eioa?anu /aeiaaea
io?aiythony caeiiii, iiyoiio eo ia?ooaiea ia i?ioeaii?aaii
(eiieo?aioeey, naiiiai?iia). I?aaiia?ooaieyie n/eoathony aeayiey oieueei
aeaeeeoiniiniaiuo ethaeae. Aeaeeeoiniiniaiinou anoue niciaoaeueiue auai?
ii?aaeaeaiiie eeiee iiaaaeaiey e aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeaeaeaiey
nioeeaeueiuo e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee naieo iinooieia. Oae
noauaeoaie i?aaiia?ooaiee (oaie, eoi niaa?oee i?ioeaii?aaiua aeaenoaey)
ia iiaoo auoue iaeieaoiea e aeooaaiiaieueiua (no. 12, 13 EIAE ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue e no.27 Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue)

Aeiiaiinoue aeayiey, eae i?eciae i?aaiia?ooaiey, anoue niciaoaeueiia,
ioaaonoaaiiia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e naiei iinooieai e ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?e/ai i?ioeaii?aaiia iiaaaeaiea eeoea i?e
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, eeoathueo aai auai?a eiiai aa?eaioa iiaaaeaiey
(naiicai?aaa), ia yaeyaony i?aaiia?ooaieai. I?ioeaii?aaiue iinooiie
noaiiaeony i?aaiia?ooaieai, anee anoue aeia.

I?aaiia?ooaiea aea/ao ca niaie i?eiaiaiea e i?aaiia?ooeoaeth ia?
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey.

1. O?iiaithe A.E Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa; O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
Aocia, – I: “Aeaaaoia, Oea/aa, Aeeiia”, 1995. – n.370.

10

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiia?ooaieyie yaeythony aeiiaiua i?ioeaii?aaiua
aeayiey aeaeeeoiniiniaiuo ethaeae, aeaeouea ca niaie th?eaee/aneoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

O A.I. O?iiaithe iiaeii iaeoe aua iaeei i?eciae i?aaiia?ooaiey:
I?aaiia?ooaiea – iiaaaeaiea, i?e/eiythuaa a?aae iauanoao,
ainoaea?noao, a?aaeaeaiai, oi anoue iii iaiineo oua?a iieeoe/aneei,
o?oaeiaui, eiouanoaaiiui, ee/iui i?aaai e naiaiaeai a?aaeaeai,
yeiiiie/aneei eioa?anai i?aaiecaoeee, aianiiniaiinoe aieineeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

A?aae – iai?aiaiiue i?eciae eaaeaeiai i?aaiia?ooaiey, Oa?aeoa? a?aaea
iiaeao ?acee/aoueny ii iauaeoo, ?acia?o e ae?oaei i?eciaeai, ii
i?aaiia?ooaiea anaaaea eiaao nioeeaeueiue a?aae. Ii iiaeao eiaoue
iaoa?eaeueiue eee ii?aeueiue oa?aeoa?, auoue ecia?eiui eee iao, aieaa
eee iaiaa cia/eoaeueiui, iuouaaiui ioaeaeueiui /aeiaaeii, eieeaeoeaii e
iauanoaii a oeaeii. Oa eee eiay oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aaea caaeneo io aeaeia
ia?ooaiiuo eioa?ania, noauaeoeaiuo i?aa, iauaeoa i?aaiia?ooaiey. Iaee/ea
a?aaea yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui nioeeaeueiui i?eciaeii anyeiai
i?aaiia?ooaiey, iaoneiaeeaathuei ana i?aaiia?ooaiey a ea/anoaa
iauanoaaiii iianiuo aeayiee.

I?aaiia?ooaiey ?acee/iu ii noaiaie a?aaeiinoe e iiyoiio ?acee/iu ii
noaiaie iauanoaaiiie iianiinoe. Eiaiii ii yoiio e?eoa?eth e i?ienoiaeeo
?acaeaeaiea i?aaiia?ooaiee ia i?anooieaiey e i?inooiee. I?anooieaiea
oa?aeoa?ecoao aieueoay noaiaiue iauanoaaiiie iianiinoe, /oi ia
eneeth/aao, iaeiaei, iaee/ea ioaeaeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, o?oaeiauo,
a?aaeaeaineeo i?inooieia aanueia aunieie noaiaie iauanoaaiiie iianiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiia?ooaiea – yoi aeiiaiia iiaaaeaiea
i?aaiaeaaniiniaiiai eiaeeaeaea, eioi?ia i?ioeai?a/eo i?aaeienaieyi ii?i
i?aaa, i?e/eiyao a?aae ae?oaei eeoeai e aea/ao ca niaie th?eaee/aneoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Ec ii?aaeaeaiee aeaeii, /oi i?aaiia?ooaiey oanii naycaiu n th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, yaeythuaeny iaeiei ec i?eciaeia i?aaiia?ooaiey. Yoi
a naith i/a?aaeue iaoneiaeei nicaeaiea th?eaee/aneie iaoeie nenoaiu
i?eciaeia i?aaiia?ooaiey, iicaieythuoth caoeene?iaaoue aai eae
th?eaee/aneee oaeo. Yoa nenoaia i?eciaeia iacuaaaony ninoaaii
i?aaiia?ooaiey, eioi?ue au?aaeaaony a aaeeinoaa iauaeoeaiie e
noauaeoeaiie noi?ii i?aaiia?ooaiey, iaiaoiaeeiuo e aeinoaoi/iuo aeey
i?eiaiaiey th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iauaeoii i?aaiia?ooaiey n/eoathony yaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, ia
eioi?ua iai?aaeaii i?ioeaii?aaiia aeayiea. Ia iauaeoa eiie?aoiiai
i?aaiia?ooaiey iiaeii aiai?eoue i?aaeiaoii: iauaeoii iinyaaoaeuenoaa
yaeythony aeeciue /aeiaaea, aai caei?iauea, eiouanoai a?aaeaeaieia,
i?aaiecaoeee, aoiinoa?a, caa?yciyaiay i?aaiia?ooeoaeai, ean, ei
oie/oiaeaaiue, e o.i. Iaeaieaa iauei iauaeoii i?aaiia?ooaiey yaeyaony
i?aaiii?yaeie.

Noauaeoii i?aaiia?ooaiey i?eciaaony eeoei, niaa?oeaoaa aeiiaiia
i?ioeaii?aaiia aeayiea. Ei iiaeao auoue eiaeeaeae eee i?aaiecaoeey.
Aaaeii, /oiau iie iaeaaeaee anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey noauaeoa i?aaa
ea/anoaaie (i?aainiiniaiinoueth, aeaaniiniaiinoueth,
aeaeeeoiniiniaiinoueth).

