.

Сравнительно-правовой анализ судебной системы США и Германии

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2395
Скачать документ

N?aaieoaeueii-i?aaiaie aiaeec noaeaaiie nenoaiu NOA e Aa?iaiee

nooaeaio

a?oiiu OTH-1a

Iaeaaa Ieeieae Ieeieaaae/

NIAAeEIAIIUA OOAOU AIA?EEE

Oaieiaiue e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann a NOA

Enoi/ieeaie oaieiaiiai e a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa
i?eiaieoaeueii e oaaea?aeueiie nenoaia noaeia e e naiinoiyoaeueiui
noaeaaiui nenoaiai eaaeaeiai ec ooaoia neoaeao niioaaonoaothuea aeou
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeea, ecaeaaaaiua noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie, e ii?iu
iauaai i?aaa. Iniaay ?ieue a ?aaoee?iaaiee aii?inia oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna
i?eiaaeeaaeeo Eiinoeoooeee NOA. A aa oaenoa, a iii?aaeao IV, V, VI, VII,
aioaaeoeo ninoaaiie /anoueth a Aeeeue i i?aaao (1791 a.), e a iii?aaea
XIV noi?ioee?iaaiu ia oieueei iiiaea nouanoaaiiua iieiaeaiey i
noaeiono?ienoaa, a oii /enea i ?aca?aie/aiee iiaenoaeiinoe noaeia
oaaea?aoeee e ooaoia, ii e aaaeiaeoea ii?iu, ii?aaeaeythuea i?aaa
iaaeiyaiiai ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna. Iiiaea
iieiaeaiey oaaea?aeueiiai oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa, a oii /enea
naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii a?anoa e iaunea, n ?acae?aoaeuenoaii aeaea a
noaea, n iaaeaeiaaieai i?eaiai?ia e o.i., nia?aiu a /anoe II (“Oaieiaiue
i?ioeann”) ?acaeaea 18 Naiaea caeiiia NOA (/anoue 1 yoiai ?acaeaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaaea?aeueiue Oaieiaiue eiaeaen). Iaeiei ec
enoi/ieeia oaaea?aeueiiai oaieiaiiai e iniaaiii a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa neoaeeo oaeaea ?acaeae 28 (“Noaeiono?ienoai e
noaeaaiay i?ioeaaeo?a”) Naiaea caeiiia NOA (a ?aaeaeoeee 1948 a. n
iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie). Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a
?aaoee?iaaiee aii?inia noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ii a?aaeaeaineei e oaieiaiui
aeaeai ea?atho ii?iaoeaiua aeou, ecaeaiiua Aa?oiaiui noaeii NOA ia
iniiaaiee iieiiii/ee, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aio a ?yaea aeoia Eiia?anna
1930-o aa., i?aaeienuaaoue oaaea?aeueiui noaeai i?aaeea i?ioeaaeo?u ii
a?aaeaeaineei e oaieiaiui aeaeai. Aaaeiaeoeie n?aaee yoeo iinoaiiaeaiee
Aa?oiaiiai noaea yaeythony neaaeothuea oaaea?aeueiua i?aaeea:
a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa (1938 a.), oaieiaiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa (1946 a.), aiaeeyoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (1968 a.) e
i aeieacaoaeuenoaao (1975 a.). Ioaeaeueii Aa?oiaiui noaeii auee ecaeaiu
oaeaea i?aaeea i?iecaiaenoaa a naiii yoii noaea (1980 a.), i?aaeea
noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaaea?aeueiuie iaaeno?aoaie aeae i
iaeicia/eoaeueiuo i?anooieaieyo (1971 a.) e ae?. Oaeea aeou, eae e
eciaiaiey a ieo, anooiatho a neeo, anee iinea eo iaeia?aiey Aa?oiaiui
noaeii NOA ia iineaaeoao aic?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu iaaeo iaeao Eiia?anna a
oiaea aeeaeaeoae aai nannee. Iie ioaeeeothony a Naiaea caeiiia NOA a
ea/anoaa i?eeiaeaiee e niioaaonoaothuei ?acaeaeai.

Ia o?iaia ooaoia a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa
aeaenoaotho ii?iu eiinoeoooeee ooaoia e ?acaeaeu naiaeia caeiiia,
iinayuaiiua niioaaonoaothuei aii?inai, aanueia ?acee/athueany ii oi?ia e
niaea?aeaieth. A ?yaea ooaoia (Eaeeoi?iey e ae?.) iie iauaaeeiaiu n
oaieiaiuie eiaeaenaie a iaeiii ii?iaoeaiii aeoa. A ioee/ea io ?aoi?iu
oaieiaiuo eiaeaenia, i?iaaaeaiiie ia aaca I?eia?iiai OE 1962 a.,
oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiua eiaeaenu ooaoia ia iiaeaa?aeenue noieue aea
iniiaaoaeueiie ia?a?aaioea e naeeaeaieth, ianiio?y ia iaee/ea iauae
iiaeaee a aeaea I?eia?iiai OIE e I?eia?iiai eiaeaena i
aeieacaoaeuenoaao, ?ac?aaioaiiuo aua ?aiueoa, a 1930 e 1942 aa., oai aea
Einoeoooii aia?eeaineiai i?aaa. A a?aaeaeaineeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo
eiaeaenao ooaoia iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueii aieueoaa noiaenoai,
iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaee a ?acee/iuo ooaoao /anoi iie?aeenue ia aaeeiue
ia?acaoe — AIE ooaoa Iueth-Ei?e 1848 a., ninoaaeaiiue ecaanoiui th?enoii
Ae.Oeeaeii.

A ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa a ooaoao aunooiatho oaeaea
i?aaeea, ?ac?aaaouaaaiua aunoeie noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie eaaeaeiai ec ooaoia
naiinoiyoaeueii, ii, eae i?aaeei, n i?eaioe?iaeie ia niioaaonoaothuea
aeou Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA, — iniaaiii aaeeea caeanue ?ieue oaaea?aeueiuo
i?aaee a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, aini?eiyouo ai iiiaeo ooaoao
i?aeoe/anee aac eciaiaiee. I?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea aeey anao
aia?eeaineeo noaeia (e oaaea?aeueiuo, e ooaoia) eiatho ?aoaiey
Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA, a eioi?uo noi?ioee?iaaiu iinoaiiaeaiey ii
i?ioeannoaeueiui aii?inai, i?aaeaea anaai iaeioi?ua ?aoaiey, auianaiiua
a 1960-o aa. A ?aoaieyo ii aeaeo Aeaeaiia (1963 a.) e ii aeaeo Yneiaaaei
(1964 a.) cae?aieaii i?aai ethaiai eeoea eiaoue caueoieea i?e aeii?ina a
iieeoeee; a ?aoaiee ii aeaeo Iyii (1961 a.) onoaiiaeai cai?ao ia
eniieueciaaiea a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna aeieacaoaeuenoa, iieo/aii
iacaeiiiui ia?acii, iniaaiii, eae yoi auei noi?ioee?iaaii a ?aoaiee aa
aeaeo Ie?aiaeu (1966 a.), anee ?a/ue eaeao i iieo/aiiii oaeei iooai
i?eciaiu iaaeiyaiiai.

Noaeaaiay nenoaia NOA

A NOA ooieoeeiie?otho ia?aeeaeueii aaeeiay oaaea?aeueiay nenoaia noaeia
e naiinoiyoaeueiua noaeaaiua nenoaiu eaaeaeiai ec 50 ooaoia, ie?oaa
Eieoiaey e /aou?ao oaaea?aeueiuo oa??eoi?ee. A eiiiaoaioeeth
oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia aoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai ?anniio?aiea oaieiaiuo aeae
i i?anooieaieyo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo oaaea?aeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, e
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae ii eneai e oaaea?aeueiui aeanoyi e ii nii?ai,
aicieeathuei a nayce n i?eiaiaieai oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia eee iaaeaeo
a?aaeaeaiaie, i?iaeeaathueie a aeaoo ?acee/iuo no?aiao, anee i?e yoii
noiia enea i?aauoaao 10 000 aeieea?ia. Ii ?yaeo aii?inia eiiiaoaioeey
oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia e noaeia ooaoia niaiaaeaao eae ii oaieiaiui, oae e
ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, /oi aucaaei e aeecie aanueia neiaeiua i?aaeea
?aca?aie/aiey eo ooieoeee. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo o i?aaiia
iaaeiaiey e o enooeia ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai nicaeathony aiciiaeiinoe
auai?a iaaeaeo ia?auaieai a noae iaeiiai ec ooaoia eeai a oaaea?aeueiue
noae, a a iaeioi?uo, aanueia ?aaeeeo, neo/ayo aeiioneaaony ia?auaiea a
oaaea?aeueiue noae n aeaeiaie ii aeaeo, ?anniao?eaaaoaiony a noaea
ooaoa, ii oieueei anee ?a/ue eaeao i oieeiaaiee eee i?eiaiaiee ii?i
oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaa, anee iaeeoei “oaaea?aeueiue aii?in”. Iiaeaaeythuay
/anoue oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae ?anniao?eaaaony noaeaie ooaoia, e
eeoue ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay eo /anoue (5—10%) ieacuaaaony i?aaeiaoii
?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia.

A oaaea?aeueioth nenoaio noaeia aoiaeyo Aa?oiaiue noae NOA,
aiaeeyoeeiiiua e ie?oaeiua noaeu, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua noaeu. Anth
nenoaio oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia aicaeaaeyao Aa?oiaiue noae NOA, eioi?ue
iaeiia?aiaiii caieiaao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia iieiaeaiea ai anae
no?oeoo?a aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ia?yaeo n Eiia?annii e
i?aceaeaioii NOA. Aa?oiaiue noae NOA — aaeeinoaaiiia noaeaaiia
o/?aaeaeaiea, oiiieiaaiia a Eiinoeoooeee NOA, — ninoieo ec aeaayoe
noaeae, iaeiiai ec eioi?uo i?aceaeaio NOA iacia/aao i?aaenaaeaoaeai.
*eaiu Aa?oiaiiai noaea, aeeth/ay i?aaenaaeaoaey, iacia/athony
i?aceaeaioii e ooaa?aeaeathony Naiaoii. Eai?oi, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, ninoaaeytho oanoue /eaiia noaea. Aa?oiaiue noae
?anniao?eaaao ii ia?aie einoaioeee aeaea ii nii?ai iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee
aieaa ooaoaie, ii eneai, a eioi?uo iaeiie ec noi?ii yaeythony iineu
eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea (ia i?aeoeea oaeiai ?iaea
aeaea iaiiiai/eneaiiu). Iniiaiay aai ooieoeey — ?anniio?aiea aeaeia ia
?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia e noaeia ooaoia, anee a ieo
cao?iioo “oaaea?aeueiue aii?in”, a oaeaea i?inuea ia ioiaia
iinoaiiaeaiey ethaiai noaea, eioi?ui i?eciaaony i?ioeai?a/auei
Eiinoeoooeee NOA caeii eaeiai-eeai ooaoa eee aeo Eiia?anna NOA.
Aa?oiaiue noae ai?aaa oaeaea, anee iineaaeoao i?inueaa aiaeeyoeeiiiiai
noaea, ?acuynieoue eaeie-eeai aii?in i?aaa, aicieeoee ii a?aaeaeaineiio
eee oaieiaiiio aeaeo, e aeaoue ii iaio iaycaoaeueiia oieeiaaiea.
Aa?oiaiue noae i?eieiaao e ?acae?aoaeuenoao aeaea ii naiaio oniio?aieth,
anee i?eciaao eo aeinoaoi/ii nouanoaaiiuie e iauacia/eiuie, /oi auaaao
ioiineoaeueii ?aaeei: a ioaao ia ouny/e ia?auaiee aaeaaiaeii auiinyony
?aoaiey eeoue ii 120—160 aeaeai. I?e yoii eaaeaeue noaeuey auneacuaaao
naia iiaiea, iinea /aai iau/ii iaeei ec noaeae oi?ioee?oao iiceoeeth
aieueoeinoaa, o.a. ?aoaiea noaea, a inoaeueiua eeai iieiinoueth
niaeaoathony n iei, eeai i?eniaaeeiythony e auaiaeo, ii ?anoiaeyony a
iioeae?iaea ?aoaiey, eeai, iaeiiaoe, eceaaatho naia iiaiea,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia iiceoeee aieueoeinoaa (ana iiaiey noaeae ioaeeeothony).

Aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu auee nicaeaiu a 1891 a. a ea/anoaa noaeia
i?iiaaeooi/iie th?enaeeeoeee iaaeaeo Aa?oiaiui noaeii NOA e ie?oaeiuie
noaeaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaaony 13 aiaeeyoeeiiiuo noaeia: iaeei a
oaaea?aeueiii ie?oaa Eieoiaey, II—a eaaeaeii ec aiaeeyoeeiiiuo ie?oaia,
ioaaouaathueo oa??eoi?eth io 3 aei 10 ooaoia e eiathueo naie
ioeoeeaeueiue iiia?, e, iaeiiaoe, o/?aaeaeaiiue a 1982 a. Aiaeeyoeeiiiue
noae oaaea?aeueiie th?enaeeeoeee, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaao aeaeiau ii
oaiiaeaiiui e iaoaioiui aeaeai e aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey I?aoaiceiiiiai
noaea.

A ninoaa eaaeaeiai aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea aoiaeeo io 4 aei 23 noaeae.
Iaycaiiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaey aiceaaathony ia oiai ec ieo, eoi aeieueoa
anao aoiaeeo a ninoaa yoiai noaea, iaeiaei ia aeinoea 70 eao. A ?aaioa
eaaeaeiai aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea i?eieiaao o/anoea iaeei ec /eaiia
Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA (iie cae?aieaiu ca iaeiei-aeaoiy aiaeeyoeeiiiuie
noaeaie). Ia?aua 12 aiaeeyoeeiiiuo noaeia ?anniao?eaatho aeaeiau ia
i?eaiai?u e ?aoaiey ie?oaeiuo noaeia, ia iinoaiiaeaiey ?yaea
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia, anee a ieo oniao?eaaaony ia?ooaiea i?aaiauo
ii?i, a oaeaea ecaeatho i?eeacu ii iaeioi?ui aii?inai a ea/anoaa noaea
ia?aie einoaioeee. Eae i?aaeei, aeaea neooathony eieeaaeae ec o?ao
noaeae, iaeiaei anee ?a/ue ia eaeao ia aiaeeyoeeiiiie aeaeiaa, iie iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny e iaeiei eee aeaoiy noaeueyie. Aeey ?acae?aoaeuenoaa
aeaeia ia ?aoaiey noaeae e eieeaaee aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea, a oaeaea aeey
ono?aiaiey nii?ia iaaeaeo noaeueyie nicuaathony ieaia?iua canaaeaiey
aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea. A nayce n nouanoaaiiui oaaee/aieai /enea aeae,
?anniao?eaaaiuo aiaeeyoeeiiiuie noaeaie (ii/oe a 10 ?ac ca ia?eiae
1960—1980 aa.), a ieo auee ?acei ia?aie/aiu eeai a ?yaea neo/aaa aiana
ioiaiaiu aunooieaiey noi?ii e i?eieiathony eiua ia?u aeey onei?aiey
i?ioeaaeo?u ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeae.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu (eiiaaea eo iacaaiea ia?aaiaeeony eae “?aeiiiua”) —
iniiaiia caaii oaaea?aeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu. Any oa??eoi?ey no?aiu
iiaeaeaia ia ie?oaa n o/aoii a?aieoe iaaeaeo ooaoaie, oae /oi a iaeiii
ooaoa eiaaony io iaeiiai aei /aou?ao ie?oaia. Niioaaonoaothuea ie?oaeiua
noaeu nicaeaiu oaeaea a /aou?ao caii?neeo oa??eoi?eyo NOA. Anaai a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ian/eouaaaony 95 ie?oaeiuo noaeia, a eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo
io 2 aei 27 noaeae (iaeei ec ieo iacia/aaony i?aaenaaeaoaeai ii oai aea
i?aaeeai, /oi e a aiaeeyoeeiiiuo noaeao). Iie ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie
einoaioeee a?aaeaeaineea e oaieiaiua aeaea, aoiaeyuea a eiiiaoaioeeth
oaaea?aeueiie thnoeoeee, a oaeaea aeaeiau ia aeaenoaey aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
aaaeiinoa. Oaieiaiua aeaea e a?aaeaeaineea enee ii aieueoeinoao
eaoaai?ee aeae n noiiie enea nauoa 20 aeieea?ia neooathony n o/anoeai
i?enyaeiuo, anee ia yoii ianoaeaaao iaaeiyaiue eee enoaoe. I?e ie?oaeiuo
noaeao ooieoeeiie?otho oaaea?aeueiua iaaeno?aou (yoa aeieaeiinoue
o/?aaeaeaia a 1968 a.). Iie caieiathony, a iniiaiii, iiaeaioiaeie aeae e
neooaieth e eiio?ieai ca eniieiaieai noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee. Iaaeno?aou
ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii ?anniao?eaaoue oaieiaiua aeaea ii iaaeiaieth a
iaeicia/eoaeueiuo i?anooieaieyo, anee oa iaeacuaathony eeoaieai naiaiaeu
ia n?ie aei iaeiiai aiaea e oo?aoii aei 1 000 aeieea?ia, iaeiaei i?e
oneiaee, /oi iaaeiyaiue ia ianoaeaaao ia ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aai aeaea
noaeueae ie?oaeiiai noaea. A 1978 a. i?e eaaeaeii ec ie?oaeiuo noaeia
eae eo aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaiu auee o/?aaeaeaiu noaeu ii aeaeai i
aaie?ionoaao, eioi?ui ii?o/aii ?anniio?aiea yoie aanueia iiiai/eneaiiie
eaoaai?ee aeae. AEaeiau ia eo ?aoaiey iiaoo auoue i?eianaiu, eae
i?aaeei, a ie?oaeiie noae.

