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Ситуации уголовно-процессуальной и криминалистической деятельности

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?aoa?ao

Neooaoeee oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiie e e?eieiaeenoe/aneie

aeayoaeueiinoe

Iiiyoea aeayoaeueiinoe ii auyaeaieth e ?anneaaeiaaieth i?anooieaiee oaea
i?i/ii aioei a iaeoiae e?eieiaeenoia. A.A.Ia?acoeia a ea/anoaa
no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeyao: noauaeo, iauaeo,
oeaee e caaea/e aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?anneaaeiaaieth i?anooieaiee,
n?aaenoaa (e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oaoieea, aa?nee, ieaiu ?anneaaeiaaiey,
neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey e iia?aoeaii-?icuneiua ia?ii?eyoey), i?ioeann
aeayoaeueiinoe (ii nooe aeaea, – yoi noaaeee), nenoaio aeieacaoaeuenoa e
noi?ioee?iaaiioth ia eo iniiaa eiae/aneoth iiaeaeue i?anooieaiey
(?acoeueoaou).

Oae aea eae e e?eieiaeueiay, oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiay e
e?eieiaeenoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu n iiceoeee
neooaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea. ?anneaaeiaaieth oaeaea i?enoua
neooaoeeiiiinoue, eai aeey iaai oeie/ia niaia ?acee/iuo neooaoeee,
iaoneiaeaiiuo iiiaeie oaeoi?aie, e i?aaeaea anaai oa?aeoa?ii naiiai
i?anooieaiey, aai iineaaenoaeyie, iaee/eai aeieacaoaeuenoa, oneiaeyie, a
eioi?uo i?iaiaeeony ?anneaaeiaaiea.

A oiaea aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea, ?ane?uoey e ?anneaaeiaaiey
i?anooieaiey, noaeaaiiai ?anniio?aiey aeaea aicieeaao ?acee/iay ii
noaiaie neiaeiinoe niioaaonoaothuay ianoaiiaea, ia iniiaa ioeaiee
eioi?ie aa noauaeou (neaaeiaaoaeue, yenia?o, noaeuey e o.ae.) i?eieiatho
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, oaeoe/aneea e i?ioeannoaeueiua ?aoaiey e auae?atho
niioaaonoaothuea n?aaenoaa, i?eaiu e iaoiaeu naieo aeaenoaee. Yoi, a
naith i/a?aaeue, iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiay e
e?eieiaeenoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue caaenyo io oeaeiai ?yaea naiuo
?aciiia?aciuo oaeoi?ia: eiie?aoiuo oneiaee ianoa e a?aiaie, iiaaaeaiey
aa o/anoieeia, acaeiinaycae n ae?oaeie i?ioeannaie iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Yoa neiaeiay nenoaia acaeiiaeaenoaee e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoae a eiia/iii
eoiaa e ia?acoao oi eiie?aoiia ninoiyiea, iieiaeaiea, ii?aaeaeaiiue
?aneeaae nee, a eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony aeaenoaiaaoue niioaaonoaothuaio
noauaeoo oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiie e e?eieiaeenoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
A caaeneiinoe io noauaeoa, iaycaiiiai ioeaieaaoue e ?ac?aoaoue oo eee
eioth neooaoeeth, iu auaeaeei: neaaenoaaiioth, iia?aoeaii-?icuneioth,
yenia?oioth e noaeaaioth neooaoeee. ?anniio?ei iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeie ec
ieo.

Neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey.

I?iaeaia neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee aeinoaoi/ii aeieai ?ac?aaaouaaeanue a
e?eieiaeenoe/aneie iaoea, oai ia iaiaa neaaeoao i?eciaoue oi, /oi iiea
inoaeinue aua iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai aii?inia, oieeoaiuo iaiaeiicia/ii.

Ia/iai n oiai, /oi a iaoea iiea ionoonoaoao iauai?eciaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, a iaiaeia /enei eiathueony oi?ioee?iaie eiiaaea
aeaaea e i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao. Oae, iaeioi?ua aaoi?u ii?aaeaeytho
neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth eae ianoaiiaeo, a eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony
?anneaaeiaaiea (?.N.Aaeeei, A.E.Oeeaiia)1. Oaeiai ?iaea ii?aaeaeaiea
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee e aeaii a iaiaoeeii e?eieiaeenoe/aneii neiaa?a,
a eioi?ii iia ii?aaeaeaia eae “niaieoiiinoue ianoiyoaeuenoa, oneiaee e
?acaeoey niauoee, eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho aeaenoaey iieeoeee e aeeytho ia
ieo”2.

Ae?oaea o/aiua iiieiatho neooaoeeth eae niaieoiiinoue eioi?iaoeee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuae ninoiyiea ?anneaaeiaaiey ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo aac o/aoa
ianoaiiaee e oneiaee, a eioi?uo iii i?ienoiaeeo (A.I. Aaneeueaa, A.E.
Aaaei)1.

N iiaeiaiuo iiceoeee neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeay
eioi?iaoeeiiiay n?aaea, a eioi?ie aeaenoaoao neaaeiaaoaeue. Iia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaaiui ia?acii iaee/eai enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee i
niauoee i?anooieaiey, eo niaea?aeaieai. Caeanue aa?ii iiae/a?eeaaaony
iiciaaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? ?anneaaeiaaiey, oeacuaaaony, /oi i?ioeann
onoaiiaeaiey e aeieacuaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa i?anooieaiey – yoi ?aaioa n
eioi?iaoeeae. Iaeiaei neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey ia iiaeao auoue naaaeaia
oieueei e oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?iaoeeiiiie n?aaeu. Iia iaycaoaeueii
aeieaeia a naay aeeth/aoue e ?acee/iua aniaeou ?aaiou neaaeiaaoaey.

Eiaiii iiyoiio ?yae aaoi?ia i?eaea?aeeaaaony eiioeaioeee, niaeanii
eioi?ie neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey aunooiaao eae niaieoiiinoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie, oaeoe/aneie, iaoiaee/aneie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea e iaeioi?uo yeaiaioia ianoaiiaee, a eioi?ie
inouanoaeyaony ?anneaaeiaaiea (I.I.ssaeieia, I.A.Naeeaaiia,
E.O.Aa?aneiia)2.

A oeaeii nooue eiathueony ?aciiaeanee ii iiaeoiaeo e ?ane?uoeth nouiinoe
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee iiaeao auoue naaaeaia e neaaeothuaio. Iaeia
a?oiia o/aiuo i?eciaao, /oi neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey iaoiaeeony eae au
“aioo?e” i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey (A.I.Aaneeueaa, A.E.Aaaei, E.O.
Aa?aneiia, E.Ae. Naiuaei). Oae, ec aiaeeca ii?aaeaeaiee neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, aeaiiuo E.O.Aa?aneiiaui e A.E.Aaaei, neaaeoao, /oi iia
aunooiaao eae niaieoiiinoue oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i i?anooieaiee,
niaieoiiinoue ianoiyoaeuenoa ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo eee aea eae
niaieoiiinoue oaeoi?ia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii oa?aeoa?ecothueo nai i?ioeann
?anneaaeiaaiey.

Ae?oaay a?oiia o/aiuo ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey ii
ioiioaieth e i?ioeanno ?anneaaeiaaiey iineo i?aeiouanoaaiii aiaoiee
oa?aeoa? (?.N.Aaeeei, I.I.ssaeieia, A.E.Oeeaiia, I.A.Naeeaaiia).

Oae, ?.N.Aaeeei, iniiauaaynue ia oii, /oi ii neiaa?iiio ii?aaeaeaieth
neooaoeey – yoi ni/aoaiea oneiaee e ianoiyoaeuenoa, nicaeathueo
ii?aaeaeaiioth ianoaiiaeo, iieiaeaiea, ii?aaeaeyao neooaoeeth eae
“niaieoiiinoue oneiaee, a eioi?uo a aeaiiue iiiaio inouanoaeyaony
?anneaaeiaaiea”1.

Oioy i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey neooaoeee ia nianai
oaea/iui yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea oa?ieia “oneiaey”, eiae/aneee niune
eioi?iai naiaeeony e n?aaea, a eioi?ie i?aauaatho e aac eioi?ie ia iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey2. Ii aaaeue eiiiiiaioiue ninoaa
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei n?aaeie, ii e
aeeth/aao a naay oaeaea e iiaaaeai/aneea no?oeoo?u e yeaiaiou.

Ioaeaeueiua aaoi?u ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey ia i?aaao
no?oeoo?iiai yeaiaioa aoiaeeo a ninoaa e?eieiaeenoe/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?anooieaiey3. Oae, Ae.A.Oo?/ei iieaaaao, /oi “neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey –
yoi iaeiiiiiaioiay e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ia ii?aaeaeaiiii
yoaia aa ?acaeoey”4.

?aca?aie/eaay oeacaiiua iiiyoey, iu aiana ia aa?ainy io?eoeaoue e
eiathuothny iaaeaeo ieie iauiinoue. Iaa iie i?aaie/anee naycaiu n
i?ioeannii aaaeaiey neaaenoaey, a oaeaea oanii ninaaenoaotho e
ia?aieaoathony eae oai?aoe/aneea eaoaai?ee iaoiaeeee ?anneaaeiaaiey,
ninoaaeythuea iniiao ?ac?aaioee niiniaia ?anneaaeiaaiey i?anooieaiee. Ii
iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei ia neaaeoao oioneaoue ec aeaeo oiai, /oi iaa yoe
iiiyoey eiatho oaeaea e aeiaieueii nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey.

Oae, neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey – yoi iiiyoea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa i?ioeann
?anneaaeiaaiey, aai ninoiyiea ia oii eee eiii yoaia. A oi aea a?aiy
e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?anooieaiey niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth,
ioiinyuothny e i?anooieaieth, a oi/iaa, eioi?iaoeeth, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth
i?anooieaiea aeey oeaeae ?anneaaeiaaiey. Yoe nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey e
iicaieytho n/eoaoue neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth e e?eieiaeenoe/aneoth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?anooieaiey aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiuie no?oeoo?iuie
yeaiaioaie iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa e?eieiaeenoeee.

Iaaeaeo oai ia?ana/aiea yoeo iiiyoee i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac eioi?iaoeeiiiue
eiiiiiaio neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. Anee aea iiiuoaoueny niioianoe
iiiyoey “e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?anooieaiey” e
“e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?anneaaeiaaiey”, oi, ii anae
aa?iyoiinoe, eo iauiinoue eae ?ac e aoaeao i?ineaaeeaaoueny /a?ac
iiiyoea “neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey”, a /anoiinoe, /a?ac aa eioi?iaoeeiiiue
eiiiiiaio.

Aaniiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea e noaiiaeaiea o/aiey i neaaenoaaiiuo
neooaoeeyo aian E.ss.Ae?aieei: ei ?ac?aaioaia eeanneoeeaoeeiiiay noaia
neooaoeee, nicaeaia oieeaeueiay iaoiaeeea ?aaiou n neooaoeeyie ii eo
aaeaeaaoiiio ioia?aaeaieth e ?ac?aoaieth. E aianoa n oai aanueia
naiaia?acia iiceoeey E.ss.Ae?aieeia ii iiaiaeo nouiinoe neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, eioi?ay iiieiaaony ei eae eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue.

Aaoi?, a /anoiinoe, ioia/aao, /oi oioy neaaeiaaoaeue oaeoe/anee e
aeaenoaoao a ?aaeueiie ianoaiiaea, ii i?aaeaea /ai /oi-eeai
i?aaei?eiyoue, aio iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i nouanoaaiiuo
/a?oao ?aaeueiie ianoaiiaee, nicaeaoue aa aaeaeaaoioth iiaeaeue.

A neeo oaeeo ?annoaeaeaiee iieo/aaony, /oi a i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey
eiie?aoiiai i?anooieaiey neaaeiaaoaeue auioaeaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ia naiie neooaoeeae, a eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaeueth
?aaeueiie neooaoeee1.

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iiieiaiea ?aaeueiie neooaoeee eae aa
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee, nicaeaaaaiie neaaeiaaoaeai a oiaea
?anneaaeiaaiey, i?ienoiaeeo io noe?aiey a?aiae iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie
“iiaeaee?iaaiea” e “iiciaiea”. Ai iiiaeo enneaaeiaaieyo aeaeaei ia anaie
aaoi?aie o/eouaaaony oio oaeo, /oi iiaeaeue anoue ia naii ciaiea, a
oieueei eeoue n?aaenoai aeey aai iieo/aiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio a
e?eieiaeenoeea iacuaatho iiaeaeyie e ieaiu, e i?ia?aiiu, e aeai?eoiu, e
aeaaea neooaoeee2.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue ia iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeaee?iaaiey:
aai iiin?aaeiaaiiinoe. Iiaeaeue a i?ioeanna iiciaiey aunooiaao a
ea/anoaa “n?aaeiaai caaia” iaaeaeo iauaeoii iiciaiey, nouanoaothuei a
?aaeueiinoe, e noauaeoii, aai iiciathuei. Iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue eae iaeei ec iaoiaeia iiciaiey neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee
(i?e/ai ia aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiue), iiaeaeue neooaoeee anoue ia /oi
eiia, eae oieueei “eino?oiaio” iiciaiey, ii ieeae ia naia ?aaeueiinoue,
a eioi?ie neaaeiaaoaeue inouanoaeyao ?anneaaeiaaiea e enoiaey ec eioi?ie
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea. Ia neaaeoao oioneaoue ec aeaeo e oiai, /oi aeey
eaaeaeiai i?eaeiaea iiaeao auoue nicaeai oeaeue ?yae iiaeaeae, ioee/iuo
ae?oa io ae?oaa noaiaiueth noiaenoaa e ioaeaeueiuie, aaiaeeiuie a ieo
ia?aiao?aie e yeaiaioaie.

Iai?eia?, a i?ioeanna ioeaiee iaeiie e oie aea eiie?aoiie neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee neaaeiaaoaeue e iaaece?athuee i?ieo?i? iiaoo iino?ieoue
?acee/iua aa iiaeaee e oai naiui ii-?aciiio aa ioeaieoue, iaeiaei
iauaeoeaiia niaea?aeaiea neooaoeee io yoeo ioeaiie ieeiei ia?acii ia
eciaieony.

Iiyoiio i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i oii, /oi aea anoue neaaenoaaiiay
neooaoeey: ?aaeueiay ianoaiiaea, oa?aeoa?ecothuay ?anneaaeiaaiea, eee aa
eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue, iaiaoiaeeii enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi
neaaeiaaoaeue i?eieiaao ?aoaiey e aeaenoaoao i?e aiieia ?aaeueiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, a ?aaeueii nouanoaothueo oneiaeyo, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
ni/aoaiea eioi?uo e nicaeaao eiie?aoioth neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth.

*oi aea eanaaony “aiaoiaai” eee “aioo?aiiaai” oa?aeoa?a neooaoeee, oi
anoue aeeth/aiey a aa niaea?aeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiii-iiciaaaoaeueiiai eee
i?ioeannoaeueii-oaeoe/aneiai aniaeoa – iieaaaai, /oi iaa iie yaeythony
oa?aeoa?ecothueie ia?aiao?aie neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee.

Iaaeaeo oai a ii?aaeaeaieyo iiiaeo o/aiuo ia anaaaea o/eouaaaony
oeaeaaie aniaeo (o.a. oi, aeey /aai iaiaoiaeeiu iiciaiea e ioeaiea
neooaoeee), oiaaea eae neooaoeey, io?aaeay caeiiiia?iinoe
iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeyao oaeoe/aneoth
oeaeue, eioi?ay aianoa n neooaoeeae iaoneiaeeaaao i?eiyoea ?aoaiey.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo iniaaiiinoae neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi
a eioi?iaoeeiiiii ieaia iia yaeyaony io?aaeaieai e?eieiaeueiie
neooaoeee, ia?acothuae i?anooieaiea. Nio?aieaoeany iineaaenoaey
i?anooieaiey – aai neaaeu, o?aaiaiou ianoaiiaee – ieacuaathony oaie
enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua “aeeth/athony” a enoiaeioth
neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth a ea/anoaa aa iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia.

I?e/ai ethaay neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aia a aeaoo
aniaeoao: a) a i?aeoe/aneii – eae eiie?aoiay aeeciaiiay neooaoeey,
aicieeoay i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo, iaoiaeyuaiony a
i?iecaiaenoaa neaaeiaaoaey; a) a oai?aoe/aneii – eae oeiece?iaaiiay
i?eiaieoaeueii e ii?aaeaeaiiiio aeaeo i?anooieaiee e aeaaea oe?a – eae
iao/iay aano?aae?iaaiiay eaoaai?ey, eniieuecoaiay a eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo,
iaoiaee/aneeo e o/aaiuo oeaeyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey – yoi neiaeeaoaany ia eiie?aoiue
iiiaio ?anneaaeiaaiey iieiaeaiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany:

* ninoiyieai neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee;

* noaiaiueth iiciaiey e?eieiaeueiie neooaoeee;

* oaeoeei-i?ioeannoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie neaaenoaey;

* ineoieiae/aneeie aai iniaaiiinoyie;

* ieaiiai-i?aaiecaoeeiiiui iaania/aieai neaaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Enoiaey ec yoiai iu ii?aaeaeei neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth eae noaiaiue
eioi?iaoeeiiiie inaaaeiieaiiinoe neaaeiaaoaey i i?anooieaiee, a oaeaea
ninoiyiea i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey, neiaeeaoaany ia ethaie ii?aaeaeaiiue
iiiaio a?aiaie, aiaeec e ioeaiea eioi?iai iicaieytho neaaeiaaoaeth
i?eiyoue iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciua ii aeaeo ?aoaiey.

Aicieeaao aii?in: neaaeoao ee a iiiyoea neooaoeee aeeth/aoue aa ioeaieo
noauaeoii ?anneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey
neaaeiaaoaeai i?ioeannoaeueiuo, oaeoe/aneeo e oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee?

Iaeioi?ua o/aiua ioaa/atho ia iaai iieiaeeoaeueii. Iai?eia?,
E.O.Aa?aneiia oeacae, /oi “a iiiyoea neooaoeee ia?yaeo n iauaeoeaiuie
oaeoi?aie iaycaoaeueii aoiaeeo e ioeaii/iue noauaeoeaiue iiiaio”1.

A i?eioeeia ethaie iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann niaea?aeeo a naaa ia oieueei
io?aaeaiea a niciaiee noauaeoa iiciaaaaiiai iauaeoa, ii oaeaea e aai
ioeaieo. Ioeaiea neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee i?ienoiaeeo ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey. Iouneaiea e nenoaiaoecaoeey
e?eieiaeenoe/anee cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee, io/anoe e ii?aaeaeythuae
niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, iaaiciiaeiu aac ioeaiee
neaaeiaaoaeai i?ioeanna e ?acoeueoaoia yoie iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaeeueiay, aaeaeaaoiay ioeaiea neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee
– aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea aeey i?eiyoey neaaeiaaoaeai i?iaeoiaiiuo e
acaaoaiiuo ?aoaiee ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo. Iaeiaei, i?aaeaea /ai ioeaieoue
neooaoeeth, e iiiaioo ioeaiee iaiaoiaeeii noi?ioee?iaaoue naia i iae
i?aaenoaaeaiea, ii?aaeaeeoue aa eiiiiiaiou e nayce iaaeaeo ieie,
iineieueeo iaeuecy ioeaieoue ia/oi, aua ia io?aaeaiiia a niciaiee. A
anee neooaoeey a niciaiee oaea noi?ie?iaaia, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa
ioeaiea oaea iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie aa niaea?aeaiey.

Iiyoiio iu iieaaaai, /oi aeeth/aiea a /enei eiiiiiaioia, ninoaaeythueo
niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee aa oaeoe/aneiai ninoiyiey, oneiaee
e ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa ?anneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony aanueia nii?iui.
Ioeaiea neooaoeee ioiineony, nei?aa anaai, ia e niaea?aeaoaeueiie, a e
iaoiaeeei-iiciaaaoaeueiie eaoaai?ee.

I?e eco/aiee neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee ?aciuie o/aiuie ia?aaeei
aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oaeeo aa ea/anoaao, eae aeeiaie/iinoue e
eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaeoe/aneay iiaeaeaeiinoue. Yoe naienoaa neooaoeee oaea
enneaaeiaaiu iiiaeie e?eieiaeenoaie1, oioy a i?ioeaiaan
?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiaieth, O.N.Aaeoaeia ioiaoeea eae ?ac noaoe/iinoue
neooaoeee, n/eoay aa aieaa aaaeiie /a?oie, /ai aeeiaie/iinoue.

Aaconeiaii, neooaoeey – yoi ninoiyiea ?anneaaeiaaiey eiaiii a eiie?aoii
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie. Iaeiaei, noi?ie?iaaaoenue a eaeii-oi aeaea
e iiiaioo aicaoaeaeaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea, a oiaea ?anneaaeiaaiey iia,
o?ainoi?ie?oynue, niaiyaony iaeia ae?oaie, ia?aoiaeeo a ea/anoaaiii
iiaia ninoiyiea, i?eia?aoay iaeie e eciaiyy ae?oaea i?eciaee. E
iineieueeo iniciaiea, oyniaiea nooe e ioeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee
iai?yioth naycaiu n ia?niaeoeaie aa ?acaeoey – iaiaoiaeei aeoeaio eiaiii
ia aeeiaie/aneie noi?iia neooaoeee.

Eae ?ac a nayce n oaeie /a?oie neooaoeee, eae aa aeeiaieea,
A.A.Ia?acoeia e A.A.Oaianaae/ auneacaee iiaiea i oii, /oi a no?oeoo?a
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue aeaa acaeiinaycaiiua e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiua iiaenenoaiu: oaeoe/aneoth e ia?niaeoeaioth1.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee i?eciaoue, /oi ioeaiea
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee yaeyaony iaeiei ec yeaiaioia aa no?oeoo?u, anoue
niune auaeaeyoue a iae oaeoe/aneoth e ia?niaeoeaioth /anoe, iineieueeo
eiaiii ioeaiea neooaoeee e aoaeao yaeyoueny aa ia?niaeoeaiie /anoueth.
Iaaa?iia, e ioeaii/iue iiiaio, e i?eiyoea ia iniiaa ioeaiee neooaoeee
iineaaeothuaai ?aoaiey, ninoaaeythuea “ia?niaeoeaiia” a neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, eaaeao ana aea ca i?aaeaeaie aa niaea?aeaiey.

Neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiiia ia?aciaaiea,
oi?ie?oaiia ni/aoaieai ?acee/iiai ?iaea eiiiiiaioia e ooieoeeiiaeueiuie
naycyie iaaeaeo ieie. *oi aea aoiaeeo a niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee?

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea no?oeoo?iay
noaia neooaoeee, i?aaeeiaeaiiay ?.N. Aaeeeiui, eioi?ue auaeaeyao a
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee eiiiiiaiou: 1) eioi?iaoeeiiiiai; 2)
ineoieiae/aneiai; 3) i?ioeannoaeueii-oaeoe/aneiai; 4) iaoa?eaeueiiai e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia aanueia oaea/iiio ?aoaieth aeaiiie i?iaeaiu, iicaieei
naaa caiaoeoue, /oi a ioiioaiee ?ane?uoey niaea?aeaiey eaaeaeiai ec
iacaaiiuo eiiiiiaioia, iiceoeey ?.N.Aaeeeia ia ai anai aannii?ia. Oae, e
i?eia?o, a eiiiiiaio i?ioeannoaeueii-oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ?.N.Aaeeei
aeeth/aao “aiciiaeiinoue eca?aiey ia?u i?ana/aiey…”, a
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneee – “aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeueiiai iaiaa?e?iaaiey
iaee/iuie neeaie”1 (eo?nea iao. – O.A.).

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi ioia/aiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa ioiinyony, nei?aa, e
ioeaiea neooaoeee, a eae aeaeaa oeacuaaao nai aea ?.N. Aaeeei, “ioeaiea
a aa niaea?aeaiea aoiaeeoue ieeae ia iiaeao”2.

E?iia oiai, ioaeaeueiuie aaoi?aie iacuaaaony e ae?oaea aa?eaiou
eiiiiiaioiiai ninoaaa neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. Oae, E.I.Eocaei auaeaeee
a neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou:

1) eioi?iaoeey i niauoee, niaea?aeauai i?eciaee i?anooieaiey, e i
eeoeao, i?e/anoiuo e yoiio niauoeth;

2) iauaeoeaiua oneiaey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?ioeann iieo/aiey yoie
eioi?iaoeee (ianoi, a?aiy, eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, eniieueciaaiiua
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa e o.ae.);

3) neeu e n?aaenoaa, eiathueany a ?anii?yaeaiee neaaeiaaoaey;

4) iiceoeey iiaeic?aaaaiiai, iioa?iaaoaai, naeaeaoaeae, ?acoeueoaou eo
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey onoaiiaeaieth enoeiu;

5) eiioaeou neaaeiaaoaey n iia?aoeaii-?icuneiuie ?aaioieeaie, ?acee/iuie
niaoeeaeenoaie;

6) eiua oaeoi?u, i?aiyonoaothuea eee niinianoaothuea oniaoiiio ?aoaieth
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo caaea/ (e i?eia?o, oo?aoa iaia?oaeaiiuo i?e iniio?a
aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, yaea i?anooiieea n iiaeiiie e i?i/)3.

A.A. Ia?acoeia auaeaeyao, iai?eia?, eiiiiiaiou eioi?iaoeeiiiiai,
e?eieiaeenoe/aneiai, ineoieiae/aneiai, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai,
eaae?iaiai, i?aaiaiai e eiiai ii?yaeea4.

E.A.Aica?ei aeeth/aao a aa niaea?aeaiea niaoeeoeeo niaa?oaiiiai
i?anooieaiey, iniaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee i niauoee i?anooieaiey, aa
iieiioo, aeinoiaa?iinoue e ioiineiinoue, niaea?aeaiea i?iaaaeaiiiai e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie ?anneaaeiaaiey, aai ?acoeueoaou, a oaeaea
e oneiaey ?anneaaeiaaiey, oi anoue o?iaaiue iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey aeaiiiai neaaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa, noaiaiue iaania/aiiinoe
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeie e niaoeeaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie, caa?oaeaiiinoue
neaaeiaaoaey e o.ae.1

Iaeiaei, iineieueeo iniiaiui aeaenoaothuei eeoeii a neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee yaeyaony ana aea neaaeiaaoaeue, eioi?ue aa ioeaieaaao,
inouanoaeyao a iae naie iniiaiua i?ioanneiiaeueiua ooieoeee, iaeiiaoe,
oi?aaeyy neooaoeeae, o?ainoi?ie?oao aa oai eee eiui ia?acii, iiyaeyaony
aii?in i oii, aoiaeeo ee eioi?iaoeey i naiii neaaeiaaoaea a no?oeoo?o
neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee?

Aaoi?u, eneeth/athuea ec no?oeoo?u neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee aeaiiua,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea neaaeiaaoaey, eaii?e?otho oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iie
yaeythony aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioii neooaoeee, ieacuaathuae aeeyiea ia
i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie i?ioeanna. N o/aoii yoeo aeaiiuo e
ae?oaie eioi?iaoeee i neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
neaaenoaaiiie a?eaaaeu ii?aaeaeyao eiie?aoiua caaea/e e ooieoeee
neaaeiaaoaey, i?ieo?i? i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i ia?aaea/a aeaea a
i?iecaiaenoai ae?oaiio neaaeiaaoaeth, iaaeiyaiue ei??aeoe?oao naia
iiaaaeaiea. A oeacaiiii niunea cia/aiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee auoiaeeo
ia oieueei ca ?aiee e?eieiaeenoe/aneie oaeoeee, ii a ecaanoiie ia?a
aunooiaao eae iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iay eaoaai?ey, eiathuay ioiioaiea,
iai?eia?, e iaoea i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a1.

Aiaeece?oy oeacaiiua no?oeoo?iua noaiu neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, iu
i?aaeeaaaai neaaeothuee iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth yoiai aii?ina. Iieaaaai, /oi
ana eiiiiiaiou, aeeythuea ia oi?ie?iaaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee,
oeaeaniia?acii iiae?ac?acaeaeeoue ia o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu. Niaea?aeaiea
ethaie neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, eae i?aaeei, aeaoa?ieie?otho neaaeothuea
oaeoi?u: a) ioiinyueany e ?anneaaeoaiiio niauoeth, ii?aaeaeythuea
noaiaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe e iieiioo eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee ?anneaaeoaiiai
niauoey e iiiaioo ioeaieo neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee; a) oa?aeoa?ecothuea
naio nenoaio ?anneaaeiaaiey, aai i?ioeannoaeueiia, oaeoe/aneia
ninoiyiea, ineoieiae/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey o/anoieeia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
?anneaaeiaaiey e o.ae.;

a) ioiinyueany e aiaoiae n?aaea, a eioi?ie aaaeaony ?anneaaeiaaiea,
ii?aaeaeythuea oae iacuaaaioth neaaenoaaiioth ianoaiiaeo.

Eiaiii ?aciiia?aciia ni/aoaiea iacaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, eo niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe e nicaeatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e naiaia?acea eaaeaeie
eiie?aoiie neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee.

Iaeiaei ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oi, /oi eiiiiiaiou ia?aie e aoi?ie
a?oii (o.a. oaeoi?u, ioiinyueany e ?anneaaeoaiiio niauoeth, e
niioaaonoaaiii oaeoi?u, ioiinyueany e naiiio i?ioeanno ?anneaaeiaaiey)
aa?uee?othony e eciaiythony a eaaeaeie iiaie neooaoeee. Yoi iaoneiaeaii
e ia?iiiui ?aciiia?aceai enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee, e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaiiaoi?eiinoueth ineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
o/anoieeia oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna, eo ioiioaieyie e ?anneaaeoaiiio
niauoeth, e neaaeiaaoaeth, e naiiio i?ioeanno ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Eiiiiiaiou aea o?aoueae a?oiiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea naiaia?acea
neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee e aeeth/aaiua iaeioi?uie aaoi?aie a
niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, yaeythony ioiineoaeueii
noaaeeueiuie, iiaoi?yaiuie a ?aciiia?aciuo neooaoeeyo, i?e
?anneaaeiaaiee ?acee/iuo oaieiaiuo aeae. Iiyoiio neaaenoaaiiay
ianoaiiaea iiaeao auoue aeeth/aia a eaaeaeoth eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth
neooaoeeth, neeaaeuaathuothny o eiie?aoiiai neaaeiaaoaey, a eiie?aoiii
?aaeiia, a ea/anoaa aeiea iaeciaiyaiie eioi?iaoeee, oae iacuaaaiie
“eiinoaiou” a ioee/ea io “ia?aiaiiuo” oaeoi?ia ia?aie e aoi?ie a?oii.

Enneaaeoai aieaa iiae?iaii aioo?aiiaa niaea?aeaiea eaaeaeiai ec
oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee.

Oaeoi?u, ioiinyueany e ?anneaaeoaiiio niauoeth, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho oae
iacuaaaiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiiiiiaio neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee,
iieacuaatho noaiaiue inaaaeiieaiiinoe neaaeiaaoaey i i?anooieaiee e
eeoea,aai niaa?oeaoai.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiiiiiaio neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee io?aaeaao oi, a eaeie
noaiaie e eaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeo ?aeiino?oeoeey e?eieiaeueiie
neooaoeee, anaai ?anneaaeoaiiai niauoey a oeaeii: eaeay eioi?iaoeey i
i?anooieaiee e a eaeii iauaia eiaaony a enoiaeiie neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, eaeay iaiaoiaeeiay aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey eioi?iaoeey
ionoonoaoao, anee i?eiyoay oeiiaay aa?ney ni?aaaaeeeaa. Eae ?aaeeciaaoue
eiathuothny a ?anii?yaeaiee neaaeiaaoaey eioi?iaoeeth aeey iienea
iaaeinoathuae? Eaeea i?ioeai?a/ey a eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee
?anneaaeoaiiai niauoey eiathony?

Oaeoi?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea naio nenoaio ?anneaaeiaaiey, niaea?aeao a naaa
neaaeothuea iiiaiou.

Ai-ia?auo, i?ioeannoaeueii-oaeoe/aneee e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneee
aniaeou: eaeea neaaenoaaiiua aeaenoaey e iia?aoeaii-?icuneiua
ia?ii?eyoey oaea i?iaaaeaiu ia iiiaio ioeaiee neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee,
eca?aia ee (e eaeay eiaiii) ia?a i?ana/aiey a ioiioaiee iiaeic?aaaaiiai,
eaeea oaeoe/aneea i?eaiu, iia?aoeee auee oaea eniieueciaaiu
neaaeiaaoaeai, eaeia yooaeo eo i?eiaiaiey. Oi anoue caeanue
a?oiie?othony naaaeaiey ia iauaia, iieiioa, n?ieao e ea/anoaa
neaaenoaaiiie e iia?aoeaii-?icuneiie ?aaiou, i?iaeaeaiiie ii
?anneaaeoaiiio oaieiaiiio aeaeo.

Ai-aoi?uo, neaaeoao auaeaeeoue e ineoieiae/aneee aniaeo: a) ee/iinoiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee ioaeaeueiuo o/anoieeia oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna
(iiaeic?aaaaiiai, iaaeiyaiiai, iioa?iaaoaai, naeaeaoaey): eo
ineoieiae/aneea e eioaeeaeooaeueiua iniaaiiinoe, ii?aeueiua e eiua
ea/anoaa; a) acaeiiaeaenoaea oeacaiiuo o/anoieeia oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna
iaaeaeo niaie, eo ioiioaiea e ?anneaaeoaiiio niauoeth, e neaaeiaaoaeth,
e naiiio i?ioeanno ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Oaeoi?u, ioiinyueany e aiaoiae n?aaea, a eioi?ie aaaeaony
?anneaaeiaaiea, e oa?aeoa?ecothuea neaaenoaaiioth ianoaiiaeo.

A oiaea aiaeeca niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiu neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee
ia?yaeo n auoaiacaaiiuie eiiiiiaioaie, eioi?ua eciaiythony io neooaoeee
e neooaoeee e aunooiatho a ea/anoaa “ia?aiaiiuo oaeoi?ia”,
iaoneiaeeaathueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e naiaia?acea eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie
neooaoeee, iiaeii auaeaeeoue e eiiiiiaiou iinoiyiiiai, ioiineoaeueii
iaeciaiythuaainy oa?aeoa?a – “eiinoaioiua”.

Eiaiii iie, eae i?aaeei, inoathony noaaeeueiuie ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai
i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey, e aeaaea i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee oeaeiai ?yaea
oaieiaiuo aeae. Yoe eiiiiiaiou o/eouaathony neaaeiaaoaeai i?e i?eiyoee
?aoaiey ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo, ii ia aeeiaieeo eiie?aoiie neooaoeee a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia ieacuaatho, ?aaii eae e ia
ii?aaeaeytho aa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe. Iieaaaai, /oi oaeiai ?iaea
naaaeaiey ia?acotho eiiiiiaio neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee – neaaenoaaiioth
ianoaiiaeo, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth aiaoiea oneiaey i?ioeanna ?anneaaeiaaiey.

A e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ?ac?aaaouaaeanue i?iaeaia neaaenoaaiiie
ianoaiiaee eae iaeie oi?aaeai/aneie eaoaai?ee, iaeiaei ia a nayce ni
no?oeoo?ie neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee. Oae, A.I.Aaneeueaa e I.I.ssaeieia a
naia a?aiy i?aaeeiaeeee auaeaeyoue oae iacuaaaioth “no?aoaae/aneoth
ianoaiiaeo”, a eioi?ie aaaeaony ?anneaaeiaaiea aeaea e “oaeoe/aneoth
ianoaiiaeo”, a eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony eiie?aoiay oaeoe/aneay iia?aoeey
eee i?iaiaeeony oi eee eiia neaaenoaaiiia aeaenoaea1.

Yoo eaeath iiaeaea?aeae e E.Ae.Naiuaei, eioi?ue a iiiyoea
“no?aoaae/aneay ianoaiiaea aeiaeee niune aeeyiey ia ?anneaaeiaaiea
e?oiiiianooaaiuo niauoee iieeoe/aneiai eee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a2. N yoei aiieia iiaeii niaeaneoueny, iineieueeo, e i?eia?o,
oneiaey aiaiiiai a?aiaie, ianoaiiaea noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey aanueia
nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia oieueei ia ?anneaaeiaaiea eiie?aoiiai oaieiaiiai
aeaea, ii e ia oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaeiia a
oeaeii.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey iiiyoey “neaaenoaaiiay ianoaiiaea”
iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue aa eiiiiiaioiue ninoaa, a caoai
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue a?oiiu naaaeaiee, aoiaeyueo ia i?aaao yeaiaioia a oio
eee eiie aa eiiiiiaio.

Iieaaaai, /oi naiaia?acea eiie?aoiie neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee
ii?aaeaeytho neaaeothuea oaeoi?u.

1. Eiiiiiaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee oneiaey ?anneaaeiaaiey a ?aieao aaeeiie
acaeiinaycaiiie nenoaiu.

2. Eiiiiiaio, iienuaathuee nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu ?acee/iiai o?iaiy,
eioi?ua oae eee eia/a naycaiu ni neaaenoaeai.

3. Eiiiiiaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe noauaeoia
?anneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea eo acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo niaie.

4. Eiiiiiaio, io?aaeathuee niaoeeoeeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae,
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo e eiuo oneiaee.

5. Eiiiiiaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee e?eieiieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo ?aaeiia,
noaiaiue i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?anooiiuo a?oiie?iaie neaaenoaeth.

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii niaea?aeaiea eaaeaeiai ec iacaaiiuo
eiiiiiaioia. Oae, a ia?aue eiiiiiaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee oneiaey
?anneaaeiaaiey a ?aieao aaeeiie nenoaiu, aieaeao eioi?iaoeey i
eiee/anoaaiiii ninoaaa neaaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa, /enea oaieiaiuo aeae,
iaoiaeyueony a i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/aiee neaaeiaaoaeae n?aaenoaaie
nayce, o?ainii?oii, i oaoie/aneii aii?oaeaiee neaaenoaey, iaee/ee
eiiioieeaoeaiuo naycae iaaeaeo aeaaeo?iuie /anoyie e
neaaenoaaiii-iia?aoeaiuie a?oiiaie ia ianoao i?ienoanoaee. Nthaea aea
iiaeii ioianoe e nenoaiu aunoaai o?iaiy, inouanoaeythuea aiaoiaa
oi?aaeaiea ?anneaaeiaaieai, a oaeaea e i?ieo?i?neee iaaeci? ca iei,
iineieueeo ana iie nicaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey aeey ?aaiou,
caaioyony i iaoa?eaeueiii e iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneii iaania/aiee
?anneaaeiaaiey. A eo /enei iiaeii aeeth/eoue e ANO (aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey) e AEN (aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu)
i?aaiia IAAe e i?ieo?aoo?u ni niaoeeaeueiuie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie
iiaenenoaiaie “neaaenoaea”. Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie yoeo nenoai yaeythony
eiio?ieue e iaaeci?, ieacaiea iaiaoiaeeiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie e
iaoiaee/aneie iiiiue, o/ao e aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia ?anneaaeiaaiey.

Aoi?ie eiiiiiaio aeeth/aao a naay ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu,
naycaiiua ni neaaenoaeai, oi anoue ?aciiia?aciua ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaiu, iai?eia?, yenia?oiua o/?aaeaeaiey, iaeioi?ua /anoiua
o/?aaeaeaiey (aeaoaeoeaiua, io?aiiua neoaeau), i?aaei?eyoey nayce,
o?ainii?oiua i?aaei?eyoey, iao/iua einoeooou, iauanoaaiiua ioieou io?aiu
ii?yaeea, eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneea nenoaiu e o/aoiua aiia?aou
?acee/iuo ae?oaeo i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. ?acoiaaony, nthaea
aeeth/aiu neoaeau, iaoiaeyueany ai aiaoiae n?aaea, ca i?aaeaeaie nenoaiu
“?anneaaeiaaiea”.

*oi eanaaony eiiiiiaioa ineoieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, oi aai niaea?aeaiea
aeieaeia ninoaaeoue eioi?iaoeey ia o?iaia i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee
e aeaeiauo ea/anoaao neaaeiaaoaey, aai i?aainiciaiee, a?aaeaeaineie
iiceoeee, i aai eiiioieeaoeaiuo naienoaao, i?iyaeyaiuo ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n nio?oaeieeaie niaaeiuo neoaea. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nthaea iiaeao auoue aaaaeaia aiaeiae/iay eioi?iaoeey e i ae?oaeo eeoeao,
eiathueo iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e nenoaia “?anneaaeiaaiea”.

?aaeiiaeueiua e i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, ninoaaeythuea
niioaaonoaothuee eiiiiiaio neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee, yaeythony aanueia
cia/eiuie a iae oaeoi?aie. E i?eia?o, oneiaey aieueoiai ai?iaea,
iia?aie/iuo eee ii?oiauo ai?iaeia o?aaotho aaeaioaoeee e iei
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo /anoiuo e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo iaoiaeee1. Caeanue aea
aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny e i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oaeoi?u, e i?eia?o
iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, ieioi nio?aiythuea aauanoaaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, cao?oaeiythuea i?iecaiaenoai neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee.

A niaea?aeaiee neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee iiaeii auaeaeeoue e
e?eieiieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo ?aaeiia, a oaeaea, eae yoi auei
i?aaeeiaeaii E.Ae.Naiuaeiui, e noaiaiue i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?anooiiuo
a?oiie?iaie neaaenoaeth1. Aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey, e i?eia?o, i?aaieciaaiiuo
i?anooieaiee aeiaieueii oeie/ia neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie a i?aeoo
oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna aiaea/aiu aeaa – o?e iaaeiyaiuo e ianeieueei
iiaeic?aaaaiuo, iau/ii ec /enea aoi?inoaiaiiuo /eaiia i?anooiiie
a?oiie?iaee, a aeaaiua o/anoieee yoie aeayoaeueiinoe inoathony
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaonoaiiaeaiiuie e, eniieuecoy yoi, aeoeaiui ia?acii
iuoathony aeeyoue ia ?anneaaeiaaiea oaieiaiiai aeaea,
i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue neaaenoaeth. Aieaa oiai, oaeoe/aneie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noi?iia neaaenoaey iie /anoi i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho naie
oaeoe/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua niiniaiinoe ii nie?uoeth neaaeia
i?anooieaiee, aeaci?eaioaoeee e aeaceioi?iaoeee neaaeiaaoaey.
Iia?aoeaii-?icuneiui ia?ii?eyoeyi iie ia?aaeei i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho naie
eiio?ia?ii?eyoey, e i?eia?o iaaethaeaieth – eiio?iaaethaeaiea.

A e?eieiaeenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a eiathony i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth e neaaenoaaiioth
ianoaiiaeo. Iai?eia?, N.E.Oeaaoeia i?e/eio iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeaeeo a neaaeothuai. “Ai-ia?auo, e?eoa?ee
neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaee nio?aiythony a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, a
e?eoa?ee neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee iaiythony e?aeia auno?i. Ai-aoi?uo,
aiciiaeiinoue aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia neaaenoaaiioth ianoaiiaeo o
neaaeiaaoaey i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao, a oi a?aiy eae iiaay neaaenoaaiiay
neooaoeey ai iiiaii neeaaeuaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa aai aeaenoaee.
A-o?aoueeo, anee neaaeiaaoaeue yaeyaony noauaeoii aiaeeca neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, oi ii ioiioaieth e neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaea aai
eaaeeoeeaoeey, aiciiaeiinoe e ae?oaea oaeoi?u iiaoo naie ii naaa
?anniao?eaaoueny eae neaaenoaaiiay ianoaiiaea”2.

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi n?aaee iacaaiiuo eiiiiiaioia neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee i?ei?eoaoiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiiiiiaioo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
oa?aeoa?a, iineieueeo noaiaiue inaaaeiieaiiinoe neaaeiaaoaey ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaao niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, i eeoea, aai niaa?oeaoai, i
aiciiaeiuo aeieacaoaeuenoaao e enoi/ieeao eioi?iaoeee eiaao
i?aiaeaaeathuaa cia/aiea i?e ioeaiea neooaoeee. Iniaaiii nouanoaaiii
cia/aiea yoiai eiiiiiaioa aeey enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee. Ia
neo/aeii a e?eieiaeenoe/aneie iaoiaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i?iecaiaeeony
au/eaiaiea oeiiauo enoiaeiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee aeey iineaaeothuae
?ac?aaioee ia yoie iniiaa niioaaonoaothueo iaoiaee/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeee1.

Caiaoei, /oi ia neaaeoao niaoeaaoue eiiiiiaiou, ninoaaeythuea
niaea?aeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee, n iauaeoeaiuie e noauaeoeaiuie
oaeoi?aie, niiniaiuie ieacaoue nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia noaiiaeaiea eee
eciaiaiea neooaoeee. A /enea oaeeo iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia iiaeii iacaaoue:

– iniaaiiinoe e?eieiaeueiie neooaoeee, io eioi?ie ai iiiaii caaeneo
oa?aeoa?enoeea enoiaeiie neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee;

– yoaiu ?anneaaeiaaiey (ia?aiia/aeueiue, iineaaeothuee,
caeeth/eoaeueiue);

– aeaeu e ea/anoai enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo;

– niiniaiinoue aauanoaaiiuo e eiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa e nio?aiaieth
caeiaeaiiie a ieo eioi?iaoeee e o.ae.

A naith i/a?aaeue, noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u yaeythony i?iecaiaeiuie io
aeaenoaee noauaeoa ?anneaaeiaaiey e iiaaaeaiey iaeioi?uo eiuo o/anoieeia
oaieiaiiai i?ioeanna e aeeth/atho a naay noauaeoeaiua ea/anoaa
neaaeiaaoaey eee eeoea, i?iecaiaeyuaai aeiciaiea (aeeciaiiue iiuo,
i?ioanneiiaeueiia ianoa?noai, oiaiea ananoi?iiia e i?aaeeueii
aiaeece?iaaoue ana iiiaiia?acea oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, neiaeeaoeony e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio iiiaioo ?anneaaeiaaiey oaieiaiiai aeaea). E oaeei
oaeoi?ai iiaeii ioianoe e ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey
neaaeiaaoaey n oaieiaiui ?icuneii, ae?oaeie neoaeaaie, iineieueeo, eae
aeieacaii ineoieiaaie, ee/iinoiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie
eieeaeoeaa eee acaeiiaeaenoaothueo eieeaeoeaia cia/eoaeueii
i?aaeii?aaeaeytho auiieiaiea eie naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae1.

Nouanoaaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aii?in i eeanneoeeaoeee neaaenoaaiiuo
neooaoeee, eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue naanoe a aaeeioth nenoaio
ia?iiiia eo iiiaiia?acea. ?acee/iuie aaoi?aie i?aaeeaaaaony oeaeue ?yae
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo noai iiaeiaiiai ?iaea, a eioi?uo a ea/anoaa
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo iniiaaiee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aunooiatho
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeiiai ec neooaoeeiiiuo eiiiiiaioia2.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ?ac?aaioee a noa?a neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee
aeieaeiu iineoue oa?aeoa? eiaeaia?iie ?ac?aaioee, iai?aaeaiiie ia
nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu a ?aieao neooaoeeiiiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia, iienuaathuay neaaenoaaiiua
neooaoeee, eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea eae aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, oae e aeey aeai?eoiecaoeee i?ioeanna i?eiyoey
oaeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee i?anooieaiee eae ia aaca
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai, oae e a aaciaoeiiie oi?ia.

A iniiaa eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu, iiaeaee?othuae neaaenoaaiiua
neooaoeee, aeieaeai eaaeaoue eeanneoeeaoi? i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiu acaeiinaycaiiuo ii aa?oeeaee e ai?eciioaee
iai?ioeai?a/eauo iaeiicia/iuo iiiyoee, iicaieythueo aaeaeaaoii
iienuaaoue neaaenoaaiioth ianoaiiaeo e neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth.

Iniaue i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aeaeaiea neooaoeee ia oeiiaua
e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua (eiie?aoiua). Eiie?aoiay neaaenoaaiiay neooaoeey
io?aaeaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e naiaia?acea oiai eee eiiai iiiaioa
?anneaaeiaaiey. A neeo yoiai iia aeeth/aao a naay aieueoia eiee/anoai
/anoiinoae: niaoeeoe/aneeo, oieueei ae i?enoueo aeaoaeae e acaeiinaycae.

Aianoa n oai a eaaeaeie neooaoeee iaycaoaeueii i?enoonoaoao ?yae
i?eciaeia, aeaeathueo aa iioiaeae ia ae?oaea neooaoeee oaeiai aea oeia,
oi anoue oeiiaua. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ioeann auyaeaiey oeiiauo neooaoeee
anoue ?acoeueoao ioaea/aiey io /anoiinoae, a aai i?eeeaaeiia cia/aiea
ninoieo a oii, /oi oeiecaoeey neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee iaiaoiaeeia aeey
iino?iaiey /anoiuo e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo iaoiaeee. Auyaeaiea aea niaoeeoeee
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee o?aaoaony aeey aa?iiai i?eiaiaiey yoeo iaoiaeee e
?aoaiey i?ioeannoaeueiuo, oaeoe/aneeo e oi?aaeai/aneeo caaea/
?anneaaeiaaiey.

Iniai iiae/a?eiai, /oi io oeiiaie neaaeoao ioee/aoue neooaoeeth
oeie/ioth (/oi, caiaoei, oioneaaony ec aeaeo aieueoeinoaii
e?eieiaeenoia)1, iiae eioi?ie neaaeoao iiieiaoue oaeoth neooaoeeth, a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeatho iauea, /anoi
iiaoi?ythueany /a?ou. E /eneo aea niaoeeoe/aneeo neooaoeee neaaeoao
ioianoe oa, a eioi?iaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a eioi?uo i?aaaee?otho aoeie/iua,
oi anoue noaoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua, ?aaeei ano?a/aaiua /a?ou.

Neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia neooaoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey e
neooaoeee ioaeaeueiuo neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee. Neooaoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey
oa?aeoa?ecotho ninoiyiea neaaenoaey n iiceoeee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe
i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou e ii?aaeaeaiiiio iiiaioo neaaenoaey. A neooaoeeyo
oaeiai ?iaea aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia iaoiaee/aneie noi?iia i?ioeanna
?anneaaeiaaiey. Neooaoeee neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee oa?aeoa?ecotho
ianoaiiaeo a ?aieao eiie?aoiiai neaaenoaaiiiai aeaenoaey e, eae i?aaeei,
ia aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu aeaeii i?anooieaiey.

E?iia oiai, neooaoeee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia i?inoua e neiaeiua. Neiaeiie
yaeyaony neooaoeey, a eioi?ie nouanoaothuay eioi?iaoeeiiiay
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue o?aaoao iino?iaiey aa ianeieueeeo aa?iyoiinoiuo
iiaeaeae. E iai?ioea, neooaoeey n/eoaaony i?inoie oiaaea, eiaaea
eiathuaeny i iae eioi?iaoeee aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey iino?iaiey aa
iaeiicia/iie iiaeaee.

Oeiiaua neooaoeee, a ioee/ea io oeie/iuo, oeaeaniia?acii auaeaeyoue n
o/aoii ?iee ninoaaeythueo aa eiiiiiaioia. E.ss.Ae?aieei i?aaeeiaeee
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee ia iyoue eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo
iiaea?oii: i?iaeaiiua; eiioeeeoiua; oaeoe/aneiai ?enea;
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoii?yaei/aiiua; niaoaiiua1.

Oaeay eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao iniaoth oeaiiinoue i?e eniieueciaaiee
iaoiaea neooaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey, nooue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi aieueoia /enei eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee ?acaeaeyaony ia ianeieueei
iaiauaiiuo a?oii neooaoeee, aeey eioi?uo ?ac?aaaouaathony iioeiaeueiua
i?ia?aiiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e i?iaaaeaiey i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee.

I?eciaaay a oeaeii ianiiiaiioth oeaiiinoue ?ac?aaioaiiie E.ss.Ae?aieeiui
eeanneoeeaoeee ii oeacaiiui iniiaaieyi, inoaiiaeiny ia ?yaea nii?iuo
iiiaioia. Aucuaaao niiiaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoue auaeaeaiey a?oiiu oae
iacuaaaiuo “niaoaiiuo” neooaoeee, a /enea eioi?uo E.ss.Ae?aieei iacuaaao
oa, eioi?ui a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a i?enoue /a?ou eae i?iaeaiiinoe, oae e
eiioeeeoiinoe, oaeoe/aneiai ?enea. Ii, iaaa?iia, n oaeei aea oniaoii
iiaeii ethaoth neiaeioth, e i?eia?o, eiioeeeoioth eee aea i?iaeaiioth
neooaoeeth eiaiiaaoue niaoaiiie, iineieueeo o?oaeiinoe, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaaaoue neaaeiaaoaeth, ia ano?a/athony, eae i?aaeei,
a “/enoii”, eciee?iaaiiii aeaea.

Caneoaeeaaao iieiiai iaeia?aiey eaeay auaeaeaiey a?oiiu neooaoeee,
iniiao eioi?uo ninoaaeytho neiaeiinoe eiaeei-iiciaaaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iaeiaei, ii iaoaio iiaieth, a eeoa?aoo?a niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai
auneacuaaaony iiaiea i iaei??aeoiinoe eiaiiaaiey eo “i?iaeaiiuie”. Eae
iieacuaaao neaaenoaaiiay i?aeoeea, a ?anneaaeiaaiee iao e ia iiaeao
auoue iai?iaeaiiuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee. Ethaay neooaoeey, n eioi?ie
noaeeeaaaony neaaeiaaoaeue aieioue aei ieii/aiey ?anneaaeiaaiey, iiaeao
auoue ?anniio?aia eae i?iaeaiiay. Nei?aa anaai, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa auei
au iacaaoue iiaeiaiua neooaoeee “neooaoeeyie iiciaaaoaeueiiai oeia”.

Ianeieueei iaoaea/iui i?aaenoaaeyaony iai e iacaaiea
“i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoii?yaei/aiiua neooaoeee”. Iaaa?iia, oi/iaa auei au
auaeaeeoue a?oiio neooaoeee “i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneiai oeia “, a
eioi?oth ia?yaeo n i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oii?yaei/aiiuie aoiaeeee au e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoii?yaei/aiiua neooaoeee.

Iu i?aaeeaaaai a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa, oa?aeoa?a e niaea?aeaiey
oi?ie?othueo neooaoeeth oaeoi?ia auaeaeeoue:

* neooaoeee iiciaaaoaeueiiai oeia;

* neooaoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneiai oeia;

* eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee;

* neooaoeee oaeoe/aneiai ?enea.

N o/aoii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey ioiaoei neooaoeee ia?aiia/aeueiiai,
iineaaeothuaai e caeeth/eoaeueiiai yoaiia. Niioaaonoaaiii ii oa?aeoa?o
ioeaieaaaiiai iiiaioa auaeaeei enoiaeiua, i?iiaaeooi/iua e caaa?oathuea
neooaoeee.

Aeey neooaoeee ia?aiia/aeueiiai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey oa?aeoa?iui
yaeyaony iaee/ea ieieiaeueiiai iauaia i?iaeaeaiiie ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo
?aaiou e iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee. Aiaeec yoeo
neooaoeee a iniiaiii iie?aaony ia ya?enoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
neaaeiaaoaey, a eioi?ie aeaaiia ianoi caieiaao aai niiniaiinoue
aiaeece?iaaoue, niiinoaaeyoue ioaeaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
i?iaiice?iaaoue iai?aaeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiey e o.ae.

Aeey i?iiaaeooi/iuo neaaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee oa?aeoa?ai ii?aaeaeaiiue
iauai i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou e nia?aiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, iaee/ea
ii?aaeaeaiiie niaieoiiinoe i?eaioe?othuae e aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, ?ane?uaathuae ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu iaoaiecia i?anooieaiey,
iiceoeee i?ioiaeyueo ii aeaeo eeoe e ae?oaea oaeoi?u.

Caaa?oathuea neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee iicaieytho neaaeiaaoaeth iiaeaanoe
eoiae ?anneaaeiaaiey, ieii/aoaeueii auno?ieoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue
?anneaaeoaiiai niauoey, i?ioeannoaeueiui ia?acii io?aceoue aa iniiaiua
iiiaiou a iaaeieoaeueiii caeeth/aiee.

Acya ca iniiaaiea ea/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aiciiaeiinoae
aeinoeaeaiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo oeaeae ?anneaaeiaaiey, auaeaeei neooaoeee
aeaaii?eyoiua e iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeey neaaenoaey. Aeaaii?eyoiuie i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue neooaoeee, i?e eioi?uo aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iuo oeaeae
?anneaaeiaaiey aiciiaeii i?e cao?aoa ieieiaeueiuo oneeee neaaenoaey. A
naith i/a?aaeue, iaaeaaii?eyoiua neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee
oa?aeoa?ecothony iaee/eai ?yaea neiaeii i?aiaeieeiuo i?aiyonoaee aeey
?anneaaeiaaiey (iai?eia?, ionoonoaea o neaaeiaaoaey aeinoaoi/iie
eioi?iaoeee i i?anooieaiee, aeoeaiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea neaaenoaeth ni
noi?iiu caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe e o.ae.).

A caaa?oaiea ioiaoei, /oi aiaeec e ioeaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee
aianoa ni neaaenoaaiiie ianoaiiaeie eiaao aanueia nouanoaaiiia
i?eeeaaeiia cia/aiea, iineieueeo niinianoaoao:

a) auaeaeaeaieth iainiiaaiiuo neaaenoaaiiuo aa?nee, ii?aaeaeaieth
aeaeueiaeoeo iooae ?anneaaeiaaiey;

a) auai?o iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey
neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee e iia?aoeaii-?icuneiuo ia?ii?eyoee;

a) eniieueciaaieth iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciuo iai?aaeaiee acaeiiaeaenoaey
neaaeiaaoaey n i?aaiaie aeiciaiey, eiuie neoaeaaie;

a) ?ac?aaioea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiia, eiiaeiaoeee e
iia?aoeee;

ae) auyaeaieth i?e/ei e oneiaee, niinianoaothueo niaa?oaieth
i?anooieaiee.

Yenia?oiua neooaoeee.

A /enea neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?e i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo iaaei
o/eouaaoue eae iauoth neaaenoaaiioth neooaoeeth ii aeaeo, oae e
eiie?aoioth oaeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth neaaeoao iