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Aaaaeaiea

N naiiai ia/aea eco/aiey eo?na e?eieiieiaee iu iinoiyiii aiai?eee i oii,
/oi ia oio eee eiie aii?in iaeioi?ua o/aiua niio?yo eia/a, eiatho eioth
oi/eo ion/aoa enneaaeoaiuo i?iaeai e o.ae., o.a. ?aciua iai?aaeaiey
e?eieiieiae/aneie iunee noi?ie?iaaiu ec niaieoiiinoe ?acee/iuo
e?eieiieiae/aneeo oai?ee.

E niaeaeaieth, o ian iao aiciiaeiinoe aanoe aeeneonneth ii eaaeaeie ec
ieo, ii ciaoue ia eo nouanoaiaaiee. Au iaycaiu, eae niaoeeaeenou,
i?ioaaeoea eo?n yoie iaoee. *oi aea oaeia oai?ee aiiaua e oai?ee
e?eieiieiaee a /anoiinoe? Oai?ee – yoi ninoaaeaiiua oiic?eoaeueiui iooai
nenoaiu, niaaeeiythuea oaeou iin?aaenoaii i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae.

Oai?ee i?anooiiinoe eanathony i?e/ei e iineaaenoaee i?anooiiiai
iiaaaeaiey, iiaeaa?aeaiiiai eciaiaieyi io ianoa e a?aiaie, iiae aeeyieai
ecaanoiuo oeaiiinoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee. A naith i/a?aaeue oai?ee
i?anooiiinoe na?ueacii aeeytho ia oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee iauanoaa e ia
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i i?e/eiao i?anooiiinoe, a iiae/an aeaaea eciaiytho
eo. ?acee/iua oai?ee yaeyaony iniiaie ethauo enneaaeiaaiee, iie
ii?aaeaeytho eo oeaee, i?aaeiao, iaoiaeu, aeatho naie iiiyoey iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia i?aaeiaoa e o.ae. Iiauie enneaaeiaaieyie oaea ?ac?aaioaiiay
oai?ey iiaeao auoue eae iiaeoaa?aeaeaia, ii?iaa?aiooa, oae e iinoaaeaia
iiae niiiaiea, o.a. iiaeao auoue auaeaeiooa iiaay aeiioaca.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeann iiciaiey i?iaeieaeaaony. Ii ethaay oai?ey
aeieaeia auoue iaycaoaeueii iiaee?aieaia i?aeoeeie, o.a. noaoenoeeie,
?acoeueoaoaie i?iaa?ee oai?aoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia i?aeoeea e o.ae.
Caeanue eiia/ii eiaao ianoi e ia?aoiay naycue, o.e. ethaay i?aeoeea aac
oai?ee nouanoaiaaoue ia iiaeao. Aei neo ii? ia nicaeaii ieeaeie
aeinoaoi/ii iieiie e anaioaaouaathuae oai?ee i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey.
I?aaeaea anaai, ec-ca oiai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, naaiaeiy iao aua oai?ee
/aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey a oeaeii, a ai-aoi?uo, iao iaoiaeieiaee, oi
anoue iu ia ciaai oi/ii – eae yoi aeaeaoue. Ii aeaaea anee iu aoaeai
eiaoue n Aaie oi?iooth oai?eth, iiaee?aieaiioth i?aeoeeie, oi o/aiui e
i?aeoeeai aaaeii iiiieoue, /oi iie (aianoa acyoua) ia aeieaeiu noaoue
eaeaieiaeae. E niaeaeaieth, enoi?e/aneee iiuo, a oii /enea e iaoae
no?aiu, iieacuaaao, /oi eiiaaea e?eieiieiae/aneay oai?ey i?aoaiaeoao ia
aaniethoioth enoeio e noaiiaeony eaeaieiaeae.

ss i/aiue ?aaea, /oi naaiaeiy o iaiy e iieo eieeaa anoue aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaenoaaeyy ?acee/iua e?eieiieiae/aneea oai?ee (a ia e?eoeeoy eo
ao?aeoacioth nouiinoue) ?anoe?youe Aao e?oaici?, aeaaay oai naiui,
aiciiaeiinoue iuneeoue ianoaiaea?oii, eiaoue naia nianoaaiiia iiaiea
i?ioanneiiaea, ?acae?athuaainy eae a oai?ee, oae e a i?aeoeea.

1. Oaieiaii-nioeeieiae/aneea oai?ee

-Oai?ey nioeeaeueiie aeaci?aaiecaoeee. Yoa oeiea iacuaaaony aua
*eeaaneie eee yeieiae/aneie. Aa aicieeiiaaiea naycuaaaony n ia/aeii
enneaaeiaaiee a 20-30-o aiaeao ai?iaea *eeaai e aai ie?anoiinoae O/aiua
(nioeeieiae) ?iaa?o Ia?e, Y?iano Aa?aeaeano e ?iaea?ee Iaeeaice
?anniio?aee ai?iae eae aeeaie nioeeaeueiue i?aaieci. Iie enneaaeiaaee
acaeiiioiioaiey ethaeae e i?e?iaeu. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey yoie oai?ee
caeeth/aeenue a neaaeothuai:

– iaeaieaa aunieay aeaeeieaaioiinoue i?eoiaeeony ia oeaio?aeueioth
/anoue ai?iaea (oi?aiaua e i?iiuoeaiiay /anoue ai?iaea);

– ii ia?a oaeaeaiey io oeaio?a e i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia aeaeeieaaioiinoue
iaaeaao; naiay ieceay a aeeeuo ai?iaeneeo eaa?oaeao, ii eneeth/aieai
n/eoaeenue aaaeiua ?aeiiu, ia?aianaeaiiua, aaea ianaeaiea ninoaaeytho
i?aeiouanoaaiii yiea?aiou

– iaeeea i?anooieaiey i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe iiaoo eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny
aaeece ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa i?anooiieeia, oiaaea eae aieaa na?ueaciua
eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey niaa?oathony ia iaeioi?ii ioaeaeaiee io iaai
e o.ae.

– Oai?ey aiiiee. Nioeeieia Yieeue Aeth?eaaei (O?aioeey) n/eoaao
i?anooiiinoue ii?iaeueiui e aeaaea iieaciui yaeaieai. Iia auiieiyao aeaa
ooieoeee:

ai-ia?auo, ioeeiiaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey io eieeaeoeaiiai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oneiaea eciaiaiee e i?ia?anna. Iieiia aaeeiiia?aciia
iiaaaeaiey /eaiia aeaiiiai iauanoaa icia/aao, /oi iii ia?aaeeaaao canoie
e ia ?acaeaaaony;

ai-aoi?uo, i?anooieaiea iiaeao auoue oaeoi?ii eioaa?aoeee iauanoaa,
oe?aieaiey nioeeaeueiuo naycae. Iaaaoeaiay ?aaeoeey ia i?anooiiia
aeayiea oneeeaaao eieeaeoeaiia niciaiea e aeaeaao iaaeyaeiie a?aieoeo
iaaeaeo ii?aeueiuie e i?aaiauie ii?iaie.

Ii iiaieth Aeth?eaaeia “/ai aieueoa /aeiaae eiaao, oai aieueoa ii oi/ao,
iineieueeo iieo/aiiua aeaaa eeoue noeioee?otho, a ia oaeiaeaoai?ytho
iio?aaiinoe”.