Ia?yaeo n nenoaiie iaueo noaeia nouanoaoao ianeieueei
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia. Eo nenoaia iiaeaa?aeanue
cia/eoaeueiui i?aia?aciaaieyi a 1982 a. Aaaeiia ianoi a iae caieiaao
I?aoaiceiiiue noae. Ii ?anniao?eaaao a?aaeaeaineea enee /anoiuo eeoe e
ei?ii?aoeee e i?aaeoaeuenoao NOA ia noiio nauoa 10 000 aeieea?ia n
o?aaiaaieai i aiciauaiee oua?aa, i?e/eiaiiiai ia?ooaieai aeiaiai?ia e ii
?yaeo ae?oaeo iniiaaiee.

A 1980 a. aue ia?aeiaiiaai a Noae ii aiaoiae oi?aiaea i?aaeiee Noae ii
oaiiaeaiiui aeaeai. Ii ninoieo ec aeaayoe noaeae, eioi?ua iiaoo
auiineoue ?aoaiey aaeeiiee/ii e canaaeatho eeai a Iueth-Ei?ea, aaea
iaoiaeeony aai ooaa-eaa?oe?a, eeai, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, a iaeiii ec
ae?oaeo ii?oiauo ai?iaeia NOA. A ?yaeo ae?oaeo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeaaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee n ?acee/iie niaoeeaeecaoeeae, a /anoiinoe, eiaaony
naiinoiyoaeueiue Iaeiaiaue noae, ?anniao?eaathuee nii?u, eioi?ua
aicieeatho a nayce n ii?aaeaeaieai ?acia?ia oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia e eo
oieaoie.

Noaeaaiua nenoaiu ooaoia NOA

A aia?eeaineeo ooaoao aeaenoaotho aanueia ?acee/athueany iaaeaeo niaie
nenoaiu noaeia. Ii aieueoae /anoe eo iniaaiiinoe iauyniythony
enoi?e/aneeie oneiaeyie oi?ie?iaaiey noaeaaiie nenoaiu a aeaiiii ooaoa.
Ii?ith aiiaue ia?aciauaaaoeany ooaou caeinoaiaaee noaio noaeaaiie
i?aaiecaoeee o ninaaeieo ooaoia. *aua anaai a ooaoao eniieuecothony
aeaoo- e o?aonooiai/aoay nenoaiu iaueo noaeia, a oaeaea ?acee/iua noaeu
ia?aie/aiiie eee niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee. Aeaoonooiai/aoay nenoaia
iaueo noaeia, aeeth/athuay a naay eeoue noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee e aunoee
noaeaaiue i?aai, iau/ii naienoaaiia iaaieueoei ii ?acia?ai e ianaeaieth
ooaoai, a o?aonooiai/aoay, n noaeaie i?iiaaeooi/iie, aiaeeyoeeiiiie
th?enaeeeoeee, — aieaa e?oiiui ooaoai, a noaeao eioi?uo ?anniao?eaaaony
aieueoia eiee/anoai a?aaeaeaineeo e oaieiaiuo aeae.

Noae, aicaeaaeythuee noaeaaioth nenoaio a ooaoa, /aua anaai iineo
iacaaiea aa?oiaiiai noaea, iaeiaei a ?yaea ooaoia ii iacuaaaony
aiaeeyoeeiiiui noaeii. Iie ninoiyo ec iyoe — aeaayoe noaeae, iaeei ec
eioi?uo iacia/aaony i?aaenaaeaoaeai noaea. Aa?oiaiua e niioaaonoaothuea
ei noaeu ooaoia caieiathony, aeaaiui ia?acii, ?anniio?aieai
aiaeeyoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia ?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo noaeia. A aieueoeinoaa
ooaoia iie ?anniao?eaatho aeaeiau eeoue ia noaeaaiua ?aoaiey, eioi?ua
eanathony aii?inia i?aaa, a inoaeueiuo — oaeaea e ii aii?inai oaeoa. A
aieueoeinoaa ooaoia aa?oiaiua noaeu naie ?aoatho, i?eieiaoue ee e
?anniio?aieth aiaeeyoeeiiiua aeaeiau e eiua ia?auaiey e iei, e?iia
i?eaiai?ia e nia?oiie eacie, aeaeiau ia eioi?ua iiaeeaaeao
iaycaoaeueiiio ?acae?aoaeuenoao a aa?oiaiii noaea ooaoa. A ioaeaeueiuo
ooaoao aeaenoaoao i?aaeei, niaeanii eioi?iio aa?oiaiue noae iaycai
?anniao?eaaoue ana aac eneeth/aiey iinooiathuea e iaio aeaeiau.

A ea/anoaa noaea ia?aie einoaioeee yoe noaeu /aua anaai ecaeatho eeoue
noaeaaiua i?eeacu a neo/aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ia?auaiey e iei, iai?eia?
n aeaeiaie ia iacaeiiiia niaea?aeaiea iiae no?aaeae (i?eeac “oaaaan
ei?ion”), a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?eieiatho naycaiiua n ecaeaieai
i?eeacia aeaea e naiaio i?iecaiaenoao, anee iie ioee/athony iniaie
neiaeiinoueth. Iniaaiii aaeeea ?ieue aa?oiaiuo noaeia ooaoia a
oieeiaaiee eiinoeoooeee e ioeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ooaoia a nayce n
?anniao?eaaaiuie eie noaeaaiuie aeaeaie eee aeaeiaaie ia ?aoaiey
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia. Cia/aiea yoie ooieoeee nouanoaaiii aic?inei
ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, eiaaea a ioaeaeueiuo ooaoao aa?oiaiua noaeu
noaee i?iaiaeeoue eeieth ia aieaa ?aoeoaeueioth, /ai a ?aoaieyo
Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA, caueoo i?aa a?aaeaeai.

Noaeu i?iiaaeooi/iie th?enaeeeoeee (oa?iei “i?iiaaeooi/iue” eiiaaea
aoiaeeo a eo ioeoeeaeueiia iacaaiea) nicaeaiu a ?yaea ooaoia aeey
?anniio?aiey aeaeia ia i?eaiai?u e ?aoaiey noaeia ia?aie einoaioeee e
ae?oaeo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Iie iinyo ?acee/iua iacaaiey, ii /aua
anaai eo eiaiotho aiaeeyoeeiiiuie noaeaie. Eiiaaea a ooaoao nicaeaaony
ioaeaeueiue oaieiaiue aiaeeyoeeiiiue noae, a ?yaea neo/aaa noaeu
i?iiaaeooi/iie th?enaeeeoeee ooieoeeiie?otho ia i?aaao aiaeeyoeeiiiuo
ioaeaeaiee aa?oiaiiai noaea ooaoa. A eo ninoaa aoiaeyo io 10 aei 50
noaeae. Neooaiea aeae iau/ii i?iaiaeyo eieeaaee ec o?ao noaeae. A
iaeioi?uo ooaoao aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie
einoaioeee, a oii /enea e n o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae,
ii?aaeaeaiiua eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeaineeo e oaieiaiuo aeae. A yoii neo/aa
i?ioeann aaaeao aaeeiiee/iue noaeuey.

Iniiaiia caaii noaeaaiie nenoaiu ooaoia — noaeu iauae th?enaeeeoeee,
eioi?ua aunooiatho iiae naiuie ?aciuie iacaaieyie, iai?eia?: a ooaoa
Iueth-Ei?e yoi aa?oiaiua noaeu, a ooaoa Eaeeoi?iey — aunoea noaeu, ii
/aua anaai iie eiaiothony ie?oaeiuie noaeaie. A eo i?aaiecaoeee e
eiee/anoaaiiii ninoaaa iaaethaeathony aanueia nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey. Eae
i?aaeei, iie ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie einoaioeee oaieiaiua aeaea iai
anao i?anooieaieyo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
niioaaonoaothuaai ooaoa, e?iia iaeicia/eoaeueiuo oaieiaiuo i?inooieia, e
a?aaeaeaineea aeaea n ethaie noiiie enea, e?iia oao eaoaai?ee aeae, aeey
?acae?aoaeuenoaa eioi?uo nicaeaiu a aeaiiii ooaoa niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
noaeu. A iaeioi?uo ooaoao ie?oaeiua noaeu ai?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue
oaieiaiua aeaea i i?anooieaieyo, ca eioi?ua iiaeao auoue iacia/aii
eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie aei iyoe eao eee aeaaea oieueei aei iaeiiai
aiaea, /oi cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yao i?a?iaaoeau aiaeeyoeeiiiiai noaea
aeaiiiai ooaoa a ea/anoaa noaea ia?aie einoaioeee. Aianoa n oai
ie?oaeiua noaeu aunooiatho a ea/anoaa auoanoiyuae einoaioeee ii
ioiioaieth e noaeai ia?aie/aiiie th?enaeeeoeee, iineieueeo iie ai?aaa a
?yaea neo/aaa ?anniao?eaaoue aeaeiau ia eo ?aoaiey.

Aeaea a ie?oaeiuo noaeao ?anniao?eaathony eeai aaeeiiee/iuie noaeueyie,
eeai noaeueyie n o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eiee/anoai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae a aia?eeaineeo noaeao ethauo
einoaioeee, a oii /enea e a oaaea?aeueiie nenoaia noaeia, ninoaaeyao i?e
?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaieiaiuo aeae 12 eee iaiueoa, ii ia iaiaa oanoe
i?enyaeiuo, i?e ?acae?aoaeuenoaa a?aaeaeaineeo aeae — /aua anaai oanoue,
anee noi?iiu ia iio?aaotho oaaee/aiey /enea i?enyaeiuo. A aieueoeinoaa
ooaoia aeey i?eciaiey iiaenoaeeiiai aeiiaiui o?aaoaony auianaiea
i?enyaeiuie aaeeiiaeaniiai aa?aeeeoa. Iacia/aiea iiaenoaeeiiio
iaeacaiey, eae i?aaeei, aoiaeeo a eiiiaoaioeeth oieueei noaeuee, iaeiaei
a iaeioi?uo ooaoao i?enyaeiua naiei aa?aeeeoii aeieaeiu ?aoaoue e
aii?inu iaeacaiey (i aeiionoeiinoe auianaiey nia?oiiai i?eaiai?a e
ae?.).

Iiieii iacaaiiuo caaiueaa iauae nenoaiu noaeia a eaaeaeii aia?eeaineii
ooaoa eiathony noaeu ia?aie/aiiie th?enaeeeoeee, eioi?ui aeiaa?yaony
?anniao?eaaoue aeaea i iaeicia/eoaeueiuo i?anooieaieyo, iaeacuaaaiuo
oo?aoaie eeai, eae i?aaeei, eeoue e?aoein?i/iui eeoaieai naiaiaeu, a
oaeaea a?aaeaeaineea aeaea n iaaieueoie noiiie enea, /aua anaai aei 1
000 aeieea?ia. Iie iinyo iacaaiey ioieoeeiaeueiuo ai?iaeneeo,
iieeoeaeneeo noaeia, eiiaaea — noaeia a?aonoa, noaeia iaueo nannee e
o.i. Aeaea a ieo neooatho iaaeno?aou eee ie?iaua noaeuee, ia
iaycaoaeueii iaeaaeathuea i?ioanneiiaeueiie th?eaee/aneie iiaeaioiaeie.

Ai iiiaeo ooaoao aeaenoaotho oaeaea noaeu niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee —
eeai naiinoiyoaeueii, eeai i?e ie?oaeiuo noaeao. Yoi noaeu ii iaeiaai,
ii caiaeueiui nii?ai, ii aeaeai i ianeaaeiaaiee, ii i?aoaiceyi e aeanoyi
ooaoia, noaeu, ?acae?athuea ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aeae i ia?ooaiee i?aaee
aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, e ae?. Aaaeiia ianoi n?aaee ieo caieiatho noaeu
ii aeaeai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, ia?aaeei iauaaeeiythuea a naaa e ooieoeee
naiaeiuo noaeia. Iie ?acae?atho aeaea i i?aaiia?ooaieyo
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo, i?eieiatho ia?u e ?iaeeoaeyi, ia caaioyueiny i naieo
aeaoyo, eiio?iee?otho oneiaey ainieoaiey a iaaeaaiiieo/iuo naiueyo,
iuoathony ?ac?aoaoue naiaeiua eiioeeeou e o.i.

A nenoaia aia?eeaineeo o/?aaeaeaiee ia o?iaia oaaea?aoeee e ooaoia
ionoonoaotho niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey, iineieueeo
yoe ooieoeee auiieiythony noaeaie iauae th?enaeeeoeee. Aa?oiaiue noae
NOA i?aoeaaeaioii 1803 a. aaae aeey naay, a oaeaea e aeey ae?oaeo
oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia eneeth/eoaeueiia ii naiae aaaeiinoe iieiiii/ea
oieeiaaoue iieiaeaiey Eiinoeoooeee NOA e iauyaeyoue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie
caeiiu, ecaeaiiua Eiia?annii NOA e eaaeneaoo?aie ooaoia, ethaua aeou
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ii iioeaai eo i?ioeai?a/ey Eiinoeoooeee.
Aa?oiaiue noae NOA, eae e ae?oaea oaaea?aeueiua noaeu, ai?aaa ii oai aea
iioeaai ioiaiyoue ?aoaiey ethauo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. A naith i/a?aaeue,
aa?oiaiua noaeu ooaoia naiui aeoeaiui ia?acii ?anniao?eaatho aeaea,
naycaiiua n oieeiaaieai eiinoeoooeee e caeiiia ooaoia. Noaeu iauae
th?enaeeeoeee a ooaoao oaeaea aunooiatho a ?iee i?aaiia
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey e aaeieieno?aoeaiie thnoeoeee, iineieueeo iie
ia?aaeei i?eieiatho e naiaio ?anniio?aieth aeaeiau ia aeaenoaey
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ii iioeaai
iai?aaeeueiiai i?eiaiaiey oaie caeiiia.