Iauaeoeaiay noi?iia i?aaiia?ooaiey – aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea i?ioeaii?aaiiai
aeayiey, aai iauanoaaiii a?aaeiua iineaaenoaey. Eiaiii ii oaeiio
i?iyaeaieth iiaeii noaeeoue i oii, /oi i?iecioei, aaea, eiaaea e eaeie
a?aae i?e/eiai. Iauaeoeaiay noi?iia i?aaiia?ooaiey – i/aiue neiaeiue
yeaiaio

11

ninoaaa i?aaiia?ooaiey, o?aaothuee aeey aai onoaiiaeaiey iiiai nee
e aieiaiey noaea eee ae?oaiai i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiiai i?aaia.
Yeaiaioaie iauaeoeaiie noi?iiu i?aaiia?ooaiey yaeythony:

a) aeayiea (aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea);

a) i?ioeaii?aaiinoue, o.a. i?ioeai?a/ea aai i?aaeienaieyi i?aaiauo ii?i;

a) a?aae, i?e/eiaiiue aeayieai, o.a. iaaeaaii?eyoiua e iioiio
iaaeaeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey, ianooiathuea a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaiia?ooaiey
(oo?aoa caei?iauey, eiouanoaa, oiaeaiea /anoe e aeinoieinoaa,
oiaiueoaiea aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa e ae?.);

a) i?e/eiiay naycue iaaeaeo aeayieai e ianooieaoei a?aaeii, o.a. oaeay
naycue iaaeaeo ieie, a neeo eioi?ie aeayiea n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
ii?iaeaeaao a?aae. Eiaiii ia auyniaiea i?e/eiiie nayce iai?aaeaiu
aeaenoaey, aeiionoei, neaaeiaaoaey, onoaiaaeeaathuaai, i?aaeoanoaiaaei
ee ii a?aiaie oi eee eiia iiaaaeaiea ianooieaoaio ?acoeueoaoo eee iao;

ae) ianoi, a?aiy, niinia, ianoaiiaea niaa?oaiey aeayiey.

Noauaeoeaiay noi?iia. Aa ninoaaeytho aeia, iioea, oeaeue. Aeia – yoi
ineoe/aneia ioiioaiea eeoea e niaa?oaiiiio ei iauanoaaiii-iianiiio
aeayieth, i?aaeoniio?aiiiio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauie aeoaie, e aai
iauanoaaiii iianiui iineaaenoaeyi.1 Yeaiaioaie aeiu yaeythony niciaiea e
aiey, eioi?ua ia?acotho aa niaea?aeaiea. Cia/eo, aeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aeaoiy eiiiiiaioaie: eioaeeaeooaeueiui e aieaaui. ?acee/iua ni/aoaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai e aieaaiai yeaiaioia, i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii,
ia?acotho aeaa oi?iu aeiu -oiunae e iainoi?iaeiinoue. ?acee/ea a
eioaineaiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiinoe eioaeeaeooaeueiuo e aieaauo i?ioeannia,
i?ioaeathueo a ineoeea noauaeoa i?anooieaiey, eaaeeo a iniiaa aeaeaiey
aeiu ia oi?iu, a a i?aaeaeao iaeiie e oie aea oi?iu – ia aeaeu. Aeia
?aaeueii nouanoaoao oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeai oi?iao e
aeaeao, aia eo aeiu auoue ia iiaeao.

Oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?anniao?eaaao aeaeaiea oiunea ia i?yiie e
einaaiiue (no.22 Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue). I?anooieaiea
i?eciaaony niaa?oaiiui n i?yiui oiuneii, anee eeoei niciaaaei
iauanoaaiioth iianiinoue naieo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey), i?aaeaeaeaei
aiciiaeiinoue eee iaecaaaeiinoue ianooieaiey iauanoaaiii iianiuo
iineaaenoaee e aeaeaei eo ianooieaiey. I?anooieaiea i?eciaaony
niaa?oaiiui n einaaiiui oiuneii, anee eeoei iniciaaaei iauanoaaiioth
iianiinoue naieo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey), i?aaeaeaeaei aiciiaeiinoue
ianooieaiey iauanoaaiii iianiuo iineaaenoaee, ia aeaeaei, ii
niciaoaeueii aeiioneaei yoe iineaaenoaey eeai ioiineeinue e iei
aac?acee/ii.

Iainoi?iaeiinoue – eiaeeaeae i?aaeaeaeae ianooieaiea iauanoaaiii iianiuo
iineaaenoaee, ii iaaeayeny ia eo i?aaeioa?auaiea, eeai ia i?aaeaeaeae,
ii iia e aeieaeai aue i?aaeaeaeaoue. Aeayiey, niaa?oaiiua ii
iainoi?iaeiinoe, aeaeyony a oaieiaiii i?aaa ia niaa?oaiiua ii
eaaeiiuneeth e ii iaa?aaeiinoe (no. 23 Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue). I?anooieaiea i?eciaaony niaa?oaiiui ii eaaeiiuneeth, anee
eeoei i?aaeaeaeaei aiciiaeiinoue ianooieaiey

1. Eiiiaioa?ee e oaieiaiiio Eiaeaeno ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iiae
?aae.Aieei A.E. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: “Oaieen”, 1996. – n.90.

12

iauanoaaiii iianiuo iineaaenoaee naieo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey), ii
aac aeinoaoi/iuo e oiio iniiaaiee naiiiaaeayiii ?ann/eouaaei ia
i?aaeioa?auaiea yoeo iineaaenoaee.

I?anooieaiea i?eciaaony niaa?oaiiui ii iaa?aaeiinoe, anee eeoei ia
i?aaeaeaeaei aiciiaeiinoe ianooieaiey iauanoaaiii iianiuo iineaaenoaee
naieo aeaenoaee (aacaeaenoaey), oioy i?e iaiaoiaeeiie aieiaoaeueiinoe e
i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiinoe aeieaeii auei e iiaei i?aaeaeaeaoue yoe
iineaaenoaey.

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, a noauaeoeaioth noi?iio i?aaiia?ooaiey
aoiaeyo oaeaea iioea e oeaeue niaa?oaiiiai aeayiey. Iiae ia?aui
iiieiathony iniciaiiua iiaoaeeoaeueiua i?e/eiu iinooiea, iiae aoi?ui –
?acoeueoao, eioi?iai oi/ao aeinoe/ue /aeiaae, niaa?oathuee
i?aaiia?ooaiea. Yoe yeaiaiou niciaiey e i?aaenoaaeytho noauaeoeaioth
noi?iio i?aaiia?ooaiey, aeathuoth aiciiaeiinoue ioaaoeoue ana
ineoieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeayiey.

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eiaiii noauaeoeaiay noi?iia iicaieyao ioee/eoue
i?aaiia?ooaiea io eacona (neo/ay). Eacon – yoi oaeo, eioi?ue aicieeaao
ia a nayce n aieae e aeaeaieai eeoea. Eacon iiaeao auoue eae i?e?iaeiui
yaeaieai (iaaiaeiaiea, iiaea?), oae e ?acoeueoaoii i?inooieia ae?oaeo
ethaeae e aeaaea ?acoeueoaoii naieo nianoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
/aeiaae ia iniciaaae eeai ia i?aaeaeaeae aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey. Eacon
– yoi anaaaea iaaeiiaiia i?e/eiaiea a?aaea, oioy ii iaeioi?ui
oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeai neo/ae noiaeai n i?aaiia?ooaieai. Aoaeo/e eeoai
aeiu (oiuoeaiiie eee iainoi?iaeiie), ii ia aea/ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoea,
ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ?anniao?eaaaony.

