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Современная правовая система США

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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss

?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

THAEII-O?AEUeNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

O*AAIUE OeAIO?

AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI IA?ACIAAOAEUeIIAI O*A?AAEAeAIEss

OAEOEUeOAO: “________________________________”

II NIAOeEAEUeIINOE “____________________________________”

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

II I?AAeIAOO________________________________________________

IA OAIO:______________________________________________________

AUIIEIEE:

Nooaeaio__________________eo?na

A?oiiu_______________________

Oaieeey______________________

Eiy__________________________

Io/anoai______________________

I?IAA?EE:

Oaieeey______________________

Eiy__________________________

Io/anoai______________________

a . O??OAI?IUE

199__aiae

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea 2

1 Iniiaiua iiiyoey ee/iuo i?aa e naiaiae. 3

· i?aai ia aeeciue

· naiaiaea e ee/iay iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue

· aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe

· naiaiaea niaanoe

· iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aeeeeua

· oaeia ia?aienee

· naiaiaea ia?aaeaeaeaiey

2 E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiioeoooeee NOA.

3 Eiia?ann a i?aaiaie nenoaia NOA

· iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eioeeiia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae

· i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia ?aaiou eiia?anna

· caeiiaaeaoaeueiue i?ioeann

· aniiiaaaoaeueiua i?aaiu eiia?anna

4 I?aceaeaio NOA

· aeoea-i?aceaeaio

· eniieieoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea i?aceaeaioa

· eaaeiao ieieno?ia

5 Noaeaaiay aeanoue

· noaeiono?ienoai ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia

· noaeiono?ienoai a ooaoao

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

I?aaiaay nenoaia – yoi oeaeinoiue eiiieaen i?aaiauo yaeaiee,
iaoneiaeaiiue iauaeoeaiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie ?acaeoey iauanoaa,
iniciaiiue e iinoiyiii aini?iecaiaeeiue ethaeueie e eo i?aaiecaoeeyie
(ainoaea?noaii) e eniieuecoaiue eie aeey aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae.

I?aaiaia naiaia?acea no?ai iicaieyao aiai?eoue ia eo naiiauoiinoe, i
oii, /oi eaaeaeay ec ieo ia?acoao naith i?aaiaoth nenoaio –
niaieoiiinoue anao i?aaiauo yaeaiee (ii?i, o/?aaeaeaiee, ioiioaiee,
i?aainiciaiey), nouanoaothueo a aa ?aieao (i?aaiaay nenoaia a oceii
niunea). Iaeiaei ia?yaeo n iniaaiiinoyie, ioee/eyie, a yoeo i?aaiauo
nenoaiao iiaeii caiaoeoue e iauea /a?ou, yeaiaiou noiaenoaa, eioi?ua
iicaieytho eo a?oiie?iaaoue a “i?aaiaua naiuee” (i?aaiaua nenoaiu a
oe?ieii niunea), iauaaeeiythuea ianeieueei ?iaenoaaiiuo a i?aaiaii
ioiioaiee no?ai.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei e?eoa?eaa iauaaeeiaiey, eeanneoeeaoeee i?aaiauo
nenoai ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa.

1. Iauiinoue enoi?e/aneie noaeueau e enoi?e/aneeo ei?iae. Eia/a aiai?y,
nenoaiu naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie enoi?e/anee, eiatho iauea
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua ei?ie (i?iec?anoatho ec iaeiiai ae?aaiaai
ainoaea?noaa, iniiaaiu ia iaeieo e oao aea i?aaiauo ia/aeao, i?eioeeiao,
ii?iao).

2. Iauiinoue enoi/ieeia, oi?i cae?aieaiey e au?aaeaiey ii?i i?aaa.
Eiaaony a aeaeo aiaoiyy oi?ia i?aaa, oi, aaea e eae oeene?othony aai
ii?iu (a caeiiao, aeiaiai?ao, noaeaaiuo ?aoaieyo, iau/ayo), eo ?ieue,
cia/aiea, niioiioaiea.

3. No?oeoo?iia aaeeinoai, noiaenoai. I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai, aoiaeyueo a
iaeio i?aaiaoth naiueth, aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue noiaenoaii no?oeoo?iiai
iino?iaiey ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai iaoa?eaea. Eae i?aaeei, yoi iaoiaeeo
au?aaeaiea ia iee?io?iaia – ia o?iaia no?iaiey ii?iu i?aaa, aa
yeaiaioia, a oaeaea ia iae?io?iaia – ia o?iaia no?iaiey e?oiiuo aeieia
ii?iaoeaiiai iaoa?eaea (io?aneae, noaio?aneae, einoeoooia).

4. Iauiinoue i?eioeeiia ?aaoee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. A iaeieo
no?aiao yoi eaeae naiaiaeu noauaeoia, eo oi?iaeueiiai ?aaainoaa,
iauaeoeaiinoe i?aainoaeey e o.ae., a ae?oaeo – oaieiae/aneea,
?aeeaeiciua ia/aea (iai?eia?, ionoeueiaineea no?aiu), a o?aoueeo –
nioeeaeenoe/aneea, iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeenoe/aneea eaeae e o.i.

5. Aaeeinoai oa?ieiieiaee, th?eaee/aneeo eaoaai?ee e iiiyoee, a oaeaea
oaoieee eceiaeaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeee ii?i i?aaa. ?iaenoaaiiua a i?aaiaii
ioiioaiee no?aiu iau/ii eniieuecotho oiaeaeanoaaiiua eee noiaeiua ii
naiaio cia/aieth oa?ieiu, /oi iauyniyaony aaeeinoaii eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey.
Ii yoie aea i?e/eia caeiiiaeaoaee no?ai, aoiaeyueo a iaeio i?aaiaoth
nenoaio, i?e ?ac?aaioea i?aaiauo oaenoia i?eiaiytho iaeeiaeiaua
th?eaee/aneea eiino?oeoeee, niiniau iino?iaiey ii?iaoeaiiai iaoa?eaea,
aai oii?yaei/aiey, nenoaiaoecaoeee.

N o/aoii eceiaeaiiiai a iaoea auaeaeytho neaaeothuea i?aaiaua nenoaiu:

· aiaeinaeniineoth (Aiaeey, NOA, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey e
ae?.);

· ?iiaii-aa?iaineoth (no?aiu eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iiu, Eaoeineie Aia?eee,
iaeioi?ua no?aiu Ao?eee, a oaeaea Oo?oeey);

· ?aeeaeicii-i?aaiaua (no?aiu, eniiaaaeothuea a ea/anoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee eneai, eiaeoeci, eoaeaeci);

· nioeeaeenoe/aneoth (Eeoae, Aueaoiai, EIAe?, Eoaa);

· nenoaio iau/iiai i?aaa (yeaaoi?eaeueiay Ao?eea e Iaaeaaanea?).

A ooiaeaiaio nia?aiaiiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu NOA iieiaeaii o?e iniiaiuo
iieeoeei i?aaiauo i?eioeeia – ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, oaaea?aeeci e
noaeaaiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue iaaeci?.

I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ?aaeecoaiue /a?ac nenoaio “naea?aeae e
i?ioeaiaania”, i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaiecaoeeiiioth iacaaeneiinoue o?ao
“aaoaae” ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe – caeiiaaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie,
noaeaaiie – e ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo ieie niioaaonoaothueo ooieoeee. Ia
oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia o?e “aaoae” i?aaenoaaeaiu eiia?annii, i?aceaeaioii
e Aa?oiaiui noaeii.

Oaaea?aeeci – eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?eioeei, i?aaeiieaaathuee ioiineoaeueii
aeanoei ?aca?aie/aiea noa? eiiiaoaioeee oaaea?aeueiuo aeanoae e
aeanoae ooaoia, i?e yoii cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aa “noaa?aiiuo” ooaoia
ia?aaeaia oaaea?aeueiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao.

Noaeaaiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue iaaeci? – caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
noaeu eiatho i?aai i?eciaoue ia niioaaonoaothueie eiinoeoooeee e oai
naiui iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie caeiiu eiia?anna e aeou eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe.

Aunoei i?aaiii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iaaeci?a yaeyaony Aa?oiaiue
noae NOA. Aai ?aoaiey ii aii?inai oieeiaaiey eiinoeoooeee yaeythony
ieii/aoaeueiuie e iaycaoaeueiuie aeey anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Iniiaiua iiiyoey ee/iuo i?aa e naiaiae

Ee/iua i?aaa e naiaiaeu ii?aaeaeytho iieiaeaiea ee/iinoe eae oaeiaie.
Iie a aieueoae ia?a naycaiu n eiioeaioeeae anoanoaaiiuo i?aa /aeiaaea. E
eo /eneo ioiineony, i?aaeaea anaai, i?aai ia aeeciue. TH?eaee/anee yoi
icia/aao, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao auoue eeoai aeecie oieueei ii i?eaiai?o
noaea n iaycaoaeueiui o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. Iaeiaei ai
iiiaeo ainoaea?noaao (a oii /enea ii/oe ai anao, /oi aoiaeyo a Niaao
Aa?iiu) nia?oiay eaciue cai?auaia. Anoue, iaeiaei, yeno?ai?aeeia?iua
neo/ae eeoaiey aeecie, iai?eia? i?eiaiaiea i?oaeey /aniaui ia iinoo i?e
io?aia aiaiiiai iauaeoa; eiiaaea ?ac?aoaia yaoaiacey — eeoaiea aeecie
aeaoae-o?iaeia, yaeythueony iaaeecianiiniaiuie, ?iaeeaoeony aac
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeecie i?aaiia, a oaeaea eeoe, iaecea/eii aieueiuo.

Aaaeiaeoea i?aaa ee/iinoe — naiaiaea e ee/iay iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue,
oece/aneay e ineoe/aneay.

Ee/iay iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue icia/aao, /oi a?aiaiiia eeoaiea /aeiaaea
naiaiaeu (a?ano e iieeoeaeneia caaea?aeaiea) iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii
oieueei ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie e n iaycaoaeueiui niaethaeaieai
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii i?ioeaaeo?. A?ano aiciiaeai i?e aicaoaeaeaiee
oaieiaiiai aeaea n naieoeee noaeuee. Eae /anoiue neo/ae aiciiaeai
aeenoeeieeia?iue a?ano — niaea?aeaiea aiaiiineoaeauaai ia aaoi-oaaooa
(ia?a iaeacaiey).

N?aaee ee/iuo i?aa eiinoeoooeee iacuaatho aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe.
Cai?auathony iuoee (iieiaeaiey ia yoii niaea?aeaony a eiinoeoooeeyo
?yaea ?acaeaathueony no?ai), aeanoieia e iaaoiaiiia ia?auaiea,
oieaeathuaa /aeiaaea, iaaeeoeeineea e eiua yenia?eiaiou aac niaeaney
eeoea. A noaeaaiii ii?yaeea aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe io?aiyaony n iiiiuueth
iniaiai enea i caueoa aeinoieinoaa (iai?eia?, i?e inei?aeaiee a ia/aoe),
aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea ii iaaeiaieth a eeaaaoa, aeeooaiaoeee.
A?aaeaeaineee ene a neo/aa i?eciaiey noaeii aai iainiiaaiiinoe aea/ao
iaycaiiinoue ioaeeeaoeee ii?iaa?aeaiey, ecaeiaiey e auieaou enooeo
ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu a ea/anoaa eiiiainaoeee ii?aeueiiai oua?aa.

Eiinoeoooeee anao no?ai, a oii /enea e oao, aaea nouanoaoao
ainoaea?noaaiiay oea?eiaue (i aa iieiaeaiee aoaeao neacaii ieaea),
i?iaicaeaoatho naiaiaeo niaanoe. Yoio oa?iei eiaao enoi?e/aneea ei?ie:
ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia ie?iaicc?ai/aneea aii?inu auee oanii naycaiu n
?aeeaeae, n ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i ie?a, i i?aanoaaiiinoe.
Oaia?ue yoi i?aai eniiaaaeiaaoue ethaoth ?aeeaeth eee ia eniiaaaeiaaoue
ieeaeie (ioiineoueny e ?aeeaee iaeo?aeueii), aanoe i?iiaaaiaeo
?aeeaeiciuo e eiuo acaeyaeia (a eiinoeoooeeyo no?ai oioaeeoa?iiai
nioeeaeecia aiai?eony ia ia eiuo, a ia “aioe?aeeaeiciuo acaeyaeao”).
Ieeoi ia iaycai cayaeyoue i naieo ?aeeaeiciuo eee aioe?aeeaeiciuo
oaaaeaeaieyo (a no?aiao oioaeeoa?iiai nioeeaeecia yoi iaycaoaeueii aeey
/eaiia eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee e aa iieiaeaaeiie i?aaiecaoeee).

Iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aeeeeua eae i?aai ee/iinoe icia/aao, /oi aoiae a
aeeeeua iinoi?iiieo aiciiaeai oieueei n ?ac?aoaiey oicyeia (oa?iei
“aeeeeua” oieeoaony a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oe?iei: nthaea iiaoo
ioiineoueny e iiia?a a ainoeieoea). Aac oaeiai ?ac?aoaiey aoiae a
aeeeeua, iai?eia? aeey iaunea, auaiee eaeeo-eeai i?aaeiaoia,
aeieoiaioia, aiciiaeai eeoue ia iniiaaiee iinoaiiaeaiey noaeuee.
Auaatho, iaeiaei, yeno?aiiua neo/ae, eiaaea aeinooi a aeeeeua aiciiaeai
e aac ?ac?aoaiey (iai?eia?, aeey oooaiey iiaea?a, oa?iaeathuaai ia
oieueei oicyeio, ii e ae?oaei eeoeai). Aeey iaunea e auaiee iaiaoiaeeii
i?enoonoaea aeaoo iiiyouo — aani?eno?anoiuo naeaeaoaeae, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu oaeinoiaa?eoue i?ienoiaeyuaa e iiaeienaoueny iiae i?ioieieii,
oeene?othuei aeaenoaey e eo ?acoeueoao.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiui i?aaii ee/iinoe yaeyaony oaeia ia?aienee, oaeaoiiiuo e
oaeaa?aoiuo niiauaiee, niiauaiee ii oaeno, yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa e o.ae.
Iciaeiieaiea n ee/iie ei??aniiiaeaioeeae iiyoue-oaee aiciiaeii n
?ac?aoaiey noaeuee (eiaaony a aeaeo ia?aienea eeoe, iiaeic?aaaaiuo a
niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey). Oaeie aea ii?yaeie onoaiiaeai aeey
i?ineooeaaiey oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia, ii a iaieo neo/ayo noaeuea
aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeeo ia?.
Iacaeiiiia i?ineooeaaiea oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia naieo iieeoe/aneeo
i?ioeaieeia ecae?aoaeueiui ooaaii i?aceaeaioa Ieeniia (i /ai ii ciae)
i?eaaei a 1974 a. aia?aua a enoi?ee NOA e ionoaaea i?aceaeaioa (iiae
oa?icie eiie/iaioa, o.a. io?aoaiey io aeieaeiinoe ia?eaiaioii iooai
iniaie i?ioeaaeo?u, e iineaaeothuaai oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna). Yoi

aeaei oe?iei ecaanoii eae “Oioa?aaeo” (ii iacaaieth ianoiinoe, aaea
?aniieaaaeny ecae?aoaeueiue ooaa aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee).

Naiaiaea ia?aaeaeaeaiey ii oa??eoi?ee no?aiu e auai? ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa
— iaiouaieaiia i?aai /aeiaaea. Iii iiaeao auoue ia?aie/aii ia iniiaaiee
caeiia aeey eiino?aioeaa (iai?eia?, iie ia aeiioneathony aeey
iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey a aiaiiua ai?iaeee). Ia?aie/aiey a oeaeyo
iaania/aiey aiaiiie oaeiu iiaoo auoue aaaaeaiu e aeey ioaeaeueiuo
eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea a ciiao yeieiae/aneeo aaaenoaee, ianniauo
caaieaaaiee, a oneiaeyo /?acau/aeiiai iieiaeaiey.

Eeoei ai?aaa a ethaia a?aiy yiea?e?iaaoue, a a?aaeaeaiei — e
aica?aoeoueny a naith no?aio. Iieiaeaiey ia yoii iniaaiii oa?aeoa?iu
aeey iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo eiinoeoooeee, iineieueeo a no?aiao
oioaeeoa?iiai nioeeaeecia oaeia i?aai ia i?eciaaaeinue. Iaeiaei
nouanoaotho ia?aie/aiey ia auacae ec no?aiu: anee eeoei i?ecaaii ia
aiaiioth eee aeueoa?iaoeaioth neoaeao, yaeyaony iaaeiyaiui,
inoaeaeaiiui, ciaao ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio, niiaueei i naaa eiaeiua
naaaeaiey i?e ioi?ieaiee aeieoiaioia ia yiea?aoeeth.

Iiiaea eiinoeoooeeiiiua i?aaa ee/iinoe naycaiu n noaeaaiie noa?ie. Yoi
i?aai naiaiaeiiai aeinooia e noaeo, i?aai ia iieo/aiea
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie th?eaee/aneie iiiiue, i?acoiioeey iaaeiiaiinoe, i?aai
iaaeiyaiiai ia caueoo e ae?.

E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiioeoooeee NOA

Eiioeaioeey i?aa /aeiaaea, eaaeauay a iniiaa eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey NOA, enoiaeeo ec eaeae i anoanoaaiiuo e iaio/oaeaeaaiuo
i?aaao. Iieeoe/aneea i?aaa a?aaeaeaieia auee aeeth/aiu a eiinoeoooeeth
aiineaaenoaee, a i nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo i?aaao a
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo oaenoao aiiaua ia aiai?eony (ca eneeth/aieai iii?aaee V
i aa?aioeyo /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe). Yoe i?aaa ia n/eoathony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie e ia iaania/eaathony noaeaaiie caueoie iooai eneia —
caueuathony eeoue i?iecaiaeiua io ieo i?aaa, iai?eia?, i?aai ia iieaoo
o?oaea, a ia naii i?aai ia o?oae. Yoe i?iaaeu eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey caiieiythony ioaeaeueiuie caeiiaie. ?a/ue eaeao, iai?eia?,
i ianeieueeeo caeiiao i a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaao, i?eiyouo a 50—60-a aiaeu,
i noaeaaiuo i?aoeaaeaioao (iniaaiii i ?aoaieyo Aa?oiaiiai noaea NOA),
eiinoeoooeeyo ooaoia (iiiaea ec ieo niaea?aeao oa?oee a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa), i caeiiao ooaoia. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo caeiiia niaea?aeao iiaua
eiinoeoooeeiiiua iieiaeaiey, iai?eia? i?aai ia eioi?iaoeeth, ia
caei?iaoth ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

Ia?aui eiinoeoooeeiiiui aeieoiaioii, a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue i i?aaao
ee/iinoe a NOA, auea oiiiyiooay auoa Aeaeea?aoeey iacaaeneiinoe 1776 a.,
a eioi?ie cayaeyeinue i iaiouaieaiuo i?aaao /aeiaaea —i i?aaa ia
aeeciue, naiaiaeo e no?aieaiea e n/anoueth. Caeanue aia?aua auei
noi?ioee?iaaii e eieeaeoeaiia i?aai ia?iaea ia ainnoaiea i?ioea
oaiaoaiey (eiaeinue a aeaeo eieiieaeueiia oaiaoaiea ni noi?iiu ei?iiu
Aaeeeia?eoaiee).

Eiinoeoooeey 1787 a. (n iii?aaeaie) cae?aieyao ee/iua naiaiaeu ia
noieueei a iauae, neieueei a eiie?aoece?iaaiiie oi?ia. E?iia
/?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee iia cai?auaao i?einoaiaaeeaaoue aeaenoaea i?aaeea
oaaaan ei?ion, i?aaeienuaaao ?anniao?eaaoue ana aeaea i i?anooieaieyo n
o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, cai?auaao i?eieiaoue caeiiu ia iiaea
(iaeacaiee aac noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa) e caeiiu, eiathuea ia?aoioth
neeo. Eiinoeoooeey cai?auaao eeoaoue a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa /eaiia naiae oao
eeoe, eioi?ua inoaeaeaiu ca ainoaea?noaaiioth eciaio, eneeth/aao
i?iaa?eo ?aeeaeiciuo oaaaeaeaiee a ea/anoaa oneiaey aeey caiyoey
eaeie-eeai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeieaeiinoe.

Aeeeue i i?aaao oiaea enoiaeeo ec eiioeaioeee anoanoaaiiuo i?aa. Iiyoiio
aai oi?ioee?iaee iinyo cai?aoeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oae eae cai?auatho
ia?aie/eaaoue i?aaa e naiaiaeu, eioi?ua ?acthie?othony. Yoi ioiineony e
e iieeoe/aneei i?aaai. Aeeeue onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi eiia?ann ia aeieaeai
ecaeaaaoue caeiiu, ia?aie/eaathuea naiaiaeo neiaa, ia/aoe, nia?aiee
(ie?iuo e aac i?oaeey), i?aai ia?iaea iineoue e o?aieoue i?oaeea, i?aai
ia?auaoueny e i?aaeoaeuenoao n iaoeoeeyie. Niaeanii Aeeeth i i?aaao,
iaania/eaaaony naiaiaea niaanoe, io?aia ee/iinoe, aoiaa (aeieoiaioia,
ia?aienee e ae?.), eiouanoaa, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony noae i?enyaeiuo ia
oieueei ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, ii e ii ii?aaeaeaiiie eaoaai?ee
a?aaeaeaineeo aeae, i?aai iaaeiyaiiai ia caueoo, i?aai ioeacuaaoueny io
aea/e iieacaiee i?ioea naiiai naay. Ia aeiioneaaony aeaieiia iaeacaiea
ca iaeii e oi aea i?anooieaiea, cai?auaaony o?aaiaaoue aieueoie caeia ii
noaeaaiui aeaeai, iaeaaaoue /?acia?iua oo?aou, i?eiaiyoue aeanoieea e
iaiau/iua iaeacaiey.

E?iia Aeeey i i?aaao a aeaeueiaeoai auei i?eiyoi ieiei 10 iii?aaie,
eioi?ua eanathony i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea. Iaeiaei a oeaeii Aeaeea?aoeey
iacaaeneiinoe, eiinoeoooeey NOA e iii?aaee e iae ia niaea?aeao oiai
ia?a/iy i?aa e naiaiae, eioi?ue niioaaonoaiaae au iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
noaiaea?oai — Anaiauae aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea, i?eiyoie III a 1948
a., Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui iaeoai i i?aaao /aeiaaea, anooieaoei a neeo a 1976
a. Eae ioia/aeinue, yoe iaaeinoaoee oioy e ia iieiinoueth, ii
ainiieiythony eiinoeoooeeyie ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia, oaaea?aeueiuie
caeiiaie, noaeaaiuie i?aoeaaeaioaie.

Ana iiiaiia?acea cae?aieaiiuo a eiinoeoooeee i?aa e naiaiae iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu. Yoi aeaeaiea iniiauaaaony ia ia th?eaee/aneie
i?e?iaea yoeo i?aa, a ia oa?aeoa?a eo eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?eciaiey e
th?eaee/aneie nenoaia eo caueou. Ia?aay a?oiia — iniiaiua i?aaa e
naiaiaeu (naeoeey 1 aeaau 2 /anoe 1 — noaouee n 15 ii 29). Iia aeeth/aao
i?aai ia aeeciue, ia naiaiaeo, ia ?aaainoai ia?aae caeiiii e iiiaea
ae?oaea, a oaeaea cai?auaiea eaeie-eeai aeene?eieiaoeee (no. 14). Aoi?ay
a?oiia — i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe a?aaeaeai (naeoeey 2 oie aea aeaau —
noaouee n 30 ii 38). Caeanue iiaeii ioiaoeoue i?aai nianoaaiiinoe e
naiaiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. O?aouey a?oiia — i?aaa e
naiaiaeu aeaaiui ia?acii eoeueoo?iiai e nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,
niaea?aeaueany a o?aoueae aeaaa ia?aie /anoe eiinoeoooeee “Ia iniiaiuo
i?eioeeiao nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee”. Ia?aay a?oiia i?aa e
naiaiae aeaenoaoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ioiioaiee a?aaeaeai e iineaaeiea
iiaoo yoe i?aaa caueuaoue ia iniiaa n?i/iie e auno?ie i?ioeaaeo?u, a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, iooai iiaea/e aeaeiau a Eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae (i.
2 no. 53). Aoi?ay a?oiia i?aa e naiaiae, eae ai?i/ai, e ia?aay, aeieaeia
?aaoee?iaaoueny caeiiaie, yoe i?aaa aeieaeiu niaethaeaoueny anaie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeanoyie. Yoi a?oiia, eae e ia?aay, iiaeao
iiaeiaaeaoue iiae eiio?ieue Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaea. Eniieiaiea e caueoa
i?aa e naiaiae o?aoueae a?oiiu aiceaaaaony ia oaeouaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, noaeaaioth i?aeoeeo e aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae. Iineaaeiea iiaoo nnuiaoueny oieueei ia ?aoaiey
noaeaaiie aeanoe, auianaiiua a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,
eioi?ia iie ?acaeaatho.

Eiia?ann a i?aaiaie nenoaia NOA

Oaeaea ianiiiaiii aieueooth ?ieue a nia?aiaiiie i?aaiaie nenoaia ea?aao
eiia?ann NOA — aunoee i?aaenoaaeoaeueiue e caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai.
Ninoieo ec aeaoo iaeao — iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae e naiaoa.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae

A iniiao oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiaie nenoaiu iieiaeai i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. Niaeanii yoiio i?eioeeio, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiia?anno, eniieieoaeueiay — i?aceaeaioo, noaeaaiay —
Aa?oiaiiio e ieaeanoiyuei oaaea?aeueiui noaeai.

Ii eiinoeoooeee, ana o?e aaoae aeanoe oi?ie?othony ?acee/iui ia?acii.
Eiia?ann ecae?aaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianaeaieai, i?aceaeaio — eieeaaeae
auai?ueeia, Aa?oiaiue noae — niaianoii i?aceaeaioii e naiaoii. ?acee/iu
n?iee eo iieiiii/ee. I?aaenoaaeoaee ecae?athony ia aeaa, naiaoi?u — ia
oanoue, i?aceaeaio — ia /aou?a aiaea; oaaea?aeueiua noaeuee i?aauaatho a
aeieaeiinoe iiaeeciaiii. Ii eiaeea Eiinoeoooeee, iiaeiaiue ii?yaeie
oi?ie?iaaiey aeieaeai aue cae?aieoue iacaaeneiia iieiaeaiea eaaeaeie ec
o?ao aaoaae aeanoe e ooaa?aeeoue ca ieie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo e aeanoei
i/a?/aiiuo ?aieao niioaaonoaothuoth ooieoeeiiaeueioth eiiiaoaioeeth.
Iaeiaei ?acaeoea iioei ii ae?oaiio iooe. A naiie Eiinoeoooeee auee
caeiaeaiu ii?iu, o?ainoi?ie?othuea o?aaeeoeeiiioth noaio ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. A aeaeueiaeoai iie auee iaiieiaiu iiaui niaea?aeaieai,
eciaieaoei oo iiaeaeue, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyeanue “iooeai-iniiaaoaeyi”.
Yoi eanaaony eae noa? aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e oi?i acaeiiioiioaiee o?ao
aaoaae aeanoe.

Nianoaaiii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iiaeao eaeoe ?a/ue i eaeii-eeai
aaniethoiii ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae eeai i /aoeii ?acaeaeaiee eo
eiiiaoaioeee. Eiia?ann oo?aoee eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue. Ca i?aceaeaioii e iiiaeie aaaeiinoaaie
cae?aieaii i?aai ia i?eiyoea ii?iioai?/aneeo aeoia. Iii auaiaeeony eeai
ec “i?enoueo” i?aceaeaioo iieiiii/ee, eeai aeaeaae?oaony naiei
eiia?annii.

Ii nooe caeiiioai?/aneie yaeyaony e aeayoaeueiinoue noaeaaiie aeanoe. A
i?aaiaoth nenoaio eiinoeoooeeiiiua e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu
i?aeiouanoaaiii aoiaeyo a aeaea i?aoeaaeaioia — noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee, a
eioi?uo aeaii oieeiaaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiuo e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i e
eioi?ui noaeu aeieaeiu neaaeiaaoue i?e ?ac?aoaiee noiaeiuo aeae.

Ia inoaaony iai?eeiniiaaiiie e noa?a ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Oae, iai?eia?, noaeu eiatho i?aai ecaeaaaoue
i?eeacu, iaycuaathuea aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu auiieieoue eeai
aicaea?aeaoueny io auiieiaiey oao eee eiuo aeaenoaee. A naith i/a?aaeue,
eiia?ann, i?eieiay ?aciethoeee eee /anoiua aeeee (ni. ieaea),
inouanoaeyao a iaeioi?ie noaiaie ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey a
ioiioaiee eae iiae/eiaiiuo, oae e ia iiae/eiaiiuo aio i?aaiia e eeoe.

Iiaeiaiia ia?aieaoaiea ooieoeee neoaeeo oeaee aieaa iieiiai
i?eniiniaeaiey iaoaiecia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeanoe e caaea/ai e
o?aaiaaieyi, eioi?ua iinoaaeaiu ?acaeoeai iauanoaa.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae aeiiieiyaony e ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai nenoaiu “naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania”, iniauo
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo iaoiaeia e oi?i, iicaieythueo iaeo?aeeciaaoue eeai
naea?aeaoue aeaenoaey eaeie-eeai ec aaoaae aeanoe. A ?oeao eiia?anna
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey auea “aeanoue eioaeueea”.
I?aceaeaioo, a naith i/a?aaeue, auei i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai aaoi, eioi?ia
eiia?ann iia i?aiaeieaoue eeoue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui aieueoeinoaii
aieinia. Iaeiiaoe, Aa?oiaiue noae NOA aue iaaeaeai i?aaii
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai iaaeci?a. Iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie aai neoaeeei
ii?iaoeaiia, a aeaea i?aoeaaeaioia, oieeiaaiea Eiinoeoooeee NOA, a
n?aaenoaii i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee — i?aai ioeaca a i?eiaiaiee oao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i (e oaaea?aoeee, e ooaoia), eioi?ua i?ioeai?a/eee
Eiinoeoooeee NOA, oae, eae iia i?aaenoaaeyeanue noaeo.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu ?aaiou eiia?anna

Nanneiiiay oi?ia ?aaiou eiia?anna, Ia?aay nanney eiia?anna ia/eiaaony 3
yiaa?y neaaeothuaai iinea auai?ia aiaea. A aeaeueiaeoai oiae nannee
ii?aaeaeyaony naiei eiia?annii, ii n oie nouanoaaiiie iaiai?eie, /oi ai
a?aiy aa i?iaaaeaiey ie iaeia ec iaeao ia iiaeao aac niaeaney ae?oaie
ioeiaeeoue naie canaaeaiey aieaa /ai ia o?aoaeiaaiue n?ie eeai
i?iaiaeeoue eo a eiii ianoa, /ai oi, aaea canaaeatho iaa iaeaou (Eiino.,
no. 1, ?acae. 5). I?e /?acau/aeiii iieiaeaiee i?aai nicuaa iaaeo iaeao
eee iaeiie ec ieo i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aceaeaioo NOA (Eiino., no. II, ?acae.
3).

I?a?uaaaony nanney i?eiyoeai ?aoaiey i ia?aiina canaaeaiee ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie eeai ia iaii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. Iineaaeiaa ?aoaiea
oaeoe/anee icia/aao ieii/aiea nannee, yaeyaony iauyaeaieai ia?eaiaioneeo
eaieeoe.

Canaaeaiey iaeao i?iaiaeyony ioe?uoi, ii aeiioneaaony i?iaaaeaiea
cae?uouo canaaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, a naiaoa canaaeaiey i?iaiaeyony “ca
cae?uouie aeaa?yie” ii ?aoaieth aieueoeinoaa iaeaou, anee i?aaeeiaeaiea
ia yoii aianaii naiaoi?ii e iiaeaea?aeaii ii e?aeiae ia?a aua iaeiei
/eaiii iaeaou. Canaaeaiey iaeao n/eoathony i?aaiii/iuie i?e iaee/ee
eai?oia, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao aieueoeinoai /eaiia iaeaou (Eiino., no. 1,
?acae. 5). I?e ionoonoaee eai?oia iaeaou iiaoo i?eioaeeoaeueii
iaania/eoue yaeo ionoonoaothueo /eaiia, ioaeaa niioaaonoaothuea
?anii?yaeaiey i?enoaaai iaeao.

A caeao iaeao iai?oaeiaaiu niaoeeaeueiua aaea?ae — ioaeaeueii aeey
ioaeeee e aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?annu. I?yiay o?aineyoeey ec caeia iaeao
inouanoaeyaony ii eaiaeai eaaaeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey Ne-Niyi e Ne-Niyi-2.
Iauee iauai aauaiey ieiei 2 oun. /ania a aiae.

Nanney iaeao neeaaeuaaaony ec caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeiae ni no?iai
onoaiiaeaiiui ii?yaeeii eo i?iaaaeaiey. Niaeanii Iinoiyiiui i?aaeeai
naiaoa, eaaeaeiaeiaaiue ii?yaeie ?aaiou iaeaou ninoieo ec neaaeothueo
noaaeee. Canaaeaiea ioe?uaaao iieeoaa eaiaeeaia naiaoa. Aneaae ca yoei
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuee caieiaao naia ianoi e i?e oneiaee iaee/ey
eai?oia i?enooiaao e /oaieth e eni?aaeaieth iaoi/iinoae a caienyo
aeo?iaea ca i?ioaaeoee caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeaiue. Ii caaa?oaiee oeacaiiie
i?ioeaaeo?u naiao i?enooiaao e neaaeothuae noaaeee — “oo?aiiei
aii?inai”, eioi?ua aeeth/atho ?anniio?aiea iineaiee i?aceaeaioa,
aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee aeaa aeaia?oaiaioia (ieienoa?noa) e eiuo
niiauaiee naiaoo, a oaeaea oao caeiiii?iaeoia, ?aciethoeee e eiuo
iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua inoaeenue ia?anniio?aiiuie “ia noiea i?aaenaaeaoaey”
n i?aaeuaeouaai aeiy. Caaa?oaao noaaeeth “oo?aiieo aii?inia” aianaiea
neaaeothueo aeieoiaioia: iaoeoeee e i?ioaiee, aeieeaaeia iinoiyiiuo
eiieoaoia, caeiiii?iaeoia, niaianoiuo ?aciethoeee e eiuo ?aciethoeee
naiaoa. I?aai i?aaenoaaeoue eo naiaoo a oeacaiiie auoa i/a?aaeiinoe
i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieueei naiaoi?ai. Aneaae ca yoei, iinea iieoaeiy, naiao
ia?aoiaeeo e iineaaeiae noaaeee — ?anniio?aieth iiaanoee aeiy ii
“Eaeaiaea?th caeiiii?iaeoia e ?aciethoeee” eee ii “Eaeaiaea?th aii?inia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a naiao ia ooaa?aeaeaiea eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth”.
?anii?yaeie aeiy iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiaao a oeaeii iaeicia/eoaeueiua
ioee/ey. Oae, iai?eia?, iaeaoie onoaiiaeaiu iniaua aeie canaaeaiee aeey
ianoaeaeaiey /anoiuo aeeeae e caeiiii?iaeoia ii aii?inai i Oaaea?aeueiii
ie?oaa Eieoiaey. Iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiaao /aou?a eaeaiaea?y.
“Nithciue eaeaiaea?ue” aeeth/aao ioaee/iua aeeee, i?yii eee einaaiii
naycaiiua n anneaiiaaieyie. Iie iaeaaeatho i?eaeeaaeae auoue
iinoaaeaiiuie ia ianoaeaeaiea i?aeoe/anee a ethaia a?aiy canaaeaiee
iaeaou. “Eaeaiaea?ue iaeaou” niaea?aeeo ioaee/iua aeeee, ia naycaiiua n
anneaiiaaieyie. A “*anoiue eaeaiaea?ue” caiinyony /anoiua aeeee.
“Eaeaiaea?ue niaeaney” aeeth/aao iaeicia/eoaeueiua e ia aucuaathuea
eaeeo-eeai aic?aaeaiee caeiiii?iaeou. Ianoaeaeaiea eo i?ioiaeeo ii
oi?iuaiiie i?ioeaaeo?a.

Oi?iaeueii caeiiii?iaeou, ?aciethoeee e eiua aeieoiaiou iiaeeaaeao
?anniio?aieth a oie i/a?aaeiinoe, a eioi?ie iie auee aianaiu a
eaeaiaea?ue. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea iia ei??aeoe?oaony i?aaeeaie “Ii?yaeea
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe”. Onoaiiaeaiiua ia iniiaa iau/aaa, i?aoeaaeaioia e
iaeioi?uo iieiaeaiee ?aaeaiaioia, iie iicaieytho ?oeiaiaenoao iaeao
i?iaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua e nieiaoue n iiaanoee iaoaiaeiua caeiiii?iaeou.

A?iiicaeeee ii?yaeie aaaeaiey aeae i?aaeii?aaeaeee iniaua oi?iu aai
oi?iuaiey. Iai?eia?, a naiaoa eniieuecoaony iaoaieci i?iaeeaiey
canaaeaiey ia iineaaeothuea eaeaiaea?iua aeie. Oai naiui
caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeaiue ?anoyaeaaaony ia ianeieueei aeiae, /oi
iicaieyao naiaoo, a ia?ooaiea i?aaee, i?iaeieaeeoue ?anniio?aiea
iacaeii/aiiuo aeae. A yoeo aea oeaeyo a iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eae,
ai?i/ai, e a naiaoa, i?eiaiyaony, n niaeaney aeaoo o?aoae aeaiooaoia,
i?ioeaaeo?a i?einoaiiaee aeaenoaey i?aaee. Iia iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
iioa?e a?aiaie ia ianoaeaeaiea iaeicia/eoaeueiuo aii?inia e oi?inoeoue
ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey aeae. Iiiaea i?ioeaaeo?iua i?aaeea i?inoi
iaoiaeyony ii “aaeeiiaeooiiio niaeaneth” naiaoi?ia e /eaiia iaeaou
i?aaenoaaeoaeae.

Aeaaaou ?aaeaiaioe?othony i?aaeeaie iaeao neaaeothuei ia?acii. A naiaoa
naiaoi?, aeaeathuee aunooieoue, aeieaeai anoaoue e ia?aoeoueny e
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaio ca ?ac?aoaieai. I?aaenaaeaoaeue i?aaeinoaaeyao
neiai oiio ec naiaoi?ia, eoi ia?aui ia?aoeeny e iaio. A oiaea aeaaaoia
aac ?ac?aoaiey naiaoa ieeoi ia ai?aaa aunooiaoue a oa/aiea eaeaiaea?iiai
aeiy aieaa aeaoo ?ac. I?aaeea naiaoa oaeoe/anee ia ia?aie/eaatho
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaaaoia. Ia o?aaotho iie e oiai, /oiau
aunooieaiey eanaeenue oieueei ianoaeaeaaiiai aii?ina. Aunooiathuee
iiaeao aiai?eoue ia ethaoth oaio, /eoaoue ethaie oaeno — ec Aeaeee,
aacao, aeo?iaeia. Naiaoi? ia iiaeao auoue eeoai neiaa, anee ei ia
ia?ooai ?aaeaiaio. I?a?aaoue oiae aeaaaoia iiaeao ?aoaiea i i?ae?auaiee
aeaaaoia. Ii i?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey aai aeinoaoi/ii neiaeia. Iaoeoeey i
i?ae?auaiee aeaaaoia aeieaeia auoue iiaeienaia ia iaiaa /ai 16
naiaoi?aie. Ia aieiniaaiea iia noaaeony /a?ac iaeei eaeaiaea?iue aeaiue.
Aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey iaiaoiaeeii niaeanea ii e?aeiae ia?a o?ao iyouo
i?enoonoaothueo naiaoi?ia (i?e iieiii ninoaaa — 60 ec 100 naiaoi?ia).
Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea ia i?eiyoi, a?aiy aeaaaoia inoaaony iaia?aie/aiiui.
Aii?in, i?iaeieaeay inoaaaoueny a eaeaiaea?a, ioiaeaeaaaony
ianoaeaeaieai ae?oaeo aeae. Anee aea ?aoaiea i i?ae?auaiee aeaaaoia
anooieei a neeo, eaaeaeia aunooieaiea ii ianoaeaeaaiiio aii?ino
ia?aie/eaaaony iaeiei /anii. A?aiy aeaaaoia ?ani?aaeaeyaony ii?iaio
iaaeaeo ia?oeyie aieueoeinoaa e iaiueoeinoaa a iaeaoa. Ii enoa/aiee 100
/ania ianoaeaeaiey aii?in noaaeony ia aieiniaaiea.

A ioee/ea io naiaoa a iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunooiathuea a aeaaaoao ia
iiaoo ioeeiiyoueny io ianoaeaeaaiiai aii?ina. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eo
aunooieaiee ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue iaeiiai /ana ii iniiaiiio aii?ino,
i?e ianoaeaeaiee iii?aaie — 5 ieioo. A?aiy aeaaaoia ?ani?aaeaeyaony
ii?iaio iaaeaeo ia?oeyie aieueoeinoaa e iaiueoeinoaa a iaeaoa. Aeaaaou
i?a?uaathony, anee iaeaoie i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i ia?aoiaea e aieiniaaieth.

I?ioiaeaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoia e ?aciethoeee caaa?oaaony i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee
ii nouanoao. ?aoaiey i?eieiathony i?inoui aieueoeinoaii aieinia, ii a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Eiinoeoooeeae eee i?aaeeaie iaeao,
iaiaoiaeeii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia aieueoeinoai a aeaa o?aoe eee o?e iyouo
aieinia aeaiooaoia. A eiia?anna i?eiaiythony iyoue niiniaia aieiniaaiey.
I?e aieiniaaiee aieinii ?acoeueoaou ii?aaeaeythony
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuei ii neea aue?eeia /eaiia iaeaou. I?e aieiniaaiee
?acaeaeaieai /eaiu iaeaou iiaeieiathony n iano e ia?an/eouaathony,
niioaaonoaaiii, nae?aoa?ai naiaoa eee eea?eii iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae.
I?e aieiniaaiee n/ao/eeaie aeaiooaou i?ioiaeyo iaaeaeo n/ao/eeaie,
iacia/aiiuie ec /eaiia iaeaou, e ia?an/eouaathony. Iniaua o?aaiaaiey
onoaiiaeaiu a ioiioaiee aieiniaaiey iin?aaenoaii iieiaiiie ia?aeee/ee.
I?iaiaeeony iii a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Eiinoeoooeeae eee
?aaeaiaioii, a oaeaea ii o?aaiaaieth 1/5 i?enoonoaothueo /eaiia iaeaou.
Aieina, iiaeaiiua ca (“aea”) eee i?ioea (“iao”), caiinyony a aeo?iae
iaeaou. Ia?aaeei iieiaiiia aieiniaaiea i?iaiaeeony iin?aaenoaii
yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu iiaen/aoa aieinia. Oaeiia aieiniaaiea (atheeaoaiyie)
i?iaiaeeony oieueei a neo/aa eca?aiey i?aceaeaioa a ii?yaeea
yeno?ai?aeeia?iie i?ioeaaeo?u, i?e auai?ao eeaea?ia ia?oeeiuie
o?aeoeeyie e i?e auai?ao i?aaenaaeaoaeae iinoiyiiuo eiieoaoia iaeao.

Eiieoaoneay oi?ia ?aaiou eiia?anna. Ii?yaeie aeayoaeueiinoe iinoiyiiuo
eiieoaoia iaeao ?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?aaeeaie naiaoa e iaeaou
i?aaenoaaeoaeae, a oaeaea i?aaeeaie naieo eiieoaoia.

Iinoiyiiua eiieoaou iaeao i?iaiaeyo canaaeaiey ia ?aaea iaeiiai ?aca a
ianyoe. Aiai/a?aaeiua canaaeaiey iiaoo auoue nicaaiu eeai
i?aaenaaeaoaeai eiieoaoa, eeai — a neo/aa aai aic?aaeaiee — a ii?yaeea
iniaie i?ioeaaeo?u. Oae, iai?eia?, a naiaoa o?aaiaaiea i i?iaaaeaiee
canaaeaiey iiaeao auoue auaeaeiooi ii e?aeiae ia?a o?aiy /eaiaie
eiieoaoa. Anee a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae i?aaenaaeaoaeue ia i?eiao ?aoaiey i
i?iaaaeaiee canaaeaiey a inoaaoeany naiue aeiae ni aeiy iiaea/e
cayaeaiey, naiaoi?u ninoaaeytho ecaauaiea n oeacaieai oeaee, aeiy e /ana
aai i?iaaaeaiey. A oii neo/aa, anee iiae iei aoaeoo nia?aiu iiaeiene
aieueoeinoaa /eaiia eiieoaoa, canaaeaiea i?iaiaeeony a oeacaiiia a
ecaauaiee a?aiy.

Canaaeaiey eiieoaoa i?aaiii/iu i?e iaee/ee eai?oia, eioi?ue, ii iauaio
i?aaeeo, ninoaaeytho iaeia o?aoue /eaiia eiieoaoa.

Aii?inu, iinooieaoea a eiieoao, i?ioiaeyo o?e yoaia. Ia ia?aii eiieoao
?anniao?eaaao eo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii, onoaiaaeeaay noaiaiue aaaeiinoe e a
nayce n yoei ii?yaeie eo ?anniio?aiey. Caoai, ia?aaeei iinea aeieeaaea
iiaeeiieoaoa, neaaeoao ?anniio?aiea aeaea ii nouanoao, a oiaea eioi?iai
i?iaiaeyony neooaiey. Aucaaiiua ii iiaanoea naeaeaoaee e eeoea,
i?aaeeaaathuea naie yenia?oiua ioeaiee, aeatho iieacaiey. Eiieoao
i?iniao?eaaao aeieoiaioaoeeth, aoaeei- e aeaeaicaiene, eiathuea
ioiioaiea e ianoaeaeaaiiio aii?ino. A iaaeo iaeaoao anoue ia?aaeaeaeiua
aeaeainenoaiu, oaeaiiieoi?u, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu ii ia?aiio
o?aaiaaieth.

Eae i?aaeei, neooaiey i?iaiaeyony ioe?uoi. Ia?aaeei o?ainee?othony ii
oaeaaeaeaieth. A neo/ayo, iniai i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ?aaeaiaioaie iaeao,
neooaiey i?iaiaeyony “ca cae?uouie aeaa?yie”. Oae, iai?eia?, a naiaoa
cae?uoua canaaeaiey eiieoaoia i?iaiaeyony i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nio?aiaiey
a oaeia eioi?iaoeee, ioiinyuaeny e ainoaea?noaaiiie aaciianiinoe;
naaaeaiee, eioi?ua iiaoo iaianoe oua?a /anoe e aeinoieinoao eeoe;
aeaiiuo, ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneoth oaeio e o.ae. Iineaaeiyy noaaeey —
ianoaeaeaiea, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ii nouanoao e ooaa?aeaeaiea aeieeaaea
eiieoaoa ii ianoaeaeaaiiio aii?ino.

A oaeno aeieeaaea eiieoaoa aeeth/athony iiaiey iaiueoeinoaa, a oaeaea
iniaua iiaiey /eaiia eiieoaoa. Iiieii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i i?eiyoee eee
ioeeiiaiee i?iaeoa aeieeaae aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue ioeaieo aiciiaeiuo
athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia, iauaai /enea iiiaaeathueo iiae aai aeaenoaea
i?aaei?eyoee e eeoe, yeiiiie/aneiai aai aeeyiey e aicaeaenoaey ia
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iie aeecie (“i?aeaane”).

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?ioeann

I?ioeann aianaiey caeiiii?iaeoia aeiaieueii i?ino. A iaeaoa
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaeno caeiiii?iaeoa iioneaaony a niaoeeaeueiue yue/ae —
“oiiia?”, eioi?ue noieo ia noiea o eea?ea iaeaou. A naiaoa, n ?ac?aoaiey
i?aaenaaeaoaey iaeaou, yoa i?ioeaaeo?a ai a?aiy “oo?aiiaai canaaeaiey”
nii?iaiaeaeaaony e?aoeie ?a/ueth naiaoi?a. Ia i?aaeeaaay i?iaeoa caeiia
ii nouanoao, naiaoi?u e eiia?anniaiu iiaoo ia?aie/eoueny aianaieai a
iaeaoo iaoeoeee i ?anniio?aiee niioaaonoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A
yoii neo/aa ?ac?aaioea caeiiii?iaeoa ii?o/aaony iinoiyiiiio eiieoaoo
eeai naie oneoae i?aaeinoaaeytho anaaiciiaeiua eiaaenoneea i?aaiecaoeee,
caeioa?aniaaiiua a oii eee eiii ?aoaiee aii?ina.

Iinea ioeoeeaeueiiai aianaiey i?iaeoa ii ?ania/aouaaaony ia
niaoeeaeueiii oeiia?aoneii aeaiea, a eioi?ii oeacuaathony ii?yaeeiaue
iiia? e e?aoeia iaeiaiiaaiea caeiiii?iaeoa, a oaeaea /eaiu iaeaou,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeee e iiaeaea?aeaee i?iaeo (a iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae eo
aeieaeii auoue ia aieaa 25 /aeiaae). Oaeno ia/aoaaony ia eenoao,
eaaeaeay no?i/ea eioi?uo eiaao ii?yaeeiaue iiia?. Naeaeaii yoi aeey
oiai, /oiau iaeaa/eoue i?ioeann ianoaeaeaiey e aianaiey a i?iaeo
iii?aaie. Oaenou caeiiii?iaeoia o?aiyony a eiiiaoao o?aiaiey
aeieoiaioaoeee. Eioi?iaoeey i ieo ioaeeeoaony a ioeoeeaeueiii aanoieea
eiia?anna — “Eiia?aoie ?aei?ae”.

Ana caeiiii?iaeou aeieaeiu i?ieoe o?e /oaiey. I?iaiaeyony iie a
?acee/iua aeie, anee oieueei eiie ii?yaeie ia ii?aaeaeai iaeaoie
aaeeiiaeanii. I?e ia?aii /oaiee, eae i?aaeei, ca/eouaaaony oieueei
iacaaiea i?iaeoa e ?aoaaony aii?in ia ionueea aai a eiieoao. Iinoiyiiue
eiieoao i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iai?aaeyao i?iaeo a iiaeeiieoao, ii?aaeaeyy
aeaeueiaeoee ii?yaeie aai ?anniio?aiey. Ia yoie noaaeee noaeueaa i?iaeoa
— anaoeaei a ?oeao eiieoaoa, oae eae iaeaou ?aaeei eniieuecotho i?aai
aa?iooue caeiiii?iaeo ia?aoii a iaeaoo.

Caeiiii?iaeo aeieeaaeuaaaony iaeaoa i?aaenaaeaoaeai eeai, ii aai
ii?o/aieth, /eaiii eiieoaoa io aieueoeinoaa. Iaeaoa aeeth/aao
caeiiii?iaeo a niioaaonoaothuee eaeaiaea?ue, ii i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiaeao ?anniio?aoue aai iacaiaaeeeoaeueii.

Ia?aae ianoaeaeaieai a iaeaoa i?iaeo ca/eouaaaony iieiinoueth (aoi?ia
/oaiea). Ai a?aiy ianoaeaeaiey (aeaaaoia) aeaiooaoai i?aaeinoaaeaii
i?aai i?aaeeaaaoue e caeiiii?iaeoo iii?aaee.

I?aaeea iaeao niaea?aeao ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, ia?aie/eaathuea
aianaiea iii?aaie, eae “oi?iaaee?othueo” caeiiii?iaeou, oae e
iaii?aaaeaiii caaea?aeeaathueo ii a?aiaie eo ?anniio?aiea. Oae,
iai?eia?, a ?aaeaiaioa naiaoa onoaiiaeai cai?ao ia aianaiea iii?aaie,
i?ioeai?a/aueo caeiiii?iaeoo a oeaeii. I?aai aianoe iii?aaee a iaaeo
iaeaoao iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii oieueei /eaiai oao eiieoaoia,
eioi?ua iaeaaeatho i?aaeiaoiie eiiiaoaioeeae ii caeiiii?iaeoo.

Iii?aaea, ii o?aaiaaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey eee /eaia iaeaou, aeieaeia auoue
i?aaenoaaeaia a ienueiaiiii aeaea. A neo/aa, anee iia aeeth/aao
ianeieueei aii?inia, aa ianoaeaeaiea iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny ?acaeaeueii ii
aeeth/aiiui a iaa aii?inai.

Iii?aaee aeeth/athony a oaeno i?iaeoa a neo/aa iaeia?aiey eo
aieueoeinoaii aieinia i?enoonoaothueo /eaiia iaeaou. Aei aieiniaaiey
aeaiooao, i?aaeeiaeeaoee iii?aaeo, iiaeao aa ioicaaoue.

Eiaaea caeiiii?iaeo iacia/aaony e o?aoueaio /oaieth, aianaiea iii?aaie a
oaeno aai ia aeiioneaaony, anee oieueei eiia iaeaoa ia onoaiiaeo
aaeeiiaeanii. Aei aieiniaaiey ii caeiiii?iaeoo a oeaeii ii iiaeao auoue
aiiaue ioineai a iinoiyiiue eiieoao, eioi?ue, eae e i?e ia?aii aai
?anniio?aiee, ia ai?aaa aiineoue a aai oaeno iii?aaee (ii iiaeao oieueei
eo i?aaeeiaeeoue). Iinea ioia/aoaiey e o?aoueaai /oaiey caeiiii?iaeo
noaaeony ia aieiniaaiea.

?anniio?aiiue ii?yaeie i?ioiaeaeaiey /a?ac iaeaoo caeiiii?iaeoia
niaethaeaaony aeaeaei ia anaaaea. A oeaeyo aai onei?aiey iaeaou
ia?aaeei, a ia?ooaiea iaueo i?aaee, ia?aie/eaatho /oaiey i?i/oaieai
oieueei iacaaiee caeiiii?iaeoia, oi?iuatho i?ioeaaeo?u ianoaeaeaiey,
aianaiey iii?aaie e aieiniaaiey. Iiaeiaiia, eae i?aaeei, i?ienoiaeeo a
eiioea nannee eiia?anna, eiaaea ca iaeei, aeaa aeiy eiia?ann i?eieiaao
aeanyoee caeiiii?iaeoia, noaay eo ia aieiniaaiey aac eaeie au oi ie auei
iiaanoee ii ia?a eo iinooieaiey ec eiieoaoia.

Caeiiii?iaeo, iaeia?aiiue iaeiie iaeaoie, iai?aaeyaony ia ?anniio?aieai
ae?oaoth iaeaoo, aaea i?ioiaeeo oa aea noaaeee ?anniio?aiey e
ianoaeaeaiey. Anee a aai oaeno ia aianaiu iii?aaee, oi iinea iiaeienaiey
i?aaenaaeaoaeyie iaeao (ia?aui iiaeienuaaao nieea?) ii ia?aaeaaony
i?aceaeaioo. Anee iii?aaee a iaai aianaiu, oi iaeaoa, i?aaenoaaeaoay
caeiiii?iaeo, iiaeao eeai niaeaneoueny n ieie, eeai, ioeeiiea eo,
ia?aoeoueny e ae?oaie iaeaoa n i?aaeeiaeaieai nicaaoue niaeaneoaeueiue
eiieoao. ?aoaiea eiieoaoa aeieeaaeuaaaony aia/aea oie iaeaoa, eioi?ay
aianea iii?aaee a i?iaeo. I?eiyoue a eaeaioe/iie oi?ia caeiiii?iaeo
iinea aai iiaeienaiey iai?aaeyaony i?aceaeaioo.

I?aceaeaio iiaeao ioeeiieoue i?aaenoaaeaiiua aio ia iiaeienue
caeiiii?iaeou, ionueay eo ni naieie aic?aaeaieyie a oo ec iaeao, eioi?ay
auaeaeioea caeiiii?iaeo (i?aai aaoi). Aeey i?aiaeieaiey aaoi eaaeaeay
iaeaoa (aia/aea oa, a eioi?oth aica?auai caeiiii?iaeo) aeieaeia i?eiyoue
aai iiaoi?ii aieueoeinoaii a aeaa o?aoe aieinia. Aieiniaaiea a yoii
neo/aa i?iaiaeeony iieiaiii n caianaieai a aeo?iae iaeaou aeaiiuo i oii,
eae aieiniaaee caeiiiaeaoaee. A neo/aa oniaoiiai ?acoeueoaoa aieiniaaiey
caeiiii?iaeo anooiaao a neeo aac iiaeiene i?aceaeaioa. Anooiaao ii a
neeo oaeaea oiaaea, eiaaea i?aceaeaio ia aeano naiaai caeeth/aiey a
oa/aiea 10, ia n/eoay aine?aniuo, aeiae, anee oieueei a yoi a?aiy
eiia?ann ia i?a?aao naith nanneth. A iineaaeiai neo/aa caeiiii?iaeo
ioaa?aaaony oaeoe/anee e ia iiaeeaaeeo ia?aniio?o a oeacaiiii auoa
ii?yaeea.

Caeiiu anooiatho a neeo n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey i?aceaeaioii eeai
i?aiaeieaiey aai aaoi, anee oieueei a naiii oaenoa caeiia ia onoaiiaeai
eiie n?ie anooieaiey a neeo.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea anooieaiey a neeo caeiiu ioaeeeothony a na?ee
“Iaaeee ei” e eiatho niioaaonoaothuaa oeeo?iaia iaicia/aiea. A ia?aie
aai /anoe ioia/aaony ii?yaeeiaue iiia? eiia?anna (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
102-e eiia?ann). Ai aoi?ie — ii?yaeeiaue iiia? naiiai noaoooa eee
?aciethoeee.

A eiioea aiaea ana aeou eiia?anna naiaeyony aiaaeeii e ioaeeeothony a
o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea eo i?eiyoey a “Iieiii nia?aiee noaoooia
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia”.

Iiieii oeacaiiuo aeaoo ioeoeeaeueiuo ecaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
eiia?anna ioaeeeoaony a “Naiaea caeiiia Niaaeeiaiiuo ooaoia”, a eioi?ii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu (a ia naie caeiiu) naiaeyony ii i?aaeiaoai eo
?aaoee?iaaiey. Eiei?ii?aoeey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i inouanoaeyaony ii 50
oeooeai (?acaeaeai) Naiaea, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeyony ia
aeaau e ia?aa?aou.

