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Выяснение условий восприятия фактов

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Auyniaiea oneiaee aini?eyoey oaeoia, onoaiiaeaiiuo a i?ioeanna aeii?ina

Iuouaiea, eae oaea oeacuaaeinue ?aiaa, — yoi io?aaeaiea eaeiai-eeai
naienoaa eee ea/anoaa yaeaiey. A iieacaieyo naeaeaoaeae eee iaaeiyaiuo
iau/ii ?a/ue eaeao ia ia ioaeaeueiuo naienoaao eee ea/anoaao, a i
i?aaeiaoa a oeaeii, i iaeioi?uo aaaeiuo eee anao noi?iiao aai e a eo
naiaia?aciii eiiieaena. I?e yoii ioaeaeueiua iuouaiey aunooiatho oieueei
eae oaeoi?u yoiai eiiieaena, a ia eae naiinoiyoaeueii nouanoaothuea.
Oaeia oeaeueiia ioia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee a niciaiee /aeiaaea
iacuaaaony aini?eyoeai.

A aini?eyoey anaaaea aeeth/aiu ?acee/iua iuouaiey. Aeaaea a c?eoaeueiua,
neooiaua aini?eyoey aoiaeyo e ae?oaea aeaeu iuouaiey, ii i?aiaeaaeathuee
oa?aeoa? eiatho c?eoaeueiua e neooiaua. Eiaaea /aeiaae aini?eieiaao
ii?a, oi yoi, i?aaeaea anaai c?eoaeueiia aini?eyoea. Iaeiaei e?iia
i?aiaeaaeathueo c?eoaeueiuo iuouaiee a iai o/anoaotho e neooiaia
iuouaiea ieanea aieiu, iaiiyoaeueiia iuouaiea nieaiiai caiaoa ii?neiai
aicaeooa, oaeoeeueiua iuouaiey aeaaeiinoe e oieiaea.

Ia aeii?ina n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei aicieeatho aii?inu, naycaiiua n
ioaeaeueiuie, eciee?iaaiii acyouie iuouaieyie. Ioaeaeueiua iuouaiey, eae
i?aaeei, i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an, n oi/ee c?aiey aeii?ina, iineieueeo
aoiaeyo a aini?eyoey. Niaeanii § 54 OIE, AI? «neaaeoao aeii?ineoue a
ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey eeoei, eiathuaa iieo/aiiua ei iooai ee/iiai
aini?eyoey naaaeaiey i aeaea, ia oneiaeyo aeecie iaaeiyaiiai, a oaeaea
ia eiuo aaaeiuo aeey aeaea oaeoao». Yoi, eiia/ii, ia icia/aao, /oi
oieueei naeaeaoaee aeii?aoeaathony i aini?eiyouo eie oaeoao.

Aini?eyoey aeieaeiu eaaeaoue e a iniiaa iieacaiee iioa?iaaoeo,
iiaeic?aaaaiuo e iaaeiyaiuo. Aini?eyoey anaaaea eiatho oeaeinoiue
oa?aeoa?. A ieo i?aaeiao io?aaeaaony a niaieoiiinoe naieo naienoa e
ea/anoa. Aneaaenoaea oeaeinoiinoe aini?eyoey a iai anaaaea ainiieiythony
ionoonoaothuea yeaiaiou e /anoe aini?eieiaaiiai i?aaeiaoa. Anee iu /a?ac
ieii ?anniao?eaaai i?ioeaiiieiaeiue aeii e ieiiiay ?aia, cae?uaay /anoue
iieo/aaiiai iaie ia?aca, aeaeeo aai ia aeaa /anoe, o ian ia aicieeaao
aini?eyoey, /oi aeii ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae, a i?ee?uoay ?aiie /anoue
ainiieiyaony a iaoai aiia?aaeaiee.

Aeaaiaea?y oeacaiiie iniaaiiinoe naeaeaoaee iiaoo ?anneacaoue e i oaeeo
i?aaeiaoao, eioi?ua iie aeaeaee oieueei /anoe/ii (iiaeao auoue, iie auee
i?ee?uou eee a?aiy, inaauaiea auei iaaeinoaoi/iui aeey iieiiai
aini?eyoey). Eiiaaea iu naiaiaeii /eoaai neeueii oi?iuaiiue ii/a?e, a
eioi?ii ionoonoaotho iiiaea yeaiaiou ioaeaeueiuo aoea, aini?eieiaai
iaa?inee, yneecu eae oeaeua ea?oeiu, oioy iie ninoiyo oieueei ec
ianeieueeeo oo?eoia.

Iaeiaei ainiieiaiea ionoonoaothueo yeaiaioia e /anoae aini?eieiaaiiai
iauaeoa iiaeao i?eaanoe e e ioeaeai. Yoi aeieaeai iiiieoue
neaaeiaaoaeue, aiaeece?oy iieacaiey i i?aaeiaoao, yaeaieyo, aini?eiyouo
i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aeey ?aciuo iuouaiee oneiaeyo.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaiia /oanoa a aini?eyoeyo ia oieueei noiie?oao eo, ii
e nicaeaao ea/anoaaiii iiaia; iie naineaeeece?otho e aeiiieiytho ae?oa
ae?oaa, eiiia?e?otho ae?oa n ae?oaii e acaeiii, o/anoaoy a i?ioeannao
io?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee aiaoiaai ie?a, niinianoaotho eo/oaio eo
iiciaieth. Eaaeaeue neaaeiaaoaeue ciaao, /oi naeaeaoaeue, eae i?aaeei,
oaa?aiiaa aiai?eo e iiiciaao ii?aaeaeaiiia eeoei, anee ii ia oieueei
aeaeae, ii e neuoae aai.

*ai aieueoa i?aaiia /oanoa o/anoaoao a aini?eyoee, oai aieaa oi/iui iii
aoaeao. Ec yoiai auoaeaao aaaeiia oaeoe/aneia i?aaeei i oii, /oi ia
aeii?inao anaaaea ioaeii auyniyoue, eaeea i?aaiu /oanoa aeii?aoeaaaiiai
o/anoaiaaee a aini?eyoee. Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao, iai?eia?, i oii, /oi
eaeay-oi aeaoaeue eai-oi auea iaea/anoaaiii io?aaioaia e aa iiaa?oiinoue
inoaeanue oa?ioiaaoie, ia iooeeoiaaiiie, ?aeiiaiaeoaony ni?aoeaaoue,
aeaeae ee aeii?aoeaaaiue yoo aeaoaeue e i?e eaeii inaauaiee, iiae iaeiei
oaeii iaaeaiey naaoa eee iiae ?aciuie, i?eeanaeny ee ii e aeaiiie
iiaa?oiinoe e, anee aea, i?iaae ee ii ii iae eii/eeii iaeueoea. Anee
naeaeaoaeue niiauaao, /oi iiaeic?aaaaiue iinoaaee ia iie oyaeaeue,
iaiieiaiiue /ai-oi iyaeei iaoie, oi ioaeii ni?ineoue, ioeoaea ii ciaao,
/oi iaoie aue oyaeae e iaaeo eiaiii iyaeeie aauaie. Iiaeao auoue, ii
aeaeae yoi, a aiciiaeii oieueei neuoae aeooie caoe, ii/oanoaiaae
aea?aoeeth iiea e oneuoae a yoi a?aiy, eae caae?aaacaeaee ieia, a
niaea?aeeiia iaoea iia aeaeaoue ii i?eiethniooinoe aai eee ii?aaeaeeoue
ia iuoiue.

Neaaeiaaoaeue aeieaeai o/eouaaoue e oaeoe/anee eniieueciaaoue iieo/aiiua
ia aeii?ina aeaiiua ia o/anoee ?aciuo i?aaiia /oanoa a aini?eyoee
aeii?aoeaaaiiai. I?aaeeueii iinooiee neaaeiaaoaeue ii aeaeo ia
ecianeeiaaiee, i?aaieciaaa iiiciaiea ianeeueieea iioa?iaaoae ioaeaeueii
ii iniaaiiinoyi aieina, ?a/e e ioaeaeueii ii aiaoiaio aeaeo i?anooiieea.

Aini?eyoey iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay e iainiciaaaaiua iuouaiey. Aini?eyoea
aaee/eiu i?aaeiaoa aeeth/aao, iai?eia?, e?iia c?eoaeueiiai ia?aca e
iuouaiey nie?auaiey eee ?anneaaeaiey iuooe aeaca.

A iaoe aini?eyoey anaaaea aoiaeyo i?aaenoaaeaiey, nio?aieaoeany io
i?aaeiaai iiuoa. «?acoeueoao aini?eyoey /aeiaaeii oiai eee eiiai
i?aaeiaoa caaeneo, ai-ia?auo, io aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo /oanoaaiiuo
iuouaiee (c?aiey, neooa, inycaiey e o. ae.), a ai-aoi?uo, io
niaea?aeaiey aai i?ioeiai iiuoa, n eioi?ui ii niiinoaaeyao yoe
iuouaiey».

Aieueoeinoai i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee iu aini?eieiaai ia ia?aue ?ac.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i?ioeiai iiuoa iiiiaatho iai aieaa iieii aini?eieiaoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Eiaaea iu c?eoaeueii aini?eieiaai naoa?ieoeo n
naoa?iui ianeii, oi e c?eoaeueiiio aini?eyoeth i?eniaaeeiythony
aicieeoea a iaiyoe i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeona naoa?iiai ianea. Yoe i?eau/iua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue e a iaaethaeaoaeueiinoe noauaeoa.
Iiuoiue ioioiee aeaeeo caa?y aeaaea oai, aaea ia eneooaiiue a ioioa
/aeiaae ia caiaoeo aai aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea aio oeacuaatho, a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee e eoaea niio?aoue.

«Iiuoiue neaaenoaaiiue ?aaioiee caiaoeo oaeea iaei/e a ianoiyoaeuenoaao
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey eee a iiaaaeaiee aeii?aoeaaaiiai, ieii eioi?uo
?aaiiaeooii i?ieaeao ethaie ae?oaie iaaethaeaoaeue. Eiaiii yoe iaei/e
ca/anooth nicaeatho aiciiaeiinoue ?ane?uaaoue i?anooieaiey». A yoii
ia?iiiay iieiaeeoaeueiay ?ieue i?eau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, a oi/iinoe
eioi?uo aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho i?ioanneiiaeueii i?eau/iua
i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iniaaiii /anoi oaeea iieacaiey aeatho aiaeeoaee ii
aaoio?ainii?oiui i?ienoanoaeyi.

Naeaeaoaee ni niaoeeaeueiuie ciaieyie a aaiaa?neie i?ioeannoaeueiie
eeoa?aoo?a /anoi auaeaeythony a iniaoth a?oiio oae iacuaaaiuo
naeaeaoaeae-yenia?oia. Naeaeaoaeue-yenia?o, ii ii?aaeaeaieth Aeaie, —
«yoi oaeia eeoei, eioi?ia ia oieueei iaiin?aaenoaaiii aini?eieiaao
eaeia-eeai yaeaiea, a n?aco aea e ioeaieaaao aai ia iniiaa naieo
niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee».

N e?eieiaeenoe/aneie aea e n i?ioeannoaeueiie oi/ae c?aiey iniaue
eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae, iaeaaeathueo
niaoeeaeueiuie iiciaieyie a iaeanoe iaoee, oaoieee, eneonnoaa eee
?aianea, anee yoa iaeanoue ciaiey eaeei-eeai ia?acii naycaia n
aini?eieiaaiui yaeaieai. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia yoi, iao iniiaaiey
auaeaeyoue oaeeo naeaeaoaeae a iniaoth a?oiio—naeaeaoaeae-yenia?oia, eai
eo i?ioeannoaeueiia iieiaeaiea ie/ai ia ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo
naeaeaoaeae.

*?acau/aeii aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho i?eau/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey
naeaeaoaeae, eiaaea ioaeii caiaoeoue eaeie-oi, iau/ii ia a?inathueeny a
aeaca i?eciae. Ii, e niaeaeaieth, oaeea i?aaenoaaeaiey iiaoo ea?aoue e
io?eoeaoaeueioth ?ieue: eiaaea a aini?eyoee naeaeaoaey ionoonoaotho
eaeea-oi yeaiaiou, ii eaaei e iacaiaoii aeaaea aeey naay iiaeao
ainiieieoue eo yeaiaioaie ec naieo i?eau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Au?aaioaiiia a i?ioeanna i?aeoeee i?aaenoaaeaiea iiaeao i?eaanoe e e
eeethceyi. I ieo iiiai aiai?eony a ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a ii
e?eieiaeueiie ineoieiaee. I?e yoii /anoi nnueathony ia oae iacuaaaioth
eeethceth Oa?iaiouea. Iineaaeiyy ninoieo a oii, /oi anee eniuooaiiio
aeaoue a ?oee aeaa oeeeeiae?a ?aciie aaee/eiu, naeaeaiiuo ec iaeiiai e
oiai aea iaoa?eaea, ii eiathueo iaeeiaeiaue aan, oi iaiueoee oeeeeiae?
eaaeaony aieaa oyaeaeui. Aeoiaaony, /oi iiaeiaiua eeethcee ia eiatho
e?eieiaeenoe/aneiai cia/aiey.

Aei?iaeiue ciae «neaiciie i?iacae cai?auai» i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeoue
e?oaeue aeene ii?aaeaeaiiie aaee/eiu n e?aniie eaeiie. E?oaeue aeene
aucuaaao e?oaeue ia?ac ia nao/aoea oieueei a neo/aa, anee ia iaai
niio?aoue oi/ii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii, /oi auaaao n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei. A
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo ia?ac aeaiiiai aei?iaeiiai ciaea i?eaeeaeaaony e
yeeeino, iniaaiii anee ii iaoiaeeony ia cia/eoaeueiii ?annoiyiee eee
iaaethaeaai a aieueoie oaie iiai?ioa. Ianiio?y ia yoi, oi?ia aeaiiiai
ciaea aoaeao iaie aini?eieiaoueny i?aeoe/anee anaaaea e?oaeie. Yoi
yaeaiea iacuaaaony iinoiyinoaii eee eiinoaioiinoueth aini?eyoey
i?aaeiaoia. A. A. Nie?iia yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacae, /oi eiinoaioiinoue
aini?eyoey oi?iu ieineie oeao?u aeinoeaaao iaeaieueoae noaiaie i?e 10°
oaea ioeeiiaiey e aeenoaioeee iaaethaeaiey a 1 i.

Anee ieineay oeao?a iaaethaeaaony n aeenoaioeee a I i, oi aini?eyoea aai
oeao?u inoaaony i?aeoe/anee aiieia eiinoaioiie aeaaea i?e oaea iiai?ioa
a 600.

Yoe aeaiiua iieacuaatho, ianeieueei inoi?iaeii ioaeii ioiineoueny e
iieacaieth aiaeeoaey i oii, /oi ii ia iia ioee/eoue oi?io aei?iaeiiai
ciaea, iioiio /oi iia auea naeaeiooa n ianoa, iai?eia? iiaeaaoaiiue ciae
i?eiiaeiyo aao?ii.

Eiinoaioiinoue aini?eyoey i?iyaeyaony e a ?yaea ae?oaeo yaeaiee.
Eaeie-oi i?aaeiao, aini?eieiaaiue iaie n ?annoiyiey a 1 i, ecia?aaeaaony
ia nao/aoea aaeaia iaiueoa, /ai oio aea i?aaeiao, aini?eieiaaiue n
?annoiyiey 50 ni, ii aeaeeiay aaee/eia i?aaeiaoa ia iaiyaony e inoaaony
aiieia eaeaioe/iie e i?e yoii, e aua a ae?oaeo, i?aeoe/anee aieueoeo
i?aaeaeao ?acieoeu a aeenoaioeeyo iaaethaeaiee. Eiinoaioiinoue
aini?eyoey i?iyaeyaony ia oieueei a ioiineoaeueiii iinoiyinoaa
aini?eieiaaiie oi?iu e aaee/eiu i?aaeiaoia, ii e a aini?eyoee ae?oaeo
ea/anoa, iai?eia? oeaaoa e y?einoe. Iie oiaea ia i?aoa?iaaatho eciaiaiee
oneiaee aini?eyoey.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiinoaioiinoe aini?eyoey /?acau/aeii aaeeei. Aac
iaa «iaoa aini?eyoea i?aa?aoeeinue au a nieioiie oain. Iii ia neoaeeei
au n?aaenoaii iiciaiey iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe I?eaioe?iaea a
ie?a e i?aeoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iaai ia iniiaa oaeiai aini?eyoey
auee au iaaiciiaeiu». Aaeeea ?ieue eiinoaioiinoe aini?eyoey oaeaea e a
oi?ie?iaaiee i?aaaeeauo naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee, a ciaiea aa
caeiiiia?iinoae — a ?aciaea/aiee eaee.

Naeaeaoaeue iiaeao aeaoue aiieia i?aaeeueiua iieacaiey, iai?eia?, i
?inoa i?anooiieea, anee aeaaea ii aai aeaeae ia a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe, e iiaeao neacaoue, /oi i?anooiiee, noiyuee io iaai aeaeueoa,
aue auoa ?inoii, /ai oio, eioi?ue noiye e iaio aeeaea, oioy ia?ac
aeaeueoa noiyuaai eeoea iiaeao auoue ia nao/aoea iaiueoa, /ai
aeeaeanoiyuaai.

N oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey ioeaiea aaee/eiu aeaeaaony, eae i?aaeei,
iaiueoa aeaenoaeoaeueiie aaee/eiu i?aaeiaoa, e i?e yoii ioeaea a noi?iio
oiaiueoaiey a ii?aaeaeaiee aaee/eiu oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa
?anoiaeaeaiea iaaeaeo aeaenoaeoaeueiui ?annoiyieai e oai, ia eioi?ia
aiciiaeia oi/iay e aaeaeaaoiay onoaiiaea aeaca.

Oaeia aea yaeaiea iaaethaeaaony i?e ioeaiea ?annoiyiey, aaea aieaa
aeaeueiea io ian ?annoiyiey iu neeiiiu n/eoaoue ca aieueoea. Oae, i?e
aeaeaiee iiiieai eaeiai-ieaoaeue i?ioyaeaiey, eaeouaai io ian aaeieue,
iu aeaeueithth iieiaeio onoaiaaeeaaai iauaeoeaii aieaa ei?ioeie.
Iiaeiaiua ioeaee a aini?eyoeyo, oaeia aea ioeeiiaiea io eiinoaioiinoe
iiaoo aeeyoue e ia iieacaiey aeii?aoeaaaiuo e aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu ai
anao neo/ayo, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i aini?eyoeyo, aicieeathueo i?e
oneiaeyo aieueoiai ?annoiyiey, e o.ae.

Aini?eyoea anaaaea yaeyaony iniuneaiiui, o. a. iu aini?eieiaai ia noiio
oeaaoiauo, inycaoaeueiuo e ae?oaeo iuouaiee eee aucuaathueo eo naienoa,
a i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey. I/aiue /anoi iu iiaeai neacaoue, eaeie i?aaeiao
aeaeaee, ii cao?oaeiyainy neacaoue ia ioaeaeueiuo ea/anoaao aai.
I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey aini?eyoey i?ienoiaeeo iooai ?ane?uoey niuneiaiai
niaea?aeaiey i?aaeiaoa ia iniiaa io?aaeaiiuo a iaoeo iuouaieyo
oece/aneeo naienoa aai.

Ec naienoa iniuneaiiinoe aini?eyoee aeii?aoeaathuee oiaea aeieaeai
aeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu.

Eae i?aaeei, aieueoa aiooaao aeiaa?ea e eiaao aieueoaa
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea iieacaiea, a eioi?ii aeii?aoeaaaiue
oeacuaaao iaeioi?ua i?eciaee ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaeoa eee eeoea e iioii
cayaeyao, /oi a neo/aa i?aaeuyaeaiey ii iiaeao iiiciaoue aeaiiue
i?aaeiao, eeoei. Iaeiaei auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea aeii?aoeaaaiue ia a
neeao iienaoue eaeea-oi i?eciaee i?aaeiaoa eee eeoea, ii, ianiio?y ia
yoi, aioia iiiciaoue i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee aai e aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaeaao yoi
oniaoii. E aeaaea iaaethaeathony neo/ae, eiaaea aeii?aoeaaaiue cayaeyao,
/oi eioa?anothuee ian i?aaeiao ii aeaeae iaeueeii e iiyoiio niiiaaaaony,
/oi iiaeao iiiciaoue aai, ii i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee aeaiiiai eeoea eee aaue,
i?iecaaaeaiiii a niioaaonoaee n i?ioeannoaeueiuie e oaeoe/aneeie
i?aaeeaie, iiiciaao eo aacioeai/ii.

Ec eceiaeaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi iaeuecy anaaaea n/eoaoue aieineiaiui
cayaeaiea i aioiaiinoe iiiciaoue i?aaeiao, anee i?e yoii naeaeaoaeue ia
a ninoiyiee ?anneacaoue ia aeii?ina i aai i?eciaeao. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo
ia?aae i?aaeuyaeaieai aeey iiiciaiey ioaeii no?aieoueny auynieoue iooai
ooi/iythueo aii?inia, ii eaeei i?eciaeai aeii?aoeaaaiue niae?aaony
iiiciaoue aeaiiue i?aaeiao eee eeoei. I?aaeuyaeaiea aeey iiiciaiey
neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue a neo/ayo, eiaaea aeii?aoeaaaiue ia iiaeao
ioaaoeoue ia yoe aii?inu, ii oiaaea iinea iiiciaiey niiaa neaaeoao
i?iecaanoe aeii?in, /oiau auynieoue, ia iniiaa eaeeo eiaiii i?eciaeia
aeii?aoeaaaiue iia iiiciaoue i?aaeuyaeaiiua aaue eee eeoea.

I?e yoii ioaeii i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea e iiiuoee aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea
neaaenoaea ni noi?iiu iaeioi?uo iaaeiyaiuo, a eiiaaea e naeaeaoaeae. Iie
ia aiai?yo i i?eciaeao iiiciaaaaiuo i?aaeiaoia e eeoe eee aea aiai?yo i
ieo eneaaeaiii, ii aioiau iiiciaoue eo, /oiau ee/ii oaaaeeoueny a oii,
?aniieaaaao ee neaaenoaea yoeie i?aaeiaoaie, eee n oeaeueth ano?aoeoueny
n iiiciaaaaiui eeoeii e iiaeaoue aio eaeie-oi neaiae eeai iiaiai?eoue n
iei. A yoii neo/aa niioaaonoaothuaa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiiciaiea anoue
?acoeueoao niciaiey oiai, /oi iao niunea aiai?eoue iai?aaaeo, neaaenoaea
oaea iaoei ioaeiue i?aaeiao eee eeoei. Eiaaea o neaaeiaaoaey aicieeaao
oaeia iiaeic?aiea, aii?in i i?aaeuyaeaiee aeey iiiciaiey ?aoaaony
enoiaey ec oaeoe/aneeo niia?aaeaiee, n o/aoii anao ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea.

Iniuneaiiia niaea?aeaiea aini?eyoey, aicieeioa ec iuouaiee ioaeaeueiuo
oece/aneeo iniaaiiinoae, a aeaeueiaeoai naii aeeyao ia yoe aea iuouaiey.
Yoi yaeyaony i?e/eiie oao ioeaie a iieacaieyo, i eioi?uo iu oaea
oiiieiaee i?e iienaiee aii?inia, naycaiiuo n ?ieueth i?eau/iuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee a aini?eyoee. Ii caeanue neaaeoao oeacaoue aua ia iaeio
iniaaiiinoue, eioi?ay iiaeao iiaeeyoue io?eoeaoaeueii ia ea/anoai
iieo/aiiuo iieacaiee. Aeaei a oii, /oi eiiaaea iniuneaiiia niaea?aeaiea
aini?eyoey iiaeao iieieoueny ia iaaeinoaoi/iii aeey yoiai eiee/anoaa
i?eciaeia. Aicieeioa, iii aiineaaenoaee ieacuaaao ioeai/ii aieueoia
aeeyiea aeaaea ia aeaeueiaeoee oiae aini?eyoey: oi?ie?oao aai e io iaai
ecaaaeoueny oaea i/aiue o?oaeii. Iai?eia?, anee nooea aaoae, eaaeauea ia
caiea, iu ioeai/ii aini?eiyee ca ciae, oi ioaeii i/aiue aeecei iiaeieoe,
oi?ioi ?anniio?aoue e aeaaea, iiaeao auoue, aeio?iiooueny aei ieo, /oiau
ecaaaeoueny io eiaeiiai aini?eyoey.

I oii, e eaeei ioeaeai iiaoo i?eaanoe eiaeiua aini?eyoey,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i?eia?, i?eaiaeeiue Aainii A?innii. Aeii?aoeaaaiue ii
aeaeo i iiaaaa ec ianoa caeeth/aiey iaaece?aoaeue iieacae, /oi
i?anooiiee aaaeae ai a?aiy i?iaoeee e iaa?ineeny ia iaai n iiaeii a
?oeao. Neaaenoaeai auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ?oeao o i?anooiieea a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aue ia iiae, a naeaaeea.

Ecaanoii, /oi iaeei e oio aea i?aaeiao aini?eieiatho ?aciua ethaee
ii-?aciiio. Aeaaea iaeei e oio aea /aeiaae a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo
ii-?aciiio aini?eieiaao iaeei e oio aea i?aaeiao. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee. Iieacaiey aeaoo
naeaeaoaeae ia iaeiii e oii aea niauoee /anoi ia niaiaaeatho eiaiii
iioiio, /oi, aini?eieiay iaeii e oi aea niauoea, iie ioiineeenue e iaio
ii-?aciiio. E ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iiaeii e ioaeii onoaiiaeoue i?e/eiu
oaeiai ?acee/ey.

Aii?in i cia/aiee ?acee/ee a iieacaieyo aeey ioeaiee eo aeinoiaa?iinoe
yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii nii?a a ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a. Iaeie n/eoatho, /oi
«aeinoiaa?iinoue iieacaiey ia iiaeeaaeeo niiiaieth, anee iii niaeanii n
ae?oaeie iieacaieyie». «N oaaee/aieai /enea naeaeaoaeae… naiai? eo
noaiiaeony cao?oaeieoaeueiui» e «niaiaaeaiea iieacaiee aeaao iniiaaiea
i?eaeaoue ei cia/aiea aeinoiaa?iinoe». Ae?oaea, a /anoiinoe Ia?aa,
n/eoaee, /oi niaiaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo iieacaiee nianai ia aeieaeii auoue
?anniao?eaaaii, eae iiiaea aeoiatho, a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa eo
i?aaeeueiinoe, ca/anooth ia iaeiii e oii aea oaeoa aieueoa iaeeiaeiauo
eiaeiuo, /ai iaeeiaeiauo i?aaaeeauo iieacaiee. A yoii ii oniao?eaae
/anoiue neo/ae caeiia aaeeiiia?acey ineoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?e
iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo; anoue, i/aaeaeii, neo/ae, eiaaea i?e
niioaaonoaothueo aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oneiaeyo aeaiiua aeey
aicieeiiaaiey eiaeiuo iieacaiee o ?acee/iuo iaaethaeaoaeae
neeaaeuaathony ianoieueei aeaaii?eyoii, /oi iaaeinoiaa?iinoue yoeo
iieacaiee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia caia/aaony.

Iaa oi/ee c?aiey i?aaenoaaeythony iai iai?aaeeueiuie. Ioeaiea
aeinoiaa?iinoe naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee ia iniiaa eo eiee/anoaaiiiai
iiaen/aoa anoue aica?auaiea e oi?iaeueiie ioeaiea noaeaaiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Iieacaiey aeieaeiu auoue ioeaiaiu ii nouanoao, ia naie
ii naaa, a a niaieoiiinoe n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ia iniiaa
?acaeaeueiiai eco/aiey nouanoaiaaiey oao oaeoia, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho
niaea?aeaiea yoeo iieacaiee.

«Caeii aaeeiiia?acey ineoe/aneiai i?ioeanna» /anoi i?eaiaeeony a
ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a ii e?eieiaeenoeea oaie aaoi?aie, eioi?ua n/eoatho
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey ai anao neo/ayo iaaeinoiaa?iuie, a ea/anoaa
ii?iaa?aeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueii iai?aaeeueiiai iae?eoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
ioeaiea niaiaaeathueo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth iieacaiee.

A i?aeoeea ano?a/athony neo/ae aea/e i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiauo ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth, ii eiaeiuo ii iauaeoeaiie aeinoiaa?iinoe iieacaiee
aeia?iniaanoiuie, ii caaeoaeaeathueieny naeaeaoaeyie, iniaaiii
iioa?iaaoeie. Anee, iai?eia?, niaa?oaii a?aaeoaeueneia iaiaaeaiea ia
aeii, aaea i?iaeeaaao naiuey, ana /eaiu naiuee aeatho iieacaiey, a
eioi?uo, eae iicaea auyniyaony, eiee/anoai a?aaeoaeae, eo neea yaii
i?aoaaee/eaathony. Iaeiaei caeanue oieueei, aeaeeii, iaeeiaeiaue
ineoe/aneee i?ioeann o ?aciuo iioa?iaaoeo, iioiio /oi eo iieacaiey,
eiathuea iaeeiaeiaoth oaiaeaioeeth e oaaee/aieth, ana-oaee ?acei
?anoiaeyony eiaiii a ia niioaaonoaothueo aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeaoaeyo.
Niaiaaeaiea yoeo aeaoaeae a iieacaieyo eiaao ianoi oieueei a neo/aa,
anee aeii?aoeaaaiua ia?aae aeii?inii eiaee aiciiaeiinoue iaiaiyoueny
iiaieyie, ianoaeeoue i?ienoaaeoaa e i?eeoe e iaeeiaeiaiio auaiaeo. Ii
caeanue oaea eiaao ianoi ia «iaeeiaeiainoue ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia», a
aiooaiea eee naiai?, /aio neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao e aeieaeai
i?aiyonoaiaaoue i?aaeaea anaai naiaa?aiaiiui i?iaaaeaieai aeii?inia.

A neo/ayo eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoiai ia?aiiai iai?yaeaiey, oece/aneie
enoiuaiiinoe e o. ae. iiaoo eiaoue ianoi ianniaua aaeethoeeiaoeee,
eiaaea aieueoea a?oiiu ethaeae aini?eieiatho ioeai/ii e iaeeiaeiai
ianouanoaothuea i?aaeiaou. Aaooa?aa, iai?eia?, iienae neaaeothuee oaeo.
A 1846 aiaeo aanue yeeiaae o?aioeocneiai o?aaaoa «Belle Paule», iioa?ya
a o?aaaia ec aeaeo 300 naieo oiaa?euae, iaoiaeeaoeony ia ei?aaoa
«Aaanaai», iiae aeeyieai aaniieienoaa e no?aoa, oneuoaa io neaiaeueueea,
/oi ia ai?eciioa iieacaeny ei?aaeue aac ia/ou, ia oieueei iiaa?ee yoiio,
ii aeaaea oaeaeae ethaeae ia ei?aaea, neuoae eo e?eee, oioy yoi aue ia
ei?aaeue, a ianna au?aaiiuo n aa?aaa ia?iiiuo aea?aaueaa.

Ii oaeea neo/ae yaeythony eneeth/eoaeueiuie, e a ieo i?iyaeyaony ia
«noaaeiia /oanoai» ioeai/iiai aini?eyoey, a aeeyiea aiooaiey. Oaeea
neo/ae ia ano?a/athony o naeaeaoaeae, eioi?ua ia iauaeenue iaaeaeo niaie
ie a iiiaio aini?eyoey, ie iicaea. Iiyoiio /?acau/aeii aaaeii auynieoue
ia aeii?ina e yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai.

Oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia o ?aciuo ineoe/anee caei?iauo
naeaeaoaeae e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?acieoea a ieo i?iyaeythony i?aaeaea
anaai a oii, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a iuouaieyo e aini?eyoeyo oaeeo eeoe
a iniiaiii i?aaeeueii io?aaeaaony ?aaeueiay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aiaoiaai
ie?a, a n ae?oaie — iie ec /?acau/aeii iiiaiia?aciie iannu oaeoia
caia/aoeaaatho i?aaeaea anaai oa ec ieo, eioi?ua ei aeeaea anaai ii
caaea/ai e eioa?anai.

Iiyoiio, eae i?aaeeueii ioia/aao Eoeeoa?, niiauay i i?ienoanoaee,
i/aaeaeoeaie eioi?iai iie auee e eioi?ia ia?aoeei ia naay eo aieiaiea,
naeaeaoaee iaueiiaaiii aoaeoo iieacuaaoue a niioaaonoaee n oai, /oi
ninoaaeyao inoia yoiai i?ienoanoaey, ii iieacaiey eo iiaoo nouanoaaiii
ioee/aoueny eanaoaeueii niioonoaothueo ianoiyoaeuenoa. I?e/eiu yoiai
aeieaeiu auoue auyniaiu e ioeaiaiu eiaiii n oi/ee c?aiey ineoieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae ee/iinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiai e oi?ie?iaaiey aai iieacaiee.

Oi/iia niaiaaeaiea naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee iaaeaeo niaie e iniaaiii
niaiaaeaiea eo n iieacaieyie iiaeic?aaaaiuo e iaaeiyaiuo ia?aaeei
aucuaatho iiaeic?aiea a naiai?a.

Iniaaiii aucuaatho iiaeic?aiey iieacaiey, a eioi?uo niaiaaeatho ia
oieueei eo niaea?aeaiea, ii e au?aaeaiey. Eiia/ii, iiaoo auoue neo/ae,
eiaaea naeaeaoaee, ano?aoeaoenue, ianoaeaeaee aeaeaiiia e iiyoiio aeatho
iaeeiaeiaua, aeaaea a iaeieo e oao aea au?aaeaieyo, iieacaiey — e oaeea
iieacaiey iiaoo auoue aiieia aeinoiaa?iuie. Iaeiaei e i?iaa?ea oaeeo
iieacaiee ioaeii iiaeoiaeeoue iniaaiii inoi?iaeii.

Ia aini?eyoea aeeytho e iaeiia?aiaiii eee iacaaeieai aei yoiai
aini?eieiaaiua iaeii?iaeiua yaeaiey. Iie acaeiii oneeeaatho,
oaaee/eaatho oo ?acieoeo, eioi?ay nouanoaoao iaaeaeo ieie. Ecaanoii, /oi
/ooue oaieay aiaea eaaeaony ai?y/ae iinea oieiaeiie, /oi aeaa e?oaa
iaeeiaeiaiai ?acia?a eaaeoony iaiaeeiaeiauie, anee iaeei ec ieo
ecia?aaeai ie?oaeaiiuie iaeaiueeeie, a ae?oaie — aieueoeie e?oaaie. Caoe
iaeiie e oie aea auniou eaaeaony aieaa eee iaiaa a?iieei a caaeneiinoe
io aiieeooaeu ?yaeii aini?eieiaaiiai caoea e o. ae. Yoe yaeaiey iiaoo
eiaoue cia/aiea e n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeeueiinoe eceiaeaiiuo
aeii?aoeaaaiui oaeoia. Iaeeiaeiaua cieioua eieueoea /aeiaae iiaeao
aini?eieiaoue eae ?aciua a caaeneiinoe io ae?oaeo iaeiia?aiaiii
aini?eieiaaiuo eieaoe. Yoe iniaaiiinoe aeieaeiu auoue ouaoaeueii
auyaeaiu e caoeene?iaaiu ia aeii?ina e o/oaiu i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?aaeuyaeaiey aeey iiiciaiey eee i?iaaaeaiey neaaenoaaiiiai
yenia?eiaioa.

Ec anao aeaeia aini?eyoey yaeaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a aeii?aoeaathuaai
iiaeao eioa?aniaaoue aini?eyoea i?ino?ainoaa. I?e aeii?inao ia?aaeei
aicieeaao aii?in i ?annoiyiee, ia oaeaeaiiinoe ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia eee
eeoe ae?oa io ae?oaa e io iaaethaeaoaey, i iai?aaeaieyo eo ?aniieiaeaiey
a i?ino?ainoaa, a oaeaea i eo oi?ia e aaee/eia. Ana yoe aini?eyoey
iacuaathony aini?eyoeai i?ino?ainoaa. A ieo, eae i?aaeei, iaeiia?aiaiii
o/anoaoao ianeieueei aiaeecaoi?ia. Oae auaaao oiaaea, eiaaea, iai?eia?,
iu aeaeei oi?io e iuoiuaaai eaeie-ieaoaeue i?aaeiao eee iaaethaeaai
aeacaie eee ii?aaeaeyai ii caoeo iai?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii oaeaeyaony
o?ainii?o.

Aini?eyoea i?ino?ainoaa aiciiaeii e ia iniiaa ?aaiou ioaeaeueii acyouo
i?aaiia /oanoa. A yoeo neo/ayo n eo aeayoaeueiinoueth annioeee?oaony
i?aaeiee iiuo ae?oaeo aiaeecaoi?ia. Ii aiaeecaoi?o, caieiathuaio
aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea a aeaiiii aini?eyoee i?ino?ainoaa, iii iacuaaaony
c?eoaeueiui, neooiaui, eiaeii-inycaoaeueiui eee iuoa/ii-nonoaaiui
(eeianoaoe/aneei).

A i?aeoeea i?iaaaeaiey aeii?inia /aua anaai i?eoiaeeony ano?a/aoueny n
i?iaeaiaie, naycaiiuie ni c?eoaeueiuie e neooiauie aini?eyoeyie
i?ino?ainoaa. Iiyoiio eiaiii eo iu e ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa a aeaiiie
?aaioa.

*oiau ciaoue, ia eaeea ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaeoao ia?auaoue aieiaiea i?e
aicieeiiaaiee aii?inia ia aeii?ina i aaee/eia, oaeaeaiiinoe eee ae?oaeo
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo naienoaao i?aaeiaoia, ioaeii eiaoue oioy au iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey aini?eyoey i?ino?ainoaa.

C?eoaeueii i?ino?ainoaaiiua aini?eyoey inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth eae
aeiieoey?iiai, oae e iiiieoey?iiai c?aiey. Ii iiiieoey?iay ioeaiea
i?ino?ainoaa yaeyaony ianiaa?oaiiie, ia?aie/aiiie. «E ?aaioa, naycaiiie
n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoue ?annoiyiey, aeieaeiu
aeiioneaoueny oieueei eeoea, iaeaaeathuea aeiieoey?iui c?aieai». Yoi
aeieaeii auoue o/oaii e ia aeii?ina eeoe ii aeaeai i ian/anoiuo neo/ayo
ia i?iecaiaenoaa eee o?ainii?oa, eiaaea i?e/eiie eo yaeyeanue
iaaeiioeaiea eee ia?aioeaiea ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo eaeei-ieaoaeue
i?aaeiaoii e aeaeaeouaeny /anoueth noaiea eee o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.
Oaeea ioeaee iniaaiii aaeeee o eeoe, iaaeaaii eee a?aiaiii iioa?yaoeo
c?aiea iaeiiai aeaca, i?e/ai iau/ii i?e iiiieoey?iii c?aiee ioeaiea
aaee/eiu i?ienoiaeeo a noi?iio aa oiaiueoaiey.

Aini?eyoea aeoaeiiuo ?annoiyiee i?ienoiaeeo iau/ii n o/anoeai iaieo
aeac, o. a. aeiieoey?ii. Aeiieoey?iia c?aiea iaania/eaaao aieaa oi/iia
aini?eyoea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ioiioaiee i?aaeiaoia, cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao
aaee/eio ii?iaia ?acee/aiey aeoaeiiuo iuouaiee e oaaee/eaaao ?annoiyiea
niiniaiinoe i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?acee/ey. I?e aeiieoey?iii c?aiee
ia?aciaaieth aaeaeaaoiiai i?ino?ainoaaiiiai aini?eyoey niinianoaotho
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u.

1. Aeiieoey?iiio c?aieth niioonoaoao niae?oaeanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea aeac,
ninoiyuaa ec oaeiai niaeaniaaiiiai naaaeaiey eee ?acaaaeaiey inae, i?e
eioi?ii iaania/eaaaony ?aceia ecia?aaeaiea i?aaeiaoa ia nao/aoeao iaieo
aeac. I?e i?eaeeaeaiee iauaeoa e aeacai iaaethaeaoaey eo ine naiaeyony
(eiiaa?aaioeey), i?e oaeaeaiee io ieo ine ?acaiaeyony (aeeaa?aaioeey).
Iainiciaiiua (i?ii?eiioneoey?iua) iuouaiey a oaniie nayce n i?aaeiei
iiuoii neaiaeece?otho ia oaeaeaiiinoe i?aaeiaoa io aeaca. Ii aini?eyoea
oaeaeaiiinoe i?aaeiaoa i?e iiiiue aeeaa?aaioeee i?ienoiaeeo oieueei a
i?aaeaeao, ia i?aauoathueo 450 i; ia yoii ?annoiyiee c?eoaeueiua ine
aeaca caieiatho ia?aeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea e ia aieaa aeaeaeii ?annoiyiee
oaea ia iaiytho aai. Oi/iinoue iieacaiee i ?acia?ao a yoeo i?aaeaeao,
eae i?aaeei, i?aauoaao oi/iinoue iieacaiee i ?annoiyieyo, auoiaeyueo ca
?aiee 450 i.

2. *aeiaae niiniaai ?acee/aoue aeoaeio (?aeueaoiinoue) aini?eieiaaiuo
i?aaeiaoia e caieiaaiiai eie i?ino?ainoaa ia ?annoiyieyo, cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoathueo 450 i. Ia oaeii aieueoii ?annoiyiee aini?eyoea i?ino?ainoaa
i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi io iaieo aeac a iica iinooiatho
aicaoaeaeaiey iaiaeeiaeiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aeoaeiiia c?aiea iiaeaeaaony o?aie?iaea. Iii neeueii ?acaeoi o ii?yeia,
a?oeeea?enoia, eao/eeia, aiaeeoaeae, ioioieeia Ii aeaaea a eo iieacaieyo
?annoiyiey, i?aauoathuea iaeanoue aeeiiiaeaoeee e eiiaa?aaioeee aeac,
yaeythony iaii?aaeaeaiiuie, ioeaiea aaee/eiu aeaaony noiia?iie e
iaoi/iie.

Ia aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo ioeaiea aaee/eiu i?ienoiaeeo oaea ca n/ao
iiiciaiey i?aaeiaoa eee n?aaiaiey n ae?oaei, ecaanoiui ii naiei ?acia?ai
Oaiiay oi/ea ia iaaa aini?eieiaaony eae aicaeooiue oa?, ioeoea eee
naiieao. Iu ia aini?eieiaai ie eo oi?io, ie ?acia?u, ie ?annoiyiea.
Oaeei ii?iaeiei ?annoiyieai aeey aini?eyoey i?ino?ainoaa yaeyaony iau/ii
1200—1300 i, ii a caaeneiinoe io o?aie?iaee iii iiaeao aeioiaeeoue aei
2600 i. Aio ii/aio n aieueoie inoi?iaeiinoueth ioaeii ioiineoueny e
iieacaieyi i ?annoiyieyo, i?aauoathueo 1200 i, e i ?acia?ao, aini?eiyouo
oae aeaeaei. Ia oaeii ?annoiyiee n?aaiaiea oiaea noaiiaeony
iaaiciiaeiui, eai ia aini?eieiaaony ?acieoea a oaeaeaiiinoe n?aaieaaaiuo
i?aaeiaoia, a n?aaiaiea iaiaeeiaeiai oaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia aaaeao e
ioeaeai, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui ?aciinoe a eo oaeaeaiee.

Iaeioi?ua ao?aeoaciua o/aiua-ineoieiae, i?iaiaeyuea yenia?eiaiou a
iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee, i?eoee e auaiaeo i oii,
/oi iaeaiueeea aaee/eiu naeaeaoaee, eae i?aaeei, iaaeiioeaieaatho, a
aieueoea ia?aioeaieaatho. Oae, yenia?eiaiou, i?iaaaeaiiua ia naieia?a
aaiaa?neiai i?ioanni?a Oa?aioea Oeieae, iieacaee, /oi «iaeaiueeia a?aiy
naeaeaoaeyie ioeaieaaaony aua iaiueoa, a aieueoa, /ai 10 ieioo,
ioeaieaaaony oaea aieueoa, /ai iii anoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
iaeaiueeay a?oiia (iaiueoa 10) iaaeiioeaieaaaony, a aieueoay (20)
cia/eoaeueii ia?aioeaieaaaony. Oi/ii oaeoth aea ea?oeio aeaao ioeaiea
?annoiyiey».

Ii a ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii iaeoe e i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oeacaiey,
iniaaiii aaeeee ?anoiaeaeaiey a onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?iaao, aaea eii/athony
iaaeiioeaieaaaiua iaeaiueeea ?acia?u e ia/eiathony ia?aioeaieaaaiua
aieueoea.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi «eeiee, aeaeeiua iiae i/aiue
iaeui oaeii, eee, iai?eia?, i/aiue aieueoea eeiee ioeaieaathony iaie
ioiineoaeueii iaiaa oi/ii, /ai eeiee n?aaeiaai ?acia?a». «Yoa
iaoi/iinoue eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth oaiaeaioeeth o iaeaiueeeo—e
i?aoiaiueoaieth, o aieueoeo—e oaaee/aieth, ca eneeth/aieai ianoieueei
aieueoeo, eioi?ua a iiea c?aiey aiauathony oieueei n aieueoiai
?annoiyiey, ioeaiea eioi?uo aeaao ioeaee iiyoue a noi?iio oiaiueoaiey.
Yenia?eiaiou Aaiaa?a E. A. ii enneaaeiaaieth aini?eyoee ioiioaiee oaeaea
iieacaee, /oi i?aoiaiueoaiea ?acee/ey i?e iaeie aaee/eia ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo iauaeoaie e i?aoaaee/aiea i?e aieueoie aaee/eia ioiioaiee»
ieacaeenue aeaenoaeoaeueiuie aeey eaaeaeiai eniuooaiiai, ii i?e yoii
a?aiue iaaeaeo oaie ioiioaieyie, i?e eioi?uo ianooiaao i?aoiaiueoaiea
?acee/ey, e oaie, eioi?ua aaaeoo e aai i?aoaaee/aieth, aeey ?aciuo
eniuooaiuo ?acee/ia. Yoi iauyniyaony, i/aaeaeii, oeiieiae/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie. Ii caeanue e?iia oeiieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae aieueooth
?ieue ea?atho, aeaeeii, e iaauee, iniaaiii i?ioanneiiaeueiua. Aeey
thaaee?a, i/aaeaeii, ieaea aoaeoo a?aie, aaea ianooiatho i?aoiaiueoaiey
e i?aoaaee/aiey a ioeaiea aana, /ai o iineeueueea. Aio ii/aio ouaoiuie
ieacaeenue iiiuoee ao?aeoaciuo enneaaeiaaoaeae e?eieiaeueiie ineoieiaee
onoaiiaeoue aaniethoii yoe a?aie. Neaaeiaaoaeth iieacii ciaoue i
nouanoaiaaiee oaeie caeiiiia?iinoe. Yoi a iaeioi?ie ia?a iiaeao
i?eaioe?iaaoue aai ia iaeeaeaaiuo ioeaeao a iieacaieyo i iaeaiueeeo eee
aieueoeo aaee/eiao e eiee/anoaao, a oaeaea niinianoaiaaoue i?aaeeueiie
ioeaiea niaea?aeaueony a iieacaieyo aeaiiuo i ieo; ii i?e yoii ioaeii
o/anoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiai e ia eaeea-oi
aaniethoiua, iauea aeey anao a?aie.

A ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a i e?eieiaeueiie ineoieiaee oe?iei o?aeooaony
oaeaea caaeneiinoue aeaeeiie aaee/eiu i?aaeiaoa io aai oeaaoa. I?e yoii
aeaeathony eaeaaeenoe/aneea auaiaeu i iaiiciaaaaiinoe aaee/eiu e i
iaaeinoiaa?iinoe iieacaiee i iae. Niaaoneea o/aiua aeieacaee, /oi
aeaeeiay aaee/eia i?aaeiaoa a iaeioi?ie ia?a a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
caaeneo io aai oeaaoa, ii oieueei a iaaieueoie, n iaoae oi/ee c?aiey ia
eiathuae cia/aiey ia?a.

A ao?aeoaciie eeoa?aoo?a i ineoieiaee naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee
/?acau/aeii aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony yaeaieth oae iacuaaaiie
c?eoaeueiie e??aaeaoeee. Iineaaeiyy ninoieo a oii, /oi aaeua iauaeou ia
/a?iii oiia eaaeoony aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n iauaeoeaii ?aaiuie n ieie
/a?iuie iauaeoaie ia aaeii oiia. A iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoiai iau/ii
i?eaiaeeony i?eia? n a?aaeoaeyie, iaeaouie a naaoeua einothiu, ?ino
eioi?uo iioa?iaaoaio eaaeaony iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai ii anoue ia naiii
aeaea. Eiia/ii, eiathony neo/ae i?aoaaee/aiey iioa?iaaoei ?inoa e neeu
iaiaaeaaoeo ia iaai i?anooiieeia, ii i?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony ia yooaeo
e??aaeaoeee, a enioa, no?ao. Eeethci?iia ia?aaeaeaaiea aeaeeiuo
i?aaeaeia oaiiuo e aaeuo iauaeoia, «?aniiecaiea» naaoeuo iauaeoia ia
oaiiii oiia eiatho ianoi, «ii aeey iauaeoia, aeaeeiuo iiae aieueoei
oaeii c?aiey, yoi i?aoaaee/aiea eee i?aoiaiueoaiea ia eiaao ieeaeiai
i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey, oae eae iii neeoeii iaei ii n?aaiaieth n iauae
aaee/eiie iauaeoa. Eiia aeaei aeey iauaeoia, aeaeeiuo iiae i/aiue iaeui
oaeii c?aiey. Caeanue «i?e?ino» iauaeoa, yaeythueeny neaaenoaeai
e??aaeaoeee, iiaeao auoue ai?acaei aieueoa aai aeaenoaeoaeueiie
aaee/eiu». Cia/aiea aeaiiiai yaeaiey iiaeao eiaoue ianoi a iieacaieyo i
?acia?ao aanueia iaeaiueeeo i?aaeiaoia eee i i?aaeiaoao, iaoiaeyueony ia
cia/eoaeueiii ?annoiyiee. Iieacaiea i ?acia?a aeai/oaeeiu, aeaeaiiie ia
oiia /a?iiai aa?oaoiiai ieaouey eee /a?iiai aaenooea, iiaeao auoue
cia/eoaeueii i?aoaaee/aii. Aeaaooea a /a?iii ieaouea eaaeaony ecyuiaa e
auoa, /ai a aaeii, ii ia ianoieueei, /oiau yoi iiaeeyei ia iieacaiea i
aa ?inoa e iniaaiii ia aa iiiciaiea.

Niiniaiinoue aeaca n?aaieaaoue i?ino?ainoaaiiua aaee/eiu iacuaaaony
aeaciia?ii. Ii iiaeao aeinoe/ue aieueoie oi/iinoe, iniaaiii i?y
i?ioanneiiaeueiie o?aie?iaea. ?aciinoiue ii?ia aeaciia?a i?e n?aaiaiee
eeiee i/aiue iecie, e ?acieoea caia/aaony, aeaaea anee iia aeinoeaaao
1/50—1/100 /anoe. Oae aea oi?ioi ioee/athony iiaa?oiinoe. Caia/aii, /oi
iaeei aeene aieueoa ae?oaiai, anee ieiuaaeue iaeiiai aieueoa ae?oaiai ia
1/50—1/60. *?acau/aeii oi/ii aii?eieiathony iaeaeoea iaaeeiiu e ecaeau
i?yiuo, a oaeaea niioiioaiea i?iii?oeee eo oeao?. A ioeaiea
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe eeiee iu /oanoaeoaeueiaa e eciaiaieyi aeeeiu, /ai
i?e ioeaiea eeiee, aeaaaaiuo eciee?iaaiii. Yoei iauyniyaony, /oi
iieacaiea i oii, /oi io oaeie-oi aaue io?acaee eaeie-oi eonie, i?e
i?iaa?ea ieaaeaony aeinoiaa?iui, oioy io?acie ianoieueei iae, /oi aai
ionoonoaea, ia ia?aue acaeyae, iacaiaoii. Oaeay oiieinoue aeaciia?a i?e
?acee/aiee i?iii?oeee o eeoe, caieiathueony ?eniaaieai, a 9 ?ac
i?aauoaao yoo niiniaiinoue o eeoe, ia caieiathueony ei25. Iiyoiio, anee
?a/ue eaeao i aeaciia?a, ai a?aiy aeii?ina iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue, ia
iaeaaeaao ee aeii?aoeaaaiue niiniaiinoueth ?eniaaoue. Oaeea eeoea ia
oieueei iiaeia/atho i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey, ii e caiiieiatho eo, e
ei /anoi eaa/a ia?eniaaoue oi?io eaeiai-oi i?aaeiaoa, iai?eia? oanii
ieaouey e aeaaea ii?o?ao, /ai ?anneacaoue i iai. I?aeoeea ciaao iaiaei
neo/aaa, eiaaea oaeea ca?eniaee aeii?aoeaaaiiai i?eia?aoaee a aeaea
aieueoia aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea.

Aeaciia? i?e anae aai oi/iinoe aeiioneaao iaeioi?ua iinoiyiiua ioeaee.
E?iia oiiiyiooie auoa oaiaeaioeee neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeaea oaiaeaioeee
i?aoaaee/eaaoue aieueoea, i?aoiaiueoaoue iaeua aaee/eiu e
ia?aioeaieaaoue aa?oeeaeueiua eeiee ii n?aaiaieth n ai?eciioaeueiuie. N
yoei ioaeii n/eoaoueny i?e ioeaiea iaeioi?uo iieacaiee i
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo aini?eyoeyo.

Neooiaua i?ino?ainoaaiiua aini?eyoey oaeaea aeiaieueii /anoi oeao?e?otho
a iieacaieyo. Ian eiiaaea eioa?anoao, n eaeiai iai?aaeaiey, n eaeiai
?annoiyiey neuoae naeaeaoaeue, iioa?iaaoee e eiiaaea iaaeiyaiue e?ee,
caoeiaua neaiaeu e o. ae. *oiau ciaoue, ianeieueei iaaeaaeiu aini?eyoey
oaeiai ?iaea, ianeieueei i?aaaeeau e aeinoiaa?iu iieacaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
eiaoue iaeioi?ua naaaeaiey i i?ioeanna e aiciiaeiinoyo neooiauo
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo aini?eyoee.

Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iecaaaeaiiua n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey caoea,
iieacaee, /oi «n iaeaieueoae eaaeinoueth ii?aaeaeythony i?aaia (96,8%) e
eaaia (89,6%) iai?aaeaiey, ii ieacuaaaony ana aea ia ia?aii ianoa i?aaia
iai?aaeaiea i?e anao aeeeoaeueiinoyo e a?iieinoyo. Ia?aaeiaa iai?aaeaiea
oiaea aeaao aunieee o?iaaiue i?aaeeueiuo ioaaoia (83,0%), ii n iei
niaoeaathony inoaeueiua aeaa (caaeiaa e aa?oiaa). O?oaeiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey ?acei aic?anoaao i?e ia?aoiaea e caaeiaio
(34,6%) e aa?oiaio (36,2%) iai?aaeaieyi, i?e/ai aa?oiaa ii?aaeaeyaony
oioy iacia/eoaeueii, ii oi/iaa caaeiaai». Ana yenia?eiaioaoi?u iaoee,
/oi aieueoeinoai eniuooaiuo eo/oa eieaeecotho caoe, eaeouee ni?aaa, /ai
neaaa. Yoi iiaeao aeaoue e aeey ian iaeioi?ue i?eaioe? i?e ioeaiea
iieacaiee i iai?aaeaiee caoea, aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iai aieaa aa?iyoia,
anee caoe oae ni?aaa. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi n?aaeiyy ioeaea a
ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiey caoea i?e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo i/aiue
iaaaeeea e ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue 4,6 %. Oaeia ioeeiiaiea a iieacaieyo
io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auei au aeey ian aiieia i?eaieaiui, ii, e
niaeaeaieth, a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ia ii?aaeaeaiea iai?aaeaiey caoea
io?eoeaoaeueii aicaeaenoaoao i/aiue iiiai oneiaee. Ia ia?aii ianoa ec
ieo ioaeii ioiaoeoue io?aaeaiea caoea oaa?aeuie i?aaeiaoaie. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iniaaiii a ai?iaeneeo e ai?iuo oneiaeyo caoe iu
aini?eieiaai ia ni noi?iiu enoi/ieea, a ni noi?iiu caoeiio?aaeathuaai
i?aaeiaoa. Yoi iiae/a?eeaaao aaaeiinoue oeenaoeee ia aeii?ina anao
oneiaee aini?eyoey caoea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaanoe
neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio. Eiiaaea oieueei iinea i?iaaaeaiey
neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa iiaeii noaeeoue i cia/aiee iieacaiey ii
aeaeo.

Ii aeaeo ia oaeenoaa o?aaiaaeinue onoaiiaeoue oi/iia a?aiy niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey. Iaeei naeaeaoaeue cayaee, /oi ii neuoae e?ee aeaiueiu a
eano ii/ueth, e oi/ii iacaae a?aiy, ii iieacae nianai ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeioth noi?iio, /ai oa, aaea aue iaeaeai o?oi. I?iecaaaeaiiui
neaaenoaaiiui yenia?eiaioii auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia ianoa, oeacaiiii
naeaeaoaeai, aaea ii neuoae e?ee, aunieee aiein aeaiueiu n ianoa, aaea
aue iaeaeai o?oi, neuoeony n i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai io enoi/ieea iai?aaeaiey.
Aiineaaenoaee iiaeoaa?aeeeinue iieacaiea naeaeaoaey ioiineoaeueii
a?aiaie aini?eyoey e?eea, /oi yaeeinue aaaeiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii ii
aeaeo.

Yenia?eiaioaie aeieacaii oaeaea, /oi ieceea caoee eieaeecothony oi/iaa,
/ai aunieea; /oi i?aaenoaaeythuea aieueoie e?eieiaeenoe/aneee eioa?an
iai?aaeaiey ooiia eee caoeia, nii?iaiaeaeathueony ooiaie (auno?ae, oi?io
e o.ae.), ii?aaeaeythony eo/oa, /ai iai?aaeaiey /enouo oiiia e aa?iiiee,
e /oi «ii oa?aeoa?o caoeia naiua aa?iua iieacaiey aeaao a?iieay ?a/ue—ia
122 iieacaiey oieueei 17 ioeaie, oaiio ia 35—7, /aeai ia 59—32,
aa?iiieea ia 53—23, eieieieue/ee ia 86—23». I?aeoe/anee iiaeii n/eoaoue,
/oi /ai a?ii/a caoe, oai ii eo/oa eieaeecoaony.

Iieacaiey i neuoaiiuo caoeao i/aiue /anoi niaea?aeao aeaiiua i
iieiaeaiee oaea aini?eieiathuaai noauaeoa ai a?aiy aini?eyoey. Yoi eiaao
iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea, e anee a naiaiaeiii ?anneaca aeii?aoeaaaiiai ia
niaea?aeeony oaeeo naaaeaiee, oi ?aeiiaiaeoaony caaeaoue aio aii?inu
aeey auyniaiey eo. Aeaei a oii, /oi, eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, aeey oi/iinoe aini?eyoey iai?aaeaiey
caoea ia aac?acee/ii, eoaea aue iiaa?ioo eeoeii aini?eieiathuee caoe
noauaeo, iioiio /oi yoi eiaao ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oiai,
iaoiaeeeny enoi/iee caoea ni?aaa eee neaaa, nia?aaee eee ncaaee.
Aeii?aoeaaaiua /anoi iieacuaatho, /oi caoe neuoaee eaaea a iinoaee eee
ia eoaeaeea. Anee o?aaoaony onoaiiaeoue iai?aaeaiea caoea, neaaeoao
auynieoue o aeii?aoeaaaiiai e iico, a eioi?ie ii iaoiaeeeny, iioiio /oi
eaaea/aa iieiaeaiea ia?ooaao i?eaioaoeeth ii caoeo, ca eneeth/aieai
eaaeaiey ia aeeaioa.

Ioeai/iinoue naeaeaoaeueneiai iieacaiey i iai?aaeaiee e enoi/ieea caoea
iiaeao auoue aucaaia oai, /oi noauaeoeaii ianoi neuoeiiai caoea anaaaea
niauaaony ii iai?aaeaieth e aeaeeiiio iauaeoo, niiniaiiio ecaeaaaoue
yoio caoe. ?oaeiooaei, aia?aua caiaoeaoee aeaiiia yaeaiea a caea
canaaeaiee, iaaethaeae, /oi anee ii niio?ae ia aenyuee a caea
?ai?iaeoeoi?, oi neuoae aiein i?aoi?a, eae enoiaeyuee ec ?ai?iaeoeoi?a,
anee aea ii ?acaeyaeuaae aeieeaae/eea, oio/an aea caoe ia?aiauaeny e oae
i?yii io oiai ianoa, aaea noiye aeieeaae/ee. Naeaeaoaeue oaeei ia?acii
iiaeao aeiionoeoue ioeaeo a naieo iieacaieyo, n/eoay, /oi neuoae
caoeiaie neaiae aeaeaiiiai ei o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, oioy caoe
enoiaeee io ae?oaiai, iiaeao auoue iaoiaeyuaainy aia iiey c?aiey aai,
n?aaenoaa ia?aaeaeaeaiey.

Iiaeiaiua ioeaee aiciiaeiu i?aaeaea anaai oiaaea, eiaaea enoi/ieeaie
caoeia yaeythony oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa. Aiciiaeiinoe ia?aiooaoue ii yoie
i?e/eia aiai?yueo eee ea?athueo ia eaeii-eeai eino?oiaioa eeoe
iaeiaa?iyoiu, iioiio /oi a yoeo neo/ayo iu aini?eieiaai aeaeaeaiey ?oa,
?oe e aeanou /aeiaaea.

Eiiaaea, iniaaiii a nayce n ioeaieie iieacaiee i ianoa auno?aea,
aicieeaao niiiaiea ioiineoaeueii oiai, aeaao ee ei?ioeia cao/aiea
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue ia neoo iai?aaeaiea. Yenia?eiaiou Ae?aieeiie
iieacaee, /oi ii oi/iinoe eieaeecaoeee a caaeneiinoe io aeeeoaeueiinoe
aa?uee?iaaiee auaaao iaiiiai.

Anoue iaeioi?ua aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeeoue ii caoeo ia oieueei
iai?aaeaiea, ii e ?annoiyiea. Aii?inu, naycaiiua n ioeaieie ?annoiyiey
ia neoo, aeiaieueii /anoi oeao?e?otho ia aeii?inao. Yoi «i?ienoiaeeo,
i/aaeaeii, iooai ioeaiee neeu caoea, i?e/ai yoa ioeaiea iiaeao
i?iecaiaeeoueny oieueei aeey enoi/ieeia, ciaeiiuo ii neea e oaia?o aeey
iaaethaeaoaey». Iieacaiey i ?annoiyiee iaecaanoiuo aeii?aoeaaaiiio
caoeia ia ioee/athony oi/iinoueth, a yoeo neo/ayo a?iieea caoee
aini?eieiathony eae aieaa aeeceea, a oeoea — eae aieaa oaeaeaiiua.

N oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey io enoi/ieeia caoea ii?aaeaeaiea aai ii neooo
auea?uaaao a naiae i?aaeeueiinoe. A yenia?eiaioao Yeueeeia e
Oaaaieeoeeie, iai?eia?, ioeaee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?annoiyiey io cao/auaai
naenoea, iaoiaeyuaainy io eniuooaiuo ia ?annoiyiee 4 i, ninoaaeee 21,2%,
ia ?annoiyiee 8 i—18,7%, 16 i— 5,6%, 20 i—3,5%. Yoi yaeaiea, iaeiaei, ia
iaaethaeaeinue ia i/aiue aieueoii ?annoiyiee.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?annoiyiey ii caoeo iaaethaeaaony oi aea yaeaiea, /oi e
i?e aai ii?aaeaeaiee ia aeac, o. a. aieueoea ?annoiyiey /aua anaai
iaaeiioeaieaathony, a iaaieueoea ia?aioeaieaathony. I?e yoii ieacaeinue,
/oi neeueiua caoee aeatho ieieiaeueioth ioeaeo ia aieueoii ?annoiyiee, a
neaaua—ia iacia/eoaeueiii.

Aii?inu aini?eyoey a?aiaie oae aea /anoi oeao?e?otho ia aeii?inao,
iai?eia?, eiaaea eiae ianoi oio eee eiie oaeo, neieueei a?aiaie
i?iaeieaeaeinue ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea eee yaeaiea. Iiaeiaiua aii?inu
aicieeatho i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee ethaiai i?anooieaiey. I?iaa?ea aeeae
iaaeiyaiiai iaiuneeia aac auyniaiey aii?inia, naycaiiuo n aini?eyoeai
a?aiaie. Ana yoi aiai?eo i aieueoii cia/aiee aeey neaaeiaaoaey naaaeaiee
i aini?eyoee a?aiaie. Ia?aaeei o?aaoaony onoaiiaeoue aeeeoaeueiinoue
eaeiai-oi yaeaiey, eiiaaea a?aiy ia/aea eee ieii/aiey aai eee auno?ioo e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaiiiai yaeaiey.

«Iiae aini?eyoeai a?aiaie ioaeii ?acoiaoue io?aaeaiea a /aeiaa/aneii
niciaiee aeeeoaeueiinoe, auno?iou e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe yaeaiee
iauaeoeaiiai auoey, aeaenoaothueo ia i?aaiu /oanoa a ianoiyuai, a a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaenoaiaaaoeo a i?ioeii eee i?aaeiieaaaaiuo a
aoaeouai».

A?aiy, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue onoaiiaeaii ia aeii?inao ii ?acee/iui
oaieiaiui aeaeai, oaeaea iiaeao ioiineoueny eae e i?ioeiio, oae e e
ianoiyuaio e aoaeouaio Ia?aua aeaa iauaecaanoiu. Eiaaea aea iu ia
aeii?ina auyniyai o naeaeaoaeae, ciaeiiuo n iiaeic?aaaaiui, eoaea ii
iioae, eaeea aeaenoaey eee iiacaeee caieaie?iaae, e ia iniiaa yoiai
aeaeaai auaiae i oii, aaea e eiaaea iaeeaeaaony aai iiyaeaiea, e
i?eieiaai niioaaonoaothuea ?icuneiua ia?ii?eyoey, oi onoaiaaeeaaai
o?aouea.

Aini?eyoey a?aiaie, noaaoea i?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey ia aeii?ina, iiaoo
ioiineoueny e aieueoei i?iiaaeooeai — aiaeu, ianyoeu, eae yoi /anoi
auaaao i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aeae i oeuaieyo nioeeaeenoe/aneie
nianoaaiiinoe, ii eiiaaea iie en/eneythony oieueei ieiooaie e aeaaea
naeoiaeaie. Iai?eia?, i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aeaea i noieeiiaaiee iiacaea n
aaoiaonii o ioe?uoiai oeaaaaoia aicea noaioeee ?aeio (aaeece Aoaeaiaooa)
13 oaa?aey 1952 a. /?acau/aeii aaaeii auei onoaiiaeoue, /oi aaa?ey eiaea
ianoi a 13 /an. 36 iei. eee a 13 /an. 40 iei. Ii naaaeaieyi, eioi?uie
?aniieaaaei neaaenoaea, iniiaaiiui ia naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaieyo,
noieeiiaaiea eiaei ianoi a 13 /an. 36 eee 37 iei. — yoi auei aaaeiui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii, oee/athuei neoaeauaai aeaeaciie aei?iae, aeaaoaai
neaiae i i?eauoee iiacaea aeieiinoai oieueei a 13 /an., 40 iei., o. a.
iinea eaoano?iou.

Aini?eyoea a?aiaie, ii Neai?oeiao E. A., i?ienoiaeeo iooai o?iiiiao?ee,
o?iiiiiicee e o?iiieiaee.

O?iiiiao?ey — yoi iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia aini?eyoea a?aiaie /a?ac aini?eyoea
?aaiou n?aaenoa, neoaeaueo aeey aai ecia?aiey, iai?eia? /ania.
O?iiiaiicey—iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ia?aaeeaaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe yaeaiee, a
o?iiieiaey—yoi oaeia ia?aaeeaaiea a?aiaie, eioi?ia iieo/aao naia
iauaeoeaiia au?aaeaiea a oao i?e?iaeiuo (aeie e ii/e, a?aiaia aiaea e o.
ae.) e iauanoaaiiuo yaeaieyo, a ?aieao eioi?uo iii i?ienoiaeeo.

Ia aeii?inao, naycaiiuo n iieacaieyie i a?aiaie, /?acau/aeii aaaeii
auynieoue, ia eaeii aeaea aini?eyoey iie iieiyony. A neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ooi/iaiey iieacaiee i a?aiaie neaaeoao i?iaa?eoue, iao ee
aiciiaeiinoe naanoe iaeei aeae aini?eyoey e ae?oaei. Oae, anee
naeaeaoaeue ?anneacuaaao, /oi iiaeic?aaaaiue i?iaae o iaai ii/ue, i?eoae
aa/a?ii e ooae oo?ii, o. a. aeaao iieacaiea i o?iiieiae/anee aini?eiyoii
a?aiaie, oeaeaniia?acii caaeaoue aii?inu, niio?ae ee naeaeaoaeue ia /anu
a iiiaio i?eoiaea, ia?aae eee iinea i?eoiaea eee ooiaea aeaiiiai eeoea,
ia iiiieo ee, /oi ia?aaeaaaee ii ?aaeei, eaeea niauoey i?aaeoanoaiaaee
i?eoiaeo eee ooiaeo e ia iiaoo ee iie auoue o?iiiiao?e/anee ii?aaeaeaiu
e o. ae.

I?e aini?eyoee a?aiaie iaaethaeathony iaeioi?ua ec oao aea
caeiiiia?iinoae, eioi?ua iu ioia/aee o i?ino?ainoaaiiuo aini?eyoee.

a) Cia/eoaeueiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie iaaeiioeaieaathony, a
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiua ia?aioeaieaathony. Iai?eia?, aeaeaeaiea n
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a 1″ ia?aioeaieaaeinue 100% eniuooaiuo, a
15″—oieueei 40% e 50% iaaeiioeaieaaeinue, e yoa ea?oeia noaea
?aceoaeueiaa i?e enneaaeiaaiee aieaa ?anoyioouo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie.

a) Cia/eoaeueiay aeeeoaeueiinoue iinea iaaieueoie eaaeaony aieueoa,
iaaieueoay aea iinea cia/eoaeueiuo aini?eieiaaony eae iaiueoay. I?e/ai
yoa ea?oeia iaaethaeaeanue Yeueeeiui o anao aac eneeth/aiey eniuooaiuo.
Oaeia aea yaeaiea ioia/aaony i?e aini?eyoee auno?iou. Iinea aini?eyoey
aieueoie auno?iou ae?oaay eaaeaony aieaa iaaeeaiiie, iinea aini?eyoey
cia/eoaeueiie iaaeeaiiinoe anyeia ae?oaia aeaeaeaiea eaaeaony aieaa
auno?ui.

Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ia aeii?ina neaaeoao auynieoue oa
iaauee (iai?eia?, i?ioanneiiaeueiua, nii?oeaiua, iocueaeueiua), eioi?ua
iiaoo iiaeeyoue ia oi, /oi eaeea-oi i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie aeey
aeii?aoeaaaiiai iiaoo eacaoueny aieueoeie e eaeea-oi iaeuie. Oaeaea
iaaei auyaeoue oneiaey aini?eyoey; /oi aini?eieiaeinue nia/aea, /oi —
iioii, eaeea aini?eyoey iiaee iiaeeyoue ia ioeaieo aeeeoaeueiinoe
a?aiaie. Ana yoi aeieaeii auoue o/oaii e i?e ioeaiea iieacaiee.

Aini?eyoea a?aiaie inouanoaeyaony ia iaeiei eaeei-eeai i?aaiii iuouaiey,
eai iao niaoeeaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a a?aiaie. A aai aini?eyoee o/anoaoao
niaieoiiinoue iaoeo i?aaiia iuouaiey. Anee neaaeiaaoaeth ioaeii
onoaiiaeoue aeeeoaeueiinoue eaeeo-oi auno?ioa/iuo niauoee, oi
?aeiiaiaeoaony iinooiaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: acyoue a ?oee naeoiaeiia?
e i?aaeeiaeeoue aeii?aoeaaaiiio a naiai aiia?aaeaiee eae au caiiai
ia?aaeeoue aeaiiia niauoea, i?e/ai ia/aei e eiiaoe neaiaeece?iaaoue,
iai?eia?, iinooeeaaieai ea?aiaeaoa ii noieo. Iinea ecia?aiey yoie
aeeeoaeueiinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiio caaeaaony aii?in, eae ii ioeaieaaao
aeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie a naeoiaeao. Oaeay iaoiaeeea aeaao
iauaeoeaioth ea?oeio i aeeeoaeueiinoe a?aiaie e a oi aea a?aiy
i?eaioe?oao neaaeiaaoaey i niiniaiinoyo aeii?aoeaaaiiai au?aaeaoue naie
aini?eyoey a?aiaie a aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey a?aiaie. Iaeuecy i?eciaoue
i?aaeeueiui ii?yaeie, i?e eioi?ii aia/aea caaeatho aii?in
aeii?aoeaaaiiio i i?ioaaeoai a?aiaie, a oieueei iioii i?iecaiaeyo
naiaia?aciue neaaenoaaiiue yenia?eiaio, /oiau onoaiiaeoue, iiaeao ee ii
aiiaua ii?aaeaeyoue aeeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaie. Anee, iai?eia?, naeaeaoaeue
cayaeyao, /oi neuoae, aeaa auno?aea, a ian eioa?anoao, neieueei a?aiaie
i?ioei n iiiaioa ia?aiai auno?aea aei aoi?iai, ioaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue
iieacaoue yoi iinooeeaaieai ii noieo e ecia?eoue naeoiaeiia?ii e oieueei
iioii iii?ineoue ii?aaeaeeoue aai yoio eioa?aae a naeoiaeao. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa iiaeao iieo/eoueny oae, /oi aeii?aoeaaaiue neaaeao, iai?eia?, /oi
iaaeaeo aeaoiy auno?aeaie i?ioei 4 iei., e eiaaea iu iii?inei aai yoi
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a oii, iiaeao ee ii ii?aaeaeeoue
4 iei., oi ii aeaenoaeoaeueii aoaeao noa?aoueny i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue iai
neacaiioth ei aeeeoaeueiinoue, a ia aeeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaie iaaeaeo
aeaoiy auno?aeaie. Oaeie iaoiae i?iaa?ee iieacaiey ia i?aiyonoaoao
i?iaaaeaieth iicaeiaa neaaenoaaiiiai yenia?eiaioa n oeaeueth
onoaiiaeaiey niiniaiinoe noauaeoa aiiaua ii?aaeaeyoue aeeeoaeueiinoue e
au?aaeaoue a aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey a?aiaie.

I?aaeeueiie ioeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe ia neoo niinianoaoao ?eoie/iue
oa?aeoa? caoeiaiai ?acae?aaeeoaey. *oanoai ?eoia iniaaiii ?acaeoi o
ethaeae, caieiathueony iocueie. Iii iiaeao ea?aoue ?ieue ia oieueei a
ii?aaeaeaiee aeeeoaeueiinoe, ii e eiee/anoaa iiaoi?ythueony caoeiauo
?acae?aaeeoaeae, iai?eia? auno?aeia. Naeea niiauaao i oaeii
yenia?eiaioa. Ai a?aiy caiyoey a ninaaeiai iiiauaiee auei i?iecaaaeaii 5
auno?aeia a oa/aiea 3 nae., i?e/ai ii ?eoio 1—4, o. a. aia/aea iaeei,
iioii iinea iaaieueoiai eioa?aaea /aou?a auno?i, ae?oa ca ae?oaii. Ec 16
nooaeaioia, i?enoonoaiaaaoeo ia caiyoeyo, oieueei 5 aeaee oi/iue,
niioaaonoaothuee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioaao. Ec ieo aeaia neacaee, /oi
iniiaie iieacaiee yaeyaony ?eoi. Iaa caieiaeenue iocueie. A iiaeiaiuo
neo/ayo anaaaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony ni?ineoue o naeaeaoaey, caieiaaony ee ii
iocueie. I?e iaee/ee ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo iieacaieyie ?aciuo
naeaeaoaeae i?aaeii/oaiea, eae i?aaeei, ioaeatho iocueaeueii iaea?aiiiio
/aeiaaeo.

Eiiaaea i?aaeiaoii aeii?ina yaeyaony a?aiy, i?iaaaeaiiia ai nia.
I?eaioe?iaea ai a?aiaie a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo aeinoeaaao i/aiue aieueoie
oi/iinoe ai a?aiy nia:

iiiaea i?eaueee anoaaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, i?inuiathony oi/ii a
iaia/aiiia a?aiy. Iaeiaei nii, ca?aiaa «ia caieaie?iaaiiue», ieioi
iiaeaeaaony o/aoo. A yoii neo/aa /aeiaae /anoi iiiyoey ia eiaao, niae ee
ii anaai ianeieueei ieioo eee iie/ana, /an. Iniaaiii ?anno?aeaaaony
i?eaioe?iaea ai a?aiaie i?e iaiaeeaeaiiii i?inuiaiee. Iieacaiey
iioa?iaaoeo, iai?eia? i a?aiaie ii/iiai iaeaoa, anee iie auee ?acaoaeaiu
a?aaeoaeyie e ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe iiniio?aoue ia /anu, i/aiue iaoi/iu.

A aini?eyoee a?aiaie aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao iuoeaiea. Oae, Na/aiia
ienae: «I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue yaeaiee iu /oanoaoai, eai ?acee/aai a
e?aoeia?aiaiiuo ec ieo ia/aei, na?aaeeio e eiiaoe. Ii iao /aeiaaea ia
naaoa, eioi?ue ?acee/ae au iaiin?aaenoaaiii /oanoaii noaiaie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe yaeaiee ca i?aaeaeaie naeoiae, a iuneei iu ia
oieueei ieiooaie, ii aiaeaie e noieaoeyie — e, eiia/ii, iiyoue a
iaeayiee, /oaeii /oanoaiaaieth».

Iniuneaiiinoue a?aiaiiuo aini?eyoee i?iyaeyaony ai iiiaeo eo naienoaao.
Oaeei yaeyaony eo eiinoaioiue oa?aeoa?, o. a. i?e eciaiaiee iaeioi?uo
ianoiyoaeuenoa iie nio?aiytho naia iinoiyinoai.

Nooaeaio aini?eieiaao 45 iei. caiyoee eiaiii eae 45 iei. iacaaeneii io
oiai, yaeythony ee iie neo/iuie eee aeeauie. Iniuneaiiinoue aini?eyoey
i?iyaeyaony e a aieueoie ?iee, eioi?oth a iai ea?aao n?aaiaiea. Iniaaiii
aieueoia cia/aiea iii eiaao i?e aini?eyoee aeeeoaeueiiai i?iiaaeooea
a?aiaie. N?aaiaiea iaaiciiaeii aac aiaeeca. Ii aunooiaao ia ia?aue ieai,
eiaaea ioeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe yaeaiey eee aai eieaeecaoeee ai a?aiaie,
iniaaiii a i?ioeii, i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth o?oaeiinoue. Ec
aeaiiuo, aeiauouo yenia?eiaioaeueiui iooai, iiaeii naeaeaoue ?yae
aaaeiuo n oi/ee c?aiey oaeoeee aeii?ina i?aeoe/aneeo auaiaeia.

Neaaeiaaoaeue aeieaeai onoaiiaeoue ia aeii?ina, eaeei iooai i?eoae
aeii?aoeaaaiue e auaiaeo i a?aiaiiie eieaeecaoeey e aeeeoaeueiinoe
niauoey i?ioeiai. Ciaiea aiciiaeiuo iooae e niiniaia iaeaa/aao
neaaeiaaoaeth yoo ?aaioo. Aaaeiinoue auyniaiey oaeeo iooae
iiae/a?eeaaaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oai, /oi yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaa?eoue oaeou, iieiaeaiiua a iniiao ioeaiee a?aiaie i?ioeiai, e
ioeaieoue i?aaeeueiinoue auaiaeia aeii?aoeaaaiiai, a n ae?oaie — iaeuecy
caauaaoue e i oii, /oi aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea eiatho eae ?ac yoe
oaeou, a ia oa oiicaeeth/aiey, eioi?ua auee naeaeaiu aeii?aoeaaaiui ia
eo iniiaa.

Ciaiea neaaeiaaoaeai iooae auaaaeaiey caeeth/aiey i a?aiaiiie
eieaeecaoeee e aeeeoaeueiinoe niauoey i?ioeiai eiaao cia/aiea e n oi/ee
c?aiey ieacaiey iiiiue aeii?aoeaaaiiio a iiaeeecaoeee iaiyoe e
ii?aaeaeaiee a?aiaie i?ioeiai. Neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao ieacaoue iiiiuue
aeii?aoeaaaiiio a ii?aaeaeaiee aeeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeiai iooai aiaeeca.
Oaeei ia?acii, ieacuaaaony iiiiuue a au/eneaiee oao eiiiiiaioia
i?ioeiai, ii?aaeaeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ec eioi?uo ia
i?aaenoaaeyao oaeie o?oaeiinoe, eae ii?aaeaeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe oeaeiai.
Iai?eia?, anee aeii?aoeaaaiue cayaeyao, /oi ano?a/a, eioi?ay ian
eioa?anoao, ninoiyeanue aeiai, ii a eioi?ii /ano, oi/ii ia iiiieo,
neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao iiii/ue aio ii?aaeaeeoue a?aiy iooai aiaeeca
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii i?aaeeaaaao aeii?aoeaaaiiio ninoaaeoue
niioaaonoaothuee «?an/ao» a?aiaie n oiai iineaaeiaai iiiaioa, a?aiy
eioi?iai aio oi/ii ecaanoii, aei iiiaioa, a?aiy eioi?iai ii aeaeaao
onoaiiaeoue. Aeii?aoeaaaiue, iai?eia?, iiiieo, /oi ooae ec aeiia
i?eia?ii a iieiaeia iaeeiiaaeoeaoiai e n?aco iioae a oieaa?iaa, ii oio
ieacaeny aua cae?uoui. Iiaeiaeaeae aei ioe?uoey.

?iaii a 11 caoae ociaoue, iieo/aiu ee oieiaeeeueieee. Eo ia ieacaeinue,
e ii ooae. Ia yoi iio?aaiaaeinue i?eia?ii 5 iei. Ec oieaa?iaaa ii iioae
a aeaeeioaeo. Ia aei?iao iio?aoee 20 iei. A aeaeeioaea naeae eieae,
iieo/aiiua ii aaiiaiaioo, e acye ianeieueei iiauo. Ia yoi iio?aaiaaeinue
i?eia?ii iie/ana. Iioii iineaeae a neaa?a e /eoae iaeio ec acyouo a
aeaeeioaea eiea. *eoae i?eia?ii /an. Iinea yoiai iioae a noieiaoth, ia
aei?iao ooei 5 iei. O eannu a i/a?aaee noiye 10 i.ei., ca noieii aeaeae
i?eia?ii 20—25 iei., ae 10—15 iei. Auoae ec noieiaie e ano?aoeeny n
eioa?anothuei ian eeoeii. Cia/eo, iinea 11 /an. i?ioei
5+20+30+60+5+10+20—25+10 — 15 iei., o. a. anaai 165—175 iei., e ano?a/a
ninoiyeanue i?eia?ii a 13 /an. 45 iei.— 13 /an. 55 iei.

A?aiaiiua i?eaioe?u iau/ii ?acaeaeythony ia ia/aeueioth oi/eo ion/aoa,
io eioi?ie aaaeoony i?iiaaeooi/iua, e oie?athony a eiia/ioth, aei
eioi?ie aaaeaony ion/ao. Auai? oi/ee ion/aoa a?aiaie caaeneo io naiiai
ioeaieaaaiiai yaeaiey, io ioiioaiey aeii?aoeaaaiiai e yoiio yaeaieth e
io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae, eioa?ania, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e eiuo
i?eau/ae aeathuaai iieacaiey.

Eco/aiea aii?inia, naycaiiuo n auai?ii oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie,
/?acau/aeii aaaeii n oi/ee c?aiey oaeoeee aeii?ina. Oi/ee ion/aoa
a?aiaie anaaaea aeieaeiu auoue auyniaiu ia aeii?inao, iioiio /oi iie
yaeythony iii?iuie ioieoaie i?e i?iaa?ea iieacaiee, naycaiiuo n
aini?eyoeai a?aiaie. Eae iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey yoiai,
i?ineaaeei ia i?eia?a.

A ia?oa 1956 aiaea aue a?anoiaai ai?-?aoeeaeeaeno A. I?aaiu ieeeoeee
iaaieueoiai ai?iaea, a?anoiaaaoea aai, ?aoeee aunoaaeoue a aeo?eia
iaeiiai ec iaaaceiia ecuyoua o A. i?e iaunea aaue. Iioa?iaaoea, oaeaeaa
naie aaue, ae?oa ca ae?oaii yaeyeenue a ieeeoeeth, i?e/ai n?aaee ieo
auee e oa, eoi a naia a?aiy ia cayaeye i e?aaea o ieo aauae. E a oi aea
a?aiy yaeeenue ianeieueei a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua cayaeee, /oi n?aaee
aunoaaeaiiuo aauae ociaee iieioaioea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaa ?aiueoa E.,
oaeoiio iaecaanoiui i?anooiieeii 16 iiya?y 1954 a. Iaaeiyaiue ia
aeii?ina cayaee, /oi E. ii ieeiaaea ia ciae, a iieioaioea iaoiaeeony a
aai oicyenoaa aieaa aeaoo eao, eai iii inoaeinue o iaai io ia?aie aeaiu,
n eioi?ie ii ?acaaeny aua a ai?aea 1954 aiaea. Niaeeoaeueieoea
iaaeiyaiiai I. cayaeea, /oi iieioaioea iaoiaeeony a oicyenoaa o ieo
oieueei n ia/aea 1955 aiaea, eiaaea iia aica?aoeeanue ec iiacaeee e
naiei ?iaeeoaeyi e aia?aua oaeaeaea yoi iieioaioea.

I?e i?iaa?ea oeacaiiuo oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie ieacaeinue, /oi auaoay
noi?oaa ieeiaaea ia aeaeaea ?aiueoa yoiai iieioaioea e /oi I. iiaoaea e
naiei ?iaeeoaeyi ia oanoue iaaeaeue 22 iiya?y 1955 a. 3ia/eo, iieioaioea
iiaei iiyaeoueny a oicyenoaa ia oieueei a ia/aea yiaa?y, a a n?ie io 22
iiya?y aei ia/aea yiaa?y. Yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea iiaeoaa?aeeeinue ia
neaaenoaee, e iieioaioea noaei aaaeiui aauanoaaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii ii
aeaeo.

Iiuoiua i?anooiieee eiiaaea aei niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey eee /aua anaai
iinea yoiai, ii aei a?anoa aioiayony e aeieacuaaieth naiaai aeeae.
I?anooiiee a i?aaeuaeouaa eee iineaaeothuaa ca i?anooieaieai a?aiy
i?iaiaeeo /anoue aeiy n eeoeii, iaoiaeyueiny aia iiaeic?aiey. Iie
?ann/eouaatho ia oi, /oi n oa/aieai ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie yoio /aeiaae,
ia caiiiiea aeaoo ano?a/e, aoaeao aeaaaoue iaeeiaeiaua n iei iieacaiey e
iiaeoaa?aeeo aeeae. Oae /anoi e auaaao. Iaaeiyaiue ?anneacuaaao,
iai?eia?, /oi ii aianoa oaeeiae n a?-iii A. a oio aa/a?, eiaaea auei
niaa?oaii i?anooieaiea. Aucaaiiue ia aeii?in a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey A.
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoi. Anee naeaeaoaeue aeia?iniaanoiue, oi eiiaaea aio
aeinoaoi/ii caaeaoue aii?in i oi/ea ion/aoa a?aiaie a oi?ia, iai?eia?:
«Au oi/ii iiiieoa, /oi oaeei ninoiyeny ia i?ioeie iaaeaea, eiaiii ai
aoi?iee, a ia a iiiaaeaeueiee eee a n?aaeo, eee a ae?oaea aeie?» — e
naeaeaoaeue nai i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo ia ioeai/iinoe iieacaiey. A iaeiii
neo/aa, iai?eia?, naeaeaoaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ii aue aianoa n
iaaeiyaiui 23. Eiaaea aio caaeaee aeiiieieoaeueiue aii?in, auynieeinue,
/oi 23 aue iiiaaeaeueiee, a ii iiiaaeaeueieeai ii aa/a?aie anaaaea
caiyo, e n iaaeiyaiui aue aianoa ia a iiiaaeaeueiee, a ai aoi?iee.

Anee anoue iiaeic?aiea, /oi naeaeaoaeue iaaeia?iniaanoiue, /oi ii
naiai?eeny n iaaeiyaiui, oi aua oi/iaa ioaeii auynieoue, caoeene?iaaoue
e i?iaa?eoue ana oi/ee ion/aoa a?aiaie. Yoi — iaaeaaeiue iaoiae
?aciaea/aiey oaeiai eaeanaeaeaoaey. Oae, ii aeaeo i a?aaaaea
aeii?ioaiiue a oaa?aea 1958 aiaea naeaeaoaeue I. cayaee, /oi oi?ioi
iiiieo, /oi n iaaeiyaiui aoeye ia aa?aao Aeoiay i?eia?ii io 7 /an. 30
iei. aei 8 /an. 30 iei. a oio aeaiue, eiaaea auei niaa?oaii ia?aaeaiea,
a iioii iioee a aa?. Aeaiue oi?ioi caiiiiee iioiio, /oi aue aeaiue aai
?iaeaeaiey, a /an iioiio, /oi i?eaoaee n iiacaeii a 19 /an. 10 iei. ec
ai?iaea, aaea aianoa ?aaioaee. Iaaeiyaiue aeaaae oi/ii oaeea aea
iieacaiey. I?iaa?ea yoeo oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie iieacaea, /oi o
naeaeaoaey aeaenoaeoaeueii aue aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey a oio aeaiue, e iao
ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi ii oi?ioi iiiieo e aeaoo e ana niauoey
a oio aeaiue. Iieo/aiiay n aiecaea ii oaeaoiio ni?aaea iiaeoaa?aeeea,
/oi iiacae ec eioa?anothuaai ai?iaea i?eauaaao a 19 /an. 10 iei. A oi
aea a?aiy neaaeiaaoaeue ?aniieaaae ana aieueoeie aeaiiuie, oaea
oee/athueie ia oieueei iaaeiyaiiai, ii e I. a niaa?oaiee ia?aaeaiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaei auei i?iaa?eoue, aaea iie auee eiaiii a 18 /an.
30 iei.—18 /an. 40 iei., eiaaea i?anooieaiea auei niaa?oaii: anee iie
iaoiaeeeenue a iiacaea, oi ia iiaee niaa?oeoue i?anooieaiea. I?iaa?ea
?anienaiey iiacaeia ia aiecaea iieacaea, /oi aa/a?iee iiacae a aeaiiia
a?aiy aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eauaaao a 19 /an. 10 iei., ii a aeaiue
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey aeaenoaiaaei aua eaoiaa ?anienaiea e iiacae
i?eaue ia /an ?aiueoa. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oii, /oi I. e
iaaeiyaiue ca?aiaa naiai?eeenue i aea/a eiaeiuo iieacaiee.

Eco/aiea aua?aiiuo oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieaaoue
aeinoiaa?iinoue iieacaiee.

Cia/aiea ciaiey neaaeiaaoaeai aii?inia, naycaiiuo n auai?ii oi/ee
ion/aoa a?aiaie, yoei aua ia en/a?iuaaaony. Neaaeiaaoaeue aeieaeai
oiaoue ieacaoue iiiiuue aeia?iniaanoiiio naeaeaoaeth a auai?a oi/ee
ion/aoa a?aiaie, eiaaea ii nai aeaeaao i?iaa?eoue, i?aaeeueii ee ii
aniiiiee eaeoth-oi aeaoo eee aeeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaie. A oaeie iiiiue
eiiaaea ioaeaeathony e iaaeiyaiua, iniaaiii anee iie ?aoeee /anoii
?anneacaoue iai anai, /oi eioa?anoao neaaeiaaoaey. Ciaiea neaaeiaaoaeai
a?aiaiiuo i?eaioe?ia, iiaoueo auoue oi/eaie ion/aoa a?aiaie, e
naiaa?aiaiiia oiiieiaiea i ieo ia aeii?ina iiaoo oaaaeeoue iaaeiyaiiai a
aanniuneaiiinoe aea/e eiaeiuo iieacaiee. *?acau/aeii aieueoia
oaeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaao ieacaiea iiiiue ni noi?iiu neaaeiaaoaey
aeii?aoeaaaiiio a auai?a oi/ee ion/aoa a?aiaie, anee ii ia iiaeao yoiai
naeaeaoue nai e cayaeyao, /oi ia iiiieo e ia iiaeao i?eiiiieoue a?aiaie
eioa?anothueo neaaenoaea niauoee.

Oaeoe/anee i?aaeeueii ieacaiiay a aeaiiii neo/aa iiiiuue /anoi i?eaiaeeo
e oiio, /oi aniiieiatho aeaaea oaeea aeaiiua, i eioi?uo aeii?aoeaaaiue
aeoiaao, /oi ii eo iieiinoueth caaue, e oaeay iiiiuue iiaeao auoue
ieacaia aac aiooaiey ni noi?iiu neaaeiaaoaey, /oi iniaaiii iiae/a?eeaaao
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea ainnoaiiaeaiiuo oaeei iooai a iaiyoe aeao
e ae?oaeo aeaiiuo.

A yenia?eiaioao Yeueeeia eniuooaiua i?e auai?a yaeaiee a ea/anoaa oi/ae
ion/aoa a?aiaie ecae?aee niauoey, eioi?ua oi?ioi iiiiyony (100%),
eieaeece?othony ai a?aiaie (96%), cia/eoaeueiua (89%), aeeceea e
yaeaieth, i eioi?ii eaeao ?a/ue (66%), e eioi?ua naycaiu n y?eeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie (71%). Oaeeie aea aeieaeiu auoue e oi/ee ion/aoa,
i?aaeeaaaaiua neaaeiaaoaeai a iiiiuue aeii?aoeaaaiiio. Aeey yoiai
neaaeiaaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue aeeciue aeii?aoeaaaiiai e ociaoue,
eaeea o iaai anoue niauoey, ciaiaiaoaeueiua aeaou a ee/iie aeecie, ia
?aaioa, i?acaeieee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?aaeeiaeaiu aio a ea/anoaa
oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie e iii?u aeey iiaeeecaoeee iaiyoe. I?e yoii ioaeii
o/eouaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiai. O iaeiiai
aieueoie eioa?an aucuaatho, iai?eia?, oooaieueiua ea?u, o ae?oaiai iie
ia caieiatho ianoa, o eieoicieea oi?ioi caiiieiathony niauoey, naycaiiua
n oiaeii naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio, o nooaeaioa—aeie yecaiaiaoeeiiiie
nannee e i?. I aieueoii ?aciiia?acee oaeeo oi/ae ion/aoa a?aiaie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i?eia?u ec i?aeoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Oae, ii aeaeo ia oaeenoaa 3. naeaeaoaeue-o?aeoi?eno A. niiauee, /oi ii
aeaeae, eiaaea I. e aua iaeioi?ua ioae/eiu noiyee a eiiiaoa 3., e?e/aee
ia iaa, auaaee ia oeeoeo e iiaaee eoaea-oi a noi?iio naeueniaaoa. Ia
aii?in, «eiaaea aea i?iecioae yoio neo/ae», naeaeaoaeue ioaaoee: «Yoi
auei inaiueth 1951 aiaea ia?aae ?aeeaeiciui i?acaeieeii «Ieoaeea», aieaa
oi/ii y iacaaoue aeaoo ia iiao».

Iiiiuue ni noi?iiu neaaeiaaoaey iiaeao eiaoue ianoi e a neo/ayo, anee
a?aiy ii?aaeaeyaony ia iooai auai?a i?eaioe?a, a eiui niiniaii.

Neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao ieacaoue iiiiuue a aini?iecaaaeaiee aeii?aoeaaaiui
a iaiyoe oaea ?aiaa iiaen/eoaiiie aeeeoaeueiinoe. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
ioaeii ni?ineoue o aeii?aoeaaaiiai, ia iiaen/eoae ee ii ?aiueoa
aeeeoaeueiinoue, anee aea, oi eiaaea e n eaeie oeaeueth, caiiiiee ee ii
?acoeueoao iiaen/aoa iai?iecaieueii eee n ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaeueth, ia
oeene?iaae ee a naia a?aiy nai iiaen/ao eee ?acoeueoao ienueiaiii, ia
inoaeenue ee oaeea caiene e ia niiauae ee ii onoii eee ienueiaiii
eiio-ieaoaeue i naieo iiaen/aoao, iiaeao ee ii nae/an aniiiieoue, ec
eaeeo eiiiiiaioia neaaaeenue a naia a?aiy yoe iiaen/aou.

Neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao ieacaoue iiiiuue a ii?aaeaeaiee aeeeoaeueiinoe
a?aiaie e a oii neo/aa, anee iii i?ienoiaeeo iooai n?aaiaiey. A oaeii
neo/aa neaaeiaaoaeue iiiiaaao aniiiieoue niioaaonoaothuea niauoey n
ecaanoiuie aeii?aoeaaaiiio ii aeeeoaeueiinoe a?aiaie, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue iauaeoaie n?aaiaiey. Iaeiaei caeanue ioaeii i?iyaeyoue aieueooth
inoi?iaeiinoue, /oiau ia aiooeoue niioaaonoaothuee ioaao
aeii?aoeaaaiiio. Anee neaaeiaaoaeue caaeaao aii?in oae, /oi ec iaai
naeaeaoaeth aeaeii aai iiaiea, oi yoi ieacuaaao io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea
ia naiaiaeiia oa/aiea aai iuneae e iiaeao io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyoue ia
i?aaaeeainoue iieacaiee aeii?aoeaaaiiai. Iniaaiii aiooathuaa aeaenoaea
ieacuaaao oaeiai ?iaea aii?in, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo oieueei iaeei aa?eaio
n?aaiaiey, eee anee anoue e ianeieueei aa?eaioia, ii ec ieo i?eaieai
oieueei iaeei, a inoaeueiua yaii ia iiaeoiaeyo aeey n?aaiaiey. Iauaeoaie
aeey n?aaiaiey eo/oa anaai auae?aoue aeeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee, oi?ioi
ciaeiiuo aeii?aoeaaaiiio. Iai?eia?, aeiiioicyeea, ia iiaouae
ii?aaeaeeoue aeeeoaeueiinoue eaeiai-oi, eiathuaai aeey neaaenoaey
cia/aiey ?acaiai?a, iiaeii caaeaoue aii?in i oii, oaaoeei au a?aiaie
?acaiai?a, /oiau naa?eoue yeoei eee enia/ue oi?o e o. ae.

I?aaenoaaeoaee ao?aeoaciie e?eieiaeenoe/aneie ineoieiaee aieueoia
aieiaiea oaeaeytho aii?ino i aeeyiee aieiaiey ia aini?eyoea a?aiaie.
Iie, eae e ao?aeoaciua ineoieiae aiiaua, ia iiaee i?eeoe e aaeeiie oi/ea
c?aiey ii yoiio aii?ino. Iaeie n/eoaee, /oi nin?aaeioi/aiea aieiaiey ia
oa/aiee a?aiaie oooaeoaao aai aini?eyoea, ae?oaea ooaa?aeaeaee ia?aoiia;
iaeie n/eoaee, /oi aieiaiea aaaeao e ia?aioeaiea, a ae?oaea — e
iaaeiioeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe a?aiaie44. Oaeia ?anoiaeaeaiea anoue
neaaenoaea iai?aaeeueiie iaoiaeeee yenia?eiaioia e
iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e eniuoaieyi.

I?aaeeueii iinoaaeaiiua yenia?eiaiou niaaoneiai o/aiiai Ae. A. Yeueeeia
i?eaaee e auaiaeo, /oi nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue aieiaiey yaeyaony aaaeiie
i?aaeiinueeie oi/iinoe aini?eyoey o eeoe, iau/iay aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo o?aaoao oiieie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee a?aiaie, eae, iai?eia?, o
oioia?aoa, auaea?aeeaathuaai ii?aaeaeaiioth yeniiceoeeth, o
oeceoeueoo?ieea, io eioi?iai o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiue oaii aeaeaeaiey, ii
oieueei a ?aieao eioa?aaeia a?aiaie, niioaaonoaothueo eo iau/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo e nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe aieiaiey ia
oa/aiee a?aiaie i?eniaaeeiyaony ninoiyiea iaeeaeaiey, /oi i?eaiaeeo
iau/ii e ioeaeai a noi?iio aai ia?aioeaiee. Yoi e ioaeii o/eouaaoue i?e
ioeaiea iieacaiey i aeeeoaeueiinoe eaeiai-oi a?aiaie, anee ai a?aiy
aini?eyoey aieiaiea aeii?aoeaaaiiai auei nin?aaeioi/aii eiaiii ia
oa/aiee yoiai a?aiaie, eiaaea ii aeaeae ianooieaiey eiioea eaeiai-oi
i?iiaaeooea eee oioae niaa?oeoue eaeia-oi aeaenoaea a ?aieao
niioaaonoaothuaai eioa?aaea a?aiaie.

Aua aieueoaa i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea aeey neaaeiaaoaey eiaao ciaiea
caeiiiia?iinoae aeeyiey yiioeee ia oi/iinoue aini?eyoey a?aiaie.
Niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey iau/ii aucuaaao o i?anooiieea aicaoaeaeaiea, o
iioa?iaaoaai aieue, o naeaeaoaey aiciouaiea e iaaiaeiaaiea — neiaii,
iaei eoi aac?acee/ii iaaethaeaao ca i?anooiiuie aeaenoaeyie.
Io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee «?anoyaeaatho» a?aiaiiua i?iiaaeooee: /ai
iai?eyoiaa ia?aaeeoia, oai aieaa iaaeeaiiui i?aaenoaaeyaony aai oa/aiea,
oai aieaa aeeeoaeueiui eaaeaony iii a ainiiieiaiee, e iaiai?io, /ai
i?eyoiaa ia?aaeeoia, oai aieaa no?aieoaeueiui eaaeaony aai oa/aiea, oai
aieaa ei?ioeei aai aeeeoaeueiinoue45. A yenia?eiaioao Oaaa?aaie i?inoia
iaoe?aiea eeoea oieiaeiui ieaoeii a aea?eia a?aiy aiaea iiauoaei
oi/iinoue ioeaiee iaaieueoeo eioa?aaeia a?aiaie46, a a yenia?eiaioao
Yeueeeia 95% eniuooaiuo iaaeiioeaieaaee a?aiy, iio?a/aiiia ia /oaiea
?anneaca Ai?ueeiai, e 90% ia?aioeaieaaee iauaeoeaii oaeia aea a?aiy, ii
cao?a/aiiia ia /oaiea neiaa?y.

Neaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny yoeie naaaeaieyie, ii?aaeaeyy
oaeoeeo aeii?ina e i?e ioeaiea aai ?acoeueoaoia. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii
aeieaeai auynieoue oa yiioeeiiaeueiua oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iiaee iiaeeyoue
ia aini?eyoea a?aiaie aeii?aoeaaaiui, n ae?oaie — aeieaeai o/anoue yoe
oaeoi?u i?e ioeaiea iieacaiee. Iieacaiey iioa?iaaoeo i aeeeoaeueiinoe
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey a i?aiaeaaeathuai aieueoeinoaa iinyo oa?aeoa?
ia?aioeaiee. Oaeie aea oa?aeoa? iinyo e iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae, n
iaaiaeiaaieai iaaethaeaaoeo ca i?anooiiuie aeaenoaeyie. Aieaa
aaeaeaaoiua aeaiiua niaea?aeaony a ioaaoao ia aii?inu, ioiinyueany ia e
naiiio oaeoo niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, a iai?aaeaiiua ia auyniaiea
ae?oaeo eioa?anothueo neaaenoaea oaeoi?ia.

N aini?eyoeai a?aiaie oanii naycaii e ia?aaeei yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii
aeii?ina aini?eyoea nei?inoe. *anoi caaeatho aii?inu i nei?inoe ia
aeii?inao i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee aeae i o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaeyo e aaa?eyo
ia i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/ai iiaeic?aaaaiiio eee iaaeiyaiiio oaeea aii?inu
caaeathony iau/ii ioiineoaeueii iieacaiee nieaeiiao?a, a ae?oaei —
ioiineoaeueii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey nei?inoe.

Anee i?aaeiao aeaeaeaony i/aiue iaaeeaiii, iu ia a neeao caiaoeoue
aeaeaeaiea. Ieieiaeueiay aini?eieiaaiay nei?inoue ?aaia 1—2 oaeiaui
a?aaeonai a nae., i?e/ai iia oiaea oieueei oiaaea aini?eieiaaony, eiaaea
ia?aiauathueeny i?aaeiao iaoiaeeony ia oiia ae?oaeo iaiiaeaeaeiuo
i?aaeiaoia.

Aii?inu i aini?eyoee oaeeo ieieiaeueiuo nei?inoae iiaoo aicieeaoue i?e
?anneaaeiaaiee aeae i ian/anoiuo neo/ayo ia i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea
iaaeeaiiia e iacaiaoiia ia?aiauaiea (neieueaeaiea) iaeioi?uo aeaoaeae
eee oeaeuo iaoei iiaeao i?eaanoe e aiacaiiiio ia?ooaieth ?aaiiaaney e e
aaa?ee.

I/aiue aieueoea nei?inoe oiaea ia aini?eieiathony. Oi/ea, aeaeaeouayny n
i/aiue aieueoie nei?inoueth, eaaeaony eeieae, nieoeu auno?i a?auathueony
eiean ia aini?eieiathony. Iaeneiaeueiay aini?eieiaaiay nei?inoue a
caaeneiinoe io y?einoe aeaeaeouaainy i?aaeiaoa ninoaaeyao 1,4—3,5
oaeiaiai a?aaeona a 0,01 nae. Yenia?eiaioaeueiui iooai e
niioaaonoaothuei ia?a?an/aoii anaaaea iiaeii au/eneeoue nei?inoue a
ei//an, anee a yoii anoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ia iniiaa oaeeo iieacaiee, a
eioi?uo aiai?eony i nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey eaeeo-oi aeaoaeae, oi?ia eioi?uo
ia auea oaea aini?eieiaaia. Ioiaoei, /oi nei?inoue eaoyuae ioee anaaaea
i?aauoaao aini?eieiaaioth aeacii nei?inoue e iiyoiio iieacaiea i yeiau
aeaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee iieaoa ioee anaaaea iai?aaaeiiiaeiaii.

A i?aeoeea aeii?ina a ?yaea neo/aaa aicieeatho aii?inu, naycaiiua n
aini?eieiaaiuie nei?inoyie. Iieacaiey aeii?aoeaaaiuo i nei?inoyo, eae
i?aaeei, /?acau/aeii iaii?aaeaeaiiu e iaoi/iu. Ii oiiiyiooiio ?aiaa
aeaeo i noieeiiaaiee iiacaea n aaoiaonii, iai?eia?, iaeie naeaeaoaee
iieacaee, /oi aaoiaon aoae «i/aiue iaaeeaiii», ae?oaea ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
«ni nei?inoueth iaaeeaiii eaeouaai /aeiaaea», a o?aouee aiai?eee, /oi «n
auno?ioie a 5—10 ei a /an». Aua iaiaa ii?aaeaeaiiie eaaeaony nei?inoue,
i?aauoathuay iau/ioth, i?eau/ioth. A eeoa?aoo?a iau/ii oeacuaatho, /oi
aiaeeoaee, ?aaioieee o?ainii?oa oi?ioi ii?aaeaeytho nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. I?aeoeea iieacaea, /oi oaeea eeoea
aeaenoaeoaeueii eo/oa ii?aaeaeytho nei?inoue, /ai ethaee, ia ?aaioathuea
ia o?ainii?oa, ii iie, i?eaueoea ioeaieaaoue nei?inoue, neaey a
aeaeaeouainy o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa, ieacuaaynue naeaeaoaeyie e
aini?eieiay nei?inoue ia a naiii o?ainii?oiii n?aaenoaa, a aia aai, noiy
eee ia?aaeaeaaynue iaoeii, /anoi ioeaathony. Iau/ii aieaa i?aaeeueii
aiaeeoaee ioeaieaatho nei?inoue oao o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua
ia?aaiaee eo iaoeio eee eioi?ua iie iaiaiaee naie.

I?aaeiaoii aeii?ina /anoi yaeyaony aini?eyoea ?a/e. Iii ia naiaeeony
oieueei e neooiaiio iuouaieth caoeia. A ?a/e aini?eieiathony
niaea?aeaueany a iae iunee. Aio ii/aio ia aini?eieiaaony, iai?eia?,
?a/ue ia iaciaeiiii aini?eieiathuaio ycuea. Anee aeii?aoeaaaiue ia ciaao
oioy au ianeieueei neia yoie ?a/e, ii ia iiaeao aa aini?eiyoue, e aeaaea
anee ciaeii n iaeioi?uie neiaaie, ii ia aeaaeaao a?aiiaoeeie, oi
aini?eieiaao aa iaiieii. Eiiaaea aeii?aoeaaaiue aeaao iieacaiea i oii,
/oi neuoaiiue ei ?acaiai? i?ienoiaeee ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ycuea.
Aa?iyoiinoue aeinoiaa?iinoe oaeiai iieacaiey oiaea oai aieueoa, /ai
aieueoa ii ciaao yoio ycue. Ii aieueoaai, /ai oaeia iieacaiea i ?a/e,
iaiiiyoiie ii niaea?aeaieth, io aeii?aoeaaaiiai iaeeaeaoue iaeuecy.

Ia aini?eieiaaony, iai?eia?, ai?ianeia a?ai eeoeii, ia iiieiathuei aai,
ia aini?eieiaaony oaeaea aeieeaae i aunoae iaoaiaoeea eeoeii, ia
ciaeiiui n yoie iaoeie. E ouaoiuie ieaaeoony, eae i?aaeei, iiiuoee
neaaeiaaoaey i?ineoue i?eiiiieoue «oioy au iaeii neiai ec neuoaiiie
?a/e». Iieacaiea i oii, /oi aeii?aoeaaaiue neuoae iaiiiyoioth aio ?a/ue
e i?e yoii oeiaee e caiiiiee iaeioi?ua iaiiiyoiua aio neiaa e aeaaea
o?acu, iai?aaaeiiiaeiaii e aeaaea, iiaeao auoue, yaeyaony niaoeeaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiui n oeaeueth aaanoe neaaenoaea a caaeoaeaeaiea.

Aini?eyoea e iiieiaiea ?a/e acaeiinaycaiu, ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ae?oa
aac ae?oaa, ninoaaeytho aaeeiue i?ioeann. A ?a/e aini?eieiathony
oece/aneea caoee, ii iie a iae i?aaenoaaeaiu a ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia,
niioaaonoaothuae neiaa?iiio oiiaeo e a?aiiaoeea aeaiiiai ycuea, e
i?aaenoaaeytho ii?aaeaeaiiia ycueiaia cia/aiea. A aini?eyoee ?a/e
aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao aini?eyoea eioiiaoeee. Aini?eieiay eioiiaoeee
?a/e, iu neuoei, ai-ia?auo, iiauoaiea e iiieaeaiea auniou iniiaiiai oiia
?a/e, ai-aoi?uo, ?an/eaiaiea o?acu ia niuneiaua eonee i?e iiiiue
oaea?aiey e iaoc e, a-o?aoueeo, au?aaeaiea i?inueau, oi?aea, ecoieaiey,
oa?icu a oaia?a ?a/e47. A naiuo iaueo /a?oao iiaeii aini?eiyoue
eioiiaoeeth e a oii neo/aa, anee niaea?aeaiea ?a/e ia aini?eieiaaony, a
oaeaea eioiiaoeeth ?a/e ia iaciaeiiii ycuea. Oae, auaatho
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, a eioi?uo, iai?eia?, aiai?eony: «ss neuoae,
/oi a ninaaeiae eaa?oe?a nni?eeenue ioae/eia e aeaiueia, i?e/ai ioae/eia
eae aoaeoi oa?iaeae ae, a iia eae au oiieyea aai». Oaeiio iieacaieth
neaaeoao i?eaeaaaoue cia/aiea aeaaea a neo/aa, anee naeaeaoaeue ia iiiye
ie iaeiiai neiaa ec ?acaiai?a, i?ienoiaeyuaai a ninaaeiae eiiiaoa, e ia
aii?in neaaeiaaoaey a ioiioaiee niaea?aeaiey neuoaiiiai ?acaiai?a ie/aai
ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue. Eioiiaoeey ?a/e aua eo/oa aini?eieiaaony oiaaea,
eiaaea e neooiaui iuouaieyi i?eniaaeeiythony c?eoaeueiua. O aiai?yuaai
/aeiaaea ?a/ue nii?iaiaeaeaaony ieieeie e au?aceoaeueiuie aeaeaeaieyie —
iaioiieiie. Iiyoiio aieaa aa?iyoiie yaeyaony aeinoiaa?iinoue iieacaiey
eeoea ia eioiiaoeee neuoaiiie ?a/e, anee ii eiae aiciiaeiinoue e
c?eoaeueii iaaethaeaoue ca niauoeyie.

?acae?aoueny a neiaao, iiieiaoue eo ioaeaeueii aua iaaeinoaoi/ii, /oiau
iiieiaoue ?a/ue. «Iiiyoiinoue ?a/e caaeneo, ai-ia?auo, io aa niuneiaiai
niaea?aeaiey, ai-aoi?uo, io aa ycueiauo iniaaiiinoae e, a-o?aoueeo, io
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aa neiaeiinoueth, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e o?iaiai
?acaeoey, e?oaii ciaiee e eioa?ania neooaoaeae eee /eoaoaeae, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu» 48.

O/ao oeacaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa iniaaiii aaaeai i?e aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae.
*anoi auaaao, /oi naeaeaoaeue oioy e neuoae ?acaiai? iaaeiyaiuo, ii ia
iiiye e ia iiaeao iieacaoue i iai ie/aai oeaiiiai aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey.
Naeaeaoaeue i?e oaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao a eo/oai neo/aa niiauaao, /oi
?a/ue oea i eaeeo-oi oeieeaeeyo, i eaeeo-oi aooaaeoa?neeo aeaiiuo, ii
eiie?aoii ie/aai ?anneacaoue ia iiaeao. Yoi aeieaeii auoue o/oaii
neaaeiaaoaeai e i?e oi?ioee?iaea caaeaaaaiuo aeii?aoeaaaiiio aii?inia.
Aieueoei ianoa?noaii iaeaaeaao neaaeiaaoaeue, eioi?ue iiaeao i?inoi
eceaaaoue naie aii?inu, /oiau iie auee iiiyoiu e iaeieoeueoo?iiio
aeii?aoeaaaiiio.

I niuneiaii niaea?aeaiee aii?ina e aeaaea aai ycueiaii ioi?ieaiee
neaaeiaaoaeue aeieaeai iiiieoue anaaaea:

iie aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue o?iaith ?acaeoey, e?oao ciaiee e cai?inia
aeii?aoeaaaiiai. I?e yoii ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi aeii?aoeaaaiua eiiaaea
noaniythony i?eciaaaoueny a oii, /oi ia iiieiatho aii?ina. Aio ii/aio
anaaaea, iniaaiii a neo/aa neiaeiinoe aii?ina, ioaeii ?acuynieoue
oa?iaeeai aai niaea?aeaiea, ni?ineoue, iiiye ee aai aeii?aoeaaaiue, e
aeaaea niaoeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiui aii?inii i?iaa?eoue yoi. ?annoiyiea, ia
eioi?ii iiaeii iiieiaoue ?a/ue iau/iie a?iieinoe, caaeneo, i?aaeaea
anaai, io ?yaea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo aiiaua ia neuoeiinoue caoea, a
oaeaea io ?yaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae eae eeoea, i?ieciinyuaai
neiaa, oae e eeoea, aini?eieiathuaai eo. ?a/ue ia ?iaeiii ycuea
aini?eieiaaony ia aieueoai ?annoiyiee, /ai ?a/ue ia ia ?iaeiii ycuea,
aeaaea anee yoei ycueii oi?ioi aeaaeaao aini?eieiathuaa eeoei. Iaeei
/aeiaae i?ieciineo ?a/ue aieaa iiiyoii, /ai ae?oaie. Yoi oiaea aeeyao ia
ea/anoai aini?eyoey. I?e/ai ?a/ue oi?ioi ciaeiiiai eeoea aini?eieiaaony
ia aieueoai ?annoiyiee, /ai iaciaeiiiai. Iniaaiii aieueoia aeeyiea ia
aini?eyoea ?a/e ieacuaaao ninoiyiea i?aaia neooa aini?eieiathuaai eeoea.
A?inn niiauaao ia iiuoao Aaoeieaea, a eioi?uo ec 100 eniuooaiuo a
aic?anoa noa?oa 50 eao ia ieacaeinue ie iaeiiai, eioi?ue iiieiae au
iau/ioth ?acaiai?ioth ?a/ue ia ?annoiyiee 16 i, e a oi aea a?aiy ec 1918
eniuooaiuo oeieueieeia a aic?anoa io 7 aei 18 eao 46,5% iiieiaee oaeoth
?a/ue ia ?annoiyiee 20 i. Ia ?annoiyiee 16—8 i ec eeoe noa?oa 50 eao
?a/ue iiiyee oieueei 10,5%, a ec eeoe 7—18 eao, e?iia oeacaiiuo 46,5%,
aua 32,7%49. I?eaaaeaiiua naaaeaiey iieacuaatho, /oi neuoeiinoue e
?acae?aaiinoue ?a/e ioaeii i?iaa?youe iooai i?iaaaeaiey neaaenoaaiiiai
yenia?eiaioa, a ioeaiea iieacaiee aeieaeia iie?aoueny, i?aaeaea anaai,
ia oaeoth i?iaa?eo. Iniiaiui caeiaii i?aaeeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey
yenia?eiaioa yaeyaony i?aaeeueii, iieii i?iaaaeaiiue aeii?in, a eioi?ii
oeene?othony ana aeaiiua, eiathuea aeeyiea ia i?iaa?yaiia yaeaiea, a
aeaiiii neo/aa ia aini?eieiaaiinoue ?a/e. I?e yoii ioiaoei, /oi iiiaea
eeoea aieueoa caiiieiatho iniaaiiinoe aieina e ?a/e, /ai /a?ou eeoea.
Aio ii/aio i?e aeii?inao iieacii eioa?aniaaoueny, neuoae ee naeaeaoaeue
eee iioa?iaaoee ?a/ue iiaeic?aaaaiiai eee iaaeiyaiiai, e aeaaea eiiaaea
ni?ineoue iiaeic?aaaaiiai eee iaaeiyaiiai, ia neuoae ee ii aieina naieo
nio/anoieeia, e ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo iooai aeii?ina aeaiiuo i?iaanoe
iiiciaiea e ia aeae, e ia neoo. A i?aeoeea iaaethaeathony neo/ae, eiaaea
iiiciaiea ii iniaaiiinoyi aieina e ?a/e i?eaiaeeei e iieiaeeoaeueiui
?acoeueoaoai. I?e/ai i?iaaaeaiiia a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie
oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiiciaiea ai iiiaii
auea?uaaao a aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiii cia/aiee, anee iii i?iaiaeeony aia/aea
ia neoo, eiaaea iiiciathuaa eeoei ia aeaeeo iiiciaaaaiiai, a iioii ii
/a?oai aiaoiinoe, eiaaea i?aaeuyaeaiiua aeey iiiciaiey eeoea ia
?acaiaa?eaatho. Oae iinooiee, iai?eia?, neaaeiaaoaeue ii aeaeo ia
ia?aaeaiee aiaeeoaey oaene. 2 ethey 1957 a. ii/ueth yaeeanue a 4-a
?aeioaeaeaiea ieeeoeee a. Aoaeaiaooa O.— aiaeeoaeue oaene. Eeoei e
ieaouea o iaa auee a e?iae, iaoeia oiaea enia/eaia e?iaueth.

Ia aeii?ina O. ?anneacaea, /oi a iaoeio nae iaeei iannaaee? e iii?inee
iiaoaoue a i?eai?iae. Eiaaea i?eaoaee a iaeiianaeaiioth ianoiinoue,
iannaaee? noae n iae ae?aoueny, aaa/iui eeth/ii iaian iiiai ?ai,
auioaeee aa aueoe ec iaoeiu, ii O. oaeaeinue iiyoue i?uaiooue a iaoeio e
oaoaoue. Ia aii?in neaaeiaaoaey O. ?anneacaea, /oi ii aei?iaa iia
?acaiaa?eaaea n iaecaanoiui iannaaee?ii, ?anneacaea aai i?eiaou e
cayaeea, /oi caiiiieea aai aiein e iiaeao aeaaea iiiciaoue aai.

Ia?aaeaiea auei i?iecaaaeaii aac naeaeaoaeae, i?oaeea i?anooieaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeaei iioa?iaaoae. ssnii, eaeia cia/aiea a iauae oeaie
aeieacaoaeuenoa, oee/athueo iiaeic?aaaaiiai Ae., eiaei iiiciaiea aai
iioa?iaaoae. Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou i?iecaaaeaiiuo aeaoo iiiciaiee—
iaeii ii aieino, ae?oaia ii /a?oai aiaoiinoe — nua?aee aieueooth ?ieue a
?aciaea/aiee i?anooiieea.

Niaaoneay ineoieiae/aneay iaoea, i?eciaaay nouanoaiaaiea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ?a/e ?acee/iuo ethaeae, a oi aea a?aiy
aunooiaao i?ioea oao ao?aeoaciuo o/aiee i ?a/e, eioi?ua, o?aeooy ?a/aaie
i?ioeann eae eneeth/eoaeueii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia yaeaiea, eaii?e?otho
nioeeaeueioth i?e?iaeo ycuea e ?a/e.

A neaaenoaaiiie i?aeoeea iu ano?a/aainy n iieacaieyie naeaeaoaeae,
iioa?iaaoeo, iiaeic?aaaaiuo eee iaaeiyaiuo, a eioi?uo eceaaaaony
niaea?aeaiea ?aiaa eiaaoaai ianoi ?acaiai?a. I?e/ai eiiaaea ii
eceaaaaony n aieueoie iieiioie e oi/iinoueth, ii a oi aea a?aiy
aeii?aoeaaaiue ia iiiieo ie iaeiiai neiaa o/anoieeia ?acaiai?a, eceaaaao
ana neuoaiiia naieie neiaaie. Eiia/ii, aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey aeaea
aieueoia cia/aiea iiaeao eiaoue oi, anee aeii?aoeaaaiue aeineiaii iiiieo
ianeieueei neia eee o?ac, ii iao iniiaaiee ia aeiaa?youe aeii?aoeaaaiiio
oieueei ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi neuoaiiia ii eceaaaao naieie neiaaie.

Ie?oaeathuay ian aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i/aiue ?aciiia?acia. Aini?eieiaoue
iaeiia?aiaiii aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee
iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio /aeiaae auaeaeyao ianeieueei i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee,
a eiiaaea aeaaea oieueei oa ec ieo, eioi?ua noaiiayony iauaeoaie
aini?eyoey.

Neaaeiaaoaeue, ii?aaeaeyy aiciiaeiue e?oa naeaeaoaeae, aeieaeai
i?iaeoiaoue, eoi iia iaaethaeaoue aeaiiia yaeaiea e eoi, aa?iyoiaa
anaai, aini?eiye aai. Aio ii/aio aaaeiui yaeyaony aii?in i auyaeaiee
naeaeaoaeae, i oii, eae ec iiiaiia?acey ie?oaeathuae ian n?aaeu
auaeaeyoue ioaeiua iauaeou.

I?e aeii?ina iiaeic?aaaaiuo e iaaeiyaiuo ia?aaeei aicieeaao aii?in,
iiaee ee iie ia caiaoeoue eaeiai-ieaoaeue oaeoa eee aea niciaoaeueii
oiae/eaatho i iai. ?aoaiea oaeeo aii?inia ai iiiaeo neo/ayo yaeyaony
eeth/ii e auaiaeo i aeia?iniaanoiinoe naeaeaoaey e i?aaaeeainoe aai
iieacaiee. Eoae, ciaiea caeiiiia?iinoae auaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee
ec iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo a ea/anoaa iauaeoia aini?eyoey yaeyaony aaaeiui
oneiaeai i?aaeeueiiai auyaeaiey naeaeaoaeae, i?aaeeueiie ioeaiee
iieacaiee eae naeaeaoaeae e iioa?iaaoeo, oae e iaaeiyaiuo, e
iiaeic?aaaaiuo.

I?aaeiao auaeaeyaony ec ?yaea ae?oaeo a caaeneiinoe io ioiioaiey e iaio.
Ineoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea eiaao ecae?aoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iia
iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oi aeey ee/iinoe a aeaiiia a?aiy eiaao iaeaieueooth
cia/eiinoue. Yoa iai?aaeaiiinoue e nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue ineoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ee/iinoe yaeyaony aieiaieai. Aieiaiea, ii au?aaeaieth
Ooeineiai, «anoue eiaiii oa aeaa?ue, /a?ac eioi?oth i?ioiaeeo ana, /oi
oieueei aoiaeeo a aeooo /aeiaaea ec aiaoiaai ie?a».

Iai?aaeaiiinoue e oaeoaeaiiinoue—iniiaiua /a?ou, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
aieiaiea. Ec oiai oaeoa, /oi ineoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe eiaao
ecae?aoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oi a aeaiiue iiiaio eiaao
aeey iaa iaeaieueooth cia/eiinoue, iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu a
ioiioaiee oaeoeee aeii?ina.

Yoie caeiiiia?iinoueth i?aaeaea anaai iauyniythony ?acee/ey a iieacaieyo
?aciuo eeoe: oi, /oi eiaao cia/aiea aeey iaeiie ee/iinoe a aeaiiue
iiiaio, iiaeao ia eiaoue ieeaeiai cia/aiey aeey ae?oaie. Iiyoiio iooai
eco/aiey ee/iinoe, eioa?ania, oaaaeaeaiee aeii?aoeaaaiuo ioaeii
iiiuoaoueny iauynieoue ?anoiaeaeaiey a eo iieacaieyo. I?e iaee/ee
aiciiaeiinoe ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeii?ineoue i oii aea oaeoa ?aciuo eeoe n
?acee/iuie eioa?anaie. Iaeuecy ia?aie/eoueny iaeiei-aeaoiy aeii?inaie,
nnueaynue ia oi, eae yoi ia i?aeoeea, e niaeaeaieth, eiiaaea eiaao
ianoi, /oi naeaeaoaee oieueei iiaoi?ytho oaea ecaanoiua neaaeiaaoaeth
aeaiiua. Iie /anoi iiaoi?ytho oa aea, «a?inathueany a aeaca» aeaiiua,
eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ecotho nouiinoue niaa?oaiiiai i?anooiiiai
aeayiey, ii eo aieiaiea iiaoo i?eaea/ue oaeea aoi?inoaiaiiua,
ianouanoaaiiua, neo/aeiua aeey naiiai i?anooiiiai aeaenoaey iiiaiou,
eioi?ua aeey ieo eiatho cia/aiea aaeaeo eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eioa?ania e
iiaoo eiaoue aanueia aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeiu
iaaeiyaiiai e aiiaua aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey i?anooieaiee. A. A.
Ieiioeianeee ieoao: «…a nenoaia nia?aiiuo neaaeiaaoaeai
aeieacaoaeuenoa yoei ianoiyoaeuenoaai, neo/aeiui aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
naiie nouiinoe niaa?oaiiiai i?anooiiiai aeaenoaey, iiaeao
i?eiaaeeaaeaoue aeaaiia, ?aoathuaa eee, ai anyeii neo/aa, nouanoaaiiia
cia/aiea i?e onoaiiaeaiee aeiu ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea a eie?eieie?oaiii
aio i?anooieaiee».

Eco/aiea eioa?anothueo neaaeiaaoaey oaeoia n oi/ee c?aiey oiai, aeey
eaeeo eeoe iie iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue cia/aiea, iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue e
auyaeaieth naeaeaoaeae. Onoaiiaeaiea i?eia?iiai e?oaa eioa?ania e
iiaoueo eiaoue cia/aiea aeey ee/iinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiai oaeoia yaeyaony
iniiaiui oneiaeai i?aaeeueiiai niiinoaaeaiey eiio?ieueiuo aii?inia.
ssnii, /oi anee iooai aeii?ina ioaeii i?iaa?eoue ii?aaeaeaiiue oaeo,
iai?eia?, aue ee aeii?aoeaaaiue a ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe, ninoiyeanue
ee ano?a/a e aaea, caaeaaaaiua a ioiioaiee yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa
eiio?ieueiua aii?inu aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia auyniaiea oaeoia,
eiathueo ii?aaeaeaiioth cia/eiinoue aeey aeii?aoeaaaiiai. Anee,
iai?eia?, ioiineoaeueii ianoaiiaee aeaiiie eaa?oe?u eee oneiaee ano?a/e
caaeathony aii?inu, eanathueany oaeeo iiae?iaiinoae, eioi?ua ia iiaoo
eiaoue cia/aiey aeey aeii?aoeaaaiiai, e ii ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue ia ieo,
oi yoi aua ia aoaeao ii?iaa?aeaieai aai iieacaiee i iinauaiee ei aeaiiie
eaa?oe?u eee ia o/anoee a aeaiiie ano?a/a e o. ae.

Cia/eiinoue i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey aeey ee/iinoe iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia
aiaoieie i?e/eiaie, iniaaiiinoyie yoeo i?aaeiaoia, a oaeaea eioa?anaie,
oaaaeaeaieyie naiie ee/iinoe e iauanoaaiiui aeieaii /aeiaaea. Eco/aiea
aeaenoaey oaeeo oaeoi?ia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo aeaao
neaaeiaaoaeth aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i oao i?aaeiaoao e
yaeaieyo, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee ia?aoeoue ia naay aieiaiea
aeii?aoeaaaiiai e ia eioi?ua ii aeieaeai aue ia?auaoue naia aieiaiea.

Iai?iecaieueiia, eee, eae aua iacuaatho, iai?aaeiaia?aiiia, aieiaiea
aucuaaaony aiaoieie i?e/eiaie, iniaaiiinoyie i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. Oae,
ia?auatho ia naay aieiaiea y?eea i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey, iineieueeo iie ia
ian aeaenoaotho aieaa neeueii, /ai inoaeueiua (neeueiue caiiie, y?eia
ieaouea e o. ae.), e iniaaiii eiio?anoii auaeaeythueany i?aaeiaou e
yaeaiey, iiea iie ia noaioo i?eau/iuie. Auaeaeythony ec aac?acee/iiai
aeey ian oiia i?aaeiaou oaeaea ii naiae iiaecia e iaiau/iinoe. Iniaaiii
y?ei a?inathony a aeaca eciaiaiey, aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua, a i?eau/iie
ianoaiiaea. Iaeioi?ua i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey naie ii naaa i?eaeaeatho
aieiaiea ii aeeiaie/iinoe. Oae, auaeaeythony niauoey, oa?aeoa?ecothueany
?aceie niaiie ianoiyoaeuenoa: aeaeaeoueany i?aaeiaou ia iaiiaeaeaeiii
oiia eee, iaiai?io, iieiyueany n?aaee aeaeaeoueony. Iai?iecaieueiia
aieiaiea niiniaiu aucaaoue oaeaea i?aaeiaou, naycaiiua n iaoae
aeayoaeueiinoueth, ioaa/athuea iio?aaiinoyi e eioa?anai, aucuaathuea o
ian oa eee eiua /oanoaa.

Ec eceiaeaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu ioiineoaeueii oaeoeee
aeii?ina.

I?aaeaea anaai ioaeii neacaoue, /oi oaeea yaeaiey, eae ooeeaainoai,
ae?aee e eiua aii?aeueiua e aioeiauanoaaiiua aeayiey a nioeeaeenoe/aneii
iauanoaa, anaaaea yaeythony eiio?anoii auaeaeythueiny yaeaieai, eioi?ia
iiyoiio anaaaea i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea ie?oaeathueo. Anee onoaiiaeaii a?aiy
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, oi, auyaea eeoe, auaoeo aaeece io ianoa
i?anooieaiey, iiaeii iaeoe e naeaeaoaeae. Anee a?aiy niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey ia onoaiiaeaii, iii iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii iooai aeii?ina
eeoe, iaoiaeeaoeony aaeece io ianoa i?ienoanoaey a ?aciia a?aiy, anee
yoe naeaeaoaee ia caiaoeee niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, oi a?aiy eo
i?aauaaiey ia oeacaiiii ianoa eneeth/aaony eae a?aiy niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey.

I?aaeeueii iinooiee neaaeiaaoaeue, e eioi?iio 2 iiya?y 1957 a. ai aoi?ii
/ano ii/e iinooieei niiauaiea ia iaia?oaeaiee o?oia iaecaanoiiai
ioae/eiu n yaiuie i?eciaeaie ianeeuenoaaiiie nia?oe. Iinoaaea ia?aae
niaie caaea/o onoaiiaeoue i/aaeaeoeaa i?ienoanoaey, anee oaeiaua auee,
neaaeiaaoaeue nia?ae naaaeaiey i oii, ia eaeeo i?aaei?eyoeyo a ai?iaea
i?ienoiaeeo niaia ?aai/eo ieiei /ana ii/e, e auyniee, /oi ?iaii a /an
ii/e niaia i?iecaiaeeeanue a ea?ath?aoi?iii oeaoa caaiaea e a ai?iaeneii
ioaeaeaiee nayce, ?aniieiaeaiiuo iaaeaeaei io ianoa i?ienoanoaey. Auaoaa
ia yoe i?aaei?eyoey, neaaeiaaoaeue iaoae ?yae naeaeaoaeae, eioi?ua
aeaeaee, eae o?ia ioae/ei ae?aeenue n iaeiei, i?eiaou eioi?iai
niaiaaeaee n i?eiaoaie iioa?iaaoaai. Naeaeaoaee iienaee aiaoiinoue
i?anooiieeia, /oi niinianoaiaaei auno?iio ?ane?uoeth oaeenoaa.

Ec oiai, /oi a?inathony a aeaca i?aaeaea anaai y?eea e iniaaiii
eiio?anoiua, auaeaeythueany i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey, iiaeii naeaeaoue
iaeioi?ua oaeoe/aneea auaiaeu. O aeii?aoeaaaiuo neaaeoao auynieoue,
i?aaeaea anaai i a?ineeo, iniaaiiuo i?eiaoao aauae e eeoe, iioiio /oi
iie aieueoa anaai auaeaeythony eae i?aaeiaou aini?eyoey. Iai?eia?,
eiaaea ?acuneeaaaony iioeuaiiue i?aaeiao, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai ecaanoiu
aai ?acia?u, oeaao e iaeioi?ua iniaua i?eiaou, o naeaeaoaeae ioaeii
auynieoue i?aaeaea anaai, ia caiaoeee ee iie i?aaeiao n oaeeie iniauie
i?eiaoaie. Oi/ii oae aea, anee ian eioa?anoao, iai?eia?, aeaeae ee
naeaeaoaeue ?aiueoa ii?aaeaeaiiia eeoei a aeaiiie ianoiinoe, oi a
aii?ina neaaeoao ia?a/eneyoue ia ana ecaanoiua i?eciaee aai, a oieueei
iaeioi?ua, naiua a?ineea ec ieo.

I oii, /oi aeaeaeoueeny i?aaeiao n?aaee iieiyueony, a iieiyueeny n?aaee
aeaeaeoueony i?aaeiaoia auaeaeyaony, oi?ioi ciatho e i?anooiieee.
Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, iie iau/ii caie?atho aac aeaeaeaiey, eiaaea neuoao
oaae noi?iaea. Yoi aeieaeii auoue o/oaii i?e aeii?ina eeoe noi?iaeaaie
io?aiu, eiaaea iie cayaeytho, /oi «iai?aiaiii caiaoeee au i?anooiieea»,
anee ii iaoiaeeeny au ia ianoa ai a?aiy eo iaoiaea, a oaeaea i?e
i?eaea/aiee oaeeo eeoe e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oaeaoiia ioiioaiea
e naiei neoaeaaiui iaycaiiinoyi. Iniaaiii ieioi aini?eieiaaony
iaiiaeaeaeiue i?aaeiao ia oiia iieiyueony i?e ieioeo oneiaeyo inaauaiey
e i?e iaeie ?acieoea a y?einoe e oeaaoa oiia e iauaeoa. Iiyoiio i?e
aicieeiiaaiee oaeiai aii?ina ioaeii auynieoue a oiaea aeii?ina, eaeiai
oeaaoa iaeaaeaea auea iaeaoa ia i?anooiieea, aaea ii ne?uaaeny, eaeia
auei iauaa inaauaiea e iieueciaaeny ee noi?iae ai a?aiy iaoiaea oiia?ai.

Anee ioaeii onoaiiaeoue eaeia-oi eciaiaiea a ianoaiiaea eaa?oe?u,
iaeaaeaea e aauao ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea e o. ae., neaaeoao auyaeoue
naeaeaoaeae, oi?ioi ciaeiiuo n aeaiiie ianoaiiaeie, aeaiiui eeoeii.
Naeaeaoaeue, iai?eia?, anee ii oieueei iaeei ?ac aue a eaa?oe?a
iaaeiyaiiai, a?yae ee ia?aoee aieiaiea ia eioa?anothuee ian aoaeeeueiee,
noiyaoee ia noiea. Naeaeaoaeue, /anoi auaaaoee a yoie aea eaa?oe?a,
iaiai?io, a?yae ee ia ia?aoeo aieiaiey ia iiyaeaiea iiauo, aei neo ii?
ia aeaeaiiuo ei oai /ania.

*oiau iiaeii auei i?iaa?eoue e ioeaieoue iieacaiey iiaeic?aaaaiiai e
iaaeiyaiiai, ioaeii auynieoue a ioiioaiee aeaiiiai i?aaeiaoa eee yaeaiey
ana oa oneiaey, eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue iai?aaeiaia?aiiia aieiaiea. A
neo/aa iieoiee e?aaeaiiai enneaaeothony ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaiau/iinoe
ianoaiiaee e oeaiu i?iaeaaee, iaee/ea ooaiiaeae e ae?oaeo ciaeia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeaiiie aaue, iai?eia?, ainoaea?noaaiiui, iauanoaaiiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi. Anee a?aaeoaeue iiaeaeaa aeii e i?e yoii nai?ae eaaeauee
a iinoaee ?aaaiie, neaaeoao auynieoue, niae ee ?aaaiie eee iao, e?e/ae
ee, aeaeaaeny ee e o. ae.— aac auyniaiey yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa iaeuecy
ioeaieoue iieacaiea iaaeiyaiiai i oii, /oi ii ia caiaoee eaaeauaai
?aaaiea.

Iniaia ianoi n?aaee i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, iiaoueo aucaaoue
iai?iecaieueiia aieiaiea, caieiatho i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey, aucuaathuea
/oanoaa oaeana eee ioa?auaiey. Iaeioi?ua ethaee n i?enoaeueiui aieiaieai
iaaethaeatho oaeea aaue, a eiua aeaaea ia iiaoo naay canoaaeoue
iiniio?aoue ia ieo. O iaeioi?uo eeoe ?aciua o?iaenoaa, iaaeinoaoee, ?aiu
i?eaeaeatho aieiaiea, a o ae?oaeo iooaeeeaatho. Ia yoii iaiaoiaeeii
iiiieoue e aeaaea a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe a aeaeeeaoiie oi?ia ni?ineoue
o naeaeaoaey eee aai ciaeiiuo.

I?aaeiaia?aiiia aieiaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoueth e ii
n?aaiaieth n iai?iecaieueiui iiauoaiiie onoie/eainoueth. I?aaeiaia?aiiia
aieiaiea anaaaea naycaii n aieaaui i?ioeannii e n niciaoaeueii
iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth. Aiey, iai?aaeaiiay ia niciaoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea
aieiaiey, iiaoaeaeaaony eioa?anaie /aeiaaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
niciaieai aeieaa, iaycaiiinoe e oaaaeaeaieai — n ae?oaie. Aiciiaeiinoue
aieaaiai i?aaeiaia?aiiiai iai?yaeaiey aieiaiey a niioaaonoaee n
iauanoaaiiui aeieaii e iaycaiiinoyie eaaeeo a iniiaa oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca niaa?oaiea i?anooiiiai aeayiey ii iainoi?iaeiinoe e
ii oaeaoiinoe. I?aaeiaia?aiiia aieiaiea i?e eniieiaiee iaycaiiinoae
aeieaeii auoue aieaa nin?aaeioi/aiiui, /ai iai?iecaieueiia.

Oneeaiea ?iee iauanoaaiiinoe a ai?ueaa n ia?ooaieyie iauanoaaiiiai
ii?yaeea e n i?anooiiinoueth a NNN? e ae?oaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao
i?iyaeyaony, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, e a oii, /oi ana aieueoaa cia/aiea a
?anneaaeiaaiee i?anooieaiee i?eia?aoatho cayaeaiey e iieacaiey
a?aaeaeai, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeao oaeou, aini?eiyoua n niciaoaeueii
iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth ieacaoue iiiiuue i?aaiai ?anneaaeiaaiey a
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee e ?ane?uoee i?anooieaiee.

A iiiia?aoeyo ao?aeoaciuo e?eieiaeenoia ii i?iaeaiai ineoieiaee
naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee aii?inu i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey iau/ii
inaauathony e?aeia iiaa?oiinoii. Iie n/eoatho, /oi naeaeaoaee iiaoo
niiauaoue neaaenoaeth e noaeo oieueei oaeou, eioi?ua neo/aeii eie
aini?eiyou, ia eioi?ua iie ia?aoeee aieiaiea iai?iecaieueii.

A no?aiao nioeeaeecia ana aieueoa e /aua iu ano?a/aainy n iieacaieyie, a
eioi?uo naeaeaoaee niiauatho, iai?eia?, i?eiaou i?anooiieeia, iiia?a
aaoiiaoei, niaa?oeaoeo iaacaeu, e i?e yoii aeiaaaeytho, /oi oaeou yoe
aucaaee iiaeic?aiea o ieo, iie iaaethaeaee ca ieie n niciaoaeueii
iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth niiaueoue i ieo a niioaaonoaothuea
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e aeaaea caienaee eo, /oiau ia caauoue. E eae
auaatho iai?/aiu oaeea naeaeaoaee, eiaaea ia iiaoo ioaaoeoue ia
iaeioi?ua aeiiieieoaeueiua aii?inu neaaeiaaoaey, cayaeyy i?e yoii:
«…anee au y ciae, /oi ia yoii o iaiy ni?inyo, y au ia?aoee ia yoi
aieiaiea». Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?acuyniyoue a?aaeaeaiai, ia /oi iie
aeieaeiu ia?auaoue aieiaiea, anee caiaoyo niaa?oaiea aioeiauanoaaiiiai,
i?anooiiiai aeaenoaey. Oaeay i?aaiaay i?iiaaaiaea niaeaenoaoao oneeaieth
?iee iauanoaaiiinoe a io?aia iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea.

I?aeoeea ?aaiou neaaenoaaiiuo i?aaiia nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai ciaao
iaiaei neo/aaa iiaeeecaoeee niciaoaeueiiai, i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey
a?aaeaeai ia oieueei ia oaeou, naycaiiua n i?anooiiinoueth aiiaua, ii e
ia eiie?aoiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?ane?uoey ioaeaeueiuo
iianiuo i?anooieaiee.

Aieiaiea iauanoaaiiinoe ii eiie?aoiui aeaeai iiaeeecoaony ia auyaeaiea
naeaeaoaeae, iioa?iaaoeo, iioeuaiiuo aauae, i?aaeiaoia niaeoeyoeee,
i?oaeee i?anooieaiey e ae?oaeo aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Aeey yoiai
neaaeiaaoaeue, /aua anaai ee/ii, ia?auaaony e a?aaeaeaiai ia nia?aieyo,
a eiiaaea eniieuecoao ia/aoue e ?aaeei. Neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu AAe?
i?aeoeeotho oaeaea ecaeaiea eenoiaie e ieaeaoia, a eioi?uo iienuaaaony
niaa?oaiiia i?anooieaiea, n ia?auaieai e ianaeaieth aeoeaii aeeth/aoueny
a auyaeaiea i?anooiieeia.

A i?ioeanna aeii?ina ia?aaeei aicieeatho aii?inu, naycaiiua n
?ani?aaeaeaieai aieiaiey. *aeiaae, caiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaioie,
i?iecaieueii nin?aaeioi/eaaao naia aieiaiea ia aa auiieiaiee. I?e
ioeaiea iieacaiee /anoi aicieeaao aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aieiaiey, o. a. i oii, iiaeii ee i?e eiioeaio?aoeee aieiaiey ia iaeiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiyoue e ae?oaoth eee iaaethaeaoue ca
ae?oaeie niauoeyie.

Iiuou iieacaee, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii iaaiciiaeii auiieiyoue aeaa ?aaiou,
anee eaaeaeay ec ieo o?aaoao iieiiai nin?aaeioi/aiey aieiaiey.
Auiieiaiea iaeiia?aiaiii ianeieueeeo aeae aiciiaeii, anee oieueei iie
oi?ioi ciaeiiu, e iaeii ec ieo /anoe/ii aaoiiaoece?iaaii, /oi
aeinoeaaaony aieueoie o?aie?iaeie. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, iiuoiue aiaeeoaeue
e?iia oi?aaeaiey iaoeiie iiaeao ?acaiaa?eaaoue eee neooaoue ?aaeei,
oi?ioee nooaeaio — neooaoue eaeoeeth e a oi aea a?aiy eiiniaeoe?iaaoue
aa, iiuoiay aycaeueueoea aycaoue e /eoaoue aacaoo.

Ii a oi aea a?aiy iaaiciiaeii ?ani?aaeaeeoue aieiaiea, iniaaiii ia aieaa
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, anee iaeia aeayoaeueiinoue ia aaoiiaoece?iaaia eee
naia ii naaa o?aaoao aieueoiai aieiaiey. Oae, ia iiaeao auoue i?aaaeeaui
iieacaiea i auneooaiiii ninoiyaoainy o ninaaeiaai noiea aeeeoaeueiii
?acaiai?a oiai eeoea, eioi?ia naii aeoeaii o/anoaiaaei a ae?oaii
?acaiai?a, ninoiyaoainy o aai noiea.

Aini?eyoey, aicieeoea i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiiii aieiaiee, /anoi yaeythony
i?aaeiaoii aeii?ina. Yoi oa neo/ae, eiaaea naeaeaoaeue aue caiyo
eaeei-oi naiei aeaeii e, ia i?einoaiaaeeaay ?aaioo, eae au «iiai/ii»
aini?eiye oaeou, ia ioiinyueany e iae. Oaeea aini?eyoey iau/ii i/aiue
aeaaeiu, a ieo ionoonoaotho iiae?iaiinoe, iie /?acau/aeii auno?i
i?aaeathony caaaaieth. Iieacaiey yoe e?aeia iaoi/iu e iaaeinoiaa?iu. Yoi
iieiaeaiea iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie A. N.
Iiaiiaeneiai.

35 eniuooaiui auea i?aaeuyaeaia ?ai?iaeoeoeey ecaanoiie ea?oeiu
niaaoneiai ooaeiaeieea A. Eaeoeiiiaa «Ienueii n o?iioa». Ea?oeia
yeniiie?iaaeanue a oa/aiea 30 nae. I?e aa aini?iecaaaeaiee ii iiaiaeo
iicu ecia?aaeaiiie ia iae aeaiueiu i?aaeeueii ioaaoeee ana eniuooaiua,
29 /aeiaae iiaee oeacaoue ia aic?ano yoie aeaiueiu. Iico e aic?ano
aeaai/ee aa?ii aini?iecaaee niioaaonoaaiii 34 e 31 eniuooaiue. Aeeceie e
yoiio auea i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey oeaaoa iaeaaeaeu aeaai/ee.
Oeaao aeocee caiiiieee 27, a ie?aneo na?aoaia—29 /aeiaae. Iauee aeae
oeao?u aeaaooee-aeaaeo?iie aini?iecaaee ana eniuooaiua, aic?ano aa — 33
/aeiaaea. Ia ooaea aue aini?iecaaaeai oeaao aa eioou: aai i?aaeeueii
iacaaee 34 eniuooaiuo.

A neaaeothuae na?ee iiuoia oa aea ea?oeia aini?eieiaeanue a oa/aiea oiai
aea a?aiaie, ii aa aini?eyoea i?ioaeaei iaeiia?aiaiii n auneooeaaieai
oneiaee a?eoiaoe/aneie caaea/e, ?aoaaiie eniuooaiuie. Ia yoio ?ac eeoue
iaiiiaea eniuooaiua nio?aieee a iaiyoe oeaao iaeaaeaeu ecia?aaeaiiuo ia
ea?oeia ethaeae. Oeao?u ethaeae, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ea?oeia,
caiiiieeenue eo/oa. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a yoie na?ee o eniuooaiuo /aua anaai
nio?aieeenue eeoue naiua iauea e ii?ie i/aiue niooiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
oeaaoa iaeaaeaeu.

?aaiui ia?acii iie iiaee iacaaoue oeao?u ethaeae, ii ia iiaee oi/ii
iienaoue eo aeae, iico e aic?ano.

Eiiaaea eaeay-oi aeayoaeueiinoue oae iiaeiuaao ee/iinoue, /oi /aeiaae
«ia aeaeeo e ia neuoeo» ie/aai, ii ?aciua yaeaiey, nii?iaiaeaeathuea
i?anooieaiey, iai?eia? e?eee, ac?uau, auno?aeu, iau/ii yaeythony noieue
eioaineaiuie ?acae?aaeeoaeyie, /oi iaaieueii ia?auatho ia naay aieiaiea
aeaaea naiiai nin?aaeioi/aiiiai /aeiaaea. A oaeeo neo/ayo aieiaiea
ioaeaeaaony e ia?aeeth/aaony ia ae?oaie i?aaeiao. Ia?aeeth/aiea aieiaiey
anaaaea io?aaeaaony e ia eeoea, e ia iica /aeiaaea. Yoi eiaao cia/aiea,
eiaaea iooai aeii?inia o?aaoaony onoaiiaeoue, eaeie noauaeo e ia /oi
ia?aoee aieiaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio.

Eiiaaea ana aieiaiea /aeiaaea iiaeiuatho aai iunee eee neeueiua /oanoaa
— a yoeo neo/ayo aieiaiea e yaeaieyi ie?oaeathuaai ie?a iiaeao a?aiaiii
iieiinoueth i?eooieoueny I/aiue aicaoaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea naii niaie aua
ia eneeth/aao aieiaiey e ie?oaeathuaio ie?o e aeaaea, iaiai?io, /anoi
i?eaiaeeo e i/aiue y?eei e oiieei iaaethaeaieyi. E. I. Iaaeia ia iaeiie
ec naieo «n?aae» i?eaae i?eia? ec ?iiaia E. I. Oienoiai «Aiia Ea?aieia».
Eiaaea Aiia Ea?aieia aoaea e aiecaeo, /oiau iieii/eoue aeeciue
naiioaeenoaii, iia auea ii?aaeaia y?einoueth anao aeiiia e auaanie, ia
/oi ?aiueoa ieeiaaea ia ia?auaea aieiaiea. Aaeeeee ooaeiaeiee Oienoie
i?aaeeueii iiaeiaoee, /oi i?e /?acau/aeii neeueiii aicaoaeaeaiee ia?aiie
nenoaiu ino?ioa e y?einoue aini?eyoee iaiaueiiaaiii oneeeaathony.

A ene?aiieo i?eciaieyo iaaeiyaiuo /anoi ano?a/athony i/aiue oi/iia e
y?eia iienaiea ianoaiiaee e niauoee, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo niaa?oaieth
i?anooieaiey. Iie aeieaeiu auoue oi/ii caoeene?iaaiu a i?ioieiea
aeii?ina, iioiio /oi iaeeea, ieeaeiai ioiioaiey ia eiathuea e aeaeo,
aeaeeii, iniaaiiinoe, iiaoo iieo/eoue aiineaaenoaee aieueoia
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea. A oi aea a?aiy iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
neaaeiaaoaeth i?iaa?eoue i?aaaeeainoue iieacaiey e cao?oaeiytho
iaaeiyaiiio aiineaaenoaee ioeacaoueny io ?aiaa aeaiiiai i?aaaeeaiai
iieacaiey. Iie eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea e a oii ioiioaiee, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oaeo aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ciaeiinoaa aeii?aoeaaaiiai n
ianoii i?ienoanoaey, n niauoeyie, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeie niaa?oaieth
i?anooieaiey, a n yoeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie iiaeao auoue ciaeii oieueei
/aeiaae, aeaenoaeoaeueii iiauaaaoee a oi a?aiy a aeaiiie ianoiinoe.

Aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?anooieaiea auei niaa?oaii a ninoiyiee
neeueiiai aeooaaiiai ia?aaeeaaiey, ioia/aaony, /oi aeaaea naiia
ene?aiiaa iieacaiea iaaeiyaiiai, ioee/athuaany oi/iinoueth iienaiey
niauoee, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo niaa?oaieth i?anooieaiey, noaiiaeony ana
ooneeaa e aaaeiaa, eae oieueei aeii?aoeaaaiue i?eaeeaeaaony a naiai
?anneaca e naiiio oaeoo niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey. Yoi iauyniyaony oai,
/oi iauaa aicaoaeaeaiea ia?aoiaeeo a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia, eiaaea
aicaoaeaeai oieueei eaeie-ieaoaeue oeaio? ei?u, a ie?oaeathuea yoio
o/anoie ciiu caoi?iiaeaiu. O eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiea aac
iiaeaioiaee e iaio, a ninoiyiee aooaeoa, ionoonoaoao noaaeey iauaai
aicaoaeaeaiey eee iii yaeyaony i/aiue ei?ioeei. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
io?aaeaaony e ia eo iieacaieyo.

«*ai aiacaiiaa aia/aoeaiea, aucuaathuaa neeueiia aeooaaiia aeaeaeaiea,—
ienae A. O. Eiie,— oai aieaa iii iaeaaeaaaao aieiaieai e oai auno?aa
aioo?aiiea ia?aaeeaaiey caneiiytho niaith aiaoiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa.
Aanueia ?aaeeea ec iiaenoaeeiuo, niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiea iiae aeeyieai
aooaeoa, a ninoiyiee eceiaeeoue iiae?iaiinoe ?aoeoaeueiiai iiiaioa, ii
yoi ia iaoaao ei iiiieoue auno?oth niaio e ia?ae?aueaaiea a eo aeooa
iuneae, ia?acia, /oanoa—aei naeaeaiiiai eie oaea?a, aei inei?aeaiey,
auno?aea, aei ?ani?aau iiaeii».

Oi/iinoue ?anneaca i i?aaeuaeoueo niauoeyo e iaiieiioa i naiii oaeoa
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey eiiaaea i?eaiaeyo neaaeiaaoaey e iiaeic?aieth a
iaene?aiiinoe iieacaiee. I?anooiieee aeaenoaeoaeueii ioiineoaeueii /anoi
i?eaaaatho e ooeu?aieyi oaeiai ?iaea, eiaaea i?eciathony ia neaaenoaee a
niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey, /oiau iioii ia noaea ioeacaoueny io naieo
iieacaiee. I?e yoii iie noa?athony iiiaiueoa ?anneacuaaoue i niaa?oaiiii
i?anooieaiee, aiai?yo, /oi ia iiaoo i?eiiiieoue iiae?iaiinoe, /oiau eo
i?eciaiea auei aieui, ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiui ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.
A yoie /anoe aeaenoaeoaeueii iioiaee iieacaiey eae ene?aiia i?eciaaoeony
iaaeiyaiuo, oae e oao, eioi?ua i?eciathony oieueei n oeaeueth aaanoe
neaaenoaea a caaeoaeaeaiea, /oiau aeaei nei?aa auei ia?aaeaii a noae, a
neaaenoaea auei eeoaii aiciiaeiinoe nia?aoue ana aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Ioee/eoue oaeea iieacaiey ae?oa io ae?oaa — /?acau/aeii aaaeiay caaea/a
?anneaaeiaaiey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, /enoina?aea/iia ?aneayiea niaeanii no.
33 Iniia oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e nithciuo ?anioaeee
yaeyaony niya/athuei ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianoiyoaeuenoaii, a n ae?oaie—e
aeaeueiaeoee oiae naiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey a oeaeii, e oaeoeea aeii?ina
iaaeiyaiiai ai iiiaii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa a neo/aa aai
/enoina?aea/iiai i?eciaiey eee iiiuoie iooai ?aciuo ooeu?aiee caiooaoue
neaaenoaea.

Iiyoiio a neo/aa iaene?aiiinoe i?eciaiey iaaeiyaiiai aeii?in
?aeiiaiaeoaony aanoe a iai?aaeaiee ?aciaea/aiey iaene?aiiinoe iooai
auyaeaiey i?ioeai?a/ee a iieacaieyo iaaeiyaiiai, eniieuecoy aeey yoiai e
?aiaa aeaiiua iieacaiey, e ae?oaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Oaeoeea aeii?ina a neo/aa ene?aiiinoe i?eciaiey iai?aaeyaony ia
cae?aieaiea iieacaiee. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo neaaeiaaoaeue noaaeo oeaeue
aeiaeoueny io iaaeiyaiiai eceiaeaiey oaeeo oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue ecaanoiu oieueei /aeiaaeo, niaa?oeaoaio aeaiiia
i?anooieaiea, a oaeaea oeacaiey ia auyaeyaiuo naeaeaoaeae e aauanoaaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?anooieaiee. I?iaa?ea iieacaiee iaaeiyaiiai e eo
iiaee?aieaiea ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie yaeythony aaaeiui oneiaeai
ananoi?iiiaai, iieiiai e iauaeoeaiiai enneaaeiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa
aeaea. I?e/ai ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi oaeay i?iaa?ea e iiaee?aieaiea
iieacaiee ieeiaaea ia oa?iyo ioeaaaoaeuenoaa. Iaeuecy iaaeayoueny ia oi,
/oi iaaeiyaiue, aeathuee naaiaeiy /enoina?aea/iua iieacaiey, aoaeao
aeaaaoue eo e caao?a, e iu oniaai oiaaea aea ooi/ieoue eo.

I?aeoeea ?anneaaeiaaiey i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaiiuo ec-ca ?aaiinoe, iiae
aeeyieai neeueiiai aeooaaiiai aieiaiey, ciaao iiiai neo/aaa yaee n
iiaeiiie e /enoina?aea/iiai ?aneayiey a ia/aea ?anneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ia n
ioaeaeaieai a?aiaie io iiiaioa niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey ana aieueoa
onooiaao ianoi naiie io/ayiiie ai?ueaa ni noi?iiu iaaeiyaiiai, a
eioa?anao ii?iaa?aeaiey ?aiaa ei aea aeaiiuo iieacaiee.

Neeueiia aeooaaiia aieiaiea, iiaeiuathuaa ana aieiaiea, iiaeao eiaoue
ianoi ia oieueei o eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo i?anooieaiea a ninoiyiee aooaeoa,
ii e o iioa?iaaoeo e naeaeaoaeae, ii?aaeaiiuo o?aaeciii iiiaioa,
aiacaiiinoueth ia/aeueiiai aeey ieo i?ienoanoaey. A yoeo neo/ayo
neaaeoao nicaeaoue ea?oeio i?ienoaaeoaai ec niaieoiiinoe iieacaiee
?aciuo naeaeaoaeae a niioaaonoaee n ae?oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie ii
aeaeo. Ia?aeeciaaiiinoue aieiaiey naeaeaoaeae, iioa?iaaoaai ia aeieaeia
auoue iinoaaeaia neaaeiaaoaeai iiae iiaeic?aiea, anee ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aiai?yo i aeaenoaeoaeueii aieueoii ?anno?ienoaa, aieiaiee, aioo?aiiae
ai?ueaa, eioi?oth iie ia?aaeeee.

A. O. Eiie oae oa?aeoa?ecoao ioeai/iue e i?aaeeueiue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea
oaeeo iieacaiee: «Yoio /aeiaae eaeao,— neaaeao iiaa?oiinoiue e iiniaoiue
iaaethaeaoaeue,— ii n oi/iinoueth ii?aaeaeyao, a eioi?ii /ano aeiy e
aaea eiaiii ii iaiye ecaic/eea, /oiau aoaoue n aeceoii e ciaeiiui, e ia
iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoaeueii i?eiiiieoue, io eiai eiaiii aa/a?ii a oio aea
aeaiue, a eioi?ii /ano e a eaeie eiiiaoa ii oneuoae i naiioaeenoaa nuia
eee i o?aae/aneie nia?oe aeaiu…». «Ii aiai?eo i?aaaeo, — neaaeao
iiuoiue noaeuey, — e yoa i?aaaea oai aa?iyoiaa, /ai aieueoa ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo iauaeaiiui oaeoii e iio?ynathuei niauoeai, iaaeaeo iau/iui
niieienoaeai iinea ia?aiai e ioaeiieythuei aeo?ai aoi?iai…».

Aieiaiea a caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny io 10—15 iei.
aei aieueoeo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie. Ii A?yiiao, ?aaaiie a 5—7 eao iiaeao
auoue nin?aaeioi/aiiui ieiei 15 iei., a 7—10 eao—20 iei., a 10—12 eao—25
iei., iinea 12 eao—30 iei. Yoi iiaeao i?eaioe?iaaoue neaaeiaaoaey i?e
ioeaiea iieacaiee iaeieaoieo e ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo i aeieai aeeyuainy
niauoee. O ac?ineuo i?iecaieueiia aieiaiea iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny
iaii?aaeaeaiii aeeeoaeueiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, a caaeneiinoe io oao
naycae, eioi?ua aai iiaeaea?aeeaatho e eioi?ua caaenyo io i?aaeiaai
iiuoa.

O/eouaay iniaaiiinoe aieiaiey ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, aeii?in ia aeieaeai
auoue aeeeoaeueiui, /oiau ia ioaeaeaoue aieiaiey aeii?aoeaaaiiai io oaiu
aeii?ina. Iai?yaeaiea aieiaiey i?eaiaeeo e onoaeinoe.

Onoie/eainoue aieiaiey caaeneo io aieaaiai oneeey, eioa?ana e io
niciaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aieiaiea. Eioa?an naeaeaoaey e
niauoeth iiaeao i?iiaaeaoue, aieiaiea onoaiao, e iiaua iiae?iaiinoe
eiiaaea ia caia/athony, a aiiaue i?eauaoee ia ianoi naeaeaoaeue iiaeao
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia yoe iiiaiou, oiouaiiua ia?aui naeaeaoaeai.

Iooai aeii?ina e ae?oaeie neaaenoaaiiuie aeaenoaeyie, ii aiciiaeiinoe,
neaaeoao auyaeyoue, neieueei a?aiaie aeii?aoeaaaiue eiae aiciiaeiinoue
iaaethaeaoue ca aeaiiui i?aaeiaoii, yaeaieai. I?e aiaeeca aeinoiaa?iinoe
e iieiiou iieacaiey ioaeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue, auei ee o aeii?aoeaaaiiai
aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie aeey iieiiai aini?eyoey eioa?anothuae ian aaue. I?e
i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony iieacaieth eeoea,
eiaaoaai a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee aieueoa a?aiaie aeey aini?eyoey, ii i?e
yoii anaaaea ioaeii enoiaeeoue ec ioeaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ea/anoa
aieiaiey aeii?aoeaaaiiai. A yoii ioiioaiee ia ia?aii ianoa ii aaaeiinoe
noieo iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue aeii?aoeaaaiiai.

Iiae iaaethaeaieai iu iiieiaai ia noeoeeiia, a nenoaiaoe/anee
iniuneaiiia, onoie/eaia aini?eyoea eaeiai-oi i?aaeiaoa eee yaeaiey i?e
i?aaeiaia?aiiii aieiaiee. Niiniaiinoue iaaethaeaoue — aaaeiia ea/anoai
naeaeaoaey, aeathuaa aio aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeeueii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a
ie?oaeathuae aai n?aaea, iiaeia/aoue aaaeiia, iaiaoiaeeiia. Ianeieueei
iaiaeeiaeiaa iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue o ?aciuo aeii?aoeaaaiuo, ciaao
eaaeaeue e?eieiaeeno. I?e aiciiaeiinoe anaaaea ioaeii eneaoue
naeaeaoaeae aieaa iaaethaeaoaeueiuo. Neaaeiaaoaeue, caaeaaay
eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, ioiinyueany e oi?ioi ecaanoiui aio oaeoai, anaaaea
noaaeo oeaeue — auynieoue noaiaiue iaaethaeaoaeueiinoe aeii?aoeaaaiiai.

O iaeieo aieiaiea aicieeaao eaaei, ii aeinoeaaao aieueoie eioaineaiinoe
n?aco. Yoi iacuaaaony noaoe/aneei aieiaieai. Ae?oaea aeieai
«?anea/eaathony», eiatho oae iacuaaaiia aeeiaie/aneia aieiaiea. O iaeieo
aieiaiea i/aiue onoie/eai neiioeaio?e?iaaii, ii aai o?oaeii
ia?aeeth/eoue ia ae?oaie iauaeo, o ae?oaeo aea iii, iaiai?io, i/aiue
eaaei ioaeaeaaony. Anoue ethaee i/aiue ?annayiiua, iioiio /oi ianoieueei
onoie/eai e neeueii eiioeaio?e?otho naia aieiaiea ia iaeiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia iaeieo aii?inao, /oi inoaeueiui ia iiaoo oaeaeyoue
ieeaeiai aieiaiey.

Ae?oaea ?annayiiu ec-ca aieueoie ioaeaeaaiinoe, iaonoie/eainoe aieiaiey,
/oi /aua anaai auaaao i?e ia?aooiieaiee. Ana yoe ea/anoaa iau/ii
iaia?oaeeaathony ai a?aiy aeii?ina, i ieo eaaei iiaeii iieo/eoue ni?aaeo
e io oi?ioeo ciaeiiuo aeii?aoeaaaiiai. Iie aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu i?e
ioeaiea iieacaiee.

A. O. Eiie, oa?aeoa?ecoy aieiaiea naeaeaoaeae, auaeaeyao aua oae
iacuaaaiia oeaio?iaaaeiia e oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiia aieiaiea.

Nioeeaeenoe/aneee iauanoaaiiue no?ie iaania/eaaao ananoi?iiiaa ?acaeoea
ee/iinoe, ainieouaaao ethaeae a aeooa ae?oaeau ia?iaeia e oaaaeaiey e
i?aaeeai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauaaeeoey. Iaeiaei ano?a/athony aua
ioaeaeueiua ethaee, «eioi?ua, i /ai au iie ie aeoiaee, ie aiai?eee,
aeaeatho oeaio?ii naieo iuneae e i?aaenoaaeaiee naieo naay e i?iyaeytho
yoi a naiai eceiaeaiee. Aeey ieo — niciaoaeueii eee iaaieueii — ana
eiaao cia/aiea eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo e a /ai iii eo eanaaony».
Oaeeo iiaanoaiaaoaeae iiaeii ociaoue ia aeii?ina. O ieo a eaaeaeii
i?aaeeiaeaiee «y», ana niio?yo /a?ac i?ecio «y». Eo iieacaiey iiaoo
auoue i/aiue oi/iuie a /anoe, eanathuaeny eo ee/iinoe, ii iau/ii iie
i/aiue iiaa?oiinoiu, aaaeiu e iaoi/iu, anee ?a/ue eaeao ia i ieo.

Eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony iau/ii i/aiue au?aceoaeueiuie
aiaoieie i?eciaeaie iicu, ieieee, caoi?iiaeaiiinoueth eeoieo aeaeaeaiee,
?anneaaeaieai iuooe, i?aaiia, ia o/anoaothueo a aini?eyoee, iiai?ioii
oaea eee oieueei eeoea e aini?eieiaaiiio yaeaieth, oe?iei ioe?uouie
aeacaie e o. ae. Iau/ii eiaiii oaeeie i?eciaeaie oa?aeoa?ecotho
naeaeaoaee eiioeaio?aoeeth aieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea.

Oae, iioioeeee iaaoae ia a?ociaee. Aneaaenoaea aaa?ee aeaia iiaeaee.
Naeaeaoaee ?anneacuaaee, /oi aiaeeoaeue iioioeeeea O. ia neaaeee ca
aei?iaie, a ana naia aieiaiea eiioeaio?e?iaae ia naiae niooieoea,
neaeaaoae ca iei ia iioioeeeea, iiai?a/eaaeny iacaae e ?acaiaa?eaae n
iae.

E?aoeia eceiaeaiea oaeoe/aneeo aii?inia aeii?ina, naycaiiuo n
ineoieiaeae aini?eyoey, iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao aaaeiinoue ciaiey
neaaeiaaoaeai iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae yoiai ineoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna,
yaeythuaainy aaaeiie nooiaiueth oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaiey. Eae aeaeii ec
eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ia aeaeia aini?eyoey, oneiaey, io eioi?uo caaeneo aai
ea/anoai, iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa a?oiiu:

1) iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aini?eyoey. Nthaea ioiinyony iauaeoeaiua naienoaa
naieo aini?eieiaaiuo i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, eo oeaao, a?iieinoue e o.
ae., a oaeaea naia ianoaiiaea, a eioi?ie i?ienoiaeyo aini?eyoey,
iai?eia? ?annoiyiea, inaauaiiinoue, iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea ooia;

2) iauaeoeaiua oneiaey, io eioi?uo caaeneo ea/anoai aini?eyoey. Nthaea
ioiinyony i?aaenoaaeaiey, iiuo, iaauee, iuoeaiea e /oanoaa /aeiaaea,
ninoiyiea caei?iauey, onoaeinoue, aeeyiea ia?eioeeia,
aaeaioe?iaaiiinoue. O/ao neaaeiaaoaeai yoeo oneiaee i?e i?iaaaeaiee
aeii?ina aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa yoiai aaaeiaeoaai
neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey, a eo o/ao i?e ioeaiea iieacaiee iiiiaeao
?acia?aoueny a o?oaeiuo aii?inao noaeaeaiee i aeinoiaa?iinoe
aeieacaoaeuenoa.

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