Iacia/aiey ia ana noaeaeneea aeieaeiinoe a oaaea?aeueiuo noaeao
i?iecaiaeyony i?aceaeaioii NOA n niaeaney Naiaoa, eioi?ue ai?aaa
ioaa?aiooue i?aaeeiaeaiioth i?aceaeaioii eaiaeeaeaoo?o. E eaiaeeaeaoai
ia aeieaeiinoe oaaea?aeueiuo noaeae i?aaeuyaeythony aunieea o?aaiaaiey
eae a i?ioanneiiaeueiii, oae e a yoe/aneii ieaia (aieueoie iiuo ?aaiou a
ea/anoaa aaeaieaoa, th?eneiinoeueoa eee oieaa?neoaoneiai i?ioanni?a,
aacoei?eciaiiay ?aiooaoeey e ae?.). Oaaea?aeueiua noaeuee iacia/athony
ia naie aeieaeiinoe iiaeeciaiii e iiaoo auoue niauaiu eeoue a
?acoeueoaoa neiaeiie i?ioeaaeo?u eiie/iaioa. Iaaeno?aou, ?aaioathuea i?e
ie?oaeiuo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeao, iacia/athony ia naie aeieaeiinoe noaeaie
ia ainueieeaoiee n?ie eeai ia /aou?a aiaea, anee iie eniieiytho naie
iaycaiiinoe ii niaianoeoaeuenoao. eiaeiie i?ioeaaeo?u eiie/iaioa.
Iaaeno?aou, ?aaioathuea i?e ie?oaeiuo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeao, iacia/athony
ia naie aeieaeiinoe noaeaie ia ainueieeaoiee n?ie eeai ia /aou?a aiaea,
anee iie eniieiytho naie iaycaiiinoe ii niaianoeoaeuenoao.

Iacia/aiea ia noaeaeneea aeieaeiinoe a noaeao ooaoia i?iecaiaeeony ii
aanueia ?acee/iui i?aaeeai. Noaeuee aa?oiaiuo noaeia e aiaeeyoeeiiiuo
einoaioeee a aieueoeinoaa ooaoia iacia/athony aoaa?iaoi?aie n niaeaney
Naiaoa eeai eiiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai i?aaia ooaoa ia n?ie 6—15 eao /aua
anaai n i?aaii iiaoi?iiai iacia/aiey. A oaeii aea ii?yaeea a iaeioi?uo
aia?eeaineeo ooaoao caieiatho naie aeieaeiinoe e noaeuee ieaeanoiyueo
noaeaaiuo einoaioeee. Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai noaeae a ooaoao auae?athony
ianaeaieai a oiaea ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee. Oaeay nenoaia i?e anae aa
aiaoiae aeaiie?aoe/iinoe aeaaii oaea noaea a NOA i?aaeiaoii e?eoeee, eai
ia ia?aue ieai caeanue ia?aaeei aunooiatho eioa?anu i?ioeaiai?noaothueo
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, noiyueo ca eaiaeeaeaoaie, a ia i?ioanneiiaeueiua e
ee/iua ea/anoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ai iiiaeo ooaoao ca iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey ana /aua ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua aa?eaiou nenoaiu caiyoey
aeieaeiinoae. A iniiaa yoeo aa?eaioia iau/ii eaaeeo oae iacuaaaiue
ienno?eeneee ieai (aia?aua aaaaeai a 1940 a. a ooaoa Ienno?e):
aoaa?iaoi? ooaoa iacia/aao ia aeieaeiinoue noaeuee iaeiiai ec o?ao
eaiaeeaeaoia, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aio niaoeeaeueiie eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie
eiienneae yenia?oia, a iinea aiaea aai i?aauaaiey a aeieaeiinoe
i?iaiaeyony auai?u, a oiaea eioi?uo ianaeaiea iiaeao eeai iaeia?eoue,
eeai ioiaieoue yoi iacia/aiea.

Aaaeiay ?ieue a nenoaia iacia/aiey noaeae, eae e a ?aoaiee iiiaeo
ae?oaeo aii?inia, a aieueoeinoaa ooaoia i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?acee/iui i?aaiai
noaeaaiiai naiioi?aaeaiey (noaeaeneee niaao ooaoa, noaeaeneea
eiioa?aioeee, a eioi?uo o/anoaotho ana noaeuee ooaoa, e ae?.).
Niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiu, iaaeaeaiiua aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie, nicaeaiu e
noaeueyie oaaea?aeueiie nenoaiu.

?anneaaeiaaiea ii oaieiaiui aeaeai i?iaiaeeony OA? e iiiaeanoaii ae?oaeo
oaaea?aeueiuo neoaea, a oaeaea iacaaeneiuie ae?oa io ae?oaa
iiiai/eneaiiuie iieeoeaeneeie o/?aaeaeaieyie, eioi?ua iiae/eiythony eeai
aeanoyi niioaaonoaothuaai ooaoa, eeai ianoiui aeanoyi a?aonoaa, ai?iaea
eee naeueneiai ioieoeeiaeeoaoa. Iie ai?aaa i?iecaiaeeoue a?anou,
aeii?aoeaaoue iiaeic?aaaaiuo, ?acuneeaaoue e niae?aoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa
i?anooieaiey. A?anou, iaunee e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey
i?iecaiaeyony iieeoeeae n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie eeai, a eneeth/eoaeueiuo
neo/ayo, iineaaeothuae naieoeee noaea.

A ?yaea neo/aaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anneaaeiaaiea i?iaiaeeony aiia?aoaie
eeai oaaea?aeueiiai aooi?iay (iie eiathony a eaaeaeii oaaea?aeueiii
noaeaaiii ie?oaa), eeai aaia?aeueiiai aooi?iay ooaoa, eeai, iaeiiaoe,
ianoiiai aooi?iay (a?aonoaa, ai?iaea e ae?.). Ana yoe aeieaeiinoiua
eeoea aeaenoaotho aaoiiiiii e ia iaoiaeyony a ioiioaieyo
niiiae/eiaiiinoe. Aieaa oiai, aeaaea oaaea?aeueiua ie?oaeiua aooi?iae a
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee ii eiie?aoiui aeaeai iieuecothony iieiie
iacaaeneiinoueth io aaia?aeueiiai aooi?iay NOA, aicaeaaeythuaai
aeaia?oaiaio (ieienoa?noai) thnoeoeee. Ii nouanoao, aooi?iayi anao
o?iaiae i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aoathuay ?ieue a aicaoaeaeaiee oaieiaiiai
i?aneaaeiaaiey e a ?aoaiee aii?ina i i?aaeaiee iaaeiyaiiai noaeo. A
aieueoeinoaa ooaoia nio?aiyaony oaeaea niaoeeaeueiue i?aai —aieueoia
aeth?e, ninoiyuaa ec 12—23 i?enyaeiuo, eioi?ua i?iaa?ytho, eiaaony ee o
iaaeiaiey aeinoaoi/ii aeieacaoaeuenoa aeey ia?aaea/e aeaea a noae (a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aieueoia aeth?e iiaeao aunooiaoue e a ea/anoaa i?aaia
?anneaaeiaaiey).

Aaaeiaeoay ooieoeey aooi?iaaa — iiaeaea?aeaiea iaaeiaiey a noaea. I?e
yoii ia noaaeee i?aaeaiey noaeo i?aaenoaaeoaee iaaeiaiey a iiaeaaeythuai
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auioaeaeatho iaaeiyaiiai caeeth/eoue oae
iacuaaaioth naeaeeo i i?eciaiee aeiu. Iia icia/aao iau/ii, /oi oio aeaao
niaeanea ia ?acae?aoaeuenoai aai aeaea aac o/anoey noaea i?enyaeiuo a
iaiai ia iaauaiea ia?aie/eoueny iaaeiaieai a iaiaa oyaeeii i?anooieaiee
(iai?eia?, a e?aaea aianoi ia?aaeaiey) eeai ia o?aaiaaoue auianaiey
nia?oiiai i?eaiai?a, eeoaiey naiaiaeu e o.i. Aooi?iae ai?aaa
iaaeaeiaaoue a auoanoiyuee noae i?eaiai?u ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, e?iia
ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo i?eaiai?ia, auianaiiuo noaeii i?enyaeiuo. Aooi?iae
aunooiatho oaeaea a noaeao ia?aie einoaioeee e i?e ?anniio?aiee
aiaeeyoeeiiiuo aeaeia ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, a eioi?uo yaeythony
noi?iiie NOA eeai a ?aoaiee eioi?uo eaeei-eeai ia?acii caeioa?aniaaiu
aia?eeaineia ainoaea?noai (oaaea?aeueiua aooi?iae) eee ioaeaeueiua
ooaou, a?aonoaa, ai?iaea e o.ae. (aooi?iae ooaoia eee niioaaonoaothueo
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe). Oaaea?aeueiua aooi?iae iacia/athony
i?aceaeaioii NOA n niaeaney Naiaoa. A aieueoeinoaa ooaoia e ia ianoiii
o?iaia aooi?iae auae?athony ianaeaieai e, eae i?aaeei, caieiatho naie
aeieaeiinoe aeaaiaea?y iiaeaea?aeea oie eee eiie iieeoe/aneie ia?oee.

Caueoo eioa?ania iaaeiyaiuo ii oaieiaiui aeaeai e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
eioa?ania noi?ii a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna inouanoaeytho aaeaieaou,
eioi?ua a NOA ia aeaeyony ia eaeea-eeai eaoaai?ee, ?acee/athueany ii
naiei i?aaiii/eyi, /oi ia eneeth/aao eo niaoeeaeecaoeee ii oai eee eiui
aii?inai, eae e ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe. Niaeanii ?aoaieyi Aa?oiaiiai
noaea NOA iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee, o?aeoothuei eiinoeoooeeiiiua
iieiaeaiey oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, i?eciaaony, /oi
iaaeiyaiue eiaao i?aai ia o/anoea naiaai caueoieea a aeaea n iiiaioa
caaea?aeaiey, a anee iaaeiyaiue ia a ninoiyiee iaiyoue aaeaieaoa, ii
eiaao i?aai ia aanieaoioth th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue ia anao aaaeiaeoeo
yoaiao ?anneaaeiaaiey e noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeaea, a oaeaea i?e
iaaeaeiaaiee i?eaiai?a. Ai iiiaeo ooaoao, iaeiaei, i?aaii ia aanieaoioth
th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue iieuecothony eeoue oa iaaeiyaiua, eioi?ui a?iceo
eeoaiea naiaiaeu eee nia?oiay eaciue, a naia yoa iiiiuue ia?aaeei
naiaeeony e i?enoonoaeth i?e aeii?ina e o/anoeth a aeaea ia/eiathuaai
eeai ia?aa?oaeaiiiai iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aeaeaie aaeaieaoa. Iiyoiio a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy a aieueoeinoaa ooaoia nicaeaiu ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu,
eioi?ua i?ecaaiu oeiaine?iaaoue aanieaoioth th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue,
ieacuaaaioth eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie aaeaieaoaie, a oii /enea e ii iaeioi?ui
eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeaineeo aeae, ca n/ao athaeaeaoia ooaoa eee ianoiuo
aeanoae. Aaeaieaou ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, a /anoiinoe ia
iaycaoaeuenoaao ec i?e/eiaiey a?aaea, ia?aaeei o/anoaotho a i?ioeanna ia
oneiaeyo, /oi a neo/aa auea?uoa aeaea eeeaio onooieo aio io 30 aei 50%
iieo/aiiie ei noiiu aiciauaiey.

Aeey iieo/aiey i?aaa ia caiyoea aaeaieaoneie i?aeoeeie a aieueoeinoaa
ooaoia iaiaoiaeeii naeaoue yecaiaiu, i?aaiecoaiua noaeaie. Ai iiiaeo
ooaoao (ii ia ai anao) aeey aeiionea e oaeiio yecaiaio o?aaoaony aeeieii
i aunoai th?eaee/aneii ia?aciaaiee. Eeoei, aeiiouaiiia iinea yecaiaiia e
aaeaieaoneie i?aeoeea, iieo/aao i?aai aunooiaoue ai anao noaeao aeaiiiai
ooaoa. Aeey aunooieaiey a noaeao ae?oaiai ooaoa io aaeaieaoa o?aaoaony
eeai naea/a iiaiai yecaiaia, eeai eeoue iieo/aiea niioaaonoaothuaai
?ac?aoaiey. Iineaaeiaa i?aaeei ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia oaaea?aeueiua
noaeu.

Aia?eeaineea aaeaieaou aeaenoaotho eeai a ninoaaa aaeaieaoneeo eiioi?,
eeai naiinoiyoaeueii. Aaeaieaou, th?enou, ?aaioathuea a ei?ii?aoeeyo, e
ainoaea?noaaiiua aooi?iae iauaaeeiaiu a annioeeaoeee th?enoia ooaoa
(/eainoai a oaeie annioeeaoeee a iaeioi?uo ooaoao yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui
oneiaeai aeey caiyoey niioaaonoaothuae i?aeoeeie). A ianooaaao anae
no?aiu aeayoaeueiinoue yoeo iauaaeeiaiee eii?aeeie?oaony e iai?aaeyaony
Aia?eeaineie annioeeaoeeae th?enoia, ian/eouaathuae ieiei 400 oun.
/eaiia e i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie aanueia aeeyoaeueioth iieeoe/aneoth
neeo. Yoa annioeeaoeey ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeannao naeeaeaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ooaoia, iia ia?aaeei i?aaeeaaaao eciaiaiey a
oaaea?aeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, caieiaaony aii?inaie i?ioanneiiaeueiie
yoeee e ae?.

Aa?oiaiue noae e noaeaaiay nenoaia. A noaouea III eiinoeoooeee caienaii:
“Noaeaaiay aeanoue Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia inouanoaeyaony Aa?oiaiui noaeii e
oaie iecoeie noaeaie, eioi?ua aoaeoo a?aiy io a?aiaie o/?aaeaeaoueny
Eiia?annii” (?acae. 1).

*eaiu Aa?oiaiiai noaea e ae?oaea oaaea?aeueiua noaeuee iacia/athony
i?aceaeaioii NOA (“ii niaaoo e n niaeaney naiaoa e i?aauaatho a
aeieaeiinoe “iiea aaaeoo naay aacoi?a/ii” e eo aeaeiaaiuea “ia iiaeao
auoue oiaiueoaii ai a?aiy eo i?aauaae a aeieaeiinoe” (no. III ?acae. 1).
Oeacaiiua eiinoeoooeeiiiua iieiaeaiey i?ecaaiu iaania/eoue
iacaaeneiinoue noaeae. Oi?ioee?iaea “iiea aaaeoo naay aacoi?a/ii”
i?aeoe/anee iaania/eaaao noaeueyi iiaeeciaiiia i?aauaaiea a aeieaeiinoe.
*eaiu Aa?oiaiiai noaea e ae?oaea oaaea?aeueiua noaeuee iiaoo auoue
niauaiu aeieaeiinoe oieueei a ii?yaeea eiie/iaioa.

Ai aeaaa oaaea?aeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu iinoaaeai Aa?oiaiue noae NOA.
Ii ninoieo ec 9 /eaiia. A ea/anoaa noaea ia?aie einoaioeee Aa?oiaiue
noae aunooiaao “ii anai aeaeai, eanathueiny iineia, ae?oaeo
ioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae e eiinoeia, a oaeaea ii oai, a eioi?uo
ooao yaeyaony noi?iiie” (?acae. 2 no. III). A iniiaiii aea ii auiieiyao
aiaeeyoeeiiioth th?enaeeeoeeth. Iaeiaei, iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue
Aa?oiaiue noae NOA i?eia?ae, auiieiyy ooieoeeth eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
eiio?iey, o.a. inouanoaeyy noaeaaiue iaaeci? ca niioaaonoaeai caeiiia e
eiuo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo aeoia iniiaiiio caeiio no?aiu. Oeacaiiua
iieiiii/ey noaeia eiinoeoooeey i?yii ia cae?aieyao. Iie ioi?ieeenue ia
iniiaaiee noaeaaiiai oieeiaaiey eiinoeoooeee. Aeaiiue noaeaaiue
i?aoeaaeaio iiyaeeny aia?aua a 1803 a. Ii eiie?aoiiio noaeaaiiio aeaeo
Aa?oiaiue noae auian ?aoaiea, a eioi?ii iainiiaae neaaeothuea
iieiaeaiey: ai-ia?auo, eiinoeoooeey anoue caeii, iiaeeaaeauee noaeaaiiio
oieeiaaieth, eae e ethaie ae?oaie caeii; ai-aoi?uo, noaeu ai?aaa
oieeiaaoue eiinoeoooeeth aeey oiai, /oiau ?aoaoue aeaea a niioaaonoaee n
iae; a-o?aoueeo, a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo
eiinoeoooeeae e caeiiii, noaeu iaycaiu i?eiaiyoue eiinoeoooeeth eae
“aunoee caeii” no?aiu eee oa caeiiu, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho ae. Aeaiiue
noaeaaiue i?aoeaaeaio noae i?aaiaie iniiaie aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey a NOA.

Niaea?aeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey a NOA aeeth/aao neaaeothuea
i?aaiii/ey noaeia: aeanoiia oieeiaaiea eiinoeoooeee, i?iaa?ea
eiinoeoooeeiiiinoe caeiiia Eiia?anna e eaaeneaoo? ooaoia,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo aeoia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a oaeaea onoaiiaeaiea
ii?i i?aaa a oi?ia noaeaaiuo i?aoeaaeaioia. Oieeoy e aeiiieiyy ii naiaio
oniio?aieth th?eaee/aneoth eiinoeoooeeth 1787 a., Aa?oiaiue noae
nicaeaao iiaua i?aaiaua Onoaiiaeaiey a oaeoe/aneii iniiaiii caeiia
no?aiu. E?ueaoua neiaa auaoaai aeaaiiai noaeuee *.Ouethca: “Eiinoeoooeey
— yoi oi, /oi aiai?yo i iae noaeuee”, — iieiinoueth iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
aaeiaie i?aeoeeie Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA.

Iniaaiiinoyie eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey a NOA yaeythony: ai-ia?auo,
aii?in i iaeiinoeoooeeiiiinoe caeiia eee ae?oaiai aeoa aicieeaao, eiaaea
yoe aeou oaea iioaeeeiaaiu e anooieee a neeo. Ai-aoi?uo, Aa?oiaiue noae
?anniao?eaaao aii?in i eiinoeoooeeiiiinoe aeoa ia aiiaua, ia a
naiinoiyoaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a eeoue a nayce ni neooaieai eaeiai-eeai
noaeaaiiai aeaea, ?aoay oaeei ia?acii “noaeueao caeiia ia iniiaa aeaea”.
A-o?aoueeo, a neo/aa, anee aeo aoaeao i?eciai iaeiinoeoooeeiiiui, oi ii
oa?yao th?eaee/aneoth neeo. Ca 190 eao Aa?oiaiue noae NOA i?eciae
iaeiinoeoooeeiiiuie aieaa 122 iieiaeaiee oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia
(iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii). Eiinoeoooeeiiiue eiio?ieue a NOA ii?iaeaeai
i?eioeeiii “aa?oiaainoaa i?aaa” e neoaeeo ?aaeecaoeee nenoaiu “naea?aeae
e i?ioeaiaania” a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia no?aiu.

Aa?oiaiue noae NOA noieo ai aeaaa anae noaeaaiie nenoaiu no?aiu. Caeii i
noaeiono?ienoaa 1789 a. onoaiiaee o?aocaaiioth oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth
nenoaio: Aa?oiaiue noae, aiaeeyoeeiiiua e ie?oaeiua noaeu.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu (94) — ?anniao?eaatho aeaea iauae th?enaeeeoeee ia
iniiaa oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia ii ia?aie einoaioeee. A ie?oaa nouanoaotho
oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua noaeu: iaeiaiaue, oaiiaeaiiue, i?aoaiceiiiue (ii
eneai e i?aaeoaeuenoao).

Aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu (12) ?anniao?eaatho aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey ie?oaeiuo
noaeia, a oaeaea ia ?aoaiey iaeiaiauo e i?aoaiceiiiuo noaeia. Ii
oaiiaeaiiui aeaeai eiaaony niaoeeaeueiue aiaeeyoeeiiiue noae.
Ioaeaeueioth nenoaio ia?acotho aiaiiua noaeu.

Ia?yaeo n oaaea?aeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiie a eaaeaeii ooaoa nouanoaotho
naie noaeu. Iie ooieoeeiie?otho ia?aeeaeueii, /oi neaaeoao ec nenoaiu
aia?eeaineiai oaaea?aeecia.

Noaeaaiua nenoaiu a ooaoao aanueia ?aciiia?aciu. “Iao aeaoo ooaoia n
iaeeiaeiaui noaeiono?ienoaii, eaaeaeue ooao a yoii ioiioaiee oieeaeai”.
Aaeeinoaaiii iauaa: a eaaeaeii ooaoa ai aeaaa noaeaaiie nenoaiu noieo
Aa?oiaiue noae ooaoa. Iaeaieaa i?inoay noaeaaiay nenoaia neiaeeeanue a
ooaoa Caiaaeiay Ae?aeiey: iieeoeaeneea noaeu, ie?oaeiua noaeu e
Aa?oiaiue noae ooaoa. Ana noaeuee ecae?athony ianaeaieai ii ia?oeeiui
nieneai. Niiniau oi?ie?iaaiey noaeia a ooaoao ?aciiia?aciu: ecae?athony
ianaeaieai eee eaaeneaoo?ie ooaoia; iacia/athony aoaa?iaoi?aie
naiinoiyoaeueii eee n niaeaney naiaoia eee niaoeeaeueiuo eiiennee,
ioieoeeiaeueiuie aeanoyie, iy?aie, i?aaenaaeaoaeyie auoanoiyueo noaeia.

Noaeaaiay aeanoue

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth noaeiono?ienoaa a NOA yaeyaony ionoonoaea
aaeeiie, iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu; nouanoaotho
i?aaiecaoeeiiii iainiaeaiiua, ia?aeeaeueiua noaeaaiua nenoaiu a eaaeaeii
ec ooaoia e oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay nenoaia.

Niaeanii noaouea 3 eiinoeoooeee, noaeaaiay aeanoue Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia
i?aaeinoaaeyaony Aa?oiaiiio noaeo NOA e ieaeanoiyuei oaaea?aeueiui
noaeai, o/?aaeaeaaiui eiia?annii.

Noaeiono?ienoai ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia

Oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth nenoaio ia?acotho 4 a?oiiu noaeia – ie?oaeiua,
niaoeeaeueiua, aiaeeyoeeiiiua e niaoeeaeueiua aiaeeyoeeiiiua – ai aeaaa
n Aa?oiaiui noaeii.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu NOA – oaaea?aeueiua noaeu iauae th?enaeeeoeee; iie ii
ia?aie einoaioeee ?anniao?eaatho ana aeaea, iniiaaiiua ia oaaea?aeueiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Niaoeeaeueiua noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee –
i?aoaiceiiiue noae NOA (?anniao?eaaao aeaiaaeii-eiouanoaaiiua i?aoaicee
a?aaeaeai e i?aaeoaeuenoao NOA), noae NOA ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee
(?anniao?eaaao nii?u, aicieeoea ia iniiaa oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia ia
eiii?oiuo oi?aiauo iia?aoeeyo e oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee), iaeiaiaue noae NOA
(?ac?aoaao eiioeeeou, aicieeathuea a nayce n ?aoaieyie oaaea?aeueiuo
iaeiaiauo aaaeiinoa). E niaoeeaeueiui aiaeeyoeeiiiui noaeai ioiinyony
aiiaeyoeeiiiue noae NOA ii oaaea?aeueiiio ie?oao (?anniao?eaaao aeaeiau
ia ?aoaiey i?aoaiceiiiiai noaea, noaea ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee e ia
?aoaiey iaeioi?uo oaaea?aeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaaeiinoa) e a?aiaiiue
/?acau/aeiue aiaeeyoeeiiiue noae; ?aoaiey yoeo aeaoo noaeia iaaeaeothony
a Aa?oiaiue noae. Aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
i?iiaaeooi/ioth aiaeeyoeeiiioth einoaioeeth iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie
noaeaie ia?aie einoaioeee e Aa?oiaiui noaeii. Aicaeaaeyao oaaea?aeueioth
noaeaaioth nenoaio Aa?oiaiue noae NOA – aunoee i?aai a oaaea?aeueiie
noaeaaiie ea?a?oee, eiia/iay aiaeeyoeeiiiay einoaioeey. A NOA nouanoaoao
aaoiiiiiay nenoaia aiaiiuo noaeia. Ei iiaenoaeiu /enoi aieineea
i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea ana eiua oaieiaiua i?aaiia?ooaiey, niaa?oaiiua
aiaiiineoaeaueie ai a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey eie aeaenoaeoaeueiie aiaiiie
neoaeau e eneeth/eoaeueii i?e eniieiaiee neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae.

Noaeiono?ienoai a ooaoao

Eaaeaeue ooao a i?aaeaeao naieo a?aieoe iiaeao o/?aaeaeaoue noaeaaiua
i?aaiu, eaeea ni/oao ioaeiui, iaeiaei nouanoaotho oeie/iua /a?ou
noaeiono?ienoaa, iauea aeey anao ooaoia. Oae, a ooaoao eiathony 3 a?oiiu
noaeia: ia?aie/aiiie e niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee, iauae th?enaeeeoeee,
aiaeeyoeeiiiie th?enaeeeoeee. Ia?aua aeaa a?oiiu – ianoiua noaeu ia?aie
einoaioeee, ?anniao?eaathuea aeaea ii nouanoao. O?aouey a?oiia
iauaaeeiyao i?iiaaeooi/iua aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu e aa?oiaiua noaeu
ooaoia.

Noae i?enyaeiuo a NOA

Ethaie a?aaeaeaiei NOA e aeaaea eiino?aiaoe iiaeao iieo/eoue iiaanoeo, a
eioi?ie cia/eoueny, /oi eiiiuethoa? i?iecaieueii aua?ae aai oaieeeth ec
o?aiyueony a o?ainii?oiii oi?aaeaiee ai?iaea ?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo nieneia
iueth-ei?eneeo aiaeeoaeae. E i?aaeeaaaaony eniieieoue a?aaeaeaineee
aeiea: noaoue eaiaeeaeaoii a i?enyaeiua ia aanue n?ie iieiiii/ee oieueei
/oi eca?aiiiai noaea.

E naio i?eeaaaeanue iaaieueoay, ii aeiaieueii iiae?iaiay aieaoa. Iau/iua
aeaiiua — i?eaeaeaeny ee e noaeo, eiee/anoai aeaoae, aae?ana aeaiu e
iineaaeiaai iaieiaoaey, yaeythnue ee a?aaeaeaieiii. NOA. Caeanue aea
nienie caiyoee e i?ioannee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a
ninoaaa i?enyaeiuo: aiaiiineoaeauea, auai?iua aeieaeiinoiua eeoea ia
anao o?iaiyo — io oaaea?aeueiiai aei naeueneiai, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
eniieieoaeueiuo aaaeiinoa anao ?aiaia. Caoai ia iaiaa i?ino?aiiue nienie
i?ioannee, aeathueo iniiaaiea ioeacaoueny io auiieiaiey iaycaiiinoae
i?enyaeiiai. Yoi neoaeeoaee eoeueoa, aaeaieaou, iieeoeaeneea, a?aaeaeaia
noa?oa 70 eao, iiaea?iua e iaoa?e, eiathuea aeaoae aei 16 eao.

Ioaa/aoue ia aieaoo iieiaeaii anai, eia/a a?aaeaeaieio eee a?aaeaeaiea,
eae iaaeaoniuneaiii neaaeoao ec i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aoiaa, iiaeao a?iceoue
i?eaea/aiea e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaoaaaeaiea e noaeo.

Eaeay noaea i?enyaeiuo ia aia?eeaineay. Iia ca?iaeeeanue a
n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aiaeee, ioeoaea ia?aei/aaaea iioii a noaeaaiua oeiaeaiey
aeanyoeia ainoaea?noa, a oii /enea e a ?inneth iinea ?aoi?i Aeaenaiae?a
II. A Aia?eea nouanoaotho aeaa aeaea noaea i?enyaeiuo: aieueoia e iaeia
aeth?e. Ia?aia, ninoiyuaa ec 23 /aeiaae, caieiaaony eco/aieai
aeinoaoi/iinoe iniiaaiee aeey i?eaea/aiey /aeiaaea e noaeo (eae i?aaeei,
ii eaoaai?ee oae iacuaaaiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaiee). Caaea/a
aoi?iai aeth?e— ii?aaeaeeoue aeio iiaenoaeeiiai oaea a oiaea noaeaaiiai
i?ioeanna. Eiie?aoioth aea ia?o iaeacaiey ii?aaeaeyao noaeuey a oiaea
ioaeaeueiiai noaeaaiiai canaaeaiey.

I?enyaeiui cai?auaaony iauaoueny n i?annie a oa/aiea noaeaaiiai
i?ioeanna. Iie iaycaiu aea?aeaoue a oaeia ana ia?eiaoee aeaea, eioi?ia
iie ?anniao?eaatho. *eaiai aieueoiai aeth?e aeaii i?aai naiei
ii?aoeaaoue naeaeaoaeae e i?eaeaeaoue iiauo naeaeaoaeae, anee iie ni/ooo
yoi iaiaoiaeeiui. Eaeiai aeeyiea noaea i?enyaeiuo a aia?eeaineie
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea? Ai?acaei iaiueoay aa?iyoiinoue ioeaie a ii?aaeaeaiee
aeiu iiaenoaeeiiai, oioy e caeanue iie ia eneeth/athony iieiinoueth.
Noae i?enyaeiuo ea/anoaaiii iaiyao oa?aeoa? noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna, ?acei
iiauoay aai ninoycaoaeueiinoue, ii nouanoao i?aa?auay aai a ni?aaiiaaiea
iaaeaeo iaaeiaieai e caueoie.

Aaconeiaii, anoue e ecaea?aeee. Aeieaia?aiaiiay i?ioeaaeo?a ioai?a
i?enyaeiuo, i?aai ioaiaea /anoe eo iaaeiaieai eee caueoie caoyaeaatho
ioi?aaeaiea i?aainoaeey. Ii a oeaeii iethnu, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony, yaii
ia?aaaoeaatho ieionu. Noae i?enyaeiuo— yoi, aaconeiaii, i?eciae
aeaiie?aoe/iinoe noaea, aa?aioey io noaeaaiiai i?iecaiea, iiaeoaniaee
neaaenoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iiyoiio io iaai i?aainoaeea oieueei
auea?uaaao.

Noaeaaiay aeanoue

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth noaeiono?ienoaa a NOA yaeyaony ionoonoaea
aaeeiie, iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu; nouanoaotho
i?aaiecaoeeiiii iainiaeaiiua, ia?aeeaeueiua noaeaaiua nenoaiu a eaaeaeii
ec ooaoia e oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay nenoaia.

Niaeanii noaouea 3 eiinoeoooeee, noaeaaiay aeanoue Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia
i?aaeinoaaeyaony Aa?oiaiiio noaeo NOA e ieaeanoiyuei oaaea?aeueiui
noaeai, o/?aaeaeaaiui eiia?annii.

Noaeiono?ienoai ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia

Oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth nenoaio ia?acotho 4 a?oiiu noaeia – ie?oaeiua,
niaoeeaeueiua, aiaeeyoeeiiiua e niaoeeaeueiua aiaeeyoeeiiiua – ai aeaaa
n Aa?oiaiui noaeii.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu NOA – oaaea?aeueiua noaeu iauae th?enaeeeoeee; iie ii
ia?aie einoaioeee ?anniao?eaatho ana aeaea, iniiaaiiua ia oaaea?aeueiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Niaoeeaeueiua noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee –
i?aoaiceiiiue noae NOA (?anniao?eaaao aeaiaaeii-eiouanoaaiiua i?aoaicee
a?aaeaeai e i?aaeoaeuenoao NOA), noae NOA ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee
(?anniao?eaaao nii?u, aicieeoea ia iniiaa oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia ia
eiii?oiuo oi?aiauo iia?aoeeyo e oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee), iaeiaiaue noae NOA
(?ac?aoaao eiioeeeou, aicieeathuea a nayce n ?aoaieyie oaaea?aeueiuo
iaeiaiauo aaaeiinoa). E niaoeeaeueiui aiaeeyoeeiiiui noaeai ioiinyony
aiiaeyoeeiiiue noae NOA ii oaaea?aeueiiio ie?oao (?anniao?eaaao aeaeiau
ia ?aoaiey i?aoaiceiiiiai noaea, noaea ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee e ia
?aoaiey iaeioi?uo oaaea?aeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaaeiinoa) e a?aiaiiue
/?acau/aeiue aiaeeyoeeiiiue noae; ?aoaiey yoeo aeaoo noaeia iaaeaeothony
a Aa?oiaiue noae. Aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
i?iiaaeooi/ioth aiaeeyoeeiiioth einoaioeeth iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie
noaeaie ia?aie einoaioeee e Aa?oiaiui noaeii. Aicaeaaeyao oaaea?aeueioth
noaeaaioth nenoaio Aa?oiaiue noae NOA – aunoee i?aai a oaaea?aeueiie
noaeaaiie ea?a?oee, eiia/iay aiaeeyoeeiiiay einoaioeey. A NOA nouanoaoao
aaoiiiiiay nenoaia aiaiiuo noaeia. Ei iiaenoaeiu /enoi aieineea
i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea ana eiua oaieiaiua i?aaiia?ooaiey, niaa?oaiiua
aiaiiineoaeaueie ai a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey eie aeaenoaeoaeueiie aiaiiie
neoaeau e eneeth/eoaeueii i?e eniieiaiee neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae.
Eaaeaeue ooao a i?aaeaeao naieo a?aieoe iiaeao o/?aaeaeaoue noaeaaiua
i?aaiu, eaeea ni/oao ioaeiui, iaeiaei nouanoaotho oeie/iua /a?ou
noaeiono?ienoaa, iauea aeey anao ooaoia. Oae, a ooaoao eiathony 3 a?oiiu
noaeia: ia?aie/aiiie e niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee, iauae th?enaeeeoeee,
aiaeeyoeeiiiie th?enaeeeoeee. Ia?aua aeaa a?oiiu – ianoiua noaeu ia?aie
einoaioeee, ?anniao?eaathuea aeaea ii nouanoao. O?aouey a?oiia
iauaaeeiyao i?iiaaeooi/iua aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu e aa?oiaiua noaeu
ooaoia.

AA?IAIEss

Oaieiaiue eiaeaen Aa?iaiee

Anei?a iinea ecaeaiey Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena 1871 a. a Aa?iaineie eiia?ee
auee i?eiyou Caeii i noaeiono?ienoaa 1877 a. e Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiue
eiaeaen (oeiaeaiea) 1877 a. Iaa yoe aeoa n/eoathony aeaenoaothueie e
iiiuia, oioy e a iaiiaeaiiuo ?aaeaeoeeyo, nio?aiythueo eo iauoth
no?oeoo?o e oi?ioee?iaee ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee. Caeii i
noaeiono?ienoaa, a eioi?ue iaeaieaa aaaeiua eciaiaiey iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie auee aianaiu a 1975 a., ?ani?aaeaeyao eiiiaoaioeeth iaaeaeo
noaeaie ?acee/iuo nenoai, ii?aaeaeyao th?enaeeeoeeth noaeia iauae
eiiiaoaioeee niioaaonoaothueo einoaioeee, ?aaoee?oao i?aaiecaoeeth eo
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeea niaauaiey e aieiniaaiey noaeae e ae?oaea
aii?inu. OIE 1877 a., iiaeaioiaeaiiue a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iiae aeeyieai
o?aioeocneiai OIE 1808 a., i?aaeoniao?eaae aani?aaiia iieiaeaiea
iiaeic?aaaaiiai a oiaea aeiciaiey, i?iaiaeeiiai iieeoeeae, ii
i?aaeinoaaeye iaaeiyaiiio iaeioi?ua i?aaa, a oii /enea o/anoea
caueoieea, ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii neaaenoaee, i?iaiaeeiii i?ieo?aoo?ie, a
oaeaea ninoycaoaeueioth oi?io noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai cia/eoaeueiuo aeene?aoeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaio. A ia?eiae oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u a Caeii i
noaeiono?ienoaa e OIE 1877 a. auee aianaiu eciaiaiey, ioiaiyaoea
aieueoeinoai i?ioeannoaeueiuo aa?aioee aeey iaaeiyaiiai, ii nouanoao,
ii?aaaeuaaaoea i?iecaie noaeae e o/?aaeaeaaoea niaoeeaeueiua noaeu aeey
?ani?aau iaae i?ioeaieeaie iaoeenoneiai ?aaeeia (Aa?oiaiue ia?iaeiue
noae, iniaua noaeu iecoaai o?iaiy e ae?.).

Iinea naa?aeaiey oaoecia ii ?aoaieth Eiio?ieueiiai Niaaoa ia anae
oa??eoi?ee ieeoiaoeeiiiuo cii noaee aeaenoaiaaoue Caeii i
noaeiono?ienoaa e OIE a ?aaeaeoeee 1924 a. N iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey O?A a
OIE auei aianaii cia/eoaeueiia /enei eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee, iaeioi?ua
ec eioi?uo eiaee aeaiie?aoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue, a /anoiinoe Caeii i
iaeie ?aoi?ia oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna 1964 a.: ii ?anoe?ye i?aaa
iaaeiyaiiai ia caueoo. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a
oeaeyo ai?ueau n oa??i?enoaie e ae?oaeie iianiuie i?anooiieeaie
ia?aie/eaaee i?ioeannoaeueiua i?aaa iaaeiyaiuo. Ca iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey auei ecaeaii ianeieueei ?aaeaeoeee OIE 1877 a. — a 1950 a.,
1964 a., 1975 a. Iaeiiaoe, a 1987 a. ia?yaeo n iiaie ?aaeaeoeeae OE auea
iioaeeeiaaia e iiaay, iuia aeaenoaothuay ?aaeaeoeey
Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai eiaeaena, ana aua iacuaathuaainy OIE 1877 a.
Nouanoaaiiua ei??aeoeau a oaeno OIE aianaiu Caeiiii i ai?ueaa n
iaeaaaeueiie oi?aiaeae ia?eioeeaie e ae?oaeie i?iyaeaieyie
i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoe 1992 a.

A?aaeaeaineee i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen, i?eiyoue iaeiia?aiaiii n
iacaaiiuie auoa Caeiiii i noaeiono?ienoaa e OIE a 1877 a., iiaeaa?aaeny
ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoei eciaiaieyi,
naycaiiui, aeaaiui ia?acii, n ecaeaieai Aa?iaineiai a?aaeaeaineiai
oeiaeaiey 1896 a. e Aa?iaineiai oi?aiaiai oeiaeaiey 1897 a. e n
?aoi?iaie a noaeiono?ienoaa. A 1950 a. auea iioaeeeiaaia iiaay
?aaeaeoeey AIE, o/eouaathuay i?aaeoanoaothuea eciaiaiey.

Noaeaaiay nenoaia Aa?iaiee

Eiinoeoooeey O?A ?acee/aao iyoue iniiaiuo iaeanoae thnoeoeee (iauay,
o?oaeiaay, nioeeaeueiay, oeiainiaay e aaeieieno?aoeaiay) e o/?aaeaeaao
niioaaonoaothuea ei iyoue nenoai noaeia, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
aicaeaaeyaony nianoaaiiui aunoei noaeaaiui i?aaiii. I?e yoii iauei
noaeai iiaenoaeiu ana a?aaeaeaineea e oaieiaiua aeaea, eioi?ua ia
ioianaiu e eiiiaoaioeee i?aaiia aaeieieno?aoeaiie thnoeoeee e eiuo
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo noaeia. Aeayoaeueiinoue iaueo noaeia
?aaeaiaioe?oaony Caeiiii i noaeiono?ienoaa, niioaaonoaothueie caeiiaie e
iieiaeaieyie i ieo.

Aa?oiaiue oaaea?aeueiue noae aicaeaaeyao nenoaio iaueo noaeia. Ii
iaoiaeeony a a. Ea?en?oy e ninoieo ec i?aaenaaeaoaey noaea,
i?aaenaaeaoaeae naiaoia e /eaiia noaea. A Aa?oiaiii oaaea?aeueiii noaea
eiathony oaeaea noaeaaiua neaaeiaaoaee, eioi?ua caieiathony iiaeaioiaeie
e neooaieth iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee oaieiaiuo aeae, i?eaiai?u ii eiei
iaaeaeiaaiu a yoio noae. A ninoaa Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea
aoiaeyo II naiaoia ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, iyoue naiaoia ii oaieiaiui
aeaeai e naiue naiaoia aeey ?anniio?aiey niaoeeaeueiuo aii?inia (ii
aeaeai ea?oaeae, ii aeaeai aaeaieaoia, iioa?eonia e ae?.).

A eiiiaoaioeeth Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea ii oaieiaiui aeaeai
aoiaeeo ?anniio?aiea eannaoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia i?eaiai?u aunoeo noaeia
caiaeue, auianaiiua eie i?e ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeaea ii ia?aie einoaioeee,
a oaeaea ia i?eaiai?u noaeia i?enyaeiuo e aieueoeo iaeao noaeia caiee,
anee iie ia iiaeeaaeao eannaoeeiiiiio iaaeaeiaaieth a aunoee noae caiee.
Aa?oiaiue oaaea?aeueiue noae iiaeao ia?aniio?aoue aeaei e ii aiiaue
ioe?uaoeiny ianoiyoaeuenoaai a neo/aa auianaiey eae iaaeieoaeueiiai, oae
e ii?aaaeaoaeueiiai i?eaiai?a. N 1969 a. a eiiiaoaioeeth Aa?oiaiiai
oaaea?aeueiiai noaea ia aoiaeeo ?acae?aoaeuenoai oaieiaiuo aeae ii
ia?aie einoaioeee.

A eiiiaoaioeeth Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai
aoiaeeo ?anniio?aiea eannaoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia ?aoaiey, auianaiiua aunoeie
noaeaie caiee. I?e yoii Aa?oiaiue oaaea?aeueiue noae i?eieiaao e
?anniio?aieth aeaeiau n noiiie enea aei 40 000 ia?ie n ?ac?aoaiey
aunoaai noaea caiee, a ia aieueooth noiio — n ?ac?aoaiey naiiai
Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea.

Iiae eannaoeeiiiui iaaeaeiaaieai (iii iacuaaaony ?aaeceae) a O?A
iiieiaaony iaaeaeiaaiea i?eaiai?a eee ?aoaiey noaea ii iioeaai ia?ooaiey
caeiia eee iai?aaeeueiiai aai i?eiaiaiey, ii ia ii iioeaai niioaaonoaey
i?eaiai?a oaeoe/aneei ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea. Eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau
?anniao?eaathony naiaoaie Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea a ninoaaa iyoe
/eaiia yoiai noaea ai aeaaa n i?aaenaaeaoaeai naiaoa (iaeioi?ua aii?inu
iiaoo ?ac?aoaoueny eieeaaeyie ec o?ao noaeae eeai /eaiaie Aa?oiaiiai
oaaea?aeueiiai noaea aaeeiiee/ii). Naiao iiaeao ioeeiieoue
eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao eeai i?eciaoue aa iainiiaaiiie, e a yoii neo/aa
ii ai?aaa eae ii?o/eoue ieaeanoiyuaio noaeo aiiaue ?anniio?aoue aeaei,
oae e auianoe ii iaio nianoaaiiue i?eaiai? eee ?aoaiea.

A Aa?oiaiii oaaea?aeueiii noaea ia?acothony aieueoea naiaou
niioaaonoaaiii ii a?aaeaeaineei e ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, eioi?ua auiinyo
?aoaiey ii aii?inai, eiathuei i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea aeey
niioaaonoaothuae io?anee i?aaa. A aieueoea naiaou aoiaeyo
i?aaenaaeaoaeue Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea (ii
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao a iaieo naiaoao) e ii ainaiue /eaiia noaea,
iacia/aiiuo i?aaenaaeaoaeai ia aeaooeaoiee n?ie. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ono?aieoue ?anoiaeaeaiey a iiceoeeyo naiaoia ii a?aaeaeaineei e ii
oaieiaiui aeaeai nicuaaaony iauaaeeiaiiue aieueoie naiao, eioi?ue
ninoieo ec i?aaenaaeaoaey Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea e anao /eaiia
aieueoeo naiaoia.

Ec anao iaueo noaeia oieueei Aa?oiaiue oaaea?aeueiue noae yaeyaony
iauaoaaea?aeueiui o/?aaeaeaieai, a ana ieaeanoiyuea ii ioiioaieth e iaio
noaeu yaeythony noaeaie niioaaonoaothuae caiee. A no?oeoo?a e
eiiiaoaioeee iaueo noaeia ioaeaeueiuo caiaeue eiathony ecaanoiua
?acee/ey, ii ia i/aiue nouanoaaiiua.

Aunoea noaeu caiee aunooiatho a ea/anoaa aiaeeyoeeiiiuo e eannaoeeiiiuo
einoaioeee e eae noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee. Iie ia?aciaaiu ai anao caieyo,
aoiaeyueo a O?A, a eiee/anoaa io iaeiiai aei /aou?ao. (A Aaaa?ee,
e?oiiaeoae ec ieo, eiaaony o?e aunoeo noaea caiee e Aaaa?neee aa?oiaiue
noae a Ithioaia, eioi?ue ia?yaeo n iieiiii/eyie iaeiiai ec aunoeo noaeia
caiee inouanoaeyao ii iaeioi?ui eaoaai?eyi a?aaeaeaineeo e oaieiaiuo
aeae ooieoeee Aa?oiaiiai oaaea?aeueiiai noaea eae eannaoeeiiiie
einoaioeee aeey aaaa?neeo noaeia.) Anaai a O?A e 1990 a. ian/eouaaeinue
18 aunoeo noaeia caiee e iaeei oaeie noae a Aa?eeia, aaea ii eiaioaony
eaiia?aa?eooii (noaeaaiie iaeaoie).

A ninoaaa eaaeaeiai aunoaai noaea caiee, aicaeaaeyaiiai aai
i?aaenaaeaoaeai, ia?acoaony iaiaoiaeeiia /enei naiaoia ii a?aaeaeaineei
e oaieiaiui aeaeai ai aeaaa n eo i?aaenaaeaoaeyie. A ea/anoaa noaea
ia?aie einoaioeee oaieiaiue naiao a ninoaaa iyoe i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
noaeae — /eaiia aunoaai noaea caiee — ?anniao?eaaao aeaea i
ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia, oieiiaaea, oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoao e i?. eeai
aeaea i i?anooieaieyo, iiaenoaeiuo ieaeanoiyuaio noaeo caiee, ii
i?eciaiiuo iniaaiii cia/eiuie eee neiaeiuie. A ea/anoaa eannaoeeiiiie
einoaioeee naiaou ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai a ninoaaa o?ao /eaiia aunoaai
noaea caiee ?anniao?eaatho aiaeeyoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey e
ii?aaeaeaiey ieaeanoiyueo noaeia (iaeioi?ua aii?inu iiaoo ?aoaoueny
noaeueyie aaeeiiee/ii). Oaieiaiua naiaou a ninoaaa o?ao /eaiia aunoaai
noaea caiee ?anniao?eaatho eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia i?eaiai?u o/anoeiauo
noaeae, ia iiaeeaaeauea aiaeeyoeeiiiiio iaaeaeiaaieth, ia i?eaiai?u,
auianaiiua noaeaie caiee i?e aiaeeyoeeiiiii iaaeaeiaaiee, a oaeaea ia
i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua noaeaie i?enyaeiuo eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia
i?eaiai?u o/anoeiauo noaeae, ia iiaeeaaeauea aiaeeyoeeiiiiio
iaaeaeiaaieth, ia i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua noaeaie caiee i?e aiaeeyoeeiiiii
iaaeaeiaaiee, a oaeaea ia i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua noaeaie i?enyaeiuo eee
aieueoeie iaeaoaie noaea caiee, iaeiaei eeoue a neo/aa, anee
eannaoeeiiiay aeaeiaa i?eianaia eneeth/eoaeueii ii iioeaai ia?ooaiey
ii?i caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa caiee, a ia oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia.

Noaeu caiee (e 1990 a. ia oa??eoi?ee O?A eo auei 92) aunooiatho eae
noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee e eae noaeu aoi?ie einoaioeee, ?anniao?eaathuea
aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey e i?eaiai?u ieaeanoiyueo noaeia. A ninoaaa eaaeaeiai
noaea caiee, aicaeaaeyaiiai aai i?aaenaaeaoaeai, ia?acothony iaeaou ii
a?aaeaeaineei (a oii /enea oi?aiaui) aeaeai e iaeaou ii oaieiaiui
aeaeai. Iaeaou ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai canaaeatho a ninoaaa o?ao
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae ai aeaaa n i?aaenaaeaoaeai noaea caiee eee
i?aaenaaeaoaeai iaeaou. Aeaea, ia i?aaenoaaeythuea aieueoie neiaeiinoe,
iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny noaeueyie aaeeiiee/ii. Iaeaou ii oi?aiaui aeaeai
aeaenoaotho a ninoaaa i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaai — /eaia noaea caiee e
?aaiii?aaiuo n iei aeaoo iai?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae, iacia/aaiuo ia o?e
aiaea ec iiuoiuo eiiia?naioia ii caeeth/aieth oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
iaeao. Iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee nii?ia ?ac?aoathony i?aaenaaeaoaeai iaeaou ii
oi?aiaui aeaeai aaeeiiee/ii. Niaeanii caeiio i noaeiono?ienoaa, e
oi?aiaui ioiineony /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa aeae ii nii?ai, aicieeathuei
iaaeaeoo/anoieeaie oi?aiauo naeaeie, iaaeaeo /eaiaie oi?aiauo
oiaa?euanoa, nii?u ii aaenaeyi, ii i?eiaiaieth caeiia i /aeao, ii caueoa
oi?aiauo ciaeia e o.ae.

A eiiiaoaioeeth iaeao ii a?aaeaeaineei e ii oi?aiaui aeaeai aoiaeeo
?anniio?aiea ii ia?aie einoaioeee a?aaeaeaineeo e oi?aiauo aeae n noiiie
enea nauoa 3000 ia?ie, a oaeaea aeae ia onoaiiaeaiee iooeianoaa e
iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee eneia, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e eacia, e noaeueyi e
neoaeauei a nayce n i?aauoaieai eie naieo neoaeaaiuo iieiiii/ee e ae?.
Iaeaou ii a?aaeaeaineei e ii oi?aiaui aeaeai ?anniao?eaatho
aiaeeyoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey e ii?aaeaeaiey o/anoeiauo noaeia,
e?iia iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee aeae, aeaeiau ii eioi?ui i?eiinyony a aunoea
noaeu caiee. AEaeiau ia ?aoaiey o/anoeiauo noaeia ii eneai ia noiio aei
500 ia?ie e ?anniio?aieth ia i?eieiathony.

Oaieiaiua iaeaou noaeia caiee ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie einoaioeee aeaea
iai anao i?anooieaieyo, eioi?ua ia ioianaiu e eiiiaoaioeee o/anoeiauo
noaeia eee aunoeo noaeia caiee. A eo iiaenoaeiinoue aoiaeyo aeaea iai
anao i?anooieaieyo, ca eioi?ua aiciiaeii eeoaiea naiaiaeu ia n?ie nauoa
o?ao eao eee i?eioaeeoaeueiia iiiauaiea a ineoeao?e/aneoth aieueieoeo.
Aeaea ii ia?aie einoaioeee ?anniao?eaaao eeai oaieiaiay iaeaoa,
aunooiathuay a ea/anoaa noaea i?enyaeiuo, eeai aieueoay oaieiaiay
iaeaoa. Noae i?enyaeiuo a O?A aei 1975 a. ninoiye ec o?ao
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e oanoe oaooaiia — oae a O?A eiaiotho
i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, o/anoaothueo a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeaea e
niaianoii n i?ioanneiiaeueiuie noaeueyie i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey ii aii?ino
i aeiiaiinoe eee iaaeiiaiinoe iiaenoaeeiiai e i iacia/aiee ia?u
iaeacaiey (eaiaeeaeaou a oaooaiu aeey noaeia caiee ioae?athony ii
nieneai, ninoaaeaiiui i?e o/anoeiauo noaeao). Iuia noae i?enyaeiuo
ninoieo ec o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo oaooaiia. Ii nicuaaaony
i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anniio?aiey oaieiaiiai aeaea ii iaaeiaieth a
oiuoeaiiii oaeenoaa eee ae?oaeo i?anooieaieyo, naycaiiuo n nicaeaieai
iianiinoe aeey aeecie ethaeae (iiaeaeiae, ac?uau, iiiuoee caoaaoia
naiieaoia, ia?aaeaiea e auiiaaoaeuenoai i?e ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoaao
e ae?.).

Aieueoay iaeaoa ii oaieiaiui aeaeai a ninoaaa o?ao noaeae e aeaoo
oaooaiia ?anniao?eaaao iniiaioth ianno aeae i i?anooiiuo
iinyaaoaeuenoaao, aoiaeyueo a eiiiaoaioeeth noaeia caiee. A oao noaeao
caiee, a ie?oaa eioi?uo ?aniieiaeai aunoee noae caiee, ia?acoaony iaeaoa
ii aeaeai i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaieyo, aeaaiui ia?acii naycaiiuo n
“oa?icie aeaiie?aoe/aneiio i?aaiaiio ainoaea?noao” e n ia?ooaieai
cai?aoia ia aeayoaeueiinoue i?ioeaicaeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. N 1976 a. ai
iiiaeo noaeao caiee ec aieueoeo iaeao ii oaieiaiui aeaeai auee auaeaeaiu
iaeaou ii yeiiiie/aneei i?anooieaieyi, naycaiiui n ia?ooaieyie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee, oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, iaeiaao e o.i. Aieueoay iaeaoa ii oaieiaiui
aeaeai a ninoaaa o?ao noaeae e aeaoo oaooaiia ?anniao?eaaao io eiaie
noaea caiee aiaeeyoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua noaeii
oaooaiia a o/anoeiaii noaea.

Aeey ?anniio?aiey aiaeeyoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia i?eaiai?u, auianaiiua
o/anoeiauie noaeueyie aaeeiiee/ii, a ninoaaa noaea caiee ia?acoaony
iaeay iaeaoa ii. oaieiaiui aeaeai, eioi?ay ninoieo ec
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaai — /eaia noaea caiee e aeaoo oaooaiia.

O/anoeiaua noaeu (eo /enei iineaaeiaaoaeueii nie?auaeinue e e 1990 a.
ninoaaeyei 550 a O?A e 7 a Caiaaeiii Aa?eeia) i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ieciaia caaii nenoaiu iaueo noaeia. Iie iiaoo ninoiyoue ec iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo o/anoeiauo noaeae (a iaeioi?uo o/anoeiauo noaeao eo nauoa
30). Anee a o/anoeiaii noaea oieueei iaeei noaeuey, aio iacia/aaony
iinoiyiiue caianoeoaeue ec /enea noaeae caiee. A?aaeaeaineea aeaea
?anniao?eaathony a o/anoeiauo noaeao oieueei aaeeiiee/iui noaeueae.
O/anoeiaiio noaeuea iiaenoaeiu eiouanoaaiiua nii?u ia noiio aei 3000
ia?ie, a oaeaea iacaaeneii io noiiu enea nii?u ia a?aiaea aeeeuey e eiuo
iiiauaiee, nii?u iaaeaeo eeeaioaie e aeaaeaeueoeaie ainoeieoe, iaaeaeo
iannaaee?aie e aiaeeoaeyie o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, oo?enoaie e ath?i
iooaoanoaee e o.i. A o/anoeiauo noaeao auaeaeyaony iaeei eee ianeieueei
noaeae, eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?othony ia ?anniio?aiee anaai eiiieaena
a?a/ii-naiaeiuo aeae, a oii /enea i ?acaiaea, auieaoa niaea?aeaiey ia
aeaoae e o.i.

Oaieiaiua aeaea a o/anoeiaii noaea iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eeai noaeueae
aaeeiiee/ii, eeai noaeii oaooaiia. Aaeeiiee/ii o/anoeiaue noaeuey
?anniao?eaaao aeaea, aicaoaeaeaiiua a ii?yaeea /anoiiai iaaeiaiey, e?iia
oiai, i i?anooiiuo aeayieyo, ioiinyueony e eaoaai?ee i?inooieia, e,
iaeiiaoe, ii i?aaeeiaeaieth i?ieo?i?a, aeaea i iaeioi?uo i?anooieaieyo,
ii eioi?ui ia iaeeaeaaony auianaiea aieaa no?iaiai i?eaiai?a, /ai ca
i?inooiee, o.a. nauoa iaeiiai aiaea eeoaiey naiaiaeu.

O/anoeiaue noaeuey n niaeaney iaaeiyaiiai iiaeao auianoe i?eaiai? iooai
“i?eeaca i iaeacaiee”, ecaeaaaaiiai aac noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, ii
iaoa?eaeai, i?aaenoaaeaiiui i?ieo?aoo?ie eee iieeoeeae. Iaeiaei a yoii
neo/aa ia iiaeao auoue iacia/aii iaeacaiea, naycaiiia n eeoaieai
naiaiaeu, a “i?eeac i iaeacaiee” i?eaiaeeony a eniieiaiea, anee oieueei
a oa/aiea iaaeaee inoaeaeaiiue ia iio?aaoao aai ioiaiu e i?iaaaeaiey
noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa.

Noae oaooaiia canaaeaao a ninoaaa o/anoeiaiai noaeuee e aeaoo oaooaiia,
ninoaaeythueo aaeeioth eieeaaeth. Oaooaiu i?eaeaeathony e eniieiaieth
iaycaiiinoae ii nieneai eaiaeeaeaoia, ninoaaeyaiui niaaoii iaueiu ec
/enea i?iaeeaathueo a iae a?aaeaeai, aeinoeaoeo 30 eao e ia eiathueo
ia?aie/aiee (noaeeiinoue, oece/aneea eee ineoe/aneea iaaeoae,
aeieaeiinoiua iaycaiiinoe e ae?.). Noaeu oaooaiia ai?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue
oaieiaiua aeaea i i?anooieaieyo, ia ioianaiiuo e eneeth/eoaeueiie
eiiiaoaioeee noaeia caiee eee aunoeo noaeia caiee, ii i?e oneiaee, /oiau
auiineiia eie iaeacaiea ia i?aauoaei o?ao eao eeoaiey naiaiaeu. Anee
i?aaenoaaeaiiia ia ?anniio?aiea noaea oaooaiia aeaei ioee/aaony aieueoie
neiaeiinoueth eee iauaiii, oi ii oiaeaoaenoao i?ieo?i?a ia?acoaony
?anoe?aiiue ninoaa noaea oaooaiia — aeaa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeuee e
aeaa oaooaia. Oaeie aea ninoaa noaea oaooaiia iaiaoiaeei aeey
?acae?aoaeuenoaa aeaea, ia?aaeaiiiai ia iiaia ?anniio?aiea ec
auoanoiyuaai noaea.

A nenoaio iaueo noaeia a ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee
aeeth/aiu noaeu ii aeaeai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo. Iie ?anniao?eaatho aeaea i
i?aaiia?ooaieyo, a eioi?uo iaaeiythony ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea a aic?anoa io
14 aei 18 eao, a oaeaea iieiaeua ethaee a aic?anoa aei 21 aiaea, anee
noae ii aeaeai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo ni/oao, /oi eo iiaaaeaiea iineo
“iiae?inoeiaue oa?aeoa?”. A yoeo aea noaeao, eae e a iaueo noaeao, iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny aeaea i ia?ooaieyo ac?ineuie eioa?ania
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo eeai aeaea, ii eioi?ui o?aaoaony aeii?ineoue
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae. E /eneo oaeiai aea ?iaea
noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ioiinyony a noaeao caiee iaeaou ii aeaeai
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo (a ninoaaa o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo
oaooaiia) e a o/anoeiauo noaeao — noae oaooaiia ii aeaeai
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo (a ninoaaa i?ioanneiiaeueiiai noaeuee e aeaoo
oaooaiia) e noaeuey ii aeaeai ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo. Oaooaiaie ii aeaeai
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo iacia/athony eeoea, eiathuea iiuo ?aaiou n
iieiaeaaeueth (eae i?aaeei, iaeei ec ieo — aeaiueia).

N?aaee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo noaeia, ooieoeeiie?othueo a O?A ia?yaeo n
iaueie noaeaie, aaaeiia ianoi caieiatho noaeu ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai. Iie
i?ecaaiu ?anniao?eaaoue nii?u iaaeaeo iaeiiaeaoaeyie e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ?aaioieeaie ii aii?inai iieaou o?oaea,
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ioioneia, oaieueiaiey, a oaeaea eiioeeeou iaaeaeo
i?ionithcaie e iauaaeeiaieyie i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, a oii /enea i
i?aaiia?iinoe caaanoiaee eee cae?uoey i?aaei?eyoey, e ae?oaea aii?inu.
Aicaeaaeyao yoo nenoaio Oaaea?aeueiue noae ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai a a.
Eannaea, eioi?ue ninoieo ec iyoe naiaoia. A ieo a eieeaaeyo ec o?ao
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e aeaoo “ii/aoiuo” noaeae (iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niioaaonoaaiii i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e i?ionithcu) ?anniao?eaathony
eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo noaeia yoie nenoaiu. A
eaaeaeie ec caiaeue O?A eiaaony iaeei noae caiee ii o?oaeiaui Aeaeai, a
a Naaa?iii ?aeia-Aanooaeee o/?aaeaeaiu aeaa noaea caiee ii o?oaeiaui
aeaeai.

A noaeao caiee ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai ia?acothony eieeaaee a ninoaaa
iaeiiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai noaeuee e aeaoo eeai /aou?ao (a caaeneiinoe
io eaoaai?ee aeaea) “ii/aoiuo noaeae”, i?aaenoaaeythueo eioa?anu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aaioieeia. Noaeu caiee ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeee, a eioi?oth iaaeaeothony
?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo noaeia.

Noaeu ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai — iecoay einoaioeey yoie nenoaiu (eo
ian/eouaaeinue ia oa??eoi?ee O?A 107) — ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie
einoaioeee ana o?oaeiaua eiioeeeou. A ieo ia?acothony eieeaaee a oaeeo
aea ninoaaao, eae e a noaeao caiee ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai. A yoeo noaeao
i?eieiathony ia?u e ?ac?aoaieth eiioeeeoia ii aiciiaeiinoe iooai
eiii?iienna.

Nenoaia noaeia ii nioeeaeueiui aii?inai nicaeaia aeey ?anniio?aiey
eiioeeeoia, naycaiiuo n nioeeaeueiui no?aoiaaieai, auieaoie iiniaee
aac?aaioiui e “aa?ioaoeiny ia ?iaeeio”, ieacaieai aanieaoiie eee
eueaioiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue e o.i. Nenoaia yoeo noaeia aicaeaaeyaony
Oaaea?aeueiui noaeii, iaoiaeyueiny, eae e Oaaea?aeueiue noae ii
o?oaeiaui aeaeai, a a. Eannaea. Ii ninoieo ec 12 naiaoia, a eioi?uo
?anniao?eaathony eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo noaeia. A
eaaeaeie ec caiaeue O?A aeaenoaoao noae caiee ii nioeeaeueiui aii?inai
(aiaeeyoeeiiiay einoaioeey), a ia oa??eoi?ee anae no?aiu eiaeinue 48
noaeia ii nioeeaeueiui aii?inai, ?anniao?eaathueo ii ia?aie einoaioeee
ana nii?u, ioiinyueany e eiiiaoaioeee yoie nenoaiu noaeia. A
Oaaea?aeueiii noaea ii nioeeaeueiui aii?inai e a niioaaonoaothueo noaeao
caiee aeaea ?anniao?eaathony a eieeaaeyo ec o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e
aeaoo “ii/aoiuo noaeae”, a a noaeao iecoae einoaioeee — a eieeaaeyo ec
iaeiiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e aeaoo “ii/aoiuo noaeae”. Ninoaa “ii/aoiuo
noaeae” oi?ie?oaony ia ia?eoaoiuo ia/aeao: ii iaeiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeth
noi?ii, o/anoaothueo a eiioeeeoa (io cano?aoiaaiiuo ?aaioieeia eee
aac?aaioiuo e io i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, io aieueie/iuo eann e io a?a/ae,
ianeoaeeaathueo aieueiuo ca n/ao yoeo eann, e oe.).

Nenoaia oeiainiauo noaeia nicaeaia, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeey ?anniio?aiey
nii?ia, naycaiiuo n oieaoie iaeiaia e oaiiaeaiiuo nai?ia. Iia aeeth/aea
e 1990 a. Oaaea?aeueiue oeiainiaue noae a Ithioaia e 15 oeiainiauo
noaeia ii iaeiiio-aeaa a eaaeaeie caiea. A Oaaea?aeueiii oeiainiaii
noaea ia?aciaaii ainaiue naiaoia, aaea a eieeaaeyo ec iyoe
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae ?anniao?eaathony eannaoeeiiiua aeaeiau ia
?aoaiey oeiainiauo noaeia eneeth/eoaeueii ii aii?inai i?aaa e oieueei
anee nii? eaeao i noiiao, i?aauoathueo 10 000 ia?ie. A oeiainiauo
noaeao, yaeythueony noaeaie ia?aie einoaioeee, ii ii ?aiao
niioaaonoaothueo aunoei noaeai caiee, aeaea ?anniao?eaathony a eieeaaeyo
ec o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo “ii/aoiuo noaeae”.

Nenoaia aaeieieno?aoeaiie thnoeoeee a O?A nicaeaia aeey ?anniio?aiey
aeaeia oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ia aeaenoaey e aeou i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea nii?ia iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey, anee yoe aeaeiau e nii?u ia ioiinyony e eiiiaoaioeee
eiuo noaeia. Ia?auaiea n aeaeiaie a i?aaiu aaeieieno?aoeaiie thnoeoeee,
eae i?aaeei, iiaeao iineaaeiaaoue eeoue iinea oiai, eae aue cayaeai
i?ioano a i?aai oi?aaeaiey eee aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo, ia aeaenoaey
eioi?uo i?eiineony aeaeiaa, e caoai iiaeaia, ii inoaeanue
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiie aeaeiaa a auoanoiyuee aeey ieo i?aai oi?aaeaiey.

Aicaeaaeyao yoo nenoaio Oaaea?aeueiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae,
iaoiaeyueeny a Aa?eeia. A aai no?oeoo?a eiaaony 12 naiaoia, a iniiaiii
caiyouo ?anniio?aieai a ninoaaa iyoe i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae
eannaoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia ?aoaiey ieaeanoiyueo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia. A
oaeii aea ninoaaa naiaou Oaaea?aeueiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai noaea
?anniao?eaatho a ea/anoaa ia?aie e iineaaeiae einoaioeee n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoia /enei aeae, ioianaiiuo e eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee yoiai
noaea, — ii nii?ai iaeiinoeoooeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a iaaeaeo caieyie eee
iaaeaeo caieyie e oaaea?aoeeae, ii ia?auaieyi oaaea?aeueiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa n o?aaiaaieai i?eciaoue iaeiinoeoooeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoue oiai eee eiiai iauaaeeiaiey eeoe, a oaeaea ii iaeioi?ui
aeaeai eneia i?ioea oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia.

Aunoea aaeieieno?aoeaiua noaeu ia?aciaaiu ii iaeiiio ai anao .caieyo
O?A, a oii /enea iauee aeey aeaoo caiaeue — Ieaeiae Naeniiee e
Oeacaea-Aieueooaeia. A eo eiiiaoaioeeth aoiaeeo ?anniio?aiea
aiaeeyoeeiiiuo, a i?e iaeioi?uo oneiaeyo e eannaoeeiiiuo aeaeia ia
?aoaiey e ii?aaeaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia, a oaeaea, a
eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo, iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeae ii ia?aie einoaioeee.
Aeaea a aunoeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeao ?anniao?eaatho eieeaaee a
ninoaaa eeai o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo “ii/aoiuo noaeae”,
eeai, a iaeioi?uo caieyo, a ninoaaa oieueei o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
noaeae.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua noaeu ?anniao?eaatho ii ia?aie einoaioeee a ninoaaa
o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo “ii/aoiuo noaeae” iiaeaaeythuoth
ianno aeae, ioianaiiuo e eiiiaoaioeee i?aaiia aaeieieno?aoeaiie
thnoeoeee. Ii iinoaiiaeaieth aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia iiaeao auoue
ioiaiai iaaeaeoaiue aeo i?aaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey eeai
ainnoaiiaeaiu i?aaa a?aaeaeai eee o/?aaeaeaiee, ia?ooaiiua aeaenoaeyie
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

Iacaaiiua iyoue aunoeo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia, aicaeaaeythueo ioaeaeueiua
nenoaiu noaeia (iauoth, ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai e ae?.), yaeythony
naiinoiyoaeueiuie e iacaaeneiuie ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao. A neo/aa
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo eo iiceoeeyie ii eaeei-eeai nouanoaaiiui i?aaiaui
aii?inai nicuaaaony, niaeanii iniiaiiio caeiio (no.95), Iauee naiao
aunoeo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia, eioi?ue e auiineo ?aoaiea, iaycaoaeueiia
aeey noaeia anao nenoai e oai naiui iaania/eaathuaa aaeeinoai noaeaaiie
i?aeoeee.

A ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ooieoeeiie?otho
oaeaea iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua noaeu, a oii /enea
iauaoaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy. Yoi, a /anoiinoe, Oaaea?aeueiue
aeenoeeieeia?iue noae e aeenoeeieeia?iua noaeu caiaeue, a eioi?uo
?acae?athony aeaeiau a?aaeaeaineeo neoaeaueo ia aeaenoaey aeanoae, a
oaeaea Oaaea?aeueiue iaoaioiue noae, canaaeathuee a Ithioaia.

Iniaia ianoi n?aaee aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee O?A
caieiaao o/?aaeaeaiiue a 1951 a. Oaaea?aeueiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae. Ii
iaoiaeeony a Ea?en?oy e ninoieo ec aeaoo naiaoia ii ainaiue /eaiia
Oaaea?aeueiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea a eaaeaeii. Aicaeaaeyao ?aaioo
anaai noaea e ia?aiai naiaoa i?aaenaaeaoaeue Oaaea?aeueiiai
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea, ?aaioo aoi?iai naiaoa — aeoea-i?aaenaaeaoaeue.
Oaaea?aeueiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae ?ac?aoaao nii?iua aii?inu oieeiaaiey
eiinoeoooeee, nii?u ii iiaiaeo niioiioaiey n eiinoeoooeeae ae?oaeo
oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia e caeiiia, ecaeaiiuo aeanoyie caiaeue. Iieiiii/ey
Oaaea?aeueiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea aeeth/atho a naay aiciiaeiinoue
ioiaiu ii iioeaai i?ioeai?a/ey eiinoeoooeee caeiiia, i?eiyouo
ia?eaiaioii O?A e aeanoyie caiaeue, ethauo iinoaiiaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
e eiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e, iaeiiaoe, ii oai aea iioeaai — ?aoaiee
ethauo noaeaaiuo einoaioeee, a oii /enea aunoeo oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia.
Oaaea?aeueiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae ai?aaa i?eciaaaoue
iaeiinoeoooeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeee e iauaaeeiaiee
a?aaeaeai. Aaaeiay ooieoeey Oaaea?aeueiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea —
?anniio?aiea aeaeia iauei e ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai ia ia?ooaiea i?aaiaie
aeanoe eo iniiaiuo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?aa. A aieueoeinoaa caiaeue,
aoiaeyueo a O?A, eiathony naie eiinoeoooeeiiiua noaeu, eiiiaoaioeey
eioi?uo ia?aie/aia oieeiaaieai iieiaeaiee eiinoeoooeee caiaeue e
?anniio?aieai aeaeia ia ia?ooaiea cae?aieaiiuo a ieo i?aa. ?aoaiey yoeo
noaeia ia iiaeeaaeao iaaeaeiaaieth.

Noaeuee oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia ioeoeeaeueii iacia/athony ia naie
aeieaeiinoe i?aceaeaioii O?A, /aio i?aaeoanoaoao ?aoaiea
niioaaonoaothuaai ieieno?a (i?e iacia/aiee a Aa?oiaiue oaaea?aeueiue
noae — ieieno?a thnoeoeee, i?e iacia/aiee a Oaaea?aeueiue noae ii
o?oaeiaui aeaeai — ieieno?a o?oaea e oae.). Iaeiaei i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
eaiaeeaeaou ia noaeaeneoth aeieaeiinoue aeieaeiu iieo/eoue iaeia?aiea
niaoeeaeueiie eiiennee, a eioi?oth aoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuee ieieno? O?A
e ?oeiaiaeeoaee niioaaonoaothueo aaaeiinoa caiaeue, a oaeaea 11 /eaiia
eiiennee, eca?aiiuo Aoiaeanoaaii. A eiienneyo i?iaiaeyony auai?u, eae
i?aaeei, ec ianeieueeeo eaiaeeaeaoo?.

Caiauaiea noaeaeneeo aeieaeiinoae a noaeao ioaeaeueiuo caiaeue
i?ienoiaeeo ii-?aciiio. A iaeieo caieyo noaeuee iacia/athony
i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii, a ae?oaeo — ieieno?ii thnoeoeee aeaiiie caiee. A
iaeioi?uo caieyo iacia/aieth ia noaeaeneoth aeieaeiinoue i?aaeoanoaotho
auai?u eaiaeeaeaoa niaoeeaeueiie eiienneae — auai?iui eiieoaoii,
ninoiyuei ec aeaiooaoia ia?eaiaioa caiee, noaeae e aaeaieaoia. A
aieueoeinoaa caiaeue, e?iia oiai, iacia/aiea ia noaeaeneoth aeieaeiinoue
a eaeie-eeai ec noaeia caiee o?aaoao niaeaniaaiey ni anaie ieieno?aie —
/eaiaie eaaeiaoa. Ana noaeuee iacia/athony ia naie aeieaeiinoe
iiaeeciaiii.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii oaaea?aeueiui ia?eaiaioii O?A ia n?ie 12 eao
ecae?athony oieueei noaeuee Oaaea?aeueiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea:
iieiaeia ec ieo ecae?aaony Aoiaeanoaaii e iieiaeia — Aoiaean?aoii.
Noaeuee iiaoo auoue iono?aiaiu io aeieaeiinoe oieueei ii ?aoaieth
Oaaea?aeueiiai aeenoeeieeia?iiai noaea aeey noaeae e i?ieo?i?ia eeai
aeenoeeieeia?iiai noaea caiee. Aeenoeeieeia?iia i?aneaaeiaaiea
aicaoaeaeaaony ieieno?ii thnoeoeee O?A eee iaeiie ec caiaeue. Noaeuee
ooiaeyo a ionoaaeo ii aeinoeaeaiee eie 65 eao (/eaiu Oaaea?aeueiiai
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea — 68 eao).

?anneaaeiaaiea oaieiaiuo i?anooieaiee i?iaiaeeony, aeaaiui ia?acii,
iieeoeaeneeie neoaeaaie, iaoiaeyueieny a iiae/eiaiee oaaea?aeueiuo
aeanoae eee ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae niioaaonoaothuae caiee.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anneaaeiaaiea ii n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoiio /eneo
iaeaieaa neiaeiuo oaieiaiuo aeae i?iaiaeeony i?ieo?aoo?ie n o/anoeai
iieeoeaeneeo neoaea. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, a ii?yaeea “noaeaaiiai
?anneaaeiaaiey”, ioaeaeueiua neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey inouanoaeythony
noaeueyie-aeiciaaaoaeyie, iaycaiiinoe eioi?uo auiieiytho iau/ii
o/anoeiaua noaeuee.

I?aaeuyaeaiea iaaeiaiey inouanoaeyaony i?ieo?aoo?ie eeai, ii /anoiie
aeaeiaa, iioa?iaaoei, ii noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai i?iecaiaeeony i?e
iaycaoaeueiii o/anoee i?ieo?i?a. I?ieo?aoo?a iaaeaeaia iieiiii/eyie a
?yaea neo/aaa ioeacaoueny io ia?aaea/e aeaea a noae, a /anoiinoe eiaaea
iaaeiyaiue eee aai aeeceea na?ueacii iino?aaeaee a ?acoeueoaoa
aei?iaeiiai i?ienoanoaey. A i?naeoniio?ai1io caeiiii neo/ayo
i?aaenoaaeoaee i?ieo?aoo?u i?eieiatho o/anoea e a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae.

I?aaiu i?ieo?aoo?u eiathony i?e iaueo noaeao anao o?iaiae. I?e Aa?oiaiii
oaaea?aeueiii noaea ooieoeee i?ieo?aoo?u inouanoaeytho aaia?aeueiue
oaaea?aeueiue i?ieo?i? e iiae/eiaiiua aio oaaea?aeueiua i?ieo?i?u (ana
iie aeaenoaotho iiae iauei ?oeiaiaenoaii ieieno?a thnoeoeee O?A).
Aaia?aeueiue oaaea?aeueiue i?ieo?i? iacia/aaony i?aceaeaioii O?A n
niaeaney Aoiaean?aoa.

I?e aunoeo noaeao caiee, noaeao caiee e o/anoeiauo noaeao aeaenoaotho
niioaaonoaothuea i?ieo?i?u, iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai eioi?uie, a naith
i/a?aaeue, inouanoaeyao ieieno? thnoeoeee eaaeaeie ec caiaeue.
Iieiiii/ey o/anoeiauo i?ieo?i?ia (yoi eo ioeoeeaeueiia iacaaiea)
ia?aie/aiu — iie iiaoo aunooiaoue oieueei a o/anoeiauo noaeao.
Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea i?ieo?aoo?u iaycaiu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny caeiiiuie
oeacaieyie auoanoiyueo i?ieo?i?ia.

Caueoo iaaeiyaiuo ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, a oaeaea eioa?ania noi?ii ii eiui
eaoaai?eyi aeae inouanoaeytho aaeaieaou. O/anoea aaeaieaoa i?e
?anniio?aiee oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae aaeeiiee/iui noaeueae a
o/anoeiaii noaea iaiaycaoaeueii, e?iia iaeioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiii
neo/aaa. Aaeaieaou iaycaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?anu noi?ii a noaeao
aunoeo einoaioeee ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai e iiaoo aunooiaoue a noaeao ii
nioeeaeueiui aii?inai, a oeiainiauo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeao.

A oaeaea eioa?ania noi?ii ii eiui eaoaai?eyi aeae inouanoaeytho
aaeaieaou. O/anoea aaeaieaoa i?e ?anniio?aiee oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo
aeae aaeeiiee/iui noaeueae a o/anoeiaii noaea iaiaycaoaeueii, e?iia
iaeioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiii neo/aaa. Aaeaieaou iaycaoaeueii
i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?anu noi?ii a noaeao aunoeo einoaioeee ii o?oaeiaui
aeaeai e iiaoo aunooiaoue a noaeao ii nioeeaeueiui aii?inai, a
oeiainiauo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeao.

Aeey aeiionea e aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe auioneiee th?eaee/aneiai
oaeoeueoaoa oieaa?neoaoa aeieaeai a oa/aiea o?ao-/aou?ao eao i?ieoe
noaaee?iaeo a noaeao, ) i?ieo?i?ia e aaeaieaoia, naeaoue na?eth
yecaiaiia ia?aae eiienneae i?e aunoai noaea caiee e oieueei iinea yoiai
iieo/eoue niioaaonoaothuaa ?ac?aoaiea io aaaeiinoaa thnoeoeee oie caiee,
i?e noaea eioi?ie ii niae?aaony i?aeoeeiaaoue. Eaaeaeue aaeaieao a O?A
iaycai ioe?uoue naia ath?i i?e oii ii?aaeaeaiiii aunoai noaea caiee eee
noaea caiee, a eioi?ii ii aeiiouai e aaeaieaoneie i?aeoeea. Aaeaieaou,
aeaenoaothuea a ie?oaa oiai eee eiiai aunoaai noaea caiee, ia?acotho
iaeio (eiiaaea, anee eo aieueoa 500, aeaa) eieeaaeth aaeaieaoia. Iniaoth
eieeaaeth ia?acotho aaeaieaou, aeiiouaiiua e aaaeaieth aeae a Aa?oiaiii
oaaea?aeueiii noaea (ii ?aoaieth ieieno?a thnoeoeee O?A iinea
no?iaeaeoaai ioai?a niaoeeaeueiie eiienneae). Ana nouanoaothuea a O?A
eieeaaee aaeaieaoia iauaaeeiaiu a Oaaea?aeueioth annioeeaoeeth
aaeaieaoia. Yoa annioeeaoeey, a /anoiinoe, i?eieiaao ia?u e ieacaieth
aanieaoiie eee eueaioiie th?eaee/aneie iiiiue iaeieiouei.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiay thnoeoeey a O?A

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a no?aiu, aaea aaeieieno?aoeaiay thnoeoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iacaaeneioth aaoaue noaeaaiie aeanoe ni naiei
aa?oiaiui noaeii, yaeyaony Aa?iaiey.

A niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeao 1960 aiaea
aaeieieno?aoeaiui noaeai iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiu, e?iia
eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo, ana nii?u ioaee/ii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a,
iineieueeo iie ia ioianaiu e th?enaeeeoeee ae?oaeo noaeia. N?aaee
?anniao?eaaaiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo nii?ia aeaea i aeaeiaao /anoiuo eeoe
ia ?aoaiey e aeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
nii?u iaaeaeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuie aaeeieoeaie, nii?u i i?aaao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua noaeu iiaoo ioiaieoue
?aoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia eee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe eee, iaiai?io,
i?aaeienaoue ei i?eiyoue oi eee eiia ?aoaiea, onoaiaaeeaatho
th?eaee/aneea oaeou. Iie ia aaeathony a aii?inu oeaeaniia?aciinoe
inia?eaaaiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee, a i?iaa?ytho eeoue eo
caeiiiinoue.

Nenoaia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia aeeth/aao o?e einoaioeee:
1)aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae; 2) aunoee aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae caiee —
aiaeeyoeeiiiay einoaioeey; 3) Oaaea?aeueiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae —
eannaoeeiiiay einoaioeey. Ana iie aeaenoaotho eieeaaeaeueii.
Aaeieieno?aoeaiua noaeu ia?auo aeaoo einoaioeee ?ac?aoatho aeaea a
ninoaaa o?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo noaeae e aeaoo canaaeaoaeae, ecae?aaiuo
ia /aou?a aiaea ec /enea a?aaeaeai, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e eaeie-eeai
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioanneiiaeueiie a?oiia, a Oaaea?aeueiue
aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae ninoieo ec iyoe noaeae.

Ia?auaiea a aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae, eae i?aaeei, aiciiaeii eeoue a
neo/aa, anee aeaeiaa eeoea ioeeiiaia aaeieieno?aoeaiie einoaioeeae
auoanoiyuae ii ioiioaieth e oie, eioi?ay ecaeaea inia?eaaaiue aeo. Anee
?a/ue a aeaeiaa eaeao i ia?ooaiee i?aaa caiee, ?aoaiea aunoaai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai noaea caiee ieii/aoaeueii.

Noaeaaiay nenoaia

A iniiaiii caeiia O?A eiaao niaoeeaeueiue aeaayoue ?acaeae,
?aaoee?othuee i?aaiecaoeeth e aeayoaeueiinoue noaeia e ae?oaeo i?aaiia
thnoeoeee. A aeoa ia aeaaony en/a?iuaathuaai iienaiey noaeaaiie nenoaiu,
eeoue onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi noaeaaiay aeanoue aaa?yaony noaeueyi e /oi
iia inouanoaeyaony Oaaea?aeueiui eiinoeoooeeiiiui noaeii e oeacaiiuie a
iniiaiii caeiia oaaea?aeueiuie noaeaie e noaeaie caiaeue.

A eiinoeoooeee aiai?eony i aeaenoaee a no?aia iyoe aaoaae thnoeoeee:
iauae, aaeieieno?aoeaiie, oeiainiaie, o?oaeiaie e nioeeaeueiie.
Aa?oiaiuie i?aaiaie a eaaeaeie ec iacaaiiuo “aaoaae” niioaaonoaaiii
yaeythony Oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay iaeaoa, oaaea?aeueiue
aaeieieno?aoeaiue noae, Oaaea?aeueiue oeiainiaue noae, oaaea?aeueiue
noae ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai e Oaaea?aeueiue noae ii nioeeaeueiui aeaeai.
Iniiaiie caeii oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi oaaea?aoeey iiaeao o/?aaeeoue
oaaea?aeueiue noae ii aeaeai i i?aaiaie caueoa i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe; iia aea iiaeao ia?aciaaoue oaaea?aeueiua noaeu aeey
aii?oaeaiiuo nee — aiaiii-oaieiaiua noaeu; iineaaeiea iiaoo
inouanoaeyoue naith th?enaeeeoeeth eeoue a neo/aa aaaaeaiey ninoiyiey
iai?iiu, a oaeaea a ioiioaiee eeoe ec ninoaaa aii?oaeaiiuo nee,
iai?aaeaiiuo ca a?aieoeo eee iaoiaeyueony a ii?a ia aiaiiuo ei?aaeyo.
Aa?oiaiui i?aaiii aeey yoeo noaeia yaeyaony Oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay
iaeaoa. Aanueia e?aoei o?aaoee?iaaiu aii?inu, eanathueany noaeaaiie
nenoaiu a caieyo. A eo eiinoeoooeeyo iiae?iaii aiai?eony eeoue i
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo noaeao.

A O?A ionoonoaoao aaeeiue aeo, eiiieaenii ii?aaeaeyaoee au ana aii?inu,
eanathueany noaeaaiie nenoaiu. Aeaenoaothuee aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie
caeii i noaeiono?ienoaa 1877 a. a ?aaeaeoeee – 1975 a. onoaiaaeeaaao
iauea ia/aea aeayoaeueiinoe thnoeoeee e i?aaiecaoeeth noaeia iauae
th?enaeeeoeee. Noaoon noaeia niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee ?aaoee?oaony
ioaeaeueiuie caeiiaie eee ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie. Niaoeeaeueiue caeii
?aaoee?oao noaoon noaeae.

A iniiaiii caeiia cae?aieaiu iieiaeaiey i iacia/aiee noaeae oi/iaa ii?iu
ia eo ianiaiyaiinoe (noaeuee iacia/athony aac oeacaiey n?iea iieiiii/ee
Iacia/aiea noaeae ia iinoiyiiue n?ie ia icia/aao oiai, /oi ?a/ue eae?o i
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaeeciaiiii ioi?aaeaiee noaeaeneie ooieoeee; iniiaiie
caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeai aic?anoiie i?aaeae,
ii aeinoeaeaiee eioi?iai noaeuee ooiaeyo a ionoaaeo. A niioaaonoaee n
caeiiii i noaeueyo iie ooiaeyo a ionoaaeo ii ieii/aiee ianyoea, a
eioi?ii ei eniieieeinue 65 eao. Aiciiaeiu neo/ae auoiaea a ionoaaeo ii
aeaeaieth noaeuee, a oaeaea oaieueiaiea(i?ioea aeaeaiey noaeuee) a neio
noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, i?e/ai ia iniiaaiee e a oi?iao, i?aaeienaiiuo
caeiiii.

, a oaeaea i iacaaeneiinoe noaeae e iiae/eiaiee eo oieueei caeiio. A O?A
/?acau/aeiua noaeu ia aeiioneathony e ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue ecuyo ec
aaaeaiey naiaai noaea; noaeu niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee, niaeanii
iniiaiiio caeiio, iiaoo auoue o/?aaeaeaiu oieueei caeiiii (no. 101).
Ia/anoi ano?a/aaiie ii?iie a ca?oaaaeiii eiinoeoooeeiiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaeeinue e iieiaeaiea ia ioiaia nia?oiie eacie (no.
102).

I?aaiecaoeey noaeaaiie nenoaiu O?A ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy oaeoi?aie: 1)
oaaea?aoeaiui ono?ienoaii ainoaea?noaa e 2) iaee/eai eae noaeia iauae
th?enaeeeoeee, oae e noaeia niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee.

Nenoaia iaueo noaeia aeeth/aao a naay aeaenoaothuea a caieyo o/anoeiaua
noaeu, caiaeueiua noaeu, aunoea caiaeueiua noaeu e aeaenoaothuoth ia
o?iaia oaaea?aoeee Oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth iaeaoo, o.a. /aou?a
einoaioeee.

Nenoaia niaoeeaeueiuo noaeia eiaao, eae i?aaeei, o?e o?iaiy: iai?eia?,
noae ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai, caiaeueiue noae ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai,
Oaaea?aeueiue noae ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai.

Noaeu iauae eiiiaoaioeee ?anniao?eaatho oaieiaiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea.
E eiiiaoaioeee noaeia ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai ioiinyony nii?u iaaeaeo
i?ionithcaie e nithcaie ?aaioiaeaoaeae, iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?aaioieeaie iaaiiiai o?oaea
(?aai/ea, neoaeauea), n ae?oaie. A aaaeaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia
iaoiaeyony ana nii?u ioaee/ii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a, e?iia
eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo, e i?aaeaea anaai enee a?aaeaeai e ?acee/iui
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiai, nii?u i i?aaao ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo, a
oaeaea nii?u iaaeaeo iaeioi?uie aaeieieno?aoeaiuie aaeeieoeaie
(iai?eia?, iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e iaueiaie); yoe aea noaeu ?ac?aoatho
eiioeeeou, naycaiiua n cai?aoii ianniauo aunooieaiee e aeaiiino?aoeee,
io?aiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, i?aaeinoaaeaieai iieeoe/aneiai oaaaeeua e
o.ae. Noaeu ii nioeeaeueiui aeaeai, ?anniao?eaaaiua a niaoeeaeueiie
eeoa?aoo?a eae iniaue aeae aaeieieno?aoeaiie thnoeoeee, ?acae?atho enee
a?aaeaeai e ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi ii aii?inai i nioeeaeueiii
no?aoiaaiee, i auieaoa iiniaee ia aeaoae e i?. Ia 1-a yiaa?y 1993 a. a
O?A (“noa?ua caiee”, o.a. aac o/aoa caiaeue ia oa??eoi?ee auaoae AAe?)
aeaenoaiaaei 95 noaeia ii o?oaeiaui aeaeai, 35 aaeieieno?aoeaiuo noaeia,
50 noaeia ii nioeeaeueiui aeaeai e 14 oeiainiauo noaeia.

Noaeii ia?aie einoaioeee, eae i?aaeei, anaaaea yaeythony eeai o/anoeiaue
noae, eeai noae caiee. O/anoeiaue noae ai?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue
aieueoeinoai oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae. Noaeii?iecaiaenoai a yoeo
noaeao iau/ii inouanoaeyaony aaeeiiee/iui noaeueae. Noae caiee oaeaea
?anniao?eaaao a ii?yaeea ia?aie einoaioeee iaeioi?ua oaieiaiua e
a?aaeaeaineea aeaea e yaeyaony oaeaea aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae a
ioiioaiee o/anoeiauo noaeia. Aa?oiaiue noae caiee i?iaa?yao niioaaonoaea
auianaiiiai ?aoaiey eae oaeoe/aneie noi?iia aeaea, oae e niaethaeaiea
caeiia. oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay iaeaoa eiio?iee?oao oieueei niaethaeaiea
caeiia.

Ia 1-a yiaa?y 1993 a. a “noa?uo” caieyo O?A aeaenoaiaaee 555 o/anoeiauo
noaeia (eo /enei a ?acee/iuo caieyo iaiaeeiaeiai: io 108 a caiea
Aaaeai-Ath?oaiaa?a aei 3—a caiea ai?iae A?aiai), 94 noaea caiaeue e 30
aa?oiaiuo noaeia caiaeue.

Oeacaiiua auoa iyoue aunoeo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia, aicaeaaeythueo
ioaeaeueiua “aaoae” noaeaaiie aeanoe, naiinoiyoaeueiu e iacaaeneiu a
ioiioaiee ae?oa ae?oaa. Anee iaaeaeo ieie aicieeatho ?aciiaeaney ii
nouanoaaiiui i?aaiaui aii?inai, oi a niioaaonoaee n eiinoeoooeeae (no.
95) nicuaaaony niaianoiue Naiao auoaoiiiyioouo i?aaiia, eioi?ue auiineo
?aoaiey, iaania/eaathuea aaeeinoai noaeaaiie i?aeoeee.

I?aaiecaoeey e aeayoaeueiinoue i?ieo?aoo?u ia ?aaeaiaioe?oaony iniiaiui
caeiiii O?A. I?ieo?aoo?a i?aaiecaoeeiiii naycaia n noaeaie ?acee/iuo
einoaioeee: oaaea?aeueiay i?ieo?aoo?a ai aeaaa n oaaea?aeueiui
aaia?aeueiui i?ieo?i?ii iaoiaeeony i?e Oaaea?aeueiie noaeaaiie iaeaoa;
aaia?aeueiua i?ieo?aoo?u ai aeaaa n aaia?aeueiuie i?ieo?i?aie — i?e
aunoeo caiaeueiuo noaeao; i?ieo?aoo?u ai aeaaa n iaa?-i?ieo?i?aie — i?e
noaeao caiee; i?e o/anoeiauo noaeao — naie i?ieo?i?u. Aeieaeiinoiua
eeoea i?ieo?aoo?u iaycaiu eniieiyoue caeiiiua oeacaiey auoanoiyueo
i?ieo?i?ia. Iaaacuioa?anii, /oi ana oaaea?aeueiua i?ieo?i?u iaoiaeyony
iiae iauei ?oeiaiaenoaii ieieno?a thnoeoeee O?A. Iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai
i?ieo?i?ia a caieyo inouanoaeyao niioaaonoaothuee caiaeueiue ieieno?
thnoeoeee.

I?ieo?aoo?a i?iaiaeeo ?anneaaeiaaiea oaieiaiuo aeae ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoie e neiaeiie eaoaai?ee i?anooieaiee. Yoi aeaeaaony n iiiiuueth
iieeoeaeneeo neoaea. Iaaeiaiea i?aaeuyaeyaony i?ieo?aoo?ie; a ii aeaeai
/anoiiai iaaeiaiey — iioa?iaaoei, ii noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai ai anao
neo/ayo i?iaiaeeony n o/anoeai i?ieo?i?a. A i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii
neo/ayo i?aaenoaaeoaee i?ieo?aoo?u o/anoaotho e a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019