No?oeoo?ii Naiae i?aaenoaaeai neaaeothuei ia?acii: 1. Iauea iieiaeaiey.
2. Eiia?ann. 3. I?aceaeaio. 4. Oeaa e ia/aoue, ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ooaou. 5. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiu e ainoaea?noaaiiua
neoaeauea. 6. Ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiua e ia i?eciaiiua (iacaeiiiua)
oeaiiua aoiaae. 7. Naeueneia oicyenoai. 8. Eiino?aioeu e
a?aaeaeainoai. 9. A?aeo?aae. 10. Aii?oaeaiiua neeu. II. Aaie?ionoai.
12. Aaiee e aaieianeia aeaei. 13. Ia?aienue. 14. Aa?aaiaay io?aia. 15.
Eiiia?/aneea ioiioaiey e oi?aiaey. 16. Eiina?aaoeey iauaeoia i?e?iaeu.
17. Aaoi?neia i?aai. 18. I?anooieaiey e oaieiaiue i?ioeann. 19.
Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. 20. Ia?aciaaiea. 21. I?iaeoeou ieoaiey e
iaaeeeaiaiou. 22. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey e nayce. 23. Oinnaeiua
aei?iae. 24. Aieueieoeu, i?ethou e ianoa iia?aaaiey. 25. Eiaeaeoeu.
26. Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen. 27. Nie?oiua iaieoee. 28. Noaeaaiay aeanoue e
a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann. 29. O?oae. 30. Caiee, iieaciua eneiiaaiua e
aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. 31. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e oeiainu. 32.
Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaa?aeey. 33. Iaaeaaoeey e noaeioiaeiua aiaeu. 34. Oeio.
35. Iaoaiou. 36. Iao?eioe/aneea iauanoaa e i?aaeea, i?eiaiyaiua a ieo.
37. AEaeiaaiuea e aeaiaaeiua auieaou a aii?oaeaiiuo neeao e ?yaea eiuo
neoaea. 38. Iainee e eueaiou aaoa?aiai. 39. Ii/oiaay neoaeaa. 40.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeaiey, eiouanoai e iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou. 41.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua eiio?aeou. 42. Cae?aaiio?aiaiea e aeaaininoiyiea. 43.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua caiee. 44. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ia/aoaiea e aeieoiaiou. 45.
AEaeaciua aei?iae. 46. Noaeioiaenoai. 47. Oaeaa?ao, oaeaoii e
?aaeeioaeaa?ao. 48. Oa??eoi?ee e iniiaiua aeaaeaiey. 49. O?ainii?o. 50.
Aieia e iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?iia.

Eiei?ii?aoeee ia iiaeaa?aioou Eiinoeoooeey NOA e ?yae i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo
ae aeoia — Aeaeea?aoeey iacaaeneiinoe 1776 a., Noaouee Eiioaaea?aoeee
1781 a. e Aeo i Naaa?i-caiaaeiuo oa??eoi?eyo 1787 a. Ii iie ioaeeeothony
a Naiaea a ?acaeaea “I?aaie/aneea caeiiu NOA”.

A oeaeii, a yoi i?eciatho e naie aia?eeaioeu, iiaeiaiay no?oeoo?a Naiaea
caeiiia ia a iieiie ia?a niioaaonoaoao nia?aiaiiiio ?acaeoeth
aia?eeaineiai i?aaa. Ii iaee/ea iiaeiaiie nenoaiaoecaoeee i?e anao aa
ianiaa?oainoaao aianoa n oai eiaao aeinoieinoaa. I?aaeaea anaai — yoi
oaeianoai e aeinooiiinoue ia?auaiey n caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii.
Aaaeii oaeaea oi, oi iia iicaieyao auyaeyoue i?ioeai?a/ey e i?iaaeu a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e iaiaaeeaiii eo ono?aiyoue.

Ia?aecaeaaony Naiae caeiiia ?ac a oanoue eao. Iineaaeiaa ecaeaiea auei a
1989 a. Aaeaaiaeii ioaeeeothony “Aeiiieiaiey e Naiaeo”, a eioi?uo a oao
aea i?aaeiaoiuo ?aieao oeene?othony eciaiaiey, aianaiiua oaeouei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ca aiae.

Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?aaiu eiia?anna

Eiia?ann NOA eiaao ?acaaoaeaiioth nenoaio aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aaiia,
iaania/eaathueo ?aaeecaoeeth eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee eiia?anna, a oaeaea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneia e ni?aai/ii-eioi?iaoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaia?aeueiia io/aoiia oi?aaeaiea (AIO) ia?aciaaii a 1921 a. Aicaeaaeyao
aai aaia?aeueiue eiio?iea?, iacia/aaiue i?aceaeaioii ia 15-eaoiee n?ie.
A ooaoa AIO — aieaa 5 oun. /aeiaae, a iniiaiii niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
oeiainia, yeiiiieee e i?aaa. A caaea/e oi?aaeaiey aoiaeeo oeiainiaue
eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e
inouanoaeaieai ooaa?aeaeaiiuo eiia?annii i?ia?aii. I ?acoeueoaoao naieo
?anneaaeiaaiee oi?aaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeieeaaeuaaao eiia?anno.
Iiieii eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee AIO aaaeao enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou ii
ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiuo i?aceaeaioii e i?eieiaaiuo
eiia?annii i?ia?aii.

Oi?aaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo ioeaiie (OOI) nicaeaii a 1972 a. Aicaeaaeyao
aai niaao, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo aee?aeoi? OOI, oanoue naiaoi?ia e oanoue
/eaiia iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae. A ooaoa oi?aaeaiey ieiei 200 /aeiaae, ii
aaeaaiaeii ii aeiaiai?ai e aai ?aaioa i?eaeaeathony aieaa 2 oun.
yenia?oia. A caaea/e OOI aoiaeeo: ieacaiea iiiiue eiieoaoai i?e
?ac?aaioea niioaaonoaothueo caeiiii?iaeoia e oeiaine?oaiuo ec athaeaeaoa
i?ia?aii, i?iaaaeaiea aeieaia?aiaiiuo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio
ii ?acee/iui iai?aaeaieyi iaoee e oaoieee.

Athaeaeaoiia oi?aaeaiea eiia?anna (AOE) nicaeaii a 1974 a. A ooaoa
oi?aaeaiey ieiei 250 /aeiaae. A caaea/e AOE aoiaeeo ?ac?aaioea
aaeaaiaeiuo aeieeaaeia ii athaeaeaoo athaeaeaoiui eiieoaoai iaeao. Iii
?ac?aaaouaaao oaeaea 5-eaoiea i?iaiicu yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey
?ac?aaaouaaaiuo eiia?annii oeiainiauo aeeeae e ?aciethoeee. A ia/aea
eaaeaeiai oeiainiaiai aiaea i?aaenoaaeyao 5-eaoiee i?iaiic iinooieaiee
iaeiaia a athaeaeao e oaeoueo ?anoiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ii o?aaiaaieth
athaeaeaoiuo e eiuo eiieoaoia eiia?anna oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyao
enneaaeiaaiey e ii ae?oaei aii?inai athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee. I ?iee
oi?aaeaiey iiaeii noaeeoue ii neaaeothuaio oaeoo. I?e ?ac?aaioea
athaeaeaoa ia 1983 oeiainiaue aiae i?aceaeaio n/ae iaiaoiaeeiui a iniiao
athaeaeaoa iieiaeeoue ?an/aou, auiieiaiiua AOE, a ia i?aaenoaaeaiiua
iiae/eiaiiui aio aiia?aoii.

Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay neoaeaa eiia?anna (IENE) ooieoeeiie?oao a
?aieao Aeaeeioaee eiia?anna n 1914 a. Ii ii?o/aieth /eaiia eiia?anna e
iinoiyiiuo eiieoaoia iaeao i?iaiaeeo neaaeothuea aeaeu ?aaio:
aiaeeoe/aneea ni?aaee, eiinoeueoaoeee, caeeth/aiey ii caeiiii?iaeoai e
ia?aaiaeu. Iiieii yoiai, IENE ieacuaaao niaeaenoaea a i?iaaaeaiee
neooaiee a eiia?anna, i?iaiaeeo naieia?u aeey /eaiia eiia?anna e
eii?aeeie?oao i?ia?aiiu iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio. Oi?ie?oaony
iia ia iaia?oeeiie iniiaa (aac o/aoa ia?oeeiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, eae,
ai?i/ai, e ana eiua aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?aaiu eiia?anna). A 1989 a. a IENE
auei caiyoi 896 /aeiaae, ec ieo 860 — ia iieiie noaaea. No?oeoo?ii
neoaeaa ninoieo ec /aou?ao iiae?acaeaeaiee: aiaeeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee
a iaeanoe iieeoeee; aeieoiaioaoeee e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia;
ni?aai/ii-eioi?iaoeeiiiie neoaeau; aaeieieno?aoeaiuo neoaea. A 1987
oeiainiaii aiaeo IENE i?aaenoaaee eioi?iaoeeth ia 443 400 cai?inia
/eaiia e eiieoaoia eiia?anna.

A ?yaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aaiia eiia?anna neaaeoao oeacaoue oaeaea
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue niaao e Niaao ii caeiiiaeaoaeueiiio ia?aniio?o. A
ooaoa ia?aiai — 52, aoi?iai — 18 /aeiaae. A ooieoeee yoeo i?aaiia
aoiaeeo nai?, aiaeec e iaiauaiea eioi?iaoeee ii i?aaiaui aii?inai,
?ac?aaioea ia?niaeoeaiuo ieaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ?aaio, eiinoeueoaoeee,
?ac?aaioea caeiiii?iaeoia e o.ae.

A /enei aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aaiia eiia?anna aoiaeyo oaeaea Aeaeeioaea
eiia?anna e Aeaeeioaea i?aaa eiia?anna. Aeaeeioaea eiia?anna nicaeaia a
1800 a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia iaeaaeaao e?oiiaeoeie aeaeeioa/iuie
oiiaeaie ie?a.

E?oiiaeoae a ie?a yaeyaony e Aeaeeioaea i?aaa eiia?anna. A aa oiiaeao —
1 iei 900 oun. aaeeieoe o?aiaiey. Aeaeeioaea i?aaa ianeoaeeaaao
eiia?ann, Aa?oiaiue noae NOA, i?aaiu eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. A 1987
oeiainiaii aiaeo aa nio?oaeieee iiaeaioiaeee 825 enneaaeiaaiee,
ia?aaiaeia e aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo ni?aai/ieeia iauei iauaiii 12825
no?aieoe. I?aaenoaaeaia eioi?iaoeey ia 672165 cai?inia /eaiia e
eiieoaoia eiia?anna. A iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioa Aeaeeioaea
i?aaa eiia?anna i?eaioe?oaony a iniiaiii ia eco/aiea ca?oaaaeiiai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. A ooaoa — 102 /aeiaaea.

A iauae neiaeiinoe /eneaiiinoue neoaeaueo, caiyouo iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
eiia?anna eeai a aai aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?aaiao, i?aauoaao 30 oun.
/aeiaae. ?acia?u auaeaeyaiuo anneaiiaaiee ia aeayoaeueiinoue eiia?anna a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeinoeaee 2 ie?ae aeiee. a aiae.

I?aceaeaio NOA

Aunoei a no?aia aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii, niaiauathuei iieiiii/ey aeaau
ainoaea?oaa e aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa, yaeyaony i?aceaeaio NOA. Ii
ecae?aaony ia 4 aiaea n aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aeca?aiey aua ia iaeei
/aou?aoeaoiee n?ie. I?aceaeaioii NOA iiaeao auoue a?aaeaeaiei NOA ii
?iaeaeaieth, ia iieiaea 35 eao, i?iaeeaoee ia oa??eoi?ee NOA ia iaiaa 14
eao.

N 1800a. ioeoeeaeueiie ?aceaeaioeeae i?aceaeaioa yaeyaony Aaeue Aeii,
iaoiaeyueeny a noieeoea NOA Aaoeiaoiia.

Iieiiii/ey i?aceaeaioa NOA i/aiue oe?iee. Eae aeaaa ainoaea?noaa ii
yaeyaony aa?oiaiui aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie NOA e
aa?oiaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai NOA ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. I?aceaeaio n
iaeia?aiey e niaeaney naiaoa iacia/aao oaaea?aeueiuo noaeae, aeeth/ay
/eaiia Aa?oiaiiai noaea, iineia e aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe aiia?aoa
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Eiinoeoooeey ?aaeinoaaeyao i?aceaeaioo i?aai
nicuaa /a?acau/aeiuo nannee eiia?anna e ia?aiina i/a?aaeiuo nannee. I?e
aicieeiiaaiee aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo e?eceniuo neooaoeee i?aceaeaio iiaeao
?aniieaaaoue /a?acau/aeiuie iieiiii/eyie.

Aaeeea ?ieue i?aceaeaioa a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Oi?ioee?oy
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth i?ia?aiio aaeieieno?aoeee a na?ee iineaiee eiia?anno,
i?aceaeaio yaeyaony oaeoe/aneei eeaea?ii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie iieeoeee.

Aeoea-i?aceaeaio

Aianoa n i?aceaeaioii ia /aou?aoeaoiee n?ie ecae?aaony aeoea-i?aceaeaio.
Ii eiinoeoooeee iieiiii/ey aeoea-i?aceaeaioa ia?aie/eaathony
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii a naiaoa.

I?eiyoay a 1933a. XX iii?aaea e eiinoeoooeee NOA oe?aieea noaoon
aeoea-i?aceaeaioa, ?anniao?eaay aai a ea/anoaa i?aaiieea aeaau
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a neo/aa nia?oe eee iaaeaaniiniaiinoe
iineaaeiaai.

Eniieieoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea i?aceaeaioa

Ia i?aaeoniio?aiiui eiinoeoooeeae iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiui i?aaiii i?e Aaeii
aeiia yaeyaony Eniieieoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea i?aceaeaioa (EOI). Iniiaaiiia
a 1939a., EOI niinianoaiaaei oe?aieaieth i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe, nicaeaa
iiuiue aiia?ao, eii?aeeie?othuee e eiio?iee?othuee aaaeiaeoea aniaeou
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

Eaaeiao ieieno?ia

Eae niaauaoaeueiue i?aai i?e i?aceaeaioa, nicaeaiiue iiieii
eiinoeoooeee, ooieoeeiie?oao eaaeiao ieieno?ia.

A ninoaa eaaeiaoa aoiaeyo aeaau 12 oaaea?aeueiuo ieienoa?noa, eiaioaiua
a NOA nae?aoa?yie, e aaia?aeueiue aooi?iae (aeaaa ieienoa?noaa
thnoeoeee).

A i?aeoeea iineaaeieo i?aceaeaioia NOA eniieueciaaeanue oi?ia ae?iaeaiey
eaaeiaoa ia oeaeaaua iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiua niaaou, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
ianoaeaeaoue oio eee eiie e?oa aii?inia aac i?eaea/aiey anao /eaiia
eaaeiaoa.

NOAeAAIAss AEANOUe

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth noaeiono?ienoaa a NOA yaeyaony ionoonoaea
aaeeiie, iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu; nouanoaotho
i?aaiecaoeeiiii iainiaeaiiua, ia?aeeaeueiua noaeaaiua nenoaiu a eaaeaeii
ec ooaoia e oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay nenoaia.

Niaeanii noaouea 3 eiinoeoooeee, noaeaaiay aeanoue Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia
i?aaeinoaaeyaony Aa?oiaiiio noaeo NOA e ieaeanoiyuei oaaea?aeueiui
noaeai, o/?aaeaeaaiui eiia?annii.

Noaeiono?ienoai ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia

Oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth nenoaio ia?acotho 4 a?oiiu noaeia – ie?oaeiua,
niaoeeaeueiua, aiaeeyoeeiiiua e niaoeeaeueiua aiaeeyoeeiiiua – ai aeaaa
n Aa?oiaiui noaeii.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu NOA – oaaea?aeueiua noaeu iauae th?enaeeeoeee; iie ii
ia?aie einoaioeee ?anniao?eaathoana aeaea, iniiaaiiua ia oaaea?aeueiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Niaoeeaeueiua noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee – i?aoaiceiiiue noae NOA
(?anniao?eaaao aeaiaaeii-eiouanoaaiiua i?aoaicee a?aaeaeai e
i?aaeoaeuenoao NOA), noae NOA ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee (?anniao?eaaao
nii?u, aicieeoea ia iniiaa oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia ia eiii?oiuo oi?aiauo
iia?aoeeyo e oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee), iaeiaiaue noae NOA (?ac?aoaao
eiioeeeou, aicieeathuea a nayce n ?aoaieyie oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaiauo
aaaeiinoa).

E niaoeeaeueiui aiaeeyoeeiiiui noaeai ioiinyony aiiaeyoeeiiiue noae NOA
ii oaaea?aeueiiio ie?oao (?anniao?eaaao aeaeiau ia ?aoaiey
i?aoaiceiiiiai noaea, noaea ii aeaeai aiaoiae oi?aiaee e ia ?aoaiey
iaeioi?uo oaaea?aeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaaeiinoa) e a?aiaiiue
/a?acau/aeiue aiaeeyoeeiiiue noae; ?aoaiey yoeo aeaoo noaeia
iaaeaeothony a Aa?oiaiue noae.

Aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?iiaaeooi/ioth
aiaeeyoeeiiioth einoaioeeth iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie noaeaie ia?aie
einoaioeee e Aa?oiaiui noaeii.

Aicaeaaeyao oaaea?aeueioth noaeaaioth nenoaio Aa?oiaiue noae NOA –
aunoee i?aai a oaaea?aeueiie noaeaaiie ea?a?oee, eiia/iay aiaeeyoeeiiiay
einoaioeey.

A NOA nouanoaoao aaoiiiiiay nenoaia aiaiiuo noaeia. Ei iiaenoaeiu /enoi
aieineea i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea ana eiua oaieiaiua i?aaiia?ooaiey,
niaa?oaiiua aiaiiineoaeaueie ai a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey eie aeaenoaeoaeueiie
aiaiiie neoaeau e eneeth/eoaeueii i?e eniieiaiee neoaeaaiuo
iaycaiiinoae.

Noaeiono?ienoai a ooaoao

Eaaeaeue ooao a i?aaeaeao naieo a?aieoe iiaeao o/?aaeaeaoue noaeaaiua
i?aaiu, eaeea ni/oao ioaeiui, iaeiaei nouanaotho oeie/iua /a?ou
noaeiono?ienoaa, iauea aeey anao ooaoia. Oae, a ooaoao eiathony 3 a?oiiu
noaeia: ia?aie/aiiie e niaoeeaeueiie th?enaeeeoeee, iauae th?enaeeeoeee,
aiaeeyoeeiiiie th?enaeeeoeee. Ia?aua aeaa a?oiiu – ianoiua noaeu ia?aie
einoaioeee, ?anniao?eaathuea aeaea ii nouanoao. O?aouey a?oiia
iauaaeeiyao i?iiaaeooi/iua aiaeeyoeeiiiua noaeu e aa?oiaiua noaeu
ooaoia.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Eiinoeoooeee ca?oaaaeiuo ainoaea?noa. O/aaiia iiniaea.2-a ecae.,
eni?aa. e aeii.-I:Ecaeaoaeuenoai AAE. – 586 n.

2. Aa?oiaainoai i?aaa. I.: I?ia?ann-Oieaa?n, 1992.

3. AEoeia I.A. Aa?oiaiue noae NOA: i?aai e iieeoeea. I.: 1985.

4. Eiino?aiiia eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. I.: TH?enoue, 1996.

5. Ieoei A.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aai NOA. I.: Iaoea, 1976.

6. Ieoei A.A., Aeaneoei A.A. Eiinoeoooeey NOA. Iieeoeei-i?aaiaie
eiiiaioa?ee. I.: THE, 1985.

7. Eiinoeoooeeiiiia (ainoaea?noaaiiia) i?aai ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.
O/aaiee.Ioa.?aae. A.A.No?aooi, AAE,1995.

8. *e?eei A.A. Eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.-I.:
TH?eno,1997.

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