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Свод законов – ‘Русская Правда’

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Eiaeaen ae?aaia?onneiai oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaa. ?onneay i?aaaea

E?oiiaeoeie iaiyoieeii ?onneiai i?aaa yaeyaony ?onneay I?aaaea. Nienee
?onneie I?aaaeu aeioee aei ian a aieueoii eiee/anoaa, ii eo aaeeiay
eeanneoeeaoeey aei neo ii? ionoonoaoao.

?onneay I?aaaea auea eiaeaenii ae?aaia?onneiai oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaa Aa
ii?iu eaaeao a iniiaa Ineianeie e Iiaai?iaeneie noaeiuo a?aiio e
iineaaeothueo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ia oieueei ?onneiai, ii e
eeoianeiai i?aaa.

A noaoueyo ?onneie I?aaaeu aiai?eony ia onoaiiaeaiee i?aaa oaiaeaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia oieueei ia caieth e oaiaeuey, ii e ia aeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai eiiae aia?ia i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?.

Aeey yiioe i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae ?onneie I?aaaea oa?aeoa?iui iauaaeeiaieai
naeueneiai ianaeaiey auea ninaaeneay iaueia Iia au?inea a i?ioeanna
?aceiaeaiey naiaeiie iaueiu.

Ae?aaiaeoay /anoue ?onneie I?aaaeu yaeyaony caienueth aieaa noa?uo ii?i
naeaeaiiie i?e eiyca ss?ineaaea Aeaaeeie?iae/a. Aa eiiaaea iacuaatho
“I?aaaeie ss?ineaaa”. Yoa /anoue ninoieo ec ia?auo 16 noaoae “E?aoeie
I?aaaeu”. Ca iae neaaeoao “I?aaaea ss?ineaae/ae”, o.a. nuiiaae ss?ineaaa
I?ino?aiiay ?aaeaeoeey aieaa neiaeia ii ninoaao e aeeth/aao a naay
iiiaeanoai eiyaeaneeo caeiiia ecaeaiiuo iaaeaeo na?aaeeiie XI e ia/aeii
XIII aa., nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo e o?iiieiae/anee ia?aiaoaiiuo.

Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea ?onneie I?aaaeu io?aaeaao eioa?anu eiyaeaneiai
oicyenoaa oi?aaeaiey. I?e n?aaiaiee ioaeaeueiuo aa /anoae ynii aeaeai
?ino eiyaeaneie aeanoe e ?anoe?aiea eiyaeaneiai noaea.

I?aaiaia iieiaeaiea ianaeaiey

Ana oaiaeaeueiua iauanoaa auee no?iai no?aoeoeoee?iaaiu, oi anoue.
ninoiyee ec nineiaee, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe eioi?uo /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu
caeiiii eae ia?aaiua ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao e e ainoaea?noao.
Eiuie neiaaie, eaaeaeia nineiaea eiaei naie th?eaee/aneee noaoon. Auei
au aieueoei oi?iuaieai ?anniao?eaaoue oaiaeaeueiia iauanoai n oi/ee
c?aiey yenieoaoaoi?ia e yenieoaoe?oaiuo. Nineiaea oaiaeaeia, ninoaaeyy
aiaaoth neeo eiyaeaneeo ae?oaeei, ianiio?y ia ana naie iaoa?eaeueiua
auaiaeu, iiaei iioa?youe aeeciue – naiia oeaiiia – i?iua e aa?iyoiaa,
iaaeaee aaaeiia nineiaea e?anoueyi.

Oaiaeaeueiia iauanoai auei ?aeeaeicii-noaoe/iui, ia neeiiiui e ?aceie
yaiethoeee. No?aiynue cae?aieoue yoo noaoe/iinoue, ainoaea?noai
eiina?ae?iaaei ioiioaiey n nineiaeyie a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

Ia neiaeeaoenue a aeiaaeueioth nenoaio i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aanoai ?one
iieo/eei ?ani?ino?aiaiea eae iauanoaaiiue oeeaae. Enoi/ieeii ?aanoaa aue
i?aaeaea anaai ieai, ?iaeaeaiea io ?aauie. A ?aanoai iiiaaeaee ca
oyaeeea oaieiaiua i?anooieaiey (iioie e ?aca?aaeaiea), caaeneiue caeoi
ia?auaeny a ?aaa a neo/aa aaanoaa io oicyeia e e?aaee, a ?aanoai
ia?auaeny ceinoiue aaie?io (no. no. 56, 64, 55 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu).
Noaouey 110 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu onoaiaaeeaaao aua o?e neo/ay oieiinoaa:
aeaieoueaa ia ?aaa aac aeiaiai?a, iinooieaiea a oneoaeaiea
eeth/ieeii-oeoiii aac aeiaiai?a i naiaiaea, naiii?iaeaaea a ?aanoai oioy
au ca “iaaioo”.

A ia?aii ouny/aeaoee i.y. ?aanoai o neaayi, ii niiauaieyi ?eineea
aaoi?ia, iineei iao?ea?oaeueiue oa?aeoa?, ieaiiuo ?aaia ioioneaee ca
aueoi eee aeeth/aee a ninoaa ieaiaie; Naiua aeanoeea oi?iu i?enoue
?aanoao ia ?aiieo yoaiao ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, a IO-O aa. ?aau o neaayi
yaeythony i?aaeiaoii i?iaeaaee e iaiaauaiey. A aeiaiai?ao n Aecaioeae (O
a.) oeao?e?oao niaoeeaeueiay “/aeyaeeiiay oeaia”. A XI a. a ?onneii
i?aaa oaea aeaenoaoao i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio ?aa ia iiaeao auoue
noauaeoii i?aaiioiioaiee, anooiaoue a aeiaiai?u. ?onneay I?aaaea n/eoaea
oieiiia nianoaaiiinoueth ainiiaeeia, naie iie ia iaeaaeaee
nianoaaiiinoueth. Ca oaieiaiua i?anooieaiey oieiiia e iaianaiiue eie
eiouanoaaiiue oua?a ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aai aiciauaieth ianee oicyaaa.
Ca oaeenoai oieiia iieaaaeinue aiciauaiea oua?aa a 5-6 a?eaai (eae ca
oie/oiaeaiea aaue). Oicyei oieiia ca aai oaeenoai ia i?eaeaeaeny e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe – ca iiaeiaiua neo/ae iacia/aeinue oea?eiaiia iieayiea.

A ?onneie I?aaaea io?aceeenue i?ioeannu, aiaeiae/iua ?eineiio i?aao,
aaea ?aa iaaeaeyeny iniaui eiouanoaii (iaeoeeai), n i?aaii
?anii?yaeaoueny ei a oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeyo a iieueco ainiiaeeia. A Onoaaa
i oieiiao (no. no. 117, 119 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu) aaiai?eony i aaaeaiee
oi?aiauo iia?aoeee oieiiaie ii ii?o/aieth oicyaa.

Eeann oaiaeaeia oi?ie?iaaeny iinoaiaiii. A iaai aoiaeeee eiycuey, aiy?a,
ae?oaeeia, ianoiay ciaoue, iinaaeieee, oeoiu e o.ae. Oaiaeaeu
inouanoaeyee a?aaeaeaineia oi?aaeaiea e ioaa/aee ca i?ioanneiiaeueioth
aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iie auee acaeiii naycaiu nenoaiie aannaeeoaoa,
?aaoee?othuae i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ae?oa ia?aae ae?oaii e ia?aae
ainoaea?noaii. Aeey iaania/aiey ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ianaeaiea ieaoeei
aeaiue e noaeaaiua oo?aou Iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee
iaania/eaaeenue caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth. Aannaeueiua e caiaeueiua
ioiioaiey oaiaeaeia, eo naycue n aaeeeei eiycai ?aaoee?iaaeenue, nei?aa
anaai, niaoeeaeueiuie aeiaiai?aie. A ?onneie I?aaaea ?ane?uou eeoue
iaeioi?ua aniaeou i?aaiaiai noaoona yoiai nineiaey. Iia onoaiaaeeaaao
aeaieioth ae?o (oo?ao ca oaeenoai) a 80 a?eaai ca oaeenoai eiyaeaneeo
neoa, oi?oia, eiithoia, iaieuai. Ii i naieo aiy?ao e ae?oaeeiieeao
eiaeaen iie/eo. Aa?iyoii, ca iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia ieo i?eiaiyeanue
nia?oiay eaciue. A eaoiienyo iaiaeiie?aoii iienuaaaony i?eiaiaiea eacie
ai a?aiy ia?iaeiuo aieiaiee.

Neaaeothuay a?oiia noaoae ?onneie I?aaaeu caueuaao nianoaaiiinoue.
Onoaiaaeeaaaony oo?ao a 12 a?eaai ca ia?ooaiea caiaeueiie iaaee.
Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho, /oi aunieay noaaea oo?aoa oeacuaaao
ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue nianoaaiiinoe oaiaeaeo. Oaeie aea oo?ao neaaeoao ca
?aci?aiea i/aeueieeia, aiy?eiuo oaiaeee, ca e?aaeo eia/eo nieieia e
yno?aaia. Aunoea oo?aou a 12 a?eaai onoaiaaeeaathony ca iiaie, auaeoua
coau, iia?aaeaeaiioth ai?iaeo, – aeaeeii, ei?ii?aoeaiia iiieiaiea /anoe
ca/anooth i?eaiaeeei e oece/aneei noieeiiaaieyi.

A oaiaeaeueiie i?ineieea ?aiaa, anaai i?iecioea ioiaia ia?aie/aiee ia
aeaineia ianeaaeiaaiea. A oea?eiaiuo onoaaao ca ianeeey iaae aiy?neeie
aeaiaie e aei/a?ueie onoaiaaeeaathony aunieea oo?aou – io 1 aei 5 a?eaai
cieioa, ca inoaeueiuo – aei 5 a?eaai na?aa?a.

Iaycaiiinoe e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e ainoaea?noao
au?aaeaeenue a oieaoa iaeia9a a oi?ia aeaie e ia?ieia e o/anoee a
aii?oaeaiiie caueoa a neo/aa aiaiiuo aeaenoaee. Ia e?anoueyi
?ani?ino?aiyeenue ainoaea?noaaiiay th?enaeeeoeey e eiyaeaneee noae.