I?eia? eacona. Neaaeoy ia aaoiiaoeia ii oeoiio ia?aoeeo, aiaeeoaeue
iaiaeeaeaiii oaeaeae, eae ec-ca eonoia ia aei?iao aueaoeeny iy/, a
neaaeii ca iei auaaaeaea aeaai/ea eao iyoe. Iuoaynue i?aaeioa?aoeoue
iaacae ia aeaai/eo, aiaeeoaeue ?acei auaa?ioe ?oeue aeaai. Aeaai/ea
inoaeanue aeeaa e iaa?aaeeia, ii neaeaaoee ia caaeiai neaeaiuea
iiae?inoie a ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai ?aceiai iiai?ioa oaea?eeny aieiaie i
noieeo naeiia aaoiiiaeey e iieo/ee oyaeeea oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey.
?iaeeoaey i?ineee i?eaea/ue e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aiaeeoaey. Noae,
?anniio?aa aeaei, i?eciae aiaeeoaey iaaeiiaiui, oeacaa, /oi, oioy
aiaeeoaeue aeieaeai aue i?aaeoniio?aoue ana iineaaenoaey aai ?aceeo
aeaenoaee, ii ia iia yoiai naeaeaoue ii i?e/eia iaeiai i?iiaaeooea
a?aiaie (aeiee naeoiaeu), ?acaeaeythuaai iiiaio iiyaeaiey aeaai/ee ia
aei?iaa e iiiaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiey – ?acei iiaa?iooue ?oeue.

I?eia? oiunea. Nianoaaiieee aea/e, eioi?oth iie iieeaeatho ia ceiiee
ia?eiae, icaai/aiiua i?iaeaiie nio?aiiinoe eiouanoaa e aeaeathuea
iaeacaoue aiciiaeiuo iioeoeoaeae, inoaaeee iaaeiieooth aooueeo
nie?oiiai, a eioi?oth anuiaee yae. A neo/aa nia?oe eiai-eeai ec
iiaeaeaaoeo “ioaaaeaoue” niaea?aeeiia aooueee nianoaaiieee aea/e aoaeoo
ioaa/aoue ca oiuoeaiiia oaeenoai.

I?eia? iainoi?iaeiinoe. Iiae?inoee, aeinoeaoea 15 eao, ia eaa?oe?a
iaeiiai ec ieo, iniao?eaaee ioioie/uea ?oaeuea. Iaeei ec ae?ocae, n
eioa?anii iuoiuaay i?eeeaae, noaie i?oaeey, iaaeae ia eo?ie… ?oaeuea
ieacaeinue ca?yaeaiiui. Ioey aeaoaea a aeeaio noiyuaai iai?ioea
iiae?inoea, eioi?ue neii/aeny io iieo/aiiiai ?aiaiey. Iaaeaaoaai ia
eo?ie neaaeoao n/eoaoue aeiiaiui (iainoi?iaeiinoue a oi?ia iaa?aaeiinoe)
a niaa?oaiiii oaeenoaa.

Caeiiii ii?aaeaeaiu ioaeaeueiua neooaoeee, eiaaea aeayiea oi?iaeueii
iiaeiaaeaao iiae i?eciaee i?ioeaii?aaiiai, ii ii nouanoao ia iianii e ia
a?aaeii

13

aeey iauanoaa e iioiio n/eoaaony i?aaiia?iui. A oaieiaiii e a
aaeieieno?aoeaiii i?aaa i?aaeoniio?aiu ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo
eeoea, niaa?oeaoea i?ioeaii?aaiua aeaenoaey, ia iiaeeaaeao
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Yoi “iaiaoiaeeiay iai?iia”, ii?aaeaeyaiay eae
“aeaenoaea i?e caueoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, i?aa
e naiaiae a?aaeaeai io i?ioeaii?aaiiai iinyaaoaeuenoaa ioo?i i?e/eiaiey
iinyaathuaio a?aaea” (no. 18 Eiaeaena ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
i?aaiia?ooaieyo ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue, no. 34 /.1 Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena
?anioaeeee Aaea?onue) e “e?aeiyy iaiaoiaeeiinoue”, o.a. “aeaenoaey aeey
ono?aiaiey iianiinoe, oa?iaeathuae ainoaea?noaaiiiio eee iauanoaaiiiio
ii?yaeeo, anee yoa iianiinoue i?e aeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ia iiaea
auoue ono?aiaia ae?oaeie n?aaenoaaie, anee i?e/eiaiiue i?e yoii a?aae
yaeyaony iaiaa cia/eoaeueiui, /ai i?aaeioa?auaiiue” (no. 17 Eiaeaena ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaieyo ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue, no. 36 /. 1
Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue). Ianoiyoaeuenoaaie,
eneeth/athueie i?ioeaii?aaiinoue iaeioi?uo aeayiee, yaeyaony eo
iaeicia/eoaeueiinoue, eniieiaiea neoaeaaiuo eee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
iaycaiiinoae (iaycaiiinoae iiaea?iiai, a?a/a, ?aaioieea i?aaiia io?aiu
iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea e o.i.), iainiiaaiiue ?ene e ae?oaea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oeacaiiua a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ninoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey – yoi oi, ec /aai neaaaaony naii
i?aaiia?ooaiea, niaieoiiinoue ia?acothueo aai /anoae, eee yeaiaioia, aai
no?oeoo?a, ?acoeueoao aai no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca. Ninoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey
iaioaeaeei io naiiai i?aaiia?ooaiey.1 Ninoaa ethaiai i?aaiia?ooaiey
aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoueny eae niaieoiiinoue i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a caeiia
i?eciaeia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo yoi i?aaiia?ooaiea. Ii naie yoe i?eciaee ia
?ane?uaathony. Iie ii?aaeaeythony a iiiyoeyo niioaaonoaothueo
i?aaiia?ooaiee.

A oai?ee oaieiaiiai i?aaa auaeaeythony ninoaa iauee, aeeth/athuee
i?eciaee, iaiaoiaeeiua a ethaii i?anooieaiee, e niaoeeaeueiue (eee
aeaeiaie), i?aaeoniao?eaathuee oa i?eciaee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho eeoue
aeaiiue aeae i?anooieaiey. E iniiaiiio ninoaao ioiineony iauee, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aeaeaiea i?eciaeia ninoaaa ia iaycaoaeueiua e
oaeoeueoaoeaiua (niioaaonoaaiii iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao i?anooieaiee e
naienoaaiiua eeoue iaeioi?ui ec ieo). *oi aea eanaaony “niaoeeaeueiiai”
(eee aeaeiaiai) ninoaaa, oi ana aai i?eciaee yaeythony aeey iaai
iaycaoaeueiuie.

A oai?ee iao yniinoe e niaeaney a ioiioaiee iaeiaiiaaiey no?oeoo?iuo
/anoae iiiyoey i?anooieaiey e aai ninoaaa. Oiio?aaeythony aeaa oa?ieia –
yeaiaio e i?eciae. Iai?eia?, A.I. Iaeueeia1 /aoei ?aca?aie/eaaao yoe
iiiyoey. Yeaiaioaie ii iacuaaao oa ninoaaiua /anoe, ec eioi?uo
ia?acoaony i?anooieaiea e aai ninoaa (noauaeo, iauaeo, aeayiea,
iineaaenoaea, i?e/eiiay naycue, oeaeue, iioea e i?.), a i?eciaeaie – oa
naienoaa, eioi?ua eiathony o ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia. E iei ii ioiineo
aiaiyaiinoue e aic?ano, oa?aeoa?ecothuea noauaeoa. Yoi eiaiii naienoaa
noauaeoa, a ia ninoaaiua /anoe i?anooieaiey. E i?eciaeai Iaeueeia

ioiineo oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua naienoaa noauaeoa (aeieaeiinoiia eeoei,
?aaioiee o?ainii?oa, aiaiiineoaeauee), ninoiyiea iiuyiaiey e o.ae.