Oai?eth aiiiee aeiiieieee e ?acaeee aia?eeaineea nioeeieiae, e, i?aaeaea
anaai, ?iaa?o Ia?oii. Ii ii?aaeaeyao ninoiyiea aiiiee eae iaaeeii a
eoeueoo?a, aicieeathuee a neooaoeee ?aceiai ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo
eoeueoo?iuie ii?iaie e oeaeyie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e nicaeaiiuie
iauanoaii aiciiaeiinoyie iinooiaoue a niioaaonoaee n ieie, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu. Nouanoaotho ?aciua oeiu aaeaioaoeee a oaeie neooaoeee. Oei
ia?aue – eiioi?ieci – yoi iiaaaeaiea, iai?aaeaiiia ia aeinoeaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eoeueoo?iuo oeaeae n iiiiuueth eaaaeueiuo n?aaenoa. Aoi?ie
oei – ?eooaeeci – caeeth/aaony a ioeaca io no?aieaiey e aeinoeaeaieth
aieaa aunieie iiceoeee eeai iiieaeaiee aai o?iaiy aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi
ii iiaiaeo iainouanoaeaiiuo iaia?aiee iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey ia
ianooiaao. Yoe aeaa oeia ia ii?iaeaeatho aeaaeaioiuo iinooieia. O?aoee
oei – eiiiaaoeey – yoi i?eiyoea oeaeae, ii?aaeaeaiiuo eoeueoo?ie, i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii ioeaca io onoaiiaeaiiuo niiniaia eo aeinoeaeaiey. Oi
anoue ethaee oioy e ?aaeecotho oeaiiinoe, i?eiyoua a aeaiiii iauanoaa,
ii aeaeatho yoi n iiiiuueth iaeaaaeueiuo n?aaenoa. *aoaa?oue oei –
?ao?eoeci – caeeth/aaony a iaeiia?aiaiiii ioeaca eae io oeaeae,
no?aieaiea e eioi?ui a aeaiiii iauanoaa iaycaoaeueii, oae e io n?aaenoa,
eioi?ua neoaeao aeinoeaeaieth yoeo oeaeae. E, iaeiiaoe, iyoue oei –
iyoaae – yoi oaeaea ioeac io oeaeae e n?aaenoa, i?eiyouo a iauanoaa, ii
oaea n i?ia?aiiie caiaiu eo iiauie oeaeyie e iiauie n?aaenoaaie eo
aeinoeaeaiey.

– Oai?ee noaeoeueoo?u. Eoeueoo?a aiiaua yoi eiiieaen oeaiiinoiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, neiaeeaoeony a eaeii-oi iauanoaa, a a?aieoeao ecaanoiie
oa??eoi?ee e a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea enoi?ee. Aa neiiieiii
iiaeii n/eoaoue “oeeaeeecaoeeth”, eioi?ay niioaaonoaaiii aeeth/aao a
naay noeeue aeecie, ia?ac iuneae, /oanoaiaaiea e iiaaaeaiea,
au?aaeathuaany a oa?aeoa?a ieoaiey, iaeaaeaeu, a iau/ayo e i?aaao, a
?aeeaee e ycuea. Eoeueoo?a onaaeaaaony e ia?aaeaaony ec iieieaiey a
iieieaiea. Aa iiaeii oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoue eae niaieoiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?i iiaaaeaiey, ii iinoiyiii eciaiythueony,
niaoeaathueieny n ae?oaeie eoeueoo?aie, n ae?oaeie oi?iaie iiaaaeaiey e
oeaiiinoiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Iiae noaeoeueoo?ie iiieiatho nenoaio
iauanoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey e oeaiiinoae, nouanoaothuoth ioaeaeueii io
ainiiaenoaothuae nenoaiu iiaaaeaiey e oeaiiinoae e yaeythuothny ana aea
/anoueth yoie oeaio?aeueiie nenoaiu. Noaeoeueoo?iua a?oiiu aeaeyo /anoue
yeaiaioia n ainiiaenoaothuae eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeeae (oeeaeeecaoeeae),
ii i?e yoii nio?aiytho e nianoaaiiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, e oeaiiinoe,
ioee/athueany io aaaeouae oeeaeeecaoeee.

A oai?eyo noaeoeueoo?u i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee iauynieoue
iiae?inoeiaoth i?anooiiinoue, e a iniaaiiinoe aaiaeeoeci.

Oai?ee Aeueaa?oa Eiyia (1955) e ?e/a?aea Eeioa?aea e Eeieaea Ieeia
(1960), ?anniao?eaathuea i?e/eiu yoiai yaeaiey, iiae/a?eeaatho cia/aiea
eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo oeaiiinoyie e oeaeyie i?aiaeaaeathuaai a iauanoaa
n?aaeiaai neiy, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aiciiaeiinoyie iiae?inoeia ec iecoeo
neiaa, ianiiniaiuo i?eaea?aeeaaoueny yoeo oeaiiinoae e i?aneaaeiaaoue
yoe oeaee, – n ae?oaie. A oiaea a?aiy Oieoa? Ieeea? (1968) ioia/ae, /oi
iiae?inoeiaay aeaeeieaaioiinoue no?ieony ia nenoaia oeaiiinoae iecoeo
neiaa, ia nianoaaiiie, ian/eouaathuae noieaoey o?aaeeoeee, ioee/athuaeny
naiae iniaie oeaeinoiinoueth. Yoe oai?ee noaeoeueoo?u naycaiu n
iniaaiiinoyie ii?aaeaeaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo neiaa.

Ii iiaieth Eiyia, o aeaeeieaaioiiai iiae?inoea nouanoaothuay
nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a aucuaaao ?aaeoeeth io?eoeaiey e iiae?inoeiaay
i?ioeaii?aaiinoue a ioee/ea io i?anooiiinoe ac?ineuo ia eiaao
yeiiiie/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe (e?aaea aauae, eioi?uie iie ia iiaoo
ainiieueciaaoueny, ionoonoaea eaeiai eeai niunea a aeoao aaiaeaeecia,
aaaeaiea “aaiaeeoneeo aiei”, i?eiaiaiea ianeeey a ioiioaiee anao e
anaai). Iiae?inoee niaa?oatho aeaeeeou aeey oiai, /oiau aeiaeoueny
ii?aaeaeaiiiai noaoona, nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey e i?anoeaea. Iie
nicaeatho nianoaaiioth eoeueoo?o, naith, ioaeaeaiioth io
ainiiaenoaothuae oeeaeeecaoeee, iacaaeneioth noaeoeueoo?o n oeaeueth
iieo/eoue noaoon n?aaee naa?noieeia. Yoa ?aaeoeey i?iyaeyaony oaea a
oeiea. Eae n/eoatho ac?ineua – oi?ioee ?aaaiie a oeiea aeieaeai auoue
i?eeaaeiui, iineooiui e niuoeaiui. Yoe oai?ee iacuaathony: “neo/aeiuo
no?oeoo?”, ia?aaiuo oainia”, o.a. eiaaea i?aa?aaeaeaaony iooue e
eaaaeueiui n?aaenoaai (aeinoeaeaiey naieo iio?aaiinoae) iiae?inoee
ia?auathony (i?e iaee/ee aeaeeieaaioiuo caaeaoeia) e i?ioeaii?aaiui
iaoiaeai e n?aaenoaai aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae.

Iaeie noaeoeueoo?u (eo oeiu) aeiaeaathony iaoa?eaeueiiai aeinoaoea e
oa?aeoa?ecothony eiouanoaaiiuie i?anooieaieyie; eiioeeeoiua noaeoeueoo?u
euoo niiniaa aeiaeoueny noaoona a iauanoaa n iiiiuueth ianeeuenoaaiiuo
i?anooieaiee; noaeoeueoo?u “ooiaea io ie?a” (ioeaca) i?aaeii/eoatho
iau/iui ?ieyi e oeaeyi ooiae a ia?eiiaieth e aeeiaieeci. Iaeaieaa
oeie/iui “ooiaeii io ie?a” yaeyaony “eioa/uey noaeoeueoo?a”, nooueth
eioi?ie yaeyaony iinoiyiiia no?aieaiea e “eeeo” (auciao), nainaoeee,
oaeiaieuenoaeth. “Eee” – yoi iiene yenoaoe/aneeo ia?aaeeaaiee,
ianeaaeaeaiee, “oeaoia”, “cai?aaeaeueiuo yooaeoia”. Naiui o?oaeiui
aeaeeieaaioiui aeaeii n/eoaaony oio, a eioi?ii i?aaenoaaeaiu iiae?inoee,
ia no?aiyueany e noaoono n?aaeiaai neiy, ii anaie n?aaenoaaie
iuoathueany iii?aaeoue naia yeiiiie/aneia (iaoa?eaeueiia) iieiaeaiea.
I?eaaaeo Aai aeey iaaeyaeiinoe noaio, eeethno?e?othuoth oai?eth
noaeoeueoo?u, i?aaeeiaeaiioth Eeioa?aeii e Ieeiii:

?acee/iua yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey n?aaeiaai e iecoeo neiaa a
caiaaeiii eiaeono?eaeueiii iauanoaa.

Nioeeaeueiia ?anneiaiea iauanoaa.

Eioa?iaeecaoeey (onaiaiea) iiae?inoeaie ec iecoaai neiy oeaiiinoae
n?aaeiaai neiy.

Aeiee?iaaiea aeinooia iiae?inoeai ec iecoaai neiy e oeaeyi n?aaeiaai
neiy.

?acaeoea aeaeeieaaioiuo aeueoa?iaoea aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiiiaine?othuaai
noaoona.

N auoa ia?a/eneaiiuie oai?eyie noaeoeueoo? ia?aeeeeaaony oai?ey Oieoa?a
Ieeea?a (1968). Iia oaeaea iniiaaia ia ?anneiaiee iauanoaa, ii a iniiao
aa iieiaeaii neaaeothuaa iieiaeaiea, /oi nenoaiu oeaiiinoae e noeeue
aeecie caaenyo io yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Oi anoue eae /aeiaaeo
aeinoathony aeaiueae – iieo/aao ii eo ioeoaea-oi eee (iai?eia?, a
ianeaaenoai eee ii i?ia?aiia nioeeaeueiie iiiiue) eeai ca?aaaouaaao eo
nai. N yoei e naycaiu ?acee/iua nenoaiu oeaiiinoae. Aai oai?ey
i?aaenoaaeyaony neaaeothuae noaiie:

Nianoaaiiue noeeue aeecie e iaeii?iaeiay nenoaia oeaiiinoae iecoaai
neiy, ia?aaeaaaaiay ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.

Ionoonoaea neeueiie oeao?u iooea e aeaineia ia/aei a naiueyo iecoaai
neiy.

Iaaeinoaoi/iay aiciiaeiinoue onaiaiey ioaeneie ?iee a naiueyo iecoaai
neiy.

Onaiaiea ioaeneie ?iee a a?oiia naa?noieeia

Iieo/aiea eiiiaine?othuaai noaoona iooai aeaiiino?aoeee naiae a?oainoe,
ioaeanoaaiiinoe, iaoiae/eainoe, niiniaiinoe iaiaiii aeiaeaaoueny aieaa
auaiaeiiai aeey naay iieiaeaiey a eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeeyo e i?e
niaa?oaiee aeaeeeoia.

Aeaaea ia neoo, yoa noaia eiaao “naie” (iai?eia?, a eae i?anooiiinoue
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaineiai iiea?…), a i?iaa?ea ia i?aeoeea iaoiaeii
naiiio/aoa, iieacuaaao, /oi i?anooiiinoue n?aaee iiae?inoeia ec iecoaai
neiy (eae ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiay, oae e eaoaioiay) ia ioee/aaony ii iauaio e
oyaeanoe io i?anooiiinoe iiae?inoeia ec n?aaeiaai e aa?oiaai neiaa.

A 1980 aiaeo Oaiaei? Oa?aeeiaiae ?ac?aaioae oai?eth noaeoeueoo?u,
eioi?ay ia naycaia ie n ?anneiaieai iauanoaa, ie n yeiiiieeie. Ii
i?iaiaeeo ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iieiaeaaeiuie noaeoeueoo?aie ?acaeouo e
?acaeaathueony no?ai. Iai?eia?, noaeoeueoo?o ?acaeouo caiaaeiuo no?ai
Oa?aeeiaiae oa?aeoa?ecoao neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– iieiaeaaeue ionoaeaaao naie ?aaeinoe a aeooa ia?oeennecia e
ioeacuaaaony io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
naieo /oanoa e yiioeee;

– iieiaeua ethaee ia aeaeatho a?aoue ia naay oyaiou iau/iie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie ea?uea?u, ?iaeaeaiey e ainieoaiey aeaoae, eniieiaiey
naiaeiuo iaycaiiinoae. Iie a?inatho aucia aaoi?eoaoo ac?ineuo a naiuea,
oeiea, iaueia;

-iieiaeaaeue au?aaaouaaao naith iniaoth eaeneeo, iaeaaeaeo e
iocueaeueiua oaea/aiey;

-aicieeiiaaiea iieiaeaaeiie noaeoeueoo?u ia neoaeeo au?aaeaieai
io/oaeaeaiey e ecieyoeee, nei?aa iia neeaaeuaaaony ia iniiaa iniciaiey
iiae?inoeaie naiaai nianoaaiiiai noaoona a ie?a ac?ineuo;

-naia ac?ineaiea iieiaeaaeue ia?aaeeaaao eae oa?ico e ia?aie/aiea naieo
aiciiaeiinoae. Iiae?inoie aeaeaao oi, /oi aio i?aaeony, e ianeaaeaeaaony
aeinoaii. Iieiaeua ethaee a ?acaeouo no?aiao, ?aoeaoea aeaeaoue
eaeoth-eeai i?ioanneiiaeueioth ea?uea?o, aeieaeiu iio?aoeoue ia iao/aiea
io 16 e aieaa eao. Yoi aucuaaao o iiiaeo ec ieo /oanoai aaciaaeaaeiinoe.
Iiae?inoie aiai?eo naaa: “Iaiy ia aeaeao ie/aai, ?aaee /aai iiaeii auei
au cao?aoeoue noieueei a?aiaie e nee”. O/eoueny neo/ii e o?oaeii. E a
eiia/iii n/aoa na?ueaciay i?ioanneiiaeueiay ea?uea?a – yoi aeaeaei ia
ana, i /ai ia/oaao /aeiaae;

-a eiioea eiioeia, nicaeaiea iieiaeaaeiie noaeoeueoo?u – yoi
?aaeenoe/aneia i?eniiniaeaiea e ecia/aeueii aaciaaeaaeiie neooaoeee.

E iineaaeiyy oai?ey noaeoeueoo?u – ianeeey, auaeaeiooay Ia?aeiii
Oieueoaaiaii e O?aiei Oa??aeooe (1967) iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi ianeeea
iiaeii iinoe/ue, e yoe ciaiey e iaauee, aoaeo/e caoeene?iaaiu a
noaeoeueoo?a, ia?aaeathony ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea. A yoie nenoaia
oeaiiinoae e iiaaaeaiey o ethaeae au?aaaouaathony naie noeeue aeecie e
acaeyaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua a iniiaiii ia ianeeea. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoie
noaeoeueoo?u eaeaioeoeoee?otho naay n ianeeeai, e aeey ieo iii ia
yaeyaony ie cai?aoiui, ie aucuaathuei iuouaiea aeiu. Noaeoeueoo?a
ianeeey iaeeaaeuaaao ia ethaeae iniaua /a?ou.

– Neaaeothuea oai?ee oaieiaii-nioeeieiae/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe, ia
eioi?uo iia au oioaeinue inoaiiaeoueny – yoi oai?ee eiioeeeoa. Iiiyoea
“eiioeeeo” i?eoei ec eaoeineiai ycuea e icia/aao noieeiiaaiea, ai?ueao
eee nii?. I?iaeaiaie eiioeeeoia caieiathony ineoieiae (ineoiaiaeec),
nioeeieiae e th?enou.

Ia?aay oai?ey eiioeeeoa (1938) auea auaeaeiooa Oi?noaiii Naeeeiii,
eioi?ay iacuaaeanue “eiioeeeoa eoeueoo?”, aaea aaoi? i?iaiaeeo ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie eiioeeeoaie oeaiiinoae. Iai?eia?:
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ai?thueieny ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey, i?enoueie noa?ie e
iiaie eoeueoo?aie; ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey a naeueneie
ianoiinoe e a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao; eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ii?iaie oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiie iaueiu e ieioi i?aaieciaaiiui iauanoaii. I?eia?ii
eiioeeeoa eoeueoo? yaeyaony iiiaieaoiee i?ioeann eiiea?aoeee a Ec?aeea,
ec-ca eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann iinoiyiiiai ia?aniio?a iniiaiuo
i?eioeeiia e oeaiiinoae. Oae, aa?ae – eiiea?aiou ec naaa?iie Ao?eee
eiatho i?eau/eo ?aoaoue nii?u n iiiiuueth ianeeey e a ii?yaeea
naiinoaea. Aa?ae ec Eaiaia ia neaaeotho cai?aoo i iiiaiaeainoaa.
Aaaeoeiu, aeey eiai “ai?iaeneea caeiiu” – yoi, i?aaeaea anaai neooe,
ia?auathony, eae e i?aaeaea, e iau/ath e?iaiie ianoe, a oaea i iaoeo,
“niaaoneeo” eiiea?aioao e aiai?eoue ia iaaei.

A 1958 e?eieiieia Aeaei?aeae Aieae ?ac?aaioae oai?eth “a?oiiiaiai
eiioeeeoa”. Ii aai iiaieth, /aeiaae aeeaao a eaeie-oi ii?aaeaeaiiie
a?oiia, ninoiyuae ec o?ao eee aieaa /aeiaae, eioi?ua /oanoaotho naay
naycaiiuie iaueie ii?iaie e nioeeaeueiua ?iee eioi?uo /aoei caieioou
ae?oa ia ae?oaa. A?oiia iaeaaeaao oeaeie naoueth nioeeaeueiuo naycae e
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o. AEeciue /aeiaaea – yoi
yeaiaio e ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaee aioo?e a?oiiu e iaaeaeo a?oiiaie.
Eeoea, aunooiathuea i?ioea iiaiey aieueoeinoaa e ioeacuaathueany
neaaeiaaoue i?aaeienaiiui ii?iai iiaaaeaiey, iai?aiaiii iauyaeythony
i?anooiieeaie, e n ieie iinooiatho niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii. A oaieiaiua
iaeacaiey – yoi oaiiiai, nii?iaiaeaeathuee a?oiiiaua eiioeeeou a
iauanoaa:

– iie aicieeatho ec iieeoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee i?ioanoa (iaeaunoeie oi?iaie
oaeiai ianeeey yaeyaony iyoaae e ?aaiethoeey). Oae, iai?eia?, anee
i?ienoiaeeo ?aaiethoeey, oi /eaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aua iaaeaaii eiaaoea
aeanoue, i?aa?auathony a i?anooiieeia …;

-auai?u a aeaiie?aoe/aneeo no?aiao eiiaaea nii?iaiaeaeathony
i?aaiia?ooaieyie (aeou iiaeeoia, e?aaee aeieoiaioia, iacaeiiiia
i?eiaiaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aeey iiaeneooeaaiey e iiaeaeyaeuaaiey ca
naieie iiiiiaioaie e i?.);

-iiiai oaieiaiuo i?anooieaiee niaa?oaaony a oiaea nii?ia iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie i?aaei?eyoee e aanoothueie ?aai/eie;

-i/aiue /anoi i?e/eiie i?anooiiinoe ieacuaathony eiioeeeou iaaeaeo
a?oiiaie, ?acaeaeaiiuie ii ?aniaui, iaoeeiiaeueiui, ?aeeaeiciui
i?eciaeai (*a/iy, THA? e i?.)

Yoa oai?ey iauyniyao i?anooiiinoue eae oaiiiai, iaycaoaeueii
nii?iaiaeaeathuee nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea eiioeeeou, aaaeoueany n
oeaeueth oaea?aeaiey eee oeo/oaiey iiceoeee a?oii a ai?ueaa ca aeanoue a
iauanoaa. Ii iia aea ia iauyniyao anao oi?i i?anooiiinoe.

A Aa?iia aiaeiae/iay oai?ey auea ?ac?aaioaia iaiaoeeei e?eieiieiaii
Ea?eii Ooiaiiii (1974-1976). Niaeanii yoie oai?ee, i?aaiii?yaeie ia
naiaeeony e nenoaia iaecaaaeiuo e iaiaoiaeeiuo ii?i, eioi?ua iinoiyiii
noaayony iiae niiiaiea aioenioeeaeueiuie oeiaie, a anaaaea yaeyao niaie
iaaeinoaoi/iia i?eaeeaeaiea e ii?yaeeo a i?ioeanna a?aiaiiuo e
ianoaaeeueiuo ?aoaiee, a ia niaaeeiaiee aeaeaiee e eioa?ania. Ooiaii
aeaao i/aiue naiaia?aciia iiiyoea i?anooiiinoe – yoi nioeeaeueiue
noaoon, eaaeeoeoee?oaiue niia?acii oiio, eae nenoaia oaieiaiie thnoeoeee
ii?aaeaeyao eiaeeaeaea, ioeoeeaeueii aai eeanneoeoee?oao, auiineo aio
i?eaiai? e ?ani?aaeyaony n iei. Ii yoie oai?ee i?aai e caeii
ii?aaeaeythony oieueei aieae ainiiaenoaothuae yeeou. A ainiiaenoai
iicaieyao ?ac?aoeoue ana eiioeeeou. I?anooieaiea – ia aeo, niaa?oaaiue
iaii?iaeueiui /aeiaaeii, a ia/oi, i?ienoiaeyuaa a i?ioeanna
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie eeoeaie, aeeth/ay caeiiiaeaoaey,
oieeiaaoaey caeiiia, eo eniieieoaey e i?aaiia?ooeoaey. Iieeoe/aneay
i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie yaeyaony neaaenoaeai yaiuo eee ne?uouo
eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeooiaie e a?oiiaie, no?aiyueieny iiauneoue
eee nio?aieoue naie oainu ia nouanoaiaaiea. Iieeoe/aneay aea
i?anooiiinoue iaoneiaeaia eiioeeeoii iaaeaeo oaie, eoi oioae au
nio?aieoue aeaiioth iieeoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o, e oaie, eoi oi/ao aa
oie/oiaeeoue. I?eoyaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie iaania/aiey aeanoiuo iiceoeee
neoaeao oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ii?iu, iicaieythuea ii?aeueii ii?aaaeuaaoue
i?eaiai?u aunieei aaoi?eoaoii (io eiaie ia?iaea). N oi/ee c?aiey yoie
oai?ee aiiaua iaaiciiaeii iauynieoue i?e/eiu i?anooiiinoe e aeaoue
ieeaeeo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo iauyniaiee ioiineoaeueii ia?aaiiia?iiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?anooiiinoe ii ?aciui nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai. Yoa oai?ey
i?aeoe/anee ia o/eouaaao oiai, /oi e?iia iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie
aeanoe e iiue nouanoaotho aua e ae?oaea oi?iu ioi?aaeaiey aeanoe
(ii?aeueiua, iao/iua, yoe/aneea aniaeou aeanoe) e, /oi neaaeoao
?acee/aoue ia oieueei oao, eoi iaaeaeai aeanoueth e oao, eoi aa eeoai,
ii oaeaea o/eouaaoue e oi, /oi nouanoaoao a?aaeaoeey o?iaiae aeanoe.

?aaeeeaeueiua oai?ee. ?acia?aoueny n yoeie oai?eyie, ia iie acaeyae,
i/aiue o?oaeii, iniaaiii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Eo nicaeaiea aeaoe?oaony
70-iu aiaeaie (NOA e Caiaaeiay Aa?iia). Eo noi?iiieeaie aeaaiui aii?inii
yaeyaony eiioeeeo iaaeaeo eeannaie, o.a. ainiiaenoaothuee eeann
e?eieiaeece?oao ?aai/ee eeann n iiiiuueth “eeanniaie no?oeoo?u” iauanoaa
e “eeanniaie thnoeoeeae”. Iiiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee yoeo oai?ee iacuaatho
naay ia?enenoaie, ii iai?aaeeaaynue i?e yoii io e?eieiieiaee
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, n/eoay, /oi NNN? e auaoea no?aiu nioe. eaaa?y
ia nioeeaeenoe/aneea, a ainoaea?noaaiii-eaieoaeenoe/aneea,
ath?ie?aoe/anee-eieeaeoeaenoe/aneea iauanoaa, eioi?ua aaee naia
iiiiiieenoe/aneia ainoaea?noaaiiia oicyenoai eae eaieoaeenoe/aneia
i?aaei?eyoea. Yoe (?aaeeeaeueiua) oai?ee i/aiue neiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue e iu eo ?anniio?ei ana aianoa. Aaeeiu iie a iaeiii –
a io?eoeaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie e?eieiieiaee. Ii iiaieth eo noi?iiieeia:

– i?anooiiinoue – “iaaaoeaiia aeaai”, eioi?ia o?acaao i?aaa e oainu,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao eiathueany a iauanoaa ?ano?nu;

– aeaaeaioiinoue – yoi au?aaeaiea ?aciieeeinoe, ?aciiia?acey ethaeae;

– iniiaiie eiioeeeo a eaieoaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa eiaao ianoi iaaeaeo
ainiiaenoaothuei e ?aai/ei eeannii;

– i?anooiiinoue aicieeaao ec i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeecia, eioi?ua ana a?aiy
?anooo;

– o?aaeeoeeiiiay e?eieiieiaey – iaoea, eioi?ay ia noaaeo iiae aii?in
ioiioaiey ainiiaenoaa, a iuoaaony eo ii?aaaeaoue;

– oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e aai i?eiaiaiea i?e eaieoaeecia
?an/eoaiu ia iaania/aiea ainiiaenoaa eaieoaeenoia e eo iiaeaea?aeeo, a
i?aaiii?yaeie – yoi nenoaia, nicaeaiiay eeannii eaieoaeenoia aeey
iaania/aiey naieo eioa?ania;

– einoaioeee nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey iauanoaa, o.a. iieeoeey, noaeu,
oth?ueiu eee eni?aaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, yaeythony “i?aaiaie iaai?a
?ae?ooia a eaoi?ao aeaaeaioiuo yeaiaioia”;

– i?eiaiaiea naieoeee e ?aciui neiyi ianaeaiey ia?auaii i?ioea oeaaoiuo,
aaaeiuo, iieeoe/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo iaiueoeinoa.

Naiae aeaaiie caaea/ae ?aaeeeaeu aeaeyo – eeeaeaeaoeeth
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?aaeeeaeueiua oai?ee iiaeaa?aathony e?eoeea ii
neaaeothuei iniiaaieyi:

– iniiaiua iinooeaou ?aaeeeaeueiuo oai?ee i?anooiiinoe yiie?e/anee
iaaeieacoaiu;

– iauanoaa, iacuaathuea naay nioeeaeenoe/aneeie, ie e eiae ia?a ia
naiaiaeiu io i?anooiiinoe e i?ioeaii?aaiinoe;

– ?aaeeeaeueiua oai?ee iieiu ii?aeecaoi?noaa, o.a. iaaeiytho aieueoa
oao, eoi aeeaao a aeinoaoea e eiaao aeanoue (iiene “ceiaeaaa”);

– yoe oai?ee eceeoia ia?aioeaieaatho yeiiiieeo;

– nouanoaoao aieueoay a?oiia i?anooieaiee, eioi?ay niaa?oaiii ia
cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu eaieoaeenoia;

– niaa?oaiii ia cao?aaeaaaony aii?in aea?oau i?anooieaiey e oae aeaeaa.

Iaeiei ec i?eia?ia ianinoiyoaeueiinoe yoeo oai?ee iiaoo neoaeeoue
yiie?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, a oiaea eioi?uo onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aai/ea
aieueoa i?eaycaiu e naiae nianoaaiiinoe, /ai n?aaeiee neie, /oi iie
?ac/a ianoaeaeatho eiouanoaaiiua i?anooieaiey, /oi iie aieueoa
iiaeaea?aeeaatho iieeoeeth e o?aaotho oaaee/aiey aa /eneaiiinoe e aieaa
aeanoeeo ia? a ioiioaiee i?anooiieeia.

2. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea oai?ee i?anooiiinoe

Iauai?eiyoi, /oi ia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea aeeyao aai aeeaeaeoaa e aieaa
oe?ieia nioeeaeueiia ie?oaeaiea. Iaeiaei e nai /aeiaae naiei iiaaaeaieai
aeeyao ia yoi ie?oaeaiea, oi?ie?oy aai; /aeiaae ioithaeue ia ianneaai ii
ioiioaieth e naiae n?aaea, e a?oiia. Naiuie iiuiuie ii neea naycae
a?oiiaie a iauanoaa yaeythony naiuey, oeiea, a?oiia naa?noieeia,
i?ioanneiiaeueiue eieeaeoea e a?oiia naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie (aeinoaa, eai
aieueooth /anoue naiaai a?aiaie /aeiaae i?iaiaeeo a yoeo a?oiiao e a ieo
nieaeece?oaony.

Oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo oai?ee i?anooiiinoe
yaeyaony nioeeaeecaoeey, oeaeueth eioi?ie neoaeeo aaeaioaoeey e
aaeeaaiea eiaeeaeaea a i?eiyoua a iauanoaa ii?iu iiaaaeaiey. Ia?aoeiny
oaia?ue e iaeioi?ui ec e?eieiieiae/aneeo oai?ee yoiai
(nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai) iai?aaeaiey.

Oai?ey iao/aiey. Iia iauyniyao i?anooiiia iiaaaeaiea oae: i?anooiieeii
iiaeao noaoue ethaie /aeiaae. I?e?iaeaeaiiuo i?anooiieeia ia auaaao.
Oianeaaeiaaoue iiaeii eeoue niiniaiinoue e iao/aieth. Yoa
“i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue” iicaieyao onaaeaaoue ethaua iuneeiua oi?iu
iiaaaeaiey – eae nioeeaeueii i?eaieaiua oae e aeaaeaioiua,
aeaeeieaaioiua e i?anooiiua. Ia?aui, eoi auaeaeioe yoo oai?eth aue
Aaa?eyeue Oa?ae. Ii i?aaeeiaeee o?e iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe
iiae?aaeaoaeueiiai iao/aiey:

-eaa/a e eo/oa anaai ia?aieiatho iiaaaeaiea ae?oa ae?oaa eiaeeaeaeu,
iaoiaeyueany a oaniii eiioaeoa;

-iiae?aaeaiea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii a iauanoaa, i?iiecuaaao aai io naiuo
aa?oieo neiaa aei naiuo iecoeo: iieiaeua ethaee iiae?aaeatho ac?ineui,
aaaeiyee aiaaoui e o.ae. I?anooiiinoue iieiaeaaee, iiaeeeuo ethaeae e
ethaeae n ieceei noaoonii iniiaaia ia no?aieaiee noaoue a?iaaiue ni
ac?ineuie, aiaaouie e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuie niioaaonoaaiii;

– i?aaeiaa iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea i?e yoii ia?ae?uaaaony iiaui, eioi?ia
iiaeao eeai oneeeoue noa?ia, eeai oeaeeeii caiaieoue aai. Ii i?e yoii
i?aaeiaa iiaaaeaiea yaeyao niaie ia?aoiae e iiaiio.

I?eiaieoaeueii e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea ethaee eniieuecotho o?e iniiaiua
nenoaiu ?aaae?iaaiey – ?aoeaenu, einoeieou e onaiaiiua ?aaeoeee.
Iao/aiea (onaiaiea) – naiay aaaeiay nenoaia ?aaae?iaaiey a i?ioeanna
aaeaioe?iaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. Aai ee/iinoiia ?acaeoea ia/eiaaony
n iiiaioa iieiaeioai?aiey yeoeaeeaoee. I?e yoii aeoeaii
acaeiiaeaenoaotho aaiaoe/aneea eiiiiiaiou iaieo ?iaeeoaeae. Iinea
?iaeaeaiey a aeaei anooiaao nioeeaeueiay N?aaea (oaea caeanue
iiai?iaeaeaiiua ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa – iaeie iiiai niyo, ae?oaea
iiiai e?e/ao e o.ae. Ca oaeaniui ?iaeaeaieai /aeiaaea neaaeoao
aeooiaii-nioeeaeueiia noaiiaeaiea, o.a. /aeiaae o/eony auoue /aeiaaeii.
O/aiua i?aaeeaaatho o?e ?acee/iuo iiaeoiaea e iao/aieth ii?iai
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii:

– au?aaaouaaaony eeanne/aneee oneiaiue ?aoeaen, ioe?uoue Eaaiii
Iaaeiaui. A yoii i?ioeanna iaeei ?acae?aaeeoaeue iiaeiaiyaony ae?oaei.
Ia iniiaa yoiai iieiaeaiey auea ?ac?aaioaia oai?ey (Aainii-TH?aaiii
Aecaieii /1977/ e Ai?aeiiii O?anea?ii /1962/) ii eioi?ie i?anooiiia,
aioenioeeaeueiia iiaaaeaiea yaeyaony “anoanoaaiiui” e oneeeaathuei naay
a oii neo/aa, anee iii i?eiineo iaiin?aaenoaaiiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
ee/iinoe, eioi?ay aaaeao naay ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii (ca iaeei e oio aea
iinooiie ?aaaiie iaeacuaaaony ?iaeeoaeyie eaaeaeue ?ac, iinea /aai ii
ia/eiaao /oanoaiaaoue aieue oaea i?e iunee i niaa?oaiee oaeiai iinooiea.
Yoio no?ao e “aieue” /?aoeaeoi?iia niciaiea/ eae ?ac e aoaeoo
oaea?aeeaaoue aai io i?aaiia?ooaiey). Ii nooe yoa oai?ey yaeyaony
aeinioeeaeueiie, a ii niaea?aeaieth ineoiiaoaeiae/aneie. Iiyoiio aa
e?eieiieiae ioiinyo e ineoiiaoaeiaee;

– aoi?ui iiaeoiaeii e iao/aieth ii?iai iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony au?aaioea
eino?oiaioaeueiuo oneiaiuo ?aoeaenia (aaoaaei?enoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea),
o.a. /aeiaae o/eony ia naieo oniaoao e iaoaea/ao n iiiiuueth iiiu?aiee e
iaeacaiee (iieo/aao iieiaeeoaeueiia eee io?eoeaoaeueiia iiaee?aieaiea);

– o?aoueei iiaeoiaeii yaeyaony nioeeaeueiay oai?ey iao/aiey, eioi?ay
?anniao?eaaao iao/aiea /aeiaaea eae aeoeaiue, iiciaaaoaeueiue,
oi?aaeyaiue aeooiaiue i?ioeann ia?a?aaioee iiuoa e ciaiee. *aeiaa/aneia
iiaaaeaiea – yoi ia aaoiiaoe/aneia, ?aoeaeoi?iia ?aaae?iaaiea; a aai
iniiaa eaaeeo aeoeaiue i?ioeann, a eioi?ii ?aoathuoth ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iioeaaoeeyi, /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth e neiaeiui
iuneeoaeueiui i?ioeannai. Yoa oai?ey auea ?ac?aaioaia a iniiaiii
Aeueaa?oii Aaiaeo?ie (1979), eioi?oth ii no?ieo ia o/aoa i?ioeannia
iiciaiey, i?ioaeathueo a iicao iaaeaeo aicaeaenoaeyie ?acae?aaeeoaey e
?aaeoeee ia iaai, o.a. ia o/aoa aini?eyoee, ainiiieiaiee,
i?aaenoaaeaiee, i?aae/oanoaee e iaeeaeaiee. (Ia eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeaeae
a naiae aeecie oyaeeia i?anooieaiea, ii /eoae i ieo, aeaeae ia noeaia
oaao?a, a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii eee aeieoiaioaeueiii oeeueia; oaniia iauaiea
n inoaeaeaiiuie e eeoaieth naiaiaeu oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyaony ia eaaeaeiio,
ii iuneaiiia “ciaeiinoai” n yoie eaoaai?eae a?aaeaeai eiaao eaaeaeue. Ii
ianeieueei yoi i?aaeoueny eee ia i?aaeony ii?aaeaeyao aeey naay
eaaeaeue).

– Oai?ey aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie annioeeaoeee. Yoa oai?ey ecia/aeueii
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iauyniaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?anooiiiai
iiaaaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe i?iaiaeeeenue ecaanoiuie
e?eieiieiaaie Eeeooi?aeii Oio (1930), Yaeaei Naca?eaiae (1939) e aai
o/aiee Aeiiaeueae E?anne. Oai?ey aeeth/aao a naay ainaiue iniiaiuo
iinooeaoia:

1. I?anooiiiio iiaaaeaieth o/aony, a ia ianeaaeotho;

2. I?anooiiia iiaaaeaiea onaaeaaaony a oiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie a i?ioeanna iauaiey;

3. Aaaeiaeoay /anoue iao/aiey oaieiaiiio iiaaaeaieth niaa?oaaony a
a?oiiao, naycuaathueo naieo /eaiia oaniuie ee/iuie ioiioaieyie.
Aiaee/iinoiua n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee (oaea-, eeii- e aeaeaioeeueiu,
aacaou e aeo?iaeu) ea?atho a i?ioeanna onaiaiey e?eieiaeueiiai
iiaaaeaiey ia noieue aaaeioth ?ieue;

4. Iaeaaeaiea e?eieiaeueiui iiaaaeaieai aeeth/aao a naay eco/aiea
niiniaia niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua auaatho e neiaeiuie, e
i?inouie, a oaeaea niaoeeoe/aneeo iioeaia, aea/aiee, ii?aaaeaiee e
onoaiiaie;

5. ?anniao?eaay caeii a iieiaeeoaeueiii e io?eoeaoaeueiii naaoa,
i?anooiieee onaaeaatho iniaoth iai?aaeaiiinoue iioeaia e aea/aiee. A
iaeii iauanoaa eiaeeaeaeooi eiioaeoe?oao n ethaeueie, eioi?ua
aaeeiiaeooii ioiinyony e ii?iai caeiia, eae e iaoeinieoaeueii
eniieiyaiui i?aaeeai aeecie, a a ae?oaii – ieacuaathony a ie?oaeaiee
ethaeae, eioi?ua a naieo ioeaieao ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea ia?ooaieth
caeiiia;

6. *aeiaae noaiiaeony i?anooiieeii, eiaaea onaaeaaaiua ei ii?aaeaeaiey,
aeaaii?eyonoaothuea i?anooiiinoe, ia?aaaoeaatho a aai niciaiee ia?acoeu
caeiiiiineooiiai iiaaaeaiey;

7. Onaiaiea i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey ia ia?aie/aii oieueei i?ioeannii
eieoaoeee, iiae?aaeaiey; e iineaaeiee iinooeao yoie oai?ee

8. Oioy i?anooiiinoue – yoi au?aaeaiea iaueo iio?aaiinoae e oeaiiinoae,
iauyniyoue aa oieueei yoeie iio?aaiinoyie e oeaiiinoyie iaeuecy, eai e
iai?anooiiia iiaaaeaiea oaeaea yaeyaony au?aaeaieai oao aea naiuo
iio?aaiinoae e oeaiiinoae.

Ec yoie oai?ee (aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie annioeeaoeee) E?anne naeaeae
neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

– iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue i?aeoeeo e oneiaey ainieoaiey a
naiuea, oeiea, i?ioanneiiaeueiii eieeaeoeaa e a?oiiao niaianoiiai
i?iaaaeaiey aeinoaa;

– iaeuecy aianoa niaea?aeaoue aia?aua inoaeaeaiiuo aianoa n
?aoeeaeeaenoaie;

– a?oiiu ?anioeeaeecaoeee ioaeii i?aaieciauaaoue ii i?eioeeio “…/oiau
eiai-oi a /ai-oi oaaaeeoue, ioaeii oaaaeeoueny a yoii naiiio…”;

– iiaeii nicaeaoue e nio?aiyoue iauanoai, eeoaiiia i?anooiiinoe,
aeaaiaea?y nenoaia iiiu?aiee.

Ii?inu aaaeoueo e?eieiieiaia iieacuaatho, /oi oai?ey Naca?eaiaea eiaao
i/aiue aieueoia aeeyiea, oioy e aucuaaao nii?u. Iu n Aaie aoaeao ca ieie
iaaethaeaoue, a iiea ia?aeaeai e ?anniio?aieth neaaeothuae oai?ee

– Oai?ee eiio?iey. Niaeanii oai?eyi eiio?iey, eioi?ua auee aia?aua
i?aaeeiaeaiu e?eieiieiaaie Aeueaa?oii ?aennii (1951), O.Aeaaiii Iaai
(1958) e Ia?oeiii Aioeaeii (1963,1970), nioeeaeueii eiioi?iiiio
iiaaaeaieth iaaei iao/aoue. Aeey eco/aiey oaeiai iiaaaeaiey e aai
onaiaiey ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiatho oi?iaeueiue e iaoi?iaeueiue
eiio?ieue, a oaeaea eiio?ieue aiaoiee e naiieiio?ieue. Iaoi?iaeueiue
eiio?ieue ii e?aeiae ia?a noieue aea aaaeai, eae e oi?iaeueiue, eioi?ue
aneaaenoaea oeaiiinoiuo eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie a
ieth?aeenoe/aneii iauanoaa eiaao n?aaieoaeueii aieueoia cia/aiea,
auiieiyao a yoii iauanoaa ia oieueei ooieoeeth ono?aoaiey, ii e
ooieoeeth oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiiinoae. Aiaoiee eiio?ieue ca n/ao i?ioeanna
eioa?iaeecaoeee (eee eioa?ei?ecaoeee) i?aa?auaaony ai aioo?eee/iinoiue
eiio?ieue, eee naiieiio?ieue. I?e oniaoiie nioeeaeecaoeee ?iaeeoaeueneee
iaaeci? caiauaaony “ineoieiae/aneei i?enoonoaeai” ?iaeeoaeae. Aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naiieiio?iey ?aoathuei iiiaioii yaeyaony naiiioeaiea e
onoie/eaay naycue n iauanoaii. Ana oai?ee eiio?iey enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi
iauaeaiiia e aoeueaa?iia iuoeaiea iaioaeaeeiu io i?anooiiuo aeaenoaee e
iaoneiaeeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa. Ianiiiaiii, aieueoia aeeyiea ia iinooeaou
oai?ee eiio?iey ieacuaaao ineoiaiaeec Ceaioiaea O?aeaea. O?aeaeianeay
aioo?eineoe/aneay aeeiaieea oaea aeaaii ia?aaaaeaia a iiiyoea
nioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee e oai naiui naeaeaia iia?aoeeiiiie,
iaaethaeaaiie e yiie?e/anee aeieacoaiie.

Neaaeothuae Aaoaio aieiaieth i?aaeeaaaaony oai?ey onoie/eainoe. Aa
iniiaiiieiaeiee Oieoa? ?aeean (1961,1973,1981) caaeaeny aii?inii:
”Ii/aio aeeaouee a e?oiiii ai?iaea iiae?inoie, ianiio?y ia aunieee
o?iaaiue i?anooiiinoe, ia noaiiaeony i?aaiia?ooeoaeai?” Ii aai iiaieth
ioaao caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai – nioeeaeueioth onoie/eainoue ee/iinoe
ii?aaeaeyao aiaoiee e, iniaaiii, aioo?aiiee eiio?ieue, au?aaeathueeny ai
aioo?aiiae onoie/eainoe. Aa ioee/atho iyoue i?eciaeia:

1. Naiiainieoaiea, oi anoue ioeaiea naay eae ee/iinoe, caeeth/aaony a
niiniaiinoe naiieiio?iey, a oiaiee ioeaieoue naay ni noi?iiu, a /ai
aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao oaaaeaiea caeiia;

2. Oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue au?aaeaaony a ee/iii aeaeaiee naeaeaoue
nioeeaeueii i?eaieaioth ea?uea?o. Ethaee, iinoaaeaoea ia?aae niaie
aeieain?i/ioth oeaeue, nio?aiytho eiioieoao, iaoycaeiinoue ii ioiioaieth
e i?ioeaii?aaiinoe e i?anooiiinoe;

3. Naiieiio?ieue iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiui oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea oeaeue
yaeyaony aiieia ?aaeenoe/iie. Ia?aaeueiua aeaeaiey e no?aieaiea
aeinoe/ue oeaee, eaaeauae ca i?aaeaeaie n?aaenoa e aiciiaeiinoae,
iaecaaaeii aaaeoo e ia?ooaieth aioo?aiiae onoie/eainoe;

4. Noieeinoue – yoi naienoai /aeiaaea, iicaieythuaa aio ia i?aaeaaaoueny
aiaao eee io/ayieth aaciaaeaaeiinoe, eiaaea ii ia iieo/aao oiai, /oi
oioae. Ethaee, /uee oeaee ieacaeenue ca i?aaeaeaie eo aeinyaaaiinoe,
eaaei iiaoo iiaeaeaaaoueny ?aci/a?iaaieth. Ethaee, eaaei aiaaeathuea a
ninoiyiea o?ono?aoeee, iau/ii ia noaayo ia?aae niaie aeieaia?aiaiiuo
oeaeae. Oa, eoi neeiiai e i?aaiia?ooaieyi, iaeaaeatho eiioeueneaiui,
iaoa?iaeeaui oa?aeoa?ii, oiaaea eae caeiiiiineooiui ethaeyi yoi i?enoua
a ai?acaei iaiueoae noaiaie. Ionoonoaea oaioacee e iaoa?iaeeainoue
aucuaatho o /aeiaaea neoeo, eioi?ay cao?oaeiyao ?aaeenoe/iia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ioeii, ianoiyuai e aoaeouai. Ethaee, neeiiiua e
i?anooiiinoe, anaaaea a aieueoae noaiaie iaoa?iaeeau, eeoaiu oaioacee e
?aaeenoe/iiai acaeyaea ia aaue; Iineaaeiei

5. Oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii aioo?aiiae onoie/eainoe /aeiaaea yaeyaony
eaeaioeoeeaoeey n ii?iaie i?aaa. Ioiioaiea i?aaiia?ooeoaeae e caeiio
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aai io?eoeaieai, a?aaeaeaaiinoueth e i?aaiio?aieoaeueiui
i?aaiai e i?aao.

O/aiua, i?eaea?aeeaathueany oi/ee c?aiey yoie oai?ee (onoie/eainoe)
n/eoatho, /oi oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia naiiaini?eyoea (nianoaaiiia “ss”,
“naa?o-ss”, “Noia?-Yai”) iiaeii n/eoaoue /ai-oi a?iaea
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie “i?eaeaee” i?ioea i?anooiiinoe.

Iiiyoea “aioo?aiiae onoie/eainoe”, aaaaeaiiia ?aeeannii, e?eieiieia Aa?e
Eainai ?aceiaeee ia o?e ninoaaiua /anoe:

– oeaiiinoiia naiiii?aaeaeaiea;

– niiniaiinoue naiieiio?iey;

– e oaaaeaiea iauai?eiyoie ii?aee.

Ii i?iaa?ee naith eiioeaioeeth ia aieaa /ai /aou?ao ouny/ao neeiiiuo e
ianeeiiiuo e i?anooieaieyi o/aueony n?aaeieo oeie e iaia?oaeee, /oi
i?anooiieee e iai?anooiieee ?acee/aeenue iaaeaeo niaie ii anai o?ai
oa?aeoa?enoeeai. Ei??aeyoeey auea ia i/aiue /aoeie, ii nouanoaiaaea.

Neaaeothuay oai?ey, i?aaeeaaaaiay Aai aeey iciaeiieaiey – oai?ey
nioeeaeueiuo naycae. E?eieiieia Oe?oe iauyniyao aicieeiiaaiea
i?ioeaii?aaiinoe e i?anooiiinoe ineaaeaieai eee ?ac?uaii naycae,
nouanoaothueo o /aeiaaea n iauanoaii eee n aai a?oiiie. Ii n/eoaao, /oi
ana ethaee iioaioeeaeueiua i?aaiia?ooeoaee, ii eo oaea?aeeaaao no?ao
ia?aae aiciiaeiie iioa?ae cia/eiuo aeey iaai naycae n ?iaenoaaiieeaie,
ae?ocueyie, eieeaaaie e o.ae. Oe?oe aeieacuaaao, /oi nioeeaeueiua nayce
ethaiai /aeiaaea iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a yeaiaioa:

– neiiaoeth, i?aaeaiiinoue, i?eaycaiiinoue;

– aiaaaee?iaaiiinoue (iaycaoaeuenoai), ee/iia o/anoea;

– eniieueciaaiea naycae a ei?unoiuo oeaeyo;

– i?eciaiea ii?aeueiiai aeinoieinoaa i?eiyouo i?aaee.

Yoe /aou?a iiiaioa eae ioaeaeeiu ae?oa io ae?oaa, oae e iaoiaeyony a
iiin?aaeiaaiiie nayce.

Iieiaeaiey yoie oai?ee iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaa?yeenue yiie?e/anee, a oii
/enea e aaoi?ii aeaiiie eaeoeee.

Inoaiaaeeaaynue ia neaaeothuae oai?ee – ianiaiaaeathueo i?aaeiieiaeaiee,
iu ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iia iiaeiuaao a naay ianeieueei ec auoa
ia?a/eneaiiuo oai?ee, o.a. eiiaeiaoeeth iiiaeo
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo oai?ee (iacuaaaiuo oai?eyie “n?aaeiaai
o?iaiy”). Aa iaaeinoaoie a oii, /oi iia iauyniyao oieueei
i?aaeiaia?aiiua i?anooieaiey e ia iauyniyao i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaiiuo ii
iainoi?iaeiinoe. Aa aaoi?u aeaeyo aeaa ?acee/iuo iooe aicieeiiaaiey
i?anooiiinoe. Ia?aue iie naycuaatho n oai?eyie iao/aiey e eiio?iey
(neaaay e aaniiiiuii-ia?aoeoaeueiay aiaea/aiiinoue ethaeae a
iauanoaaiioth aeeciue, neeueiia aeeyiea aeaaeaioiuo a?oii) E aoi?ie
iooue – ni/aoaiea oai?ee iao/aiey e eiio?iey n oai?eae neo/aeiuo
no?oeoo? (a aeaonoaa ?aaaiie iiaeao au?aaioaoue i?i/iua nayce n
o?aaeeoeeiiiui nioeeaeueiui no?iai, a n oa/aieai a?aiaie, a ia?eiae
thiinoe, yoe nioeeaeueiua nayce iiaoo auoue iiaeaa?aeaiu “?aciuaaieth”.
Ii iinea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie iiceoeaiua nioeeaeueiua nayce
ana aea aeiieie?otho.

Yoa oai?ey eiiiie?oao e oai, /oi aa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iai?aaeaiu ia
ineaaeaiea naycae i?anooiieeia ae?oa n ae?oaii e oneeaiea eiioaeoia
i?aaiia?ooeoaeae n nioeeaeueii eiioi?iiuie ethaeueie, a oaeaea
?anoe?aiea eo aiciiaeiinoe onaiaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo
oeaiiinoae. Iai?eia?, oe?aieyoue nayce inoaeaeaiiuo e eeoaieth naiaiaeu
n ?iaenoaaiieeaie, nayuaiiineoaeeoaeyie, i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?acee/iuo
iauanoaaiiuo aoiaieoa?iuo oiiaeia, ineoieiaaie e o.ae.; ieacuaaoue
iineeueioth iiiiuue ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey ec iano
eeoaiey naiaiaeu; eiiiainaoeeth oua?aa inoaeaeaiiue aeieaeai n/eoaoue
/anoueth oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey (io yoiai auea?atho e i?anooiiee, e
aea?oaa, e iauanoai) e i?i/aa.

-Oai?ey eioa?aeoeee (oai?ey noeaiaoecaoeee). Yoa oai?ey caieiaaony ia
oieueei eco/aieai eeoe, ioeoeeaeueii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eae i?anooiieee,
ii e i?iyaeyao eioa?an e i?ioeannai, a oiaea eioi?uo ethaee
ii?aaeaeythony eae i?anooiieee.

E?eieiieia Aiaa?ae Aaeea? ?ac?aaioae iiaeaeue aeaaeaioiie eee i?anooiiie
ea?uea?u, a eioi?ie aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao eioa?aeoeey:

Ia?aay noaaeey – i?aaeiaia?aiii eee iai?aaeiaia?aiii /aeiaae niaa?oaao
iaeia iaeiioi?iiia aeaenoaea (I?eaeaaaynue naiei oaioaceyi, iiiaea
ethaee aeaeyo naay niaa?oathueie i?ioeaii?aaiua aeayiey…);

Aoi?ay noaaeey – ai a?aiy yoie noaaeee /aeiaaeo, neeiiiiio e
nioeeaeueiie aeaaeaoeee, aai i?anooiiia iiaaaeaiea aeinoaaeyao
oaeiaieuenoaea;

Ia o?aoueae noaaeee iaeiei ec ?aoathueo oaaia a i?ioeanna onaiaiey
ia?acoeia aeaaeaioiiai eee e?eieiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony iiuo
a?anoa eee eeaeiaiey /aeiaaea eae i?anooiieea;

E iineaaeiei, iyoui yoaiii – oaaii a i?anooiiie ea?uea?a yaeyaony
anooieaiea /aeiaaea a a?oiio (aaiaeo) i?anooiieeia, o.a. ii ia?aoiaeeo a
noaaeeth naiae aeaaeaioiie aeia?aoee. Yoio oaa ieacuaaao ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ia naiiioeaieo /aeiaaea e aai naiiaini?eyoea.

E a caeeth/aiee o?aoueaai aii?ina – ianeieueei neia aua ia iaeiie oai?ee
– noeaiaoecaoeee (eeaeiaiey). Yoa oai?ey i/aiue naiaia?acia. Iia
io?eoeaao, /oi aeaaeaioiia iiaaaeaiea ii?iaeaeaao iio?aaiinoue a
nioeeaeueiii eiio?iea eee /oi oaeia iiaaaeaiea anoue ?acoeueoao
ineaaeaiey yoiai eiio?iey. Ii iiaieth aa aaoi?a Eaia?oa, eiaiii
nioeeaeueiue eiio?ieue e ii?iaeaeaao aeaaeaioiinoue, eioi?oth ii, a
naith i/a?aaeue aeaeeo ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: ia?ae/ioth e aoi?e/ioth
aeaaeaoeeth. Ia?ae/iay aeaaeaoeey i?ienoiaeeo oiaaea, eiaaea eiaeeaeae
ia/eiaao aoiaeeoue a i?aaeienaiioth aio nioeeaeueioth ?ieue. Aoi?e/iay
aeaaeaoeey ia/eiaaony n iiiaioa nioeeaeueiie ?aaeoeee ia aeaaeaioiia
iiaaaeaiea. Yoe ?aaeoeee iauanoaa ia oaeo aeaaeaoeee i?eaiaeyo e oiio,
/oi iaeioi?ua ethaee ia/eiatho iinooiaoue a niioaaonoaee n ?ieueth,
eioi?oth ei ii?aaeaeeei iauanoai. Yoi i/aiue neiaeiay i?iaeaia, o.e. o
ethaeae, ia?aaeeaoeo i?ioeann noeaiaoecaoeee, nicaeaaony iaaaoeaiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i naiii naaa (negative self-image), eioi?ia iiaeao
iiaea/ue aeaeaei eaeouea iineaaenoaey aeey eo iiaaaeaiey a aoaeouai.

Oai?ey noeaiaoecaoeee eiaao aaaeiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Aa auaiaeu
aeieaeiu neoaeeoue i?aaeinoa?aaeaieai aeey i?aaiia i?aainoaeey,
iiae/a?eeaay io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey aiaea/aiey iaeioi?uo a?aaeaeai
a noa?o aeaenoaey th?eaee/aneie iaoeiu. Yoi iniaaiii eanaaony
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, ineoeea eioi?uo aua ia noi?ie?iaaeanue, a nayce n
/ai iie iiauoaiii aini?eei/eau e iaaycaiiui nioeeaeueiui ?ieyi.
Aeinoaoi/ii i?eaanoe i?eia? auciaa n o?iea eaeiai-oi o/aieea e
einiaeoi?o ii aeaeai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo…

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