A iaoea nouanoaoao ?yae iiaiee i nia?aeao, eo n/eoatho naiaiaeiuie
e?anoueyiaie, oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiuie, eeoeaie ?aaneiai ninoiyiey,
e?aiinoiuie e aeaaea eaoaai?eae, noiaeiie n iaeeei ?uoea?noaii. Ii
iniiaiay iieaieea aaaeaony ii eeiee: naiaiaeiua – caaeneiua (?aau).
Aaaeiia ianoi a iainiiaaiee iiaiee eiatho aeaa noaouee ?onneie I?aaaeu.

Noaouey 26 E?aoeie I?aaaeu, onoaiaaeeaathuay oo?ao ca oaeenoai ?aaia, a
iaeiii i?i/oaiee aeaneo: “Aa nia?aea e a oieiia 5 a?eaai”
(Aeaaeaie/aneee nienie). A A?oaia?aoe/aneii nienea /eoaai: “A a
nia?aeuee a oieiia 5 a?eaai”. A ia?aii i?i/oaiee iieo/aaony, /oi a
neo/aa oaeenoaa nia?aea e oieiia auiea/eaaaony iaeeiaeiaue oo?ao. Ec
aoi?iai nienea neaaeoao, /oi nia?ae eiaao oieiia, eioi?iai oaeaatho.
?ac?aoeoue neooaoeeth iaaiciiaeii.

Noaouey 90 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu aeaneo: “Anee nia?ae oi?ao, oi
ianeaaenoai eiycth; anee aoaeoo aei/a?e o iaai, oi aeaoue ei i?eaeaiia…”
Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee o?aeootho aa aoii niunea, /oi iinea nia?oe
nia?aea aai eiouanoai ia?aoiaeeei oeaeeeii e eiycth e ii /aeiaae
“ia?oaie ?oee”, oi anoue ia niiniaiue ia?aaeaaaoue ianeaaenoai. Ii
aeaeueiaeoea noaouee ?acuyniytho neooaoeeth – ?a/ue eaeao eeoue i oao
nia?aeao, eioi?ua oia?ee, ia eiay nuiiaae, a iono?aiaiea aeaiuei io
ianeaaenoaa naienoaaiii ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia anai ia?iaeai Aa?iiu.

Iaeiaei o?oaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey noaoona nia?aea ia yoii ia eii/athony.
Nia?ae ii ae?oaei enoi/ieeai aunooiaao eae e?anoueyiei, aeaaeathuee
aeiiii, eiouanoaii, eioaaeueth. Ca e?aaeo aai eiiy caeii onoaiaaeeaaao
oo?ao 2 a?eaiu. Ca “ioeo” nia?aea onoaiaaeeaaaony oo?ao a 3 a?eaiu.
?onneay I?aaaea ieaaea eiie?aoii ia oeacuaaao ia ia?aie/aiea
i?aainiiniaiinoe nia?aeia, anoue oeacaiey ia oi, /oi iie auiea/eaatho
oo?aou (i?iaeaaeo), oa?aeoa?iua aeey naiaiaeiuo a?aaeaeai.

?onneay I?aaaea anaaaea oeacuaaao i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e eiie?aoiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia (ae?oaeeiiee, oieii e
o.ae.). A ianna noaoae i naiaiaeiuo ethaeyo, eiaiii naiaiaeiua e
iiae?acoiaaathony, i nia?aeao ?a/ue caoiaeeo eeoue oai, aaea eo noaoon
iaiaoiaeeii niaoeeaeueii auaeaeeoa.

A ae?aaia?onneii iauanoaa ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiaea nianoaaiiinoue.
Ioiioaiea e ee/iinoe ii?aaeaeyeinue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiaiii iaee/eai
nianoaaiiinoe. *aeiaae, eeoaiiue nianoaaiiinoe eee i?iiioaaoee aa, iia
iaania/eoue eiouanoaaiiua nayce n ae?oaeie eeoeaie aaeeinoaaiiui, /oi o
iaai inoaeinue, nianoaaiiie ee/iinoueth.

Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea ninoiyei ec ?aianeaiieeia, iaeeeo oi?aiaoeaa,
eoia/anoaa e o.ae. A iaoea aii?in i aai i?iai?ai iieiaeaiee, a aeieaeiie
ia?a ia ?aoai ec-ca iaaeinoaoea enoi/ieeia. O?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, a
eaeie noaiaie ianaeaiea ?onneeo ai?iaeia iieueciaaeinue ai?iaeneeie
aieueiinoyie, aiaeiae/iuie aa?iiaeneei, niinianoaothuei e a aeaeueiaeoai
?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a ai?iaeao. Ii iiaen/aoai I.I. Oeoiie?iaa, ia ?one
a aeiiiiaieueneee ia?eiae nouanoaiaaei aei 300 ai?iaeia. Ai?iaeneay
aeeciue auea ianoieueei ?acaeoa, /oi yoi iicaieeei A.0. Eeth/aaneiio
aunooieoue n oai?eae “oi?aiaiai eaieoaeecia” a Ae?aaiae ?one. IE.
Oeoiie?ia iieaaae, /oi ia ?one “aicaeoo ai?iaea aeaeae /aeiaaea
naiaiaeiui”, e a ai?iaeao ne?uaaeinue iiiaeanoai aaaeuo oieiiia.

Naiaiaeiua aeeoaee ai?iaeia iieueciaaeenue i?aaiaie caueoie ?onneie
I?aaaeu, ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiyeenue ana noaouee i caueoa /anoe,
aeinoieinoaa e aeecie. Iniaoth ?ieue ea?aei eoia/anoai. Iii ?aii ia/aei
iauaaeeiyoueny a ei?ii?aoeee (aeeueaeee), iacuaaaoeany nioiyie. Iau/ii
“eoia/aneia noi” aeaenoaiaaei i?e eaeie-eeai oea?eae. “Eaaiianeia noi” a
Iiaai?iaea auei iaeiie ec ia?auo eoia/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee a Aa?iiu.

Ae?aaiyy ?onue ?acaeaaeanue a oii aea iai?aaeaiee, /oi e e?oiiaeoea
no?aiu Aa?iiu. Iia iaeaaeaea ia?iiiui eoeueoo?iui iioaioeeaeii,
auniei?acaeoie th?eaee/aneie noa?ie. Iieeoe/aneay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue
no?aiu niaiaea n i?aeuineei ?aci?aieai, e yoi aucaaei e?aeia oyaeaeua
iineaaenoaey, i?aaeii?aaeaeeei aeaoi?iaoeeth anoanoaaiiiai oiaea
iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai ?acaeoey.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi/ieee

?onneay I?aaaea – ae?aaiaeoee ?onneee nai?iee caeiiia noi?ie?iaaeanue ia
i?ioyaeaiee O1-O11 aa., ii ioaeaeueiua aa noaouee ooiaeyo” a ycu/aneoth
noa?eio. Ia?aue oaeno aue iaia?oaeai e iiaeaioiaeai e ia/aoe A.I.
Oaoeuaaui a 173A. a. Nae/an eiaaony aieaa noa nieneia, neeueii
?acee/athueony ii ninoaao, iauaio e no?oeoo?a. Iacaaiea iaiyoieea
ioee/ii io aa?iiaeneeo o?aaeeoeee, aaea aiaeiae/iua nai?ieee i?aaa
iieo/aee /enoi th?eaee/aneea caaieiaee – caeii. caeiiiee. Ia ?one a yoi
a?aiy auee ecaanoiu iiiyoey “onoaa”. “caeii”, “iau/ae”. ii eiaeaen
iaicia/ai eaaaeueii-i?aanoaaiiui oa?ieiii “I?aaaea”.

I?eiyoi aeaeeoue nai?iee ia o?e ?aaeaeoeee (aieueoea a?oiiu noaoae,
iauaaeei?iiua o?iiieiae/aneei e niuneiaui niaea?aeaieai): E?aoeoth,
I?ino?aiioth e Nie?auaiioth. A E?aoeoth ?aaeaeoeeth aoiaeyo aeaa
ninoaaiua /anoe: I?aaaea ss?ineaaa ( eee Ae?aaiaeoay) e I?aaaea
ss?ineaae/ae – nuiiaae ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. I?aaaea ss?ineaaa aeeth/aao –
ia?aua 18 noaoae E?aoeie I?aaaeu e oeaeeeii iinayuaia oaieiaiiio i?aao.
Nei?aa anaai, iia aicieeea ai a?aiy ai?ueau ca i?anoie iaaeaeo
ss?ineaaii e aai a?aoii Nayoiiieeii (1015-1019 aa.). Iaaiiay aa?yaeneay
ae?oaeeia ss?ineaaa anooieea ? eiioeeeo n iiaai?iaeoeaie,
nii?iaiaeaeaaoeeny oaeenoaaie e iiaiyie. No?aiynue o?aaoee?iaaoue
neooaoeeth. ss?ineaa caaeia?ee iiaai?iaeoeaa “aeaa ei I?aaaeo, e onoaa
nienaa, oaei ?aeoe ei: ii aa a?aiioa oiaeeoa”. Ca yoeie neiaaie a
Iiaai?iaeneie 1 eaoiiene iiiauai oaeno Ae?aaiaeoae I?aaaeu.

I?aaaea ss?ineaae/ae aeeth/aao no. no. 19-43 E?aoeie I?aaaeu
(Aeaaeaie/aneee nienie). A aa caaieiaea oeacaii, /oi nai?iee
?ac?aaaouaaeny o?aiy nuiiaueyie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai i?e o/anoee
e?oiiaeoeo eeoe ec oaiaeaeueiiai ie?oaeaiey. A oaenoao anoue ooi/iaiey.
ec eioi?uo iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi nai?iee ooaa?aeaeai ia ?aiaa aiaea
nia?oe ss?ineaaa (1054 a.) e ia iicaeiaa 1072 a. (aiae nia?oe iaeiiai ec
aai nuiiaae).

Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu OI a. noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny I?ino?aiiay I?aaaea (121
noaouey ii O?ieoeeiio nieneo), neiaeeaoayny a ieii/aoaeueiii aa?eaioa a
OI a. Ii o?iaith ?acaeoey i?aaiauo einoeoooia nioeeaeueii-oicyenoaaeiiio
niaea?aeaieth yoi oaea aanueia ?acaeoie iaiyoiee i?aaa. Ia?yaeo n iiauie
iinoaiiaeaieyie ii aeeth/ae e aeaeieciaiaiiua ii?iu E?aoeie I?aaaeu.
I?ino?aiiay I?aaaea ninoieo eae au ec iauaaeeiaiiuo aaeeiui niuneii
a?oii noaoae. A iae i?aaenoaaeaii oaieiaiia e ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai,
iniiaaoaeueii ?ac?aaioai th?eaee/aneee noaoon eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey e
oieiiia, niaea?aeeony aaie?ioneee onoaa e o.ae. E ia/aeo XII a.
I?ino?aiiay I?aaaea noi?ie?iaaeanue.

A OIII-XIV aa. aicieeea Nie?auaiiay ?aaeaeoeey, aeioaaeoay aei ian anaai
a ianeieueeeo nieneao (50 noaoae ii IV O?ieoeeiio nieneo). Iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie auai?eo ec I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu, i?eniiniaeaiioth
aeey aieaa ?acaeouo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ia?eiaeai ?acae?iaeaiiinoe.

A?aaeaeaineia i?aai. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe

A oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa i?aai nianoaaiiinoe a n?aaea oaiaeaeia
ii?aaeaeyaony eo acaeiiie naycueth e naycueth n ainoaea?noaii. oi anoue
nenoaiie aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe, a a e?anoueyineie n?aaea nenoaiie
cai?aoia ia ?anii?yaeaiea. Io ?acee/ee yoeo ioiioaiee caaeneo e ?acee/ey
a noaoona nianoaaiiinoe. A aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo oei a
iniiaiii ianoaeaeaiea aii?inia i nouanoaiaaiee ?iaeiaie e /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, iiaiea i eieeaeoeaiuo oi?iao caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
i?aiaeaaeaei.

TH?eaee/aneea ?acee/ey e niaoeeaeueiay oa?ieiieiaey aeey iaicia/aiey
aeaeaeeiie e iaaeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe aicieeatho cia/eoaeueii
iicaeiaa, nea/aea a Aa?iia. A neeo aeeyiey ?acaeoiai ?eineiai i?aaa, a
iioii a ?innee. TH?eaee/aneay oi?ioee?iaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
neeaaeuaaeanue a ?innee iiae aicaeaenoaeai ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee e
niioaaonoaiaaea, aiaeiae/iiio iiiyoeth a ae?oaeo ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao. Aa
nooue, caeeth/athuayny a oii /oiau iiae/a?eiooue yeno?ai?aeeia?iia
iieiaeaiea noauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe. ii?aaeaeaia aua a ?eineii i?aaa:
“Nianoaaiieeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo eneeth/eoaeueiia, e iacaaeneiia ainiiaenoai
iaae aauueth”.

A O-O1 aa. iaueiiua ia?aaeeoee ia ?one aua aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiu.
Iaeiaei ii?aaeaeyoue noaiaiue iaee/ey eieeaeoeaiuo e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
oi?i nianoaaiiinoe aanueia o?oaeii ec-ca iaaeinoaoea enoi/ieeia. A
?onneie I?aaaea a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?a/ue eaeao ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. (eiiue, i?oaeea, iaeaaeaea e o. ae.).
Nei?aa anaai, a ?acaeouo ?aeiiao, aaea aeaenoaiaaei eiyaeaneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay (/anoiay) nianoaaiiinoue ea?aea
?aoathuoth ?ieue.

Nianoaaiiee ii ?onneie I?aaaea eiae i?aai ?anii?yaeaoueny eiouanoaii,
anooiaoue a aeiaiai?u, iieo/aoue aeioiaeu n eiouanoaa, o?aaiaaoue aai
caueou i?e iinyaaoaeuenoaao. Iauaeoaie i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe aunooiaao
aanueia iaoe?iue e?oa aauae – eiie e neio, iaeaaeaea e i?oaeea, oi?aiaua
oiaa?u, naeueneioicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Ae?oaea enoi/ieee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaee/ee a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei iie oeacuaatho ia
nouanoaiaaiea nae, iiainoia, aa?aae, aanae naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia
n eieeaeoeaiuie oi?iaie aeaaeaiey caieae. Aa?iyoii, yoi ninaaeneea
iaueiu n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe ia aeai?iaue o/anoie e,
ia?eiaee/aneeie ia?aaeaeaie iaoioiie caiee. Ieaoaaee iaeiaia eiycth ia
i?aiyonoaiaaee ianaeaieth ?anii?yaeaoueny caieae ii eieeaeoeaiiio
oniio?aieth, eai aaeeieoeae iaeiaeaiey aeaiueth auea ia caiey, a aeai?,
oicyenoaa.

Oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe auee ?acee/iuie. Iiieii naiaeii-eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e
iaueiiuo oicyenoa eiaeenue neaaeothuea eiyaeaneee aeiiai i?aaenoaaeye
niaie eiiaeiia?ao caiaeue, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ee/ii eiycueyi. Iie aceiaee
oai ia?iee, iaeaaaee eiua iiaeiiinoe, ?anii?yaeaeenue caieyie ii
nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth.

Nianoaaiiinoue oaiaeaeia aicieeaea eae /anoiay e iniiaaiiay ia
eiyaeaneeo iiaeaeiaaieyo. A O1a. eaoiiene – oiiieiatho i naeao
eiyaeaneeo ae?oaeeiieeia, a XII a. oaeeo naeaeaoaeuenoa oaea ai?acaei
aieueoa. Aio/eiu aiy? auee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoueth. Eiycuey ?acaeaaaee
caiee iiae oneiaeai neoaeau (aeaaeaiey aaiaoeoeeaeueiiai oeia,
a?aiaiiiai eee iiaeeciaiiiai). I. ?aeia, n/eoaao, /oi auee
ianeaaenoaaiiua aaiaoeoeee. Oneiaiua aea?aeaiey iiaee auoue e a naiie
aiy?neie ea?a?oee. Eiyaeaneay ?acaea/a caiaeue nii?iaiaeaeaeanue
iieo/aieai eiioieoaoia (iacaaeneiuo aeaenoaee a yoeo aeaaeaieyo) –
noaeaaiuo, oeiainiauo, oi?aaeai/aneeo. A ?onneie I?aaaea iao naaaeaiee i
caieaaeaaeaiee oaiaeaeia, ii a I?ino?aiiie I?aaaea oiiieiathony eeoea,
aeeaoea ia yoeo caieyo: oeoi aiy?neee (no. 1), aiy?neea oieiiu (no. 46),
aiy?neee ?yaeiae/ (no. 14). Aioo?eoaiaeaeueiua aeiaiai?u i caiea e
eiaeaenu, ?aaoee?othuea caieaaeaaeaeue/aneea ioiioaiey, aei ian ia
aeioee, iiaeii eeoue aeiaaaeuaaoueny ia eo nouanoaiaaiee.

Caiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue oea?eae aicieeea ia iniiaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iiaeaeiaaiee a aeaea aeanyoeiu. A aeaeueiaeoai iia ?inea ca n/ao
aeeaaeia, iieoiie e o.ae.

Noauaeoaie i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe iiaee auoue oieueei ethaee ia ?aaneiai
ninoiyiey. Aeaeaiea aauae ia aeaeaeeiinoue e iaaeaeaeeiinoue ia iaoei
th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey, ii noaoon aeaeaeeiinoe ?ac?aaioai a ?onneie
I?aaaea aeiaieueii ianoiyoaeueii. Nianoaaiiinoueth aa niaea?aeaiea, e
?acee/iua aeaeu aeaaeaiey ia ei1aee niaoeeaeueiuo iaiauathueo oa?ieiia,
iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea caeiiiaeaoaeue ?acee/ae i?aai nianoaaiiinoe e
aeaaeaiea.

Nianoaaiiee eiae i?aai ia, aica?ao naiaai eiouanoaa (eiiy, i?oaeey,
iaeaaeaeu, oieiia), ec /oaeiai iacaeiiiiai! aeaaeaiey ia iniiaa no?iai
onoaiiaeaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u ca i?e/eiaiioth “iaeaeo” iacia/aeny oo?ao a 3
a?eaiu. Aica?auaiea aauae o?aaiaaei naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee e
?acae?aoaeuenoaa i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aae “naiaeii ec 12 /aeiaae” (no.
no. 13, 14,-15, 16 E?aoeie I?aaaeu; no. no. 34, 35 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu).
Iauee i?eioeei caueou aeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe caeeth/aeny a oii, /oiau
aa?iooue aa caeiiiiio oicyeio e caieaoeoue, aio oo?ao a ea/anoaa
eiiiainaoeee ca oauoee. Aeaeaeeiay nianoaaiiia (aeeth/ay oieiiia)
n/eoaaony a ?onneie I?aaaea iauaiii iieiiai ainiiaenoaa nianoaaiieea:
i?e nii?ao i aa aica?auaiee ainoaea?noai ia iaeeaaeuaaao oo?aoia,
noi?iiu naie aeiaiaa?eaathony iaaeaeo niaie. Aeiaa?eaoea eiouanoai ?aaai
e oieiiai (aeey oi?aiauo iia?aoeee e o.ae.) ianee a neo/aa i?e/auaiey
oauoeia e, eno?aaeaiey aaue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae o?aoueeie eeoeaie a
iieiii iauaia (no. no. 116, 117). Eiuie neiaaie, caeiiiaeaoaeue iiieiae,
/oi i?aai, nianoaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony aieae naiiai nianoaaiieeai Caueoa
aeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe, anee yoi ia auei naycaiii n oaieiaiui
I?anooieaieai, ia iineei nineiaiiai, oa?aeoa?a eaaeaeue ai?aaa
?aaiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyoue aa noaeueao.

Iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai

Iaycaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaiioiioaiea, a neeo eioi?iai
eeoei, ia?ooeaoaa eioa?anu ae?oaiai eeoea, iaycaii niaa?oeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey a iieueco iioa?iaaoaai. Ioee/ey
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai iaycaoaeuenoaa io oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai aicieeatho
eeoue, ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia i?aaiaiai ?acaeoey, a ae?aaiae aea
ia?eiae iie niaoeaathony. Oieueei n oi?ie?iaaieai io?aneae
a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieiaiiai i?aaa caeiiiaeaoaeue aiineo yniinoue a yoe
aii?inu.

A ae?aaiinoe nouanoaiaaei aeaa aeaea iaycaoaeuenoa -ec i?aaiia?ooaiee
(aeaeeeoia) e aeiaiai?ia, i?e/ai ia?aua, aeaeeii, aicieeee ?aiueoa. A
?onneie I?aaaea iaycaoaeuenoaa ec aeaeeeoia aeaeoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue a
aeaea oo?aoia e aiciauaiey oauoeia. Oe?uaathuee oieiia aeieaeai aa?iooue
aai e caieaoeoue oo?ao (no. E E?aoeie I?aaaeu). Acyaoee /oaeia eiouanoai
(eiiy, iaeaaeaeo) aeieaeai aa?iooue aai e caieaoeoue 3 a?eaiu oo?aoa
(no. no. 12. 13 E?aoeie I?aaaeu). Aeiaiai?iua iaycaoaeuenoaa
ioi?ieythony a nenoaio i?e noaiiaeaiee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, ii iiiyoey
aano?aeoiiai iiiyoey aeiaiai?a aua ia nouanoaoao. Iicaeiaa iiae
aeiaiai?ii noaee iiieiaoue niaeaoaiea aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo eeoe. A
?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai o noi?ii aicieeatho th?eaee/aneea i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe. A Ae?aaiae ?one nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei ?aciiaeaeiinoae
aeiaiai?ia.

Noi?iiu (noauaeou) aeiaiai?ia aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi aic?anoa,
i?aainiiniaiinoe e naiaiaeu. Iu ie/aai ia ciaai i aic?anoa anooiaaoeo a
iaycaoaeuenoaa a aeio?enoeaineee ia?eiae. N i?eiyoeai o?enoeainoaa
aeaenoaiaae, aeaeeii, iauee i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio anooieaiea a
a?ae auei th?eaee/aneei oaeoi?ii aeinoeaeaiey e eiouanoaaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe eeoea. Iaecaanoiu iai e oa aniaeou caeeth/aiey
aeiaiai?ia a ycu/aneee ia?eiae, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeyeenue iieii eeoea.
Iaeiaei a ?onneie I?aaaea aeaiueia oaea aunooiaao eae nianoaaiiee
eiouanoaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia auea ai?aaa niaa?oaoue aaea-oie. A yoii
nai?ieea caeiiia cae?aieaii aeeyiea ia iaycaoaeuenoaa noaoona naiaiaeu.
Oieii ia yaeyeny noauaeoii i?aaiioiioaiee e ia iia ioaa/aoue ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai, anth eiouanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ian ca iaai
oicyei. Eiouanoaaiiua iineaaenoaey naeaeie oieiia, niaa?oaiiuo ii
ii?o/aieth ainiiaeeia, oaeaea eiaeeeenue ia iineaaeiaai.

Ae?aaiaio i?aao ecaanoiu aeaa aeaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii aeiaiai?ai:
ee/iay e eiouanoaaiiay (a enoi?e/aneii ioiioaiee aieaa iicaeiyy e
?acaeoay). A Ae?aaiai ?eia eeoue caeii Iaoaeey (VI a. aei i.y.)
onoaiaaeeaae eiouanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. A ia?aii neo/aa eeoei, ia
auiieieaoaa iaycaoaeuenoa, i?aa?auaeinue a ?aaa, ai aoi?ii neo/aa aai
nianoaaiiinoue ia?aoiaeeea e?aaeeoi?o. A ?onneie I?aaaea aeiieie?oao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue eiouanoaaiiay. Iaeiaei caeoe a neo/aa ia?ooaiey oneiaee
iaycaoaeuenoa iia ia?auaoueny a iieiiai oieiia, ceinoiue eoiaoe-aaie?io
oaeaea ia?auaeny a ?aanoai. I?e ia?acaeoinoe ?aanoaa ca?iaeaeaaony
i?eioeei. niaeanii eioi?iio ia auiieieaoee iaycaoaeuenoa. noaiiaeeny
caaeneiui io e?aaeeoi?a ia oio n?ie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai io?aaaouaae aio
aanue iauai aeieaa e oauoeia.

A IO-OII aa. ienueiaiiay oi?ia aeiaiai?ia aua ia ?acaeeanue, iie
niaa?oaeenue, eae i?aaeei, a onoiie oi?ia. Aeey ono?aiaiey iineaaeothueo
acaeiiuo i?aoaicee, i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie aeieaeiu auee
i?enoonoaiaaoue naeaeaoaee, ii noae i?eieiae e ethaua- ae?oaea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, oaeinoiaa?ythuea aeiaiai?u. *enei ecaanoiuo ?onneie
I?aaaea naeaeie aua ia i/aiue cia/eoaeueii.

A iaeoiaea aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee aue naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui.
I?iaeaaaeenue eiouanoai (aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia) e oieiiu, i?e/ai
i?iaeaaea iineaaeieo a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oiai a?aiaie oaeaeyaony
aanueia aieueoia aieiaiea. A ?onneie I?aaaea ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeny ia
noieueei nai aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee (aai oneiaey caaenaee io aiee
noi?ii) neieueei nii?u, aicieeaaoea a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiuo i?aoaicee.
Noi?iiu iiaee ?anii?yaeaoueny, eeoue naiae nianoaaiiinoueth, eiouanoai
e?aaeaiia eee iaecaanoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey inia?eaaeinue iinea iieoiee a
i?enoonoaee aaeieieno?aoeee. Anee caeiiiinoue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
i?iaeaiiiai ia aeieacuaaeanue, naeaeea ?anoi?aaeanue e eiouanoai
aiciauaeinue inia?eaaaoaio aai eeoeo. Naeaeea i i?iaeaaea
neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eiuo aauae niaa?oaeanue ia oi?ao ioaee/ii ai
ecaaaeaiea iineaaeothueo i?aoaicee.

I?iaeaaea iaaeaeaeeiinoe, aeaeeii, ?aiaa anai ia/aea ioi?ieyoueny
ienueiaiiuie aeoaie (aeioaaeoea aei ian aeaoe?othony ia/eiay n OI a.).
N.A.THoeia iieaaae, /oi nouanoaiaaee n?iee i?aaeuyaeaiey i?aoaicee ii
iaaeinoaoeai eoieaiiie aaue. Nouanoaiaae e aeiaiai? naiii?iaeaaee a
oieiinoai a i?enoonoaee naeaeaoaeae.

Ii iiaieth N.A. THoeiaa, yoio aeiaiai? aue aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiai a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae e enoi?e/anee i?aaeoanoaiaae aeiaiai?o
eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Oioy a ?onneie I?aaaea iaia oiiieiaaony, oneiaey aai
caeeth/aiey, nei?aa anaai, auee aiaeiae/iuie aeiaiai?o eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

A ?onneie I?aaaea eiaaony oiiieiaiea i iaeia ?aai/eo “iinoieeia” aeey
?aiiioa e no?ieoaeuenoaa iinoia (no. 97 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu).
Onoaiaaeeaaaony ?acia? ieaou ca ?aaiou e ieoaiea. A OI-OO aa. iiyaeyaony
eaoaai?ey “iaeieoia”, eioi?uo caeii ioa?aie/eaae io ae?oaeo a?oii
caaeneiiai ianaeaiey, e eo ioiioaiey n iaeiiaeaoaeai iaiaa?eaaeenue
aeiaiai?ii. Iaeieo aieai aue ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai?, aicianoea oauoee. A
oi aea a?aiy eiathony oiiieiaiey i /aeyaeiuo-iaeieoao, caeoiao-iaeieoao
nio?aiyaoeo caaeneiinoue. Oa?aeoa? eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia a ?onneie
I?aaaea ia ?ane?uaaaony.

A XII-XV aa. i?iyaeeenue o?e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai
i?aaa. Ai-ia?auo, ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee i?eaaei e
iiyaeaieth iiauo aeaeia aeiaiai?ia oaea?aiea, caeia, ii?o/eoaeuenoai) e
oieeaieth eiouanoaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe noi?ii a iaycaoaeuenoaao.
Iaycaoaeuenoaa ec i?aaiia?ooaiee iinoaiaiii niauathony a iaeanoue
oaieiaii iaeacoaioth. Ai-aoi?uo, i?e ainiiaenoaa oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee
nio?aiyeanue ee/iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeieeia. Aeieaeieee iiiaaeaee a
oicyenoaaiioth caaeneiinoue io caeiiaeaaoeaa, iaycaiu auee io?aaaouaaoue
aeiea, iaoiaeynue eae au iiae iao?iiaoii. Ee/iay caaeneiinoue
?ani?ino?aiyeanue aeaaea a n?aaea oaiaeaeia a aannaeueiuo, ioiioaieyo n
ainoaea?noaii eee nthca?aiii. A-o?aoueeo, a Iiaai?iaea e Ineiaa
oi?ie?iaaeanue nenoaia iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai I?aaa n ?acaeoie
eiouanoaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, iniiaaiiie ia oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiii
iaiaia.

Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai

Naiaeii-Ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai ioiineony e iaaeeaiii eciaiyaiie noa?a. N
iiiaioa i?eiyoey o?enoeainoaa iniia i?aaineaaiie naiuee aeieaea noieaoey
inoaaaeenue noaoe/iuie, iinoaiaiii aeiioneaeenue e ianeaaeiaaieth
aeaiueiu, aa?eaiou ianeaaeiaaiey auee no?iai ia?aie/aiu (ii iau/ath, ii
caeiio, ii caaauaieth). Ioiioaiey a naiuea iniiauaaeenue ia aeanoe
iooea, eeoue a iicaeiee oaiaeaeueiue ia?eiae neeaaeuaaaony i?eioeei
?acaeaeueiinoe eiouanoaa. Yoi – iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a oeacaiiie iaeanoe
i?aaa.

Ei a?aiaie ?onneie I?aaaeu iu ia ano?a/aainy ni naeaeaoaeuenoaaie i
i?eieaeaiiii iieiaeaiee aeaiueiu. Ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae,
naiuey iao?ea?oaeueiiai oeia io?aaeaia a ?onneie I?aaaea a iiiyoee
“aa?aue”, oi anoue eieeaeoeaa ?iaenoaaiieeia, naycaiiuo iauae
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ieaoaaeii “aeeeie ae?u”. Iaeiaei, eae neaaeoao ec
?yaea noaoae ?onneie I?aaaeu, iinoi?iiiea eeoea iiaee “aeeaaeuaaoueny” a
iauoth ae?o, ia aoaeo/e ?iaenoaaiieeaie. I.Einaai i?aaeeiaeee aeiioaco,
niaeanii eioi?ie “aa?aue” Ae?aaiae ?one – ia?aoiaeiay oi?ia io
iao?ea?oaeueiie naiuee e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie. n nio?aiaieai eieeaeoeaiuo
ii?yaeeia (iao?iieiey). Ii ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o iao?iieiee ia auaeaeaii,
a iae nio?aiyeenue eieeaeoeaiia oicyenoai, ?iaenoaaiiua nayce e iau/ae.
Aaeeinoaaiiue ioee/eoaeueiue i?eciae – iaiueoay /eneaiiinoue – aiiaua
o?oaeii ii?aaeaeei. Iiyoiio iao?iieiey, aieueoa iioiaea ia /enoi
eiae/aneoth eiino?oeoeeth.

A Ae?aaiae ?one e XI a. ainiiaenoaiaaea iiiiaaiiay naiuey n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui oicyenoaii. N i?eiyoeai o?enoeainoaa a eiioea X a.
oea?eiaue aaea aeoeaioth ai?ueao n ycu/anoaii, ca oi?aeanoai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie naiuee e naiaeiie i?aanoaaiiinoe. A?ae, ?acaiae,
ii?aeueiua ioiioaiey a naiuea noaee naieoeeiie?iaaoueny ath. Ia
inayuaiiue a?ae n/eoaeny a?aoii e iia io?aceoueny ia iioiieao. Eaoiienue
aeaneo: eio a?aoiaiiai ei?iy ceie auaaao ieiae”. Aa?oiaainoai ioae/eiu a
o?enoeaineie naiuea nio?aieeinue e oi?i/eeinue, iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeinue
/anoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaieiaee. Eaoiienue ii?aaaeuaaao yoi: ia
aieiae ceie aeaia: eai iaae eaieao n ono aa. AEaiu i?aethaiaeaeee. Ii
iaiiaaiea yoi. Ia iooai aeecie eaeao iia, naeeaeathueany n iae iieaeoo
iinea nia?oe a aae”.

O?enoeaineay naiuey aeieaeia auea iiae/eiyoueny no?iaui i?aanoaaiiui
eaiiiai, a iniiaa iiaie eaeaieiaee eaaeaee o?oaeiethaea, nie?aiea,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae Aiaii. Oi?ie?iaaiea naiuee o?enoeaineiai oeia
i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiii, ainoaea?noai ioiineeinue e ycu/anoao
aeinoaoi/ii oa?ieii, ii iiaeoaa?aeeoue eiie?aoiuie oaeoaie
ninouanoaiaaiea o?enoeaineeo e ycu/aneeo naiae iaaiciiaeii.

A aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe ianeaaeiaaiea inouanoaeyeinue ia iniiaa iau/iiai
i?aaa, n i?aaii anaai eieeaeoeaa ia eaeoth-oi /anoue eiouanoaa. ?aiaa
anaai eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaeinue ianeaaeiaaiea aeaeaeeiinoe (eoe, eiiuea,
oiii?). Aicieeei aeaeaiea ianeaaenoaaiiie iannu ia aeiee: /anoue –
eieeaeoeao, /anoue – naiuea, /anoue ii oniio?aieth naiiai eeoea. Eai
Oaaeeai naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae, /oi e X a. eiouanoai oia?oeo ?onnia
aeaeeeinue ia o?e /anoe.

Ianeaaeiaaiea ia iniiaa iau/iiai i?aaa a aeaeieciaiaiiie oi?ia aoiaeeo a
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue caeii. Aeaeeii, ia?aeeaeueii ?acaeaaeenue
caaauaoaeueiua ioeacu, ia?aie/aiiua aeieyie a iieueco aeeaeaeoei
?iaenoaaiieeia. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa oi?iu ianeaaeiaaieyi ii caeiio e
ii caaauaieth. Iono?aiaiea, aeaiuei io ianeaaeiaaiey ia iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae n?aaenoai ia niciaoaeueiiai i?eieaeaiey. Auoiaey
caioae ca /eaia ae?oaiai ?iaea, iie ia iiaee caae?aoue eiouanoai,
iaaeeoia /eaiaie naiaai ?iaea. Aiaaaee ca iiaua oa??eoi?ee ioae/eiu e
ia?aaaouaaee caieth ioae/eiu, iiyoiio einoeooo ianeaaeiaaiey
iaaeaeaeeiinoe ii ioaeneie eeiee onoie/ea o anao aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia.

I?aai ?iaeie ia aeieth ec oo?aoia a neo/aa oaeenoaa cae?aieaii a no. 4
aeiaiai?a n Aecaioeae 911 a. Aeaeeii, ?iaenoaaiieee a ethauo neo/ayo
iiaee i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia /anoue eiouanoaa. A inoaeueiii, aeiaiai? ?enoao
ea?oeio ?acaeoiai ianeaaenoaaiiiai i?aaa, aaea aeaenoaoao ia?aainoai
caaauaiey iaae caeiiii. Noaouey 13 aeaneo: “Anee eoi ec ?oneiia oi?ao,
ia o?yaeea naiaai eiaiey, aoaeo/e ia neoaeaa a Aecaioee, a
?iaenoaaiieeia oai ia eiaao, oi aica?auaaony eiouanoai aeeceei
?iaenoaaiieeai ia ?onue. Anee inoaaeo caaauaiea, oi eiouanoai eaeao
oiio, a iieueco eiai ninoaaeaii caaauaiea”. I?aaaea, neaaeoao eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi oaeay ?acaeoay oi?ia i?aaeienuaaaony eiouae n?aaea, a
e?anoueyineeo iaueiao iau/iia ianeaaeiaaiea i?iaeieaeaei aeaenoaiaaoue.

Nii?u i ianeaaenoaa aicieeaee aeiaieueii /anoue, e Onoaau oea?eiaiua
Aeaaeeie?a 1 e ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai acyee yoe oyaeau ?iaenoaaiieeia iiae
naith th?enaeeeoeeth. Ii iineieueeo iieiaeaiea oea?eae a yoi a?aiy ia
auei aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iui, ii?iu i ianeaaeiaaiee eiouanoaa, aioaaeoea a
?onneoth I?aaaeo, ?anienaiu i/aiue iiae?iaii, aeaeeii, ai ecaaaeaiea
eieeecee ycu/aneeo iau/aaa e o?enoeaineeo onoaiiaie
eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiie naiuee. Einoeooo ianeaaeiaaiey a ?onneie I?aaaea
– iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo.

A XI a. a?ae noae oea?eiaiie i?a?iaaoeaie, a o/anoee a noaeaaiuo
i?ioeannao i ianeaaenoaa iiaee ioeacaoue eeoeai aac niioaaonoaothueo
oea?eiaiuo naeaeaoaeuenoa, oi/iuo aeaiiuo i aic?anoa anooieaiey a a?ae
aei ian ia aeioei. N.A. THoeia n/eoae, /oi ii ninoaaeye 14-15 eao aeey
ioae/ei e 12-13 eao aeey aeaiuei.

A ?onneie I?aaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie naiuea (ioae, aeaia,
aeaoe) n ee/iui oicyenoaii. A noaoueyo i “aa?ae” iiae?acoiaaathony,
aiciiaeii, eieeaeoeau ?iaenoaaiieeia. A I?ino?aiiie I?aaaea eiaaony
oeaeue onoaa i ianeaaenoaa (no. 90-95, 98-106). Aeaa ia?aua noaouee (no.
90, 91) cae?aieytho ae?aaiea ia?aie/aiey a iaueiao nia?aeia: eiouanoai
oia?oaai, ia inoaaeaoaai nuiiaae, ia?aoiaeeo eiycth, aei/a?yi aei
caioaeanoaa auaeaeyaony /anoue ia i?eaeaiia. A oi aea a?aiy a n?aaea
ae?oaeeiieeia e aiy? aeaenoaiaae eiie i?eioeei: “ianeaaenoai eiycth ia
eaeao, aai ianeaaeotho aei/a?e”. A inoaeueiuo noaoueyo ?aaoee?oaony
ianeaaeiaaiea ia aaca /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
oicyenoaa.

Iauee i?eioeei ecaanoai aua ii Aeiaiai?ai n Aecaioeae: i?ei?eoao
ianeaaeiaaiey ii caaauaieth n iaania/aieai caeiiiuo aeieae /eaiia
naiuee. Noaouey 92 aeaneo: “Eoi oie?ay ?acaeaeeo naie aeii aeaoyi, ia
oii noiyoue, eoi aac ?yaea oi?ao, anai aeaoyi eaeao eiouanoai”.
Ianeaaeiaaiea ii caaauaieth ia?aie/aii nuiiaueyie e aeaiie, aei/a?e
iieo/atho oieueei /anoue no. 9 3, 95). Aeaoe io ia?aie aeaiu eiatho
i?aai ia /anoue eiouanoaa i?eiaaeeaaeauaai iaoa?e (no.94). Aeaoe io
?aauie ia ianeaaeotho ie/aai, ii iieo/atho n iaoa?ueth naiaiaeo (no.
98). Ai anao neo/ayo “aeai?” ia?aoiaeee ieaaeoaio nuio (no. 100) eae e
iaiaa niiniaiiio e naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoaiaaieth. Eiouanoai
iaeieaoieo aeaoae iaoiaeeony iiae oi?aaeaieai iaoa?e: anee iia auoiaeeo
caioae, oi iacia/aaony ?iaenoaaiiee-iiaeoi. Iaoue, iiaeoi (io/ei)
ioaa/atho ca yoi eiouanoai e ianoo iaoa?eaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aai oo?aoo. Naiae /anoueth eiouanoaa iaoue ?anii?yaeaaony
naiinoiyoaeueii, iiaeao caaauaoue aai aeaoyi, eeoaoue eo ianeaaenoaa,
anee iie aoaeoo “eeoe” (no. 106).