1. *a?eania A.Ae.. A?iiia E.A..I aeii?ina iaaeiyaiiai n iiceoeee
i?acoiioeee iaaeiiaiinoe – Ainoaea?noai e i?aai, 1995,- n. 106.

14

Naienoaa naiiai aeayiey – yoi iiaoi?iinoue, iaiaeiie?aoiinoue,
iauaiianiue niinia e i?.

A oai?ee cia/eoaeueiia ianoi caieiaao aiaeec no?oeoo?u ninoaaa
i?anooieaiey, ii oai iao aaeeiiai ninoaaa, a nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aai
aa?eaioia. I?aiaeaaeathuae yaeyaony /aou?ao/eaiiay no?oeoo?a: iauaeo,
iauaeoeaiay noi?iia, noauaeo, noauaeoeaiay noi?iia. Oio aea Iaeueeia a
noaouea ieoao, /oi a naiii iauai aeaea i?anooieaiea iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeaii eae aeayiea (aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea) noauaeoa
(/aeiaaea), iinyaathuaa ia i?aaiio?aiyaiue iauaeo. Ionthaea neaaeoao
auaiae, /oi i?anooieaiea ninoieo ia ec /aou?ao, a ec o?ao iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia: iauaeoa, noauaeoa e aeayiey. Eiaiii oaeie o?ao/eaiiie
no?oeoo?u, iai?eia?, i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ecaanoiua ?onneea
aei?aaiethoeeiiiua th?enou. E oieueei a naiii aeayiee iiaoo auoue
auaeaeaiu iauaeoeaiay e noauaeoeaiay noi?iiu.

?acthie?oy, aua ?ac ii?aaeaeei i?aaiia?ooaiea – aeiiaiia i?ioeaii?aaiia
aeayiea aiaiyaiiai eeoea, i?e/eiythuaa a?aae ae?oaei eeoeai e iauanoao e
aeaeouaa th?eaee/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

15

3. I?eioeeiu th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Ninoaau i?aaiia?ooaiee e naieoeee ca eo niaa?oaiea ii?aaeaeyao
caeiiiaeaoaeue. I?eiaiaiea naieoeee ca i?aaiia?ooaiey – caaea/a
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. I?ioeann e ii?yaeie ?anneaaeiaaiey aeae i
i?aaiia?ooaieyo e i?eiaiaiey ca ieo naieoeee aeeth/aao a naay ?yae
neiaeiuo i?iaeai, nouanoaaiii cao?aaeaathueo eioa?anu ee/iinoe e
iauanoaa.

Ai-ia?auo, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i naieoeeyo e i?aaiia?ooaieyo eiaao
iauanoaaiiia cia/aiea eeoue a oie ia?a, a eaeie iii ?aaeecoaony. Anee
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e aeieaeiinoiua eeoea ia ia?auatho aieiaiey ia
i?aaiia?ooaiey eeai i?eiaiytho onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii naieoeee ia a
iieioth neeo, o oao /eaiia iauanoaa, eioi?ui, ii nouanoao, aae?aniaaiu
cai?aou e naieoeee, neeaaeuaaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi yoe (a iiaeao auoue e
iiiaea ae?oaea) cai?aou iiaeii ia?ooaoue aaciaeacaiii. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaiii?yaeeo e i?aaai a?aaeaeai, aaoi?eoaoo i?aaa e ainoaea?noaa
i?e/eiyaony iaiaeue o?ii ?inoii /enea aaciaeacaiiuo i?aaiia?ooaiee.

Ai-aoi?uo, nouanoaoao ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey ia?
i?eioaeaeaiey e naieoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ai?ueau n
i?aaiia?ooaieyie, e eeoeai, ia ia?ooaaoei i?aaiauo cai?aoia. Ie
ee/iinoue, ie iauanoai ia iiaoo iaieoenue aac caueou io
i?aaiia?ooeoaeae, a oai naiui – aac aeayoaeueiinoe niaoeeaeueiiai
aiia?aoa, io?aiythuaai i?aai io ia?ooaiee. Aianoa n oai a noa?a, aaea
i?eiaiyaony ainoaea?noaaiiia i?eioaeaeaiea, iauanoai e ee/iinoue
noaeeeaathony n ?yaeii o?aaiaeiuo yaeaiee. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, ?anneaaeothuea aeaea i i?aaiia?ooaieyo, iaaeaeaiu
aeanoiuie iieiiii/eyie, iaiainiiaaiiia e iacaeiiiia eniieueciaaiea
eioi?uo iiaeao i?e/eieoue nouanoaaiiue o?ii i?aaai e naiaiaeai ee/iinoe.
Ia nae?ao, /oi niaoeeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia,
iaycaiiuo iia?aoeaii i?anaeaoue i?aaiia?ooaiey, ii?ie i?eaeaao
?anneaaeiaaieth oaieiaiuo e eiuo aeae iaaeieoaeueiue oeeii. Iaiaoiaeeiay
aeey ai?ueau n i?aaiia?ooaieyie oaeia aeiciaiey e neaaenoaey iiaeao
iaa?iooueny ionoonoaeai aeaniinoe, iiionoeoaeuenoaii i?iecaieo a
aeiauaaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa e caioaeaaieai eeoe, aiaea/aiiuo a i?ioeann
?anneaaeiaaiey. No?aieaiea aiciiaeii auno?aa iainiiaaoue iaaeiaiea e
caeii/eoue aeaei a n?ie iiaeao i?eaanoe e eneonnoaaiiiio nicaeaieth
aeieacaoaeuenoa, aieioue aei i?eioaeaeaiey iiaeic?aaaaiiai i?eciaoue
naay aeiiaiui a i?aaiia?ooaiee, eioi?iai ii, aiciiaeii, ia niaa?oae. A
?acoeueoaoa ii?ie iaaeiyaony iaaeiiaiue e, iaiai?io, ei??oiie?iaaiiua
?aaioieee i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia eiatho iaiaei aiciiaeiinoae
inaiaiaeeoue io ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeiiaiiai.

A ?aoaiee iiiaeo ec yoeo i?iaeai nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao
i?ioeannoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia
iiae/eiaii aeaoaaeeiie caaea/a: eaaeaeue i?aaiia?ooeoaeue aeieaeai
auoue, iiaeaa?aioo ia?ai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey ia iniiaa, a
i?aaeaeao e a ?aieao caeiia e ia?u, ?ann/eoaiiua ia ai?ueao n
i?aaiia?ooaieyie, ia aeieaeiu einiooueny oiai, eoi ia niaa?oee ie/aai
i?ioeaii?aaiiai.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?ioeannoaeueiiai ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe nouanoaoao oaeay caeiiiia?iinoue: /ai no?iaea naieoeee
iiaeeaaeauea i?eiaiaieth,

16

oai aieaa neiaeiu e ?acaeou i?ioeaaeo?u enneaaeiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa
aeaea, iiaeaioiaee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?eiaiaiee eee iai?eiaiaiee
naieoeee. Iiyoiio iaeaieuua ?acaeoea iauea i?eioeeiu th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iieo/eee a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna; ii oai aea i?eioeeiai
inouanoaeythony ana aeaeu ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iie ii?aaeaeytho iniiaaiea,
ii?yaeie e i?aaeaeu th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. N?aaee ieo
auaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua:

– i?eioeei caeiiiinoe, caeeth/athueeny a oi/iii e iaoeeiiiii eniieiaiee
o?aaiaaiee caeiia i?e iacia/aiee th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iia
iacia/aaony eeoue ca aeayiey, i?yii cai?auaiiua i?aaiauie ii?iaie, e
oieueei a i?aaeaeao naieoeee niioaaonoaothuae ii?iu. E?iia oiai, eeoue
oa ioaaonoaaiiinoue iineo caeiiiue oa?aeoa?, eioi?ay iaeiaeaia a iieiii
niioaaonoaee ni anaie i?ioeannoaeueiuie ii?iaie (iineaaeiaa cae?aieaii a
Eiinoeoooeee ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue: aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iieo/aiiua n
ia?ooaieai caeiia, ia eiatho th?eaee/aneie neeu (no. 27 Eiinoeoooeee
?anioaeeee Aaea?onue));

– i?eioeei ioaaonoaaiiinoe oieueei ca aeiiaiua aeayiey. Anee eeoei ia
i?aaeaeaeaei, ia iiaei e ia aeieaeii auei i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou
naieo iinooieia, ia aeaeaei eo ianooieaiey eee ia iiaei ?oeiaiaeeoue
naieie aeaenoaeyie, th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia ianooiaao, oi
anoue ionoonoaea aeiu a aeayiee eneeth/aao th?eaee/aneoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue;

i?eioeei ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ni?acia?iinoe icia/aao, /oi ca i?ioeaii?aaiue
iinooiie ioaa/aao eeoue oio, eoi aai niaa?oee, i?e/ai ca iaeii e oi aea
i?aaiia?ooaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaao oieueei iaeei ?ac; i?e
iacia/aiee naieoeee aeieaeia o/eouaaoueny oyaeanoue i?aaiia?ooaiey;
aieaa no?iaue caeii ia eiaao ia?aoiie neeu;

– i?eioeei eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee iaania/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoueth eca?aiey
?acee/iuo n?aaenoa i?aaiaiai aicaeaenoaey n o/aoii oa?aeoa?a e noaiaie
iauanoaaiiie iianiinoe niaa?oaiiiai i?ioeaii?aaiiai aeayiey, ee/iinoe
aeiiaiiai, ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii a ea/anoaa
niya/athueo eee ioya/athueo ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ae?.;

– i?eioeei iaioa?aoeiinoe th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao aa
iaieioaiinoue, iaecaaaeiinoue, anee niaa?oaii i?aaiia?ooaiea. Caeanue
?a/ue eaeao ia noieueei i oii, /oi iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny
naieoeey (e i?aaiia?ooeoaeth – aieueiiio noa?eeo, eee aa?aiaiiie
aeaiueia, eee iiae?inoeo yoi ia anaaaea oeaeaniia?acii), neieueei i
iai?aiaiiii ?aaae?iaaiee ni noi?iiu eiiiaoaioiuo i?aaiia, aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe ia oi, /oi niaeayiiia aeieaeii iieo/eoue ioaee/ioth iaeaneo,
iiaeaa?aiooueny inoaeaeaieth ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia (a
ioiioaiee oeacaiiuo auoa eaoaai?ee i?aaiia?ooeoaeae iacia/aiiay naieoeey
iiaeao auoue ion?i/aia, i?eiaiaia oneiaii, io iaa iiaeao ianooieoue
oneiaii aein?i/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea e ae?.).

– i?eioeei nei?aeoaai ianooieaiey th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Anee
n?ie, ioaeaeythuee iiiaio niaa?oaiey aeayiey e iiiaio i?eiaiaiey ca iaai
ia? th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, cia/eoaeai, oi naieoeee iiaoo
iioa?youe naith aeooaeueiinoue e ia?anoaoue niioaaonoaiaaoue naiiio
i?aaiia?ooaieth eeai oai nioeeaeueiui oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo iii auei
niaa?oaii;

– oeaeaniia?aciinoue th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iineieueeo iia
yaeyaony n?aaenoaii aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo oeaeae. Oi
anoue ia?a

17

ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeieaeia auoue oaeie, /oiau iia niinianoaiaaea
eni?aaeaieth e ia?aainieoaieth i?aaiia?ooeoaey, a ia oieueei
niioaaonoaiaaea ia?a niaeayiiiai. I?e /ai anee oeaee th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeinoeaioou ?aiaa, /ai i?aaeiieaaaeinue, oi yoio
i?eioeei au?aaeaaony oaeaea a niya/aiee ia?u iaeacaiey.

A iaoa a?aiy aua iaeiei i?eioeeiii, ia eioi?ii aeieaeia iniiauaaoueny
th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, noae i?eioeei “i?acoiioeee
iaaeiiaiinoe”. A th?eaee/aneii neiaa?a oa?iei “i?acoiioeey” oieeoaony
eae: ai-ia?auo, i?aaeiieiaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia aa?iyoiinoe; ai-aoi?uo,
i?eciaiea oaeoa th?eaee/anee aeinoiaa?iui, iiea ia aoaeao aeieacaii
ia?aoiia. Niaaeeiyai aai ni neiaii iaaeiiaiinoe, iieo/aaony oaeia
iiiyoea eae “i?acoiioeey iaaeiiaiinoe”. A i.2 no. 14 Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iaeoa i a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaao onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi eaaeaeue
iaaeiyaiue a oaieiaiii i?anooieaiee eiaao i?aai n/eoaoueny iaaeiiaiui,
iiea aai aeiiaiinoue ia aoaeao aeieacaia niaeania caeiio. Ioieo 1 no. 11
Anaiauae aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea i?iaicaeaoaao, /oi eaaeaeue /aeiaae,
iaaeiyaiue a niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey, eiaao i?aai n/eoaoueny iaaeiiaiui
aei oao ii?, iiea aai aeiiaiinoue ia aoaeao onoaiiaeaia caeiiiui
ii?yaeeii aeaniiai noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?ii aio
iaania/eaathony ana aiciiaeiinoe aeey caueou. Oaeei ia?acii, i?eioeei
“i?acoiioeee iaaeiiaiinoe” yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, i?enouaai anai oeeaeeeciaaiiui i?aaiaui nenoaiai
ie?iaiai niiauanoaa.

A iniiaiiieaaathuai ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaii aeoa ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue
-Eiinoeoooeee (1994a.) a noaouea 26 oaeaea cae?aieai i?eioeei
i?acoiioeee iaaeiiaiinoe, nooue eioi?iai a neaaeothuai: “Ieeoi ia iiaeao
auoue i?eciai aeiiaiui a i?anooieaiee, anee aai aeia ia aoaeao a
i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea aeieacaia e onoaiiaeaia anooieaoei a
caeiiioth neeo i?eaiai?ii noaea”. E?iia oiai, iaaeiyaiue ia aeieacuaaao
naith iaaeiiaiinoue, ii iaaeiiaai – iiea iao ?aoaiey noaea. Anee
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, nia?aiiua ii aeaeo, iiaoo auoue enoieeiaaiu ii-?aciiio
e yoi ?acee/iia oieeiaaiea ia ono?aieii – ?aoaiea auiineony a iieueco
iaaeiyaiiai. Iaiaeia cia/aiea aeey yoiai i?eioeeia eiaao noaouey 27
Eiinoeoooeee ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao e?oa eeoe,
eioi?uo iaeuecy i?eaea/ue e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ioeac io aea/e
naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee. Caeii cai?auaao i?eioaeaeaiea e
naeaeaoaeuenoao i?ioea naay e ?iaeiuo, ii aeiioneaao aeia?iaieueiia
i?eciaiea: “Ieeoi ia aeieaeai i?eioaeaeaoueny e aea/a iieacaiee e
iauyniaiee i?ioea naiiai naay, /eaiia naiae naiuee, aeeceeo
?iaenoaaiieeia”.

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4. Aeaeu th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe

A oai?aoe/aneii ieaia ii ia?ai aicaeaenoaey ?acee/atho e aeaeu
th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

I?aaeaea anaai, yoi oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eioi?ay ianooiaao ca
i?anooieaiey e niaea?aeeo oaeea ia?u, eae eeoaiea naiaiaeu, oo?ao e eiua
ia?u, a oii /enea nia?oioth eaciue.

A ioiioaiee iineaaeiae a iao/iie noa?a e a i?aeoeea ?yaea no?ai eaeoo
iao/iua nii?u – nio?aieoue aa eee ono?aieoue ec a?naiaea oaieiaiiai
iaeacaiey. A?aoiaiou i?ioea aa nio?aiaiey caeeth/athony a oii, /oi iia a
oeaeii ieeae ia aeeyao ia ninoiyiea i?anooiiinoe. E?iia oiai, noaeaaioth
ioeaeo, a iie, oau, aeaenoaeoaeueii eiatho ianoi, – eni?aaeoue oaea
iaaiciiaeii, iineaaenoaey ioeaee noaiiayony iaiii?aaeiuie. Iaeiiaoe,
nnueathony aua e ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, ecaanoiia aua a ae?aaiinoe, /oi
yooaeoeaiinoue iaeacaiey caeeth/aaony ia a aai aeanoieinoe, a aai
iaioa?aoeiinoe.

Neiaii, nia?oiay eaciue – yoi oaeie aeae oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ue ai ana a?aiaia aucuaae e aua aoaeao aucuaaoue nii?u,
noieeiiaaiea iiaiee. Aea ii e a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee ia aue
iaeiicia/iui, a?aiaiaie aaiaeeeny, a?aiaiaie ioiaiyeny, iioii iiyoue
nio?aiye naith oaeanathuoth neeo.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi oaieiaiia iaeacaiea iiaeao iacia/eoue
oieueei noae. A iacia/aiee oaeiai iaeacaiey ?aaeecoaony ia oieueei
ea?aoaeueiay ooieoeey oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey, ii, eae oiiieiaeinue,
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay. Iia eiaao i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? –
iauai?aaaioeaiue e /anoiii?aaaioeaiue. Eiuie neiaaie, iaeacaiea
eiie?aoiiai i?anooiieea eiaao aeaoo aae?anaoia -naiiai i?aaiia?ooeoaey e
iauanoai, eioi?iio iiaeaaony neaiae i iaaeaaiiieo/ee, iaonoie/eainoe a
eiie?aoiii neo/aa e i aiciiaeiuo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaeyo aeey
iauanoaa. Eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue oiiaaiey ia ?anoe?aiea e
oaeanoi/aiea oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae ia iaiaoeath io anao cie, eae
ia aeaaiue eino?oiaio iaaaaeaiey a iauanoaa ii?yaeea. I?aaeeaaaaony,
iai?eia?, i?eaeaeaoue e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoe, ia eniieiythueo
aeiaiai?iua iaycaoaeuenoaa. ?acoiaaony, oaeea iiiuoee oaea eiaee ianoi a
enoi?ee. Iiaeiaiay e?eieiaeecaoeey ioaaonoaaiiinoe a eiouanoaaiiie noa?a
-yoi, a iauai, i?ieaeaiiue yoai a i?aaiaii ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iaeiaei yoi aiana ia eneeth/aao a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo (iioaiie/anoai,
ceioiio?aaeaiea aeiaa?eai e o.i.) e i?eiaiaiea oaieiaii-i?aaiauo ia?.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiay th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaao ca
aaeieieno?aoeaiue i?inooiie – i?ioeaii?aaiia, aeiiaiia aeaenoaea,
iinyaathuaa ia ainoaea?noaaiiue eee iauanoaaiiue ii?yaeie,
nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai, onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie
oi?aaeaiey.

Yoa ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaao iacaaeneii io neoaeaaiiai iieiaeaiey e
iiae/eiaiiinoe noauaeoa i?aaa. Iia iaeaaaaony niaoeeaeueiuie i?aaiaie, a
/anoiinoe einiaeoeeyie. Ia?u aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
aeeth/atho a naay i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea, oo?ao, eni?aaeoaeueiua ?aaiou,
aaeieieno?aoeaiue a?ano, eiioeneaoeeth i?aaeiaoa, yaeyaoaainy i?oaeeai
i?aaiia?ooaiey, a?aiaiiia eeoaiea niaoeeaeueiuo i?aa (iai?eia?, ia
aiaeaeaiea aaoiiiaeey).

19

Ia?u aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ianooiathuea ca ia?ooaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?aaeee – aioo?aiiaai o?oaeiaiai ?anii?yaeea,
eniieieoaeueiie aeenoeeieeiu, ca iaauiieiaiea neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae,
oaeaea yaeythony aanueia iiiaia?aiiuie. Yoi caia/aiea, auaiai?, no?iaee
auaiai?, ia?aaiae ia ieaeaiiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo ia n?ie aei 3-o ianyoeaa
eee niauaiea ia ae?oaoth aeieaeiinoue ia oi aea n?ie, oaieueiaiea.
?acee/atho o?e aeaea aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe: a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeeaie aioo?aiiaai o?oaeiaiai ?anii?yaeea, a ii?yaeea iiae/eiaiiinoe
e a niioaaonoaee n aeenoeeieeia?iuie onoaaaie e iieiaeaieyie.
Aeenoeeieeia?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii i?aaeeai aioo?aiiaai o?oaeiaiai
?anii?yaeea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia anao, ?aaioathueo ii iaeio, e iaeaaaaony
ca ia?ooaiea o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee. A
ii?yaeea iiae/eiaiiinoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianoo aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
eiathuea i?aai i?eaia ia ?aaioo, a oaeaea iaoiaeyueany ia auai?iuo
aeieaeiinoyo, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Ia ieo iaeaaathony aeenoeeieeia?iua
acuneaiey aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie eee i?aaiaie, io eioi?uo caaeneo
iacia/aiea aeaiiuo eeoe ia aeieaeiinoue. Onoaau e iieiaeaiey i
aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaeuyaeytho iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey e
aeenoeeieeia ?aaioieeia e ia?yaeo n iaueie ia?aie aeenoeeieeia?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe niaea?aeao niaoeeaeueiua ii?iu n aieaa aeanoeeie
naieoeeyie.

E yoei aea ia?ai ioiinyony e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea i iaiieiii neoaeaaiii
niioaaonoaee, iiieaeaiea a eeanniii /eia.

Ia?ooaiea ii?i i?aaa a noa?a eiouanoaaiiuo e naycaiiuo n ieie ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aea/ao ca niaie a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaoth,
aeaeeeoioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Ia?u oaeie ioaaonoaaiiinoe: ii?iaa?aeaiea naaaeaiee, ii?i/aueo /anoue,
aeinoieinoai e aeaeiaoth ?aiooaoeeth, aiciauaiea oauoeia, ia?auaiea a
aeioiae ainoaea?noaa, oieaoa iaonoieee (oo?aoa, iaie), i?eciaiea naeaeee
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie, i?eioaeeoaeueiia ono?aiaiea i?aiyonoaey a
inouanoaeaiee a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, aiciauaiea oiouaiiie auaiaeu e o.ae.

A niaieoiiinoe a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaao ca
ia?ooaiea i?aaiauo ii?i, aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, i?e/eiaiea
aiaaeiaiai?iiai eiouanoaaiiiai a?aaea. Ia?u yoie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eiatho
naiue ?acee/iue oa?aeoa?, ii /aoei i?eaycaiu e eiouanoaaiiie i?e?iaea
aeaeeeoia.

Niaoeeoe/aneeie ia?aie th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe yaeyaony ioiaia
iai?aaiii/iuo aeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. A yoie noa?a aaaeiay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo a ?innee Eiinoeoooeeiiiiio Noaeo, i?aaiai i?ieo?aoo?u.

Eiiaaea auaeaeytho e ae?oaea aeaeu ioaaonoaaiiinoe – iaoa?eaeueioth,
naiaeioth, i?ioeannoaeueioth, iaeiaiaoth, eiinoeoooeeiiioth.

Iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue – aiciauaiea eiouanoaaiiiai a?aaea,
iaianaiiiai a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaee ai a?aiy auiieiaiey
eeoeii naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae.1

Iaeiaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue – yoi i?eiaiaiea oeiainiauo naieoeee ca
niaa?oaiea iaeiaiaiai i?aaiia?ooaiey oiieiiii/aiiuie ia oi
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai e eeoeai,
niaeaenoaothuei oieaoa iaeiaa.2 I?aaeaea /ai aiai?eoue i iaeiaiaie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, neaaeoao

1. O?iiaithe A.I. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
AOCia. – I: “Aeaaaoia, Oea/aa, Aeeiia”, 1995.

2. A?ucaaeei A.A., Aa?iee A.?., Aieiaeei A.I., Iiiia I.I., Iaeiaiaay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue: Oo?aou, iaie, acuneaiey.- I.:, 1997

20

ii?aaeaeeoueny n iiiyoeai e aeaeaie iaeiaiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee.

Iaeiaiaua i?aaiia?ooaiey – niaa?oaaiua iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie eee eiuie
eeoeaie ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, naycaiiua n i?aaeeueiui
en/eneaieai, iieiui e naiaa?aiaiiui aianaieai iaeiaia a athaeaeao e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi anee iaeiaiaui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia onoaiiaeai eaeie-eeai ninoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey, oi
iaeiaiaua i?aaiu ia ai?aaa i?eiaiyoue naieoeee.

Noauaeoaie iaeiaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
iacaaiu: iaeiaiieaoaeueueee, nai?ueee iaeiaia, aaiee e eiua e?aaeeoiua
i?aaiecaoeee. A caaeneiinoe io noauaeoa ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao o?e naiinoiyoaeueiuo aeaea iaeiaiaie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe:

– ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ca ia?ooaiey ii?yaeea en/eneaiey
e oieaou iaeiaia (no. 13 Caeiia ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue);

– ioaaonoaaiiinoue nai?ueeia iaeiaia ca ia?ooaiea ii?yaeea oaea?aeaiey e
ia?a/eneaiey a athaeaeao iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe (no.22
Caeiia i iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue);

– ioaaonoaaiiinoue aaieia e eiuo e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee ca iaeniieiaiea
(ianaiaa?aiaiiia eniieiaiea) ieaoaaeiuo ii?o/aiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia
(no. 15 Caeiia ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue).

No?iainoue ia? iaeiaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe noaea iaeiei ec naiuo
na?ueaciuo iniiaaiee aeey ia/aea eiiiaiee ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu a oeaeii. E?iia oiai, iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie io?aneueth, a eioi?ie aeanoeinoue nenoaiu
iaeacaiee ni/aoaaony n ionoonoaeai eaeeo-eeai aa?aioee, i?ioeaaeo? e
niaoeeaeueiuo iaoaieciia iaeiaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey acuneaiee, iaiouaieaii
i?enoueo ethaie ae?oaie nenoaia ia? ioaaonoaaiiinoe. A /anoiinoe, a
iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aei neo ii? aei eiioea ia ?aoai aii?in ia
iniiaaieyo e oneiaeyo inaiaiaeaeaiey io ioaaonoaaiiinoe
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea i?e iaee/ee a aai aeayiee ninoaaa i?aaiia?ooaiey.
Oae, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth aiiaua ia ?aaoee?otho
yoio aii?in, /oi aucuaaao neooaoeeth, i?e eioi?ie aeaiiue i?iaae
ia/eiatho caiieiyoue iiaecaeiiiua aeou e aeou i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia, /oi ia anaaaea ii?aaaeaiii e iainiiaaiii. Ii, a eiioea eiioeia,
aoaeao i?eiyo aeieaiaeaeaiiue iaeiaiaue eiaeaen e noaiao ynii noaiao ee
iaeiaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiui aeaeii th?eaee/aneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aueeaoenue a oeiainiaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue eee oae e
inoaiaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeaiie.

Ioee/ea eiinoeoooeeiiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe io iieeoe/aneie ninoieo a oii,
/oi iniiaaieai eiinoeoooeeiiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeey aunoeo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe yaeyaony ia?ooaiea eo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iaycaiiinoae,
oiaaea eae iieeoe/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue icia/aao oieueei oi, /oi
caieiathuaa aunooth ainoaea?noaaiioth aeieaeiinoue eeoei iiaeao
eeoeoueny iieeoe/aneie iiaeaea?aeee a neeo oie eee eiie i?e/eiu.

21

Ia?u th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia neaaeoao niaoeaaoue n ae?oaeie
ia?aie, eioi?ua oaeaea iiaoo eiaoue i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e aiaoia
i/aiue noiaeiu n ia?aie th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii eiatho
niaa?oaiii ae?oaia iacia/aiea. Yoi ia?u iaaeeoeeineiai oa?aeoa?a, eiaaea
eeoei, niaa?oeaoaa aiaoia i?ioeaii?aaiia aeaenoaea, i?eciaaony
iaaiaiyaiui e a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a e noaiaie caaieaaaiey
i?eioaeeoaeueii iiiauaaony a iaaeeoeeineia o/?aaeaeaiea. Yoi ia?u
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a – ecuyoea i?oaeey, cai?ao ia auacae ec
ea?aioeiiie ciiu e oiio iiaeiaiia.

Eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue ae?oaia aeaeaiea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ia aeaeu:

– Oo?aoiay, ea?aoaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?eiaiyaony ca i?anooieaiey
eeai aaeieieno?aoeaiua eee aeenoeeieeia?iua i?inooiee. Aicieeiiaaiea e
aeaeaeaiea yoie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?ioaeaao oieueei a i?ioeannoaeueiie
oi?ia e ii?aaeaeyaony aeoaie ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe, iaaeaeaiiuo niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiii/eyie. Yoio aeae
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeeth/aao neaaeothuea noaaeee:

– iaaeiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea a niaa?oaiee eiie?aoiiai i?anooieaiey
eee i?inooiea;

– enneaaeiaaiea ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea i i?aaiia?ooaiee;

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i i?eiaiaiee eee iai?eiaiaiee naieoeee, auai? a aa
i?aaeaeao eiie?aoiie ia?u iaeacaiey eee acuneaiey;

– eniieiaiea acuneaiey eee iaeacaiey, iacia/aiiiai i?aaiia?ooeoaeth;

– naiaia?aciui iineaaenoaeai i?eiaiaiey oo?aoiie, ea?aoaeueiie naieoeee
yaeyaony “ninoiyiea iaeacaiiinoe” (noaeeiinoue – a oaieiaiii i?aaa,
iaee/ea acuneaiey – a o?oaeiaii e aaeieieno?aoeaiii), aeaeouaa iaeioi?ua
i?aaiia?aie/aiey e aieaa no?iaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?e ?aoeeaeeaa. E
oo?aoiie, ea?aoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ioiinyony oaieiaiay,
aaeieieno?aoeaiay, aeenoeeieeia?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

I?aaiainnoaiiaeoaeuiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue caeeth/aaony a ainnoaiiaeaiee
iacaeiiii ia?ooaiiuo i?aa, a i?eioaeeoaeueiii eniieiaiee iaauiieiaiiie
iaycaiiinoe. Iniaaiiinoue yoiai aeaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe a oii, /oi a ?yaea
neo/aaa i?aaiia?ooeoaeue iiaeao nai, aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia, auiieieoue naie iaycaiiinoe, ainnoaiiaeoue ia?ooaiiua i?aaa,
i?ae?aoeoue i?ioeaii?aaiia ninoiyiea. Ia yoii iniiaaiu aeiiieieoaeueiua
naieoeee, i?eiaiyaiua e i?aaiia?ooeoaeth a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey yoeo
ioiioaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe (iaie, oo?aou, ae?oaea ia?u iiioaeaeaiey).
I?aaiainnoaiiaeoaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aicieeaao n iiiaioa
i?aaiia?ooaiey e caaa?oaaony ainnoaiiaeaieai (a onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii
i?aaeaeao) ia?ooaiiiai i?aaiii?yaeea. I?ioeannoaeueiua ii?iu ?aaoee?otho
?aaeecaoeeth yoiai aeaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe a neo/aa nii?a (a noaea,
a?aeo?aaea) eee ioeaca i?aaiia?ooeoaey ainnoaiiaeoue ia?ooaiiue
i?aaiii?yaeie (eniieieoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai).

A i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny
i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u,
iaania/eaathuea i?iecaiaenoai ii aeaeo i i?aaiia?ooaiee – ia?u
iaania/aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa (iaunee, auaiee e ae?.) eee eniieiaiey
?aoaiey (iienue eiouanoaa eee aai ecuyoea e ae?.), a oaeaea ia?u
i?ana/aiey (iono?aiaiea io ?aaiou, caaea?aeaiea,

22

niaea?aeaiea iiae no?aaeae e ae?.). Yoe i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u iinyo
aniiiiaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Eo i?eiaiaiea caaeneo io oyaeanoe
i?aaiia?ooaiey, ii ia niaea?aeeo aai eoiaiaie i?aaiaie ioeaiee (eo
i?eiaiaieai ia en/a?iuaaaony e ia ?aoaaony aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?aaiia?ooaiea), i?e i?eiaiaiee naieoeee iie iiaeiuathony iacia/aiiui
iaeacaieai, acuneaieai, i?eioaeeoaeueiui eniieiaieai.

Caeeth/aiea

A naiae ?aaioa n iiceoeee iiae/ea a th?eaee/aneie oai?ee y iiiuoaeny
?ane?uoue iiiyoea “th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe”.

Aii?in aue ?anniio?ai, ianeieueei yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue
aiciiaeiui, I aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu
niioiioaiea nioeeaeueiie (aieaa oe?ieia iiiyoea) e
th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiu i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?iua
aeey th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eae iniaiai
aeaea i?aaiioiioaiee,

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ninoaau i?aaiia?ooaiee eceaaathony ii-?aciiio. A
oaieiaiii i?aaa aeaoaeueii iienaiu oneiaey i?eiaiaiey oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iaeacaiey, i?eciaee eaaeaeiai i?anooieaiey, aeae e
?acia?u iaeacaiey, eioi?iio iiaeeaaeao oa. eoi niaa?oeo yoi
i?anooieaiea.

Ioaeaeueiiio ouaoaeueiiio ?anniio?aieth iiaeaa?aioou iiiyoea e nouiinoue
i?aaiia?oaiey. aai ninoaa, i?eciaee.

A oeaeii, eae i?aaea (aaeyae’y. a ?aaioa oaeaeinue ?ane?uoue caaeaiioth
oai

Aaaaeaiea

Ii?iu i?aaa e ii?iaoeaiua aeou, a eioi?uo iie caoeene?iaaiu, ia i?eianoo
aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa, anee ia aoaeoo aeaenoaiaaoue. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
n?aaenoa i?aoai?aiey ii?i i?aaa a aeeciue yaeythony i?aaiioiioaiey. *oi
oieeo i?eieiaoue no?iaea caeiiu a ioiioaiee i?anooiieeia e eo ia
iaeacuaaoue? Iaei /oi eciaieony, anee a Eiinoeoooeee i?aaeoniio?aoue
oe?ieea i?aaa e naiaiaeu, ii ia i?aaeoniio?aoue iaoaiecia eo
?aaeecaoeee. I?aaiioiioaiey iicaieytho ia?aaanoe aano?aeoiua
th?eaee/aneea ii?iu a ieineinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiuo naycae, o.a. a
ieineinoue noauaeoeaiuo th?eaee/aneeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aeey aeaiiuo
noauaeoia.

I?aaiioiioaiea – yoi ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ethaeueie, o?aaoee?iaaiiia
ii?iaie i?aaa.

Noaa i?aaiaui, iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea i?eia?aoaao ?yae naienoa.

Ai-ia?auo, eiie?aoece?othony noauaeou, iineieueeo i?aaiioiioaiea
aicieeaao iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie eeoeaie.

Ai-aoi?uo, ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei ninoaa noauaeoia, ii e eo acaeiiia
iiaaaeaiea ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao, eo i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe.

A-o?aoueeo, aicieeioa ia iniiaa i?aaa (caeiia eee i?aoeaaeaioa, eee
ii?iu iau/iiai i?aaa), iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea i?eia?aoaao i?aaiaoth
ie?aneo, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi oaia?ue oaea iii iaania/eaaaony
aiciiaeiinoueth i?eiaiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey.

Eiaiii iaeiiio ec aniaeoia ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eioaeaeaiey, iniaiio
aeaeo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, a eiaiii th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
iinayuaia aeaiiay ?aaioa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia?ooaieyo. –
Ii., 2000.

2. Eiinoeoooeey ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue. – Ii., 1994.

3. Oaieiaiue eiaeaen ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue – Ii., 1999.

4. A?ucaaeei A.A., Aa?iee A.?., Aieiaeei A.I., Iiiia I.I., Ca?eiia A.I.

Iaeiaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue: Oo?aou, iaie, acuneaiey I.:
“Aiaeeoeea-I?ann”,

1997.-176N.

5. Aoneaiei I.E. TH?eaee/aneee neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio:
“Oaieen”,

1996.- 544n.

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