Oaeie ii?yaeie ianeaaeiaaiey iaania/eaae eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa anao /eaiia
naiuee e a oeaeii i?inouanoaiaae aei oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea e
Ianeaaeiaaieth noaee aeiioneaoueny aeaiueiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii onoaiiaeeanue
caaeneiinoue aeaaiiieo/ey aeaoae ioaeneiai iiea io aiee caaauaoaey eae
iniiaa “aeia?iai” ioiioaiey e ?iaeeoaeyi, i?e nio?aiaiee ieaaeoei aeaoyi
aa?aioee n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth.

I?anooieaiea e iaeacaiea

Oaieiaiia i?aai eae niaieoiiinoue ii?i, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie
iainiaeaoothny io?aneue i?aaa, noi?ie?iaaeinue ia noaaeee iicaeiaai
oaiaeaeecia e i?iaeieaeaei ?acaeaaoueny a ao?aeoaciue ia?eiae. Iiyoiio
aeey aieaa ?aiiaai a?aiaie i?aaeeueiaa aiai?eoue ia oaieiaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a oeaio?a eioi?iai noiyo aeaa eaoa, ai?ie –
i?anooieaiea e iaeacaiea. A O-OV aa. iiiyoey aeiu, nio/anoey,
iiaeaioiaee e niaa?oaieth i?anooieaiey iaoiaeeeenue a ca/aoi/iii
ninoiyiee, iinoaiaiii, ia i?ioyaeaiee OV1-OV11 aa., a oi?ie?iaaeenue, e
eeoue a Oeiaeaiee 1649 a. iie iaoiaeyo aieaa eee iaiaa iieiia
io?aaeaiea.

A a?aaneeo enoi/ieeao, eaoiienyo, aeiaiai?ao ?one n Aecaioeae eiaaony
aeinoaoi/ii naaaeaiee i ea?aaiuo ainoaea?noaii e?eieiaeueiuo
iinyaaoaeuenoaao a 1O-O a.a. ?a/ue eaeao i e?aaeao, a oaeenoaao, iiaiyo
e o. ae., ii iie ia oa?aeoa?ecothony eaeeie-eeai iniauie oa?ieiaie.
I?anooiiua aeaenoaey a eaoiienyo eiaiothony ceuie aeaeaie. Aeaaiue
yeaiaio i?anooiiiai aeaenoaey – iaeacoaiinoue. A ea/anoaa iauaeoa
ia?ooaiey iiaee aunooiaoue ainoaea?noaaiiue caeii, iau/ae,
?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiua onoaiiaeaiey. A eeoa?aoo?a i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi
ia?aay iiiuoea ii?aaeaeeoue i?anooiiia naeaeaia a ?onneie I?aaaea, aaea
iaianaiea a?aaea ee/iinoe eiaioaony “iaeaeie”. Iai?eia?, i?e iaianaiee
iiaiaa neaaeiaaei “ieaoeoue ca iaeaeo 12 a?eaai”.

Noauaeoaie i?anooieaiee, oi anoue eeoeaie, niiniaiuie ioaa/aoue ca
e?eieiaeueiua aeaenoaey, iiaee auoue ‘naiaiaeiua ethaee. Ethaia
i?anooieaiea iiae?acoiaaaei auieaoo oo?aoia e eiouanoaaiiua acuneaiey,
aeey /aai o?aaiaaeinue iaee/ea nianoaaiiinoe. Oieiiu e ?aau, naie,
aoaeo/e ?aciiaeaeiinoueth nianoaaiiinoe, oaeiaie ia eiaee e
eiouanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ieo ianee oicyaaa. I/aiue o?oaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue aeeyiea “a iieiaeaiea noauaeoa nineiaiiai noaoona. Iu ia
eiaai naaaeaiee aeieoiaioia i iineaaenoaeyo, iai?eia? ae?aee
ae?oaeeiieea e e?anoueyieia, oioy iaeaieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiay aa?ney
aicieeiiaaiey Ae?aaiaeoae I?aaaeu naycuaaaony eiaiii n iiaieuai iaaeaeo
eiyaeaneie ae?oaeeiie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai e. iiaai?iaeneeie ai?iaeaiaie.
Iaeaieaa aa?iyoii, /oi ai a?aiaia. ?onneie I?aaaeu i?e econoiuo
i?eaeeaaeyo oaiaeaeia ca inei?aeaiey, aan/anouea e o.ae. ana naiaiaeiia
ianaeaiea ioaa/aei ca e?eieiaeueiua aeaenoaey a ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeoaey
ae?oaiai nineiaey. ?onneay I?aaaea ie/aai ia aiai?eo i niaa?oaiee
i?anooieaiee aeaiueiaie, i aic?anoa i?anooiieeia. N i?eiyoeai
o?enoeainoaa aic?ano i?anooiieea noae ii?aaeaeyoueny. ia iniiaa
oea?eiaiuo onoaiiaeaiee.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi a ae?aaiee ia?eiae a “e?anoueyineeo iaueiao
i?aeoeeiaaeenue iaeacaiey ia iniiaa iau/iiai i?aaa, ii eiie?aoiuo
enoi/ieeia aei ian ia aeioei. A ?onneie I?aaaea io?aaeaiu oieueei aeaa
aeaea i?anooieaiee: i?ioea ee/iinoe (oaeenoai, oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey,
inei?aeaiey, iiaie) e i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe (?acaie, e?aaea, ia?ooaiea
caiaeueiuo a?aieoe, ia caeiiiia iieueciaaiea /oaeei eiouanoaii). Caeii
caueuae eioa?anu eiaeeaeaeooia, eioi?ue, auaeaeeaoenue ec iaueiiie
nenoaiu, ioaeaeaeny a io?aia eae naiae ee/iinoe, oaee naiaai1 oicyenoaa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?anooieaiey. A ?onneie I?aaaea ia oiiieiathony,
aanueia ia/aoei ia?eniaaiu aeayiey i?ioea eiyaeaneie aaeieieno?aoeee
(iai?eia?, oaeenoai eiithoa). Ia aeaiiii yoaia aua ia nouanoaiaaei
aano?aeoiiai iiieiaiey ainoaea?noaa e aai eioa?ania, a?aae ainoaea?noao
ioiaeaeanoaeyeny n a?aaeii eiycth, e iinyaaoaeuenoaa i?ioea eiycae
?anniao?eaaeenue eae oyaeeea aeayiey. E o/anoieeai ainnoaiee
i?eiaiyeanue eaciue ia ianoa i?anooieaiey, /anoi – ianniaay. Eiycuey a
ai?ueaa ca aeanoue ii?ie i?eaaaaee e aanueia iaaeinoieiui i?eaiai ii
aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?aoaeny a eo n?aaea. Eciaia eiycth oae aea
?anniao?eaaeanue a eiyaeaneii ie?oaeaiee. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ai iiiaii
caaenaea io ?annoaiiaee iieeoe/aneeo nee.

A ?onneie I?aaaea aeiieie?otho oo?aou, oioy ia i?aeoeea a?naiae
oaieiaiuo ea? aue aeiaieueii aaeee. Ooaa?aeaeaiiue anei?a iinea i?eiyoey
o?enoeainoaa eiaeaen, aoaeo/e ainoaea?noaaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,
ii?uaae n ii?aeueii i?aanoaaiiuie onoaiiaeaie ycu/anoaa, ii iiaua
o?enoeaineea oeaiiinoe onaaeaaeenue iinoaiaiii. A oaeeo oneiaeyo
aaeeinoaaiiui e?eoa?eai eioa?ania eiaeeaeaeooia iia auoue oieueei
aeaiaaeiue yeaeaaeaio i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa, /oi e cae?aieyea nenoaia
oo?aoia. Nua?aei ?ieue e oi, /oi aeanoeea aeaeu iaeacaiee i?ioeai?a/eee
o?enoeaineie aeieo?eia aoiaiiinoe, iie a eiaeaen ia aioee. Ii yoie aea
i?e/eia ?onneay I?aaaea yaeyaony noaoai naaoneie, oaieiaiua iaeacaiey
i?ioea eioa?ania oea?eae onoaiaaeeaaeenue a oea?eiaiuo onoaaao.

A i?aeoeea i?eiaiyeenue neaaeothuea aeaeu iaeacaiee: e?iaiay ianoue (aa
eeoue oneiaii iiaeii ioianoe e iaeacaieyi), “iioie e ?aca?aaeaiea”,
nia?oiay eaciue, oaieiaiua oo?aou, caeeth/aiea a oaiieoea,
/eaiia?aaeeoaeueiua ea?u. Oaieiaiua oo?aou ca iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia
ee/iinoue iinyo au?aaeaiiue nineiaiue oa?aeoa?, i?e iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia
eiouanoai yoi i?iyaeyaony iaiaa ?acei.

Ia oaeenoaao oiiieiaaony a aeiaiai?a n Aecaioeae 911a. (a neo/aa
oaeenoaa eiai-eeai oaeeoea aeieaeai “oia?aoue ia ianoa” (e?iaiay
ianoue). Anee aea aeiiaiue oniaaae ne?uoueny, anooiaea a aeaenoaea
eiouanoaaiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue: eiouea eeoea ioaeaaaee naith /anoue
nianoaaiiinoe a ea/anoaa aueoia, ia iaeaaeaaoeo nianoaaiiinoueth
?iaenoaaiieee oaeoiai i?aneaaeiaaee aei ioiuaiey. Noaouey 1 I?aaaeu
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao ianoue ?iaenoaaiieeia ca
oaeenoai, anee inoeoaeae “ia aoaeao”, auiea/eaaaony oo?ao a 40 a?eaai. A
yoie noaouea aua ionoonoaoao nioeeaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeiiaiuo i?e
auieaoa oo?aoa, ii oaeenoai i?eciaaony naiui iianiui i?anooieaieai n
iaai ia/eiathony ana ?aaeaeoeee ?onneie I?aaaeu. A I?aaaea ss?ineaae/ae
ca oaeenoai iaieuai, eiithoia eiycy, oeoia i?aaeoniio?ai oaea iiauoaiiue
oo?ao a AI a?eaai, ca oaeenoai naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea auiea/eaaeny oo?ao a
40 a?eaai.

Iaianaiea iiaiaa, inei?aeaiey, oaeaniua iia?aaeaeaiey ea?aeenue
aeaiaaeiuie oo?aoaie. Ca iia?aaeaeaiea iaeueoea auiea/eaaeinue 3 a?eaiu,
ca oea?u aea?aeueth, iaeeie, ca au?uaaiea ai?iaeu e onia12 a?eaai. Ca
io?oaaiea ?oee iieaaaeny oo?ao 40 a?eaai. Oa?ica i?oaeeai iaeacuaaeanue
oo?aoii a 1 a?eaio. Oioy oo?aou aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu a caaeneiinoe io
oyaeanoe oaa/uey, yniiai Iiieiaiey noaiaie a?aaea a ?onneie I?aaaea iao,
iiyoiio iiaeii aiai?eoue i i?eioeeia eacoaeueiinoe: a eiaeaena
ia?a/eneythony neo/ae ia?ooaiey oaeaniie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe n
eiie?aoiuie oo?aoaie, ii aac iiiuoie iaiauaiey.

Aieueoa anaai aieiaiey a ?onneie I?aaaea oaeaeyaony e?aaea. Iiae?iaii
?anienuaaaony, eaeie oo?ao iaycai oieaoeoue oee/aiiue ai? ca eiiy,
ei?iao, ooeo, ae?iaa, naii, oieiiee o.ae. Caeiiiaeaoaeue, no?aiynue
ie/aai ia oionoeoue, aeeth/aao a yoio nienie e ca?ii, e eia/eo ioeoe, e
ioioie/ueeo niaae. Iauee i?eioeei oaeia, /oi iino?aaeaaoaio neaaeoao
iieiinoueth eiiiaine?iaaoue iaoa?eaeueiue o?ii, iiyoiio aeiiaiue
aeieaeai auieaoeoue noieiinoue oe?aaeaiiiai e caieaoeoue oo?ao.
Nineiaiay caueoa eiouanoaa ano?a/aaony ?aaeei. Iai?eia?, ca e?aaeo
eiyaeaneiai eiiy onoaiaaeeaaeny oo?ao a 3 a?eaiu, ca eiiy nia?aea – 2
a?eaiu. A I?ino?aiiie I?aaaea ca e?aaeo eiiae (iniiaiie ?aai/ae neeu)
ai? auaeaaaeny “ia iioie e ?aca?aaeaiea”. Oaeenoai ai?a, ia ianoa
i?anooieaiey ia? n/eoaeinue i?anooieaieai e iaeacaiey ia aeaeei. Ana
eiua aeaeu iinyaaoaeuenoa ia /oaeoth nianoaaiiinoue ea?aeenue oo?aoaie
(ia?ooaiea caiaeueiuo a?aieoe, naeeaaiea i/aeue, ieeia, naiiaieueiue
caoaao /oaeiai eiiy eee i?oaeey, iieiiea /oaeeo aauae) ?acia?ii aei 12
a?eaai.

?onneay I?aaaea ia ciaao nia?oiie eacie, ii iia i?eiaiyeanue ia i?aeoeea
ca aioeainoaea?noaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, ca o/anoea a ainnoaieyo,
?acaieie/ueeo oaeeao. Ethaiiuoii, /oi oaea a O-O1 aa. yoi iaeacaiea
?aaoee?iaaeenue ainoaea?noaii.

Naaaeaiey, i i?eiaiaiee nia?oiie eacie i?aaeoaeai ?onnia eiathony a
a?aaneeo enoi/ieeao 1O-O aa. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai eai Eanoa e eai
Oaaeeaia, aa?ai ?acaieieea iiaee eeoeoue aeecie /a?ac iiaaoaiea.
I?eiaiyee aa?aa?neea eacie eiyaeiy Ieueaa e eiycue Nayoineaa (aei 972
a.) a inaaeaeaiiii ai?iaea Aei?inoiea. Niaeanii a?aaneei iaaethaeaieyi,
nouanoaiaaea aeueoa?iaoeaa aeecie: i?anooiieea iiaee “auneaoue” ia
ie?aeiu ainoaea?noaa (aa?eaio ecaiaiey ec iaueiu). I?eia?ii a X a.
eaciue onooieea ianoi oaieiaiui oo?aoai ca i?anooieaiey eiouanoaaiiua e
i?ioea ee/iinoe. A eiioea X a. Aeaaeeie? 1 ec-ca oneeeaoeony “?acaiaa”
ianoaeaeae aii?in i aaaaeaiee ca ieo nia?oiie eacie,, i?e/ai iianaeny
yoiai, “aiynue a?aoa”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ia?aie/aiee nia?oiuo
i?eaiai?ia nua?aei ?ieue i?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa. Ii eiyaeaneia ie?oaeaiea
naieoeeiie?iaaei oneeaiea ?ai?annee, iineieueeo eiycue iaycai “ai?ioueny
ni ceii”. Aaaaeaiiua eacie ca ?acaie i?eaaee e ineoaeaieth eaciu, eoaea
ia?anoaee iinooiaoue oo?aou, e iineaaeiaaea caiaia eeoaiey aeecie
Oo?aoaie. I?e/ai ?a/ue, aeaeeii, oea, ia oieueei i ?acaiyo, a i oe?ieii
e?oaa iinyaaoaeuenoa ia nianoaaiiinoue e ee/iinoue.

A oaeii aeaea nenoaia oaieiaiuo oo?aoia aioea a ?onneoth I?aaaeo a XI a.
Nia?oiay eaciue noaea i?a?iaaoeaie yeno?ai?aeeia?iuo iieiiii/ee
eiyaeaneie aeanoe a ainoaea?noaaiiie iaiieeoe/aneie noa?a e ca iau/iua
i?anooieaiey ia i?eiaiyeanue aeieaia a?aiy. A oi aea a?aiy ionoonoaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee niiniaia eacie i?eaiaeeei ii?ie e
iaiaocaeaiiie aeanoieinoe eiycae. Iai?eia?, ia ?oaaaea OOe-OO aa.
Aaeeoeeee eiycue ?iiai caeaiuaae iaiiei?iuo aiy? aeeaueai a caieth,
/aoaa?oiaae eo n ecoaa?neie iaceaeaoaeueiinoueth: “Ia ?acaeaaea i/ae,
iaaeo ia nuanoue”.

Oo?aou auee aaaeouei e iniiaiui aeaeii iaeacaiey ii ?onneie I?aaaea,
i?eiaiyeenue ca ana aeaeu i?anooieaiee e neoaeeee enoi/ieeii
nouanoaaiiiai iiiieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu. ?acia? oo?aoa eieaaaeny
io 1 aei 80 a?eaai na?aa?a, a a oea?eiaiuo onoaaao – aei 100 a?eaai. N
oi/iinoueth ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeay /anoue oea iioa?iaaoei, a eaeay –
ainoaea?noao, ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiuie

I?iaeaaea – naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oo?ao, auiea/eaaaiue ca iaianaiea
iiaiaa, iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia nianoaaiiinoue, inei?aeaiey. Aai ?acia?
ninoaaeye io 1 aei 12 a?eaai. Iai?eia?, ca oaea? ia iaiaaeaiiui ia/ii,
ca au?uaaiea ai?iaeu iieaaaeinue 12 a?eaai. A iaeioi?uo noaoueyo eeoue
oeacaia noiia oo?aoa aac oiiieiaiey “i?iaeaaee”. A eiaeaena anoue i?yiua
oeacaiey, /oi i?iaeaaea ieaoeony eiycth, yoi – ioaee/iue oo?ao,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i. naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee aeiiaiiai.

Ae?a – i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oaieiaiue oo?ao, eioi?ue auiea/eaaeny oieueei
ca oaeenoai e oieueei naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea. A ?onneie I?aaaea iao
oiiieiaiee ia oaeenoaa oaiaeaeia, ca yoi iieaaaeinue aieaa no?iaia
iaeacaiea, iaaeaee ae?a. Ca 40 a?eaai ii oeaiai oiai a?aiaie iiaeii auei
eoieoue 20 eiiae. Auieaoa oaeeo noii auea ia eaaeaeiio ii neeai. Iiyoiio
nouanoaiaae eieeaeoeaiue einoeooo “aeeeie ae?u”, eoaea aeaeaee aciinu
/eaiu iaueiu, /oiau a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aianoe aueoi ca oaeenoai.
Aeeeay ae?a auiea/eaaeanue iaueiie e a neo/aa ?acaieiiai oaeenoaa, anee
iia ia ?acuneeaaea i?anooiieea. Aa?iyoii, eia-eoi ec oaiaeaeueiuo aa?oia
ia i?i/ue aue caiieo/eoue eeoiee oaieiaiue oo?ao ca neo/aeii
iaia?oaeaiiia oaei, e ?onneay I?aaaea cai?auaea iiyoiio acuneeaaoue
aeeeea ae?u ca iaiiiciaiiuo oaeouo e neaeaou (no. 3-8, 19 I?ino?aiiie
I?aaaeu). Ia aeaeaaoea a aeeeoth ae?o aciinia a neo/aa oaeenoaa
naiinoiyoaeueii auiea/eaaee anth noiio.

O?ieaie iacuaaeenue oo?aou ca eno?aaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe e eiouanoaa.
Iai?eia? “eoi iaia?aii eiiy ca?aaeao eee neioeio, oi ieaoeo 12 a?eaai
i?iaeaaee, a oicyeio o?ie” (no. 84 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu). Iineieueeo ?aau
e oieiiu i?e?aaieaaeenue e eiouanoao oicyaa, ca, eo oaeenoai
auiea/eaaeny o?ie, a ia ae?a. Noieiinoue oieiiia ?onneay I?aaaea
ioeaieaaao a, 5-6 a?eaai, a aieaa aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo oieiiia (oeoia,
?aianeaiieea) – a 12 a?eaai.

?onneay I?aaaea ie/aai ia aiai?eo i oaeaniuo iaeacaieyo e eeoaiee
naiaiaeu. Oth?ai a Ae?aaiae ?one aua ia auei, eae e iniciaiey oth?aiiiai
aeeyiey ia i?anooiieea. I?eiaiyeinue caoi/aiea a “i?i?oa”. (iiaeaae)
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo eeoe, eiycae, iinaaeieeia, eeoe eiyaeaneiai
ie?oaeaiey. Yoa ia?a yaeyeanue a?aiaiiui ia?aie/aieai naiaiaeu aei
ianooieaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo niauoee. Iai?eia?, a 1067 a. aaeeeee eiycue
Ecyneaa iinaaeee a “i?i?oae eiycy Ananeaaa n aeaoiy nuiiaueyie, iinea
nia?oe ss?ineaaa Eoae?iaa aai nuiiauey auionoeee ec “i?i?oaa” aeyaeth
Noaeeneaaa e ianeeueii iino?eaee a iiiaoe. Oaeaniua iaeacaiey oaeaea
i?eiaiyeenue, ii ainoaea?noai ana aea ioaeaaaei I?aaeii/oaiea oo?aoai.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue niciaaae, /oi noaiaiue oyaeanoe i?anooieaiey iiaeao
caaenaoue eae io i?anooiieea, oae e io aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Iaeiaei
yoe yeaiaiou ii ia iia oi?ioee?iaaoue a aano?aeoiii aeaea, ioya/athuea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, nio/anoea, oi?iu aeiu e o.ae. – i?iaeoeo aieaa
iicaeiaai a?aiaie. E ana aea n ninoiyieai iiueyiaiey (i?e ?aci?aiee
eoioea) ?onneay I?aaaea naycuaaao aieaa oyaeeea iineaaenoaey. A o?ao
neo/ayo iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao a?oiiiaua e?aaee neioa (no. no. 40, 41, 43
I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu) e onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi eaaeaeue o/anoiee aeieaeai
caieaoeoue oo?ao a iieiii iauaia. Iiieiae caeiiiaeaoaeue e ?acee/ioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue oiunea i?anooiieea, iiyoiio a eiaeaena ?aca?aie/aiu
neo/aeiua oaeenoaa eee iainoi?iaeiua (a iaeaeo), oaeenoaa a ?acaia,
oaeenoaa ia Ie?o “yaeaii”, “a naaaea”. Ca “?acaie aac anyeie naaaeu”
iieaaaeinue no?iaia iaeacaiea. Iaeiaei. ioaeaeyy i?anooieaiey
i?aaeiaia?aiiua io auoiauo, caeiiiaeaoaeue ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny i?eioeeiii
eacoaeueiinoe e oeene?iaae eo aac oai?aoe/aneeo iaiauaiee. A ?onneie
I?aaaea oieueei iaia/aaony aeaeaiea ia oiuoeaiiua e iainoi?iaeiua
aeayiey.

Ea?aoaeueiua ii?iu ?onneie I?aaaeu i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue, ii e
eiioeo XV a. auea iiaeaioiaeaia aaca aeey ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy
oaieiaiiai i?aaa. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iiyaeeenue iiaua aeaeu
i?anooieaiee i?ioea ainoaea?noaa, aai aiia?aoa, e aeie1yeiinoiuo eeoe,
i?anooiiinoue noaea aieaa ianooaaiie e oaieiaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
io?aaae?iaaei ia yoi oneeaieai ?ai?annee.

Noae e i?ioeann

Ae?aaiaeoae oi?iie noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna aue noae iaueiu, /eaiu eioi?ie a
?aaiie noaiaie iaeaaeaee i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie oyie a noaeaaiuo
?acae?aoaeuenoaao. Ninoycaoaeueiinoue noi?ii nio?aiyeanue aeieaia a?aiy,
iiyoiio i?ioeann a Ae?aaiae ?one iacuaatho ninoycaoaeueiui (?aaea –
iaaeieoaeueiui). Aio i?enoue oaeea ioee/eoaeueiua *a?ou, eae
ioiineoaeueiia ?aaainoai noi?ii e eo aeoeaiinoue i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaea
a nai?a aeieacaoaeuenoa e oeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii a O-O1 aa. oe?aieyaony
i?ioeann, aaea aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aee eiycue iaai aaeieieno?aoeey: iie
aicaoaeaeaee i?ioeann, naie niae?aee naaaeaiey e auiineee i?eaiai?,
/anoi nii?yaeaiiue ni nia?oiui enoiaeii. I?ioioeiii oaeiai i?ioeanna
iiaeao neoaeeoue noae eiyaeie Ieueae iaae iineaie ae?aaeyi a ia?eiae
ainnoaiey eee noae eiycae iaae ainnoaaoeie a 1068 a. e 1113 a.

Iiaiaeaie e aicaoaeaeaieth i?ioeanna neoaeeee aeaeiau enooeia, caoaao
i?anooiieea ia ianoa i?anooieaiey, oaeo niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey. Iaeiie
ec oi?i ia/aea i?ioeanna aue oae iacuaaaiue “caeee/”: ioaee/iia
iauyaeaiea i i?iiaaea eiouanoaa e ia/aea iienea iioeoeoaey (iau/ii ia
oi?ao). Aeaaaeny o?aoaeiaaiue n?ie aeey aica?auaiey iioeuaiiiai, ii
enoa/aiee eioi?iai eeoei, o eioi?iai iaia?oaeeaaeenue eneiiua aaue,
n/eoaeinue aeiiaiui e aeieaeii auei aa?iooue eiouanoai e aeieacuaaoue
caeiiiinoue aai i?eia?aoaiey. Iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi
eniieueciaaeenue ?acee/iaa aeaeu aeieacaoaeuenoa: onoiua, ienueiaiiua,
naeaeaoaeueneea, oeeee. I/aaeaeoeu i?ienoanoaey iacuaaeenue aeaeieaie.
Nouanoaiaaee “iineooe”, eioi?uo iaeie enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho
i/aaeaeoeaie ii neooo”, ae?oaea – naeaeaoaeyie “aeia?ie neaau”
iaaeiyaiiai iiaee auoue oieueei naiaiaeiua ethaee: “ia oieiia
iineooanoaa ia neeaaeuaatho, iineieueeo ii i naiaiaeai”, – aeaneo
?onneay I?aaaea. ?aaainoai, noi?ii a i?ioeanna aeeeoiaaei i?eaea/aiea e
naeaeaoaeuenoao noieueei naiaiaeiuo. Eeoue a “iaeie oyaeaa” e ii ioaeaea
iiaeii auei “nnueaoueny ia caeoia”. Anee ia auei naiaiaeiuo, oi
nnueaeenue ia oeoia aiy?neiai, a ia “eiuo ia neeaaeuaaoue” (no. 66
I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu).

A ?onneie I?aaaea i?aaeoniio?aia iniaay oi?ia iaia?oaeaiey oo?a/aiiiai
eiouanoaa -naiae. Anee iinea “caeee/a” i?iiaaoay aauue iaia?oaeeaaeanue
o eeoea, cayaeaoaai naay aeia?iniaanoiui i?eia?aoaoaeai, ia/eiaeny
naiae. Oeacuaaeny /aeiaae, o eioi?iai i?eia?aoaeanue aauue, oio, a naith
i/a?aaeue, oeacuaae ia ae?oaiai, e o.ae. Eoi ia iia oeacaoue enoi/iee
i?eia?aoaiey, n/eoaeny ai?ii, aeieaeai aue aa?iooue aauue (noieiinoue) e
caieaoeoue oo?ao. A i?aaeaeao iaeiie oa??eoi?eaeueiie aaeeieoeu naiae
oae aei iineaaeiaai eeoea, ii anee a iai o/anoaiaaee aeeoaee ae?oaie
oa??eoi?ee (ai?iaea), ii oae aei o?aoueaai eeoea, eioi?ia auiea/eaaei
iiauoaiiia aiciauaiea e ia/eiaei naiae ii naiaio ianoo i?iaeeaaiey (no.
35-39 I?ino?aiiie I?aaaeu).

Ae?oaia i?ioeannoaeueiia aeaenoaea – aiiaiea neaaea – i?aaenoaaeyei
niaie ?icune I?anooiieea ii neaaeai. A neo/aa oaeenoaa iaee/ea neaaeia
i?anooiieea a eaeie-eeai iaueia iaycuaaei aa /eaiia auiea/eaaoue
“aeeeoth ae?o” eee ?acuneeaaoue aeiiaiia eeoei. I?e oa?yaoeony neaaeao
ia ionoioao e aei?iaao iienee i?ae?auaeenue (no. 77 I?ino?aiiie
I?aaaeu).

Ii?iu ?onneie I?aaaeu, aeaenoaothuea a “?onneeo eiyaeanoaao a OII-OV
aa., i?iaeieaeaee eniieueciaaoue a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna ?anniao?eaaaiiai
ia?eiaea. I?e nio?aiaiee ninoycaoaeueiuo ia/ae a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna
oneeeaaeenue ?ieue e aeoeaiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee.
Iianaianoii au?inei cia/aiea noaeaaiiai iiaaeeiea i?e iaaiciiaeiinoe
auyniaiey ienoiiu eiuie niiniaaie. I?aeaeee ooiaeeee a i?ioeia
iineieueeo i?ioeai?a/eee o?enoeaineiio iiieiaieth auyniaiey enoeiu,
noaeiua eeyoau eeoaeenue ycu/aneie ao?eaooeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii aic?inea
?ieue ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia, iniaaiii a caiaeueiuo nii?ao e oyaeaao.

Aeey yiioe, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae ?onneie I?aaaea, oa?aeoa?iuie
iauaaeeiaieai naeueneiai ianaeaiey auea ninaaeneay iaueia. Iia au?inea a
i?ioeanna ?aceiaeaiey i?aaeiae naiaeiie iaueiu. *anoiay nianoaaiiinoue
ia caieth iinoaiaiii ?aceaaaao i?aaeaea iaeii?iaeioth ianno iaueiieeia:
ia?yaeo n caaeeoi/iuie iiyaeythony aaaeiyee, oa?yaoea naie o/anoee.
Auoiaey ec iaueiu, iie a iieneao ?aaiou iiiaaeaee a caaeneiinoue io
aiaaouo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa – eiycae e aiy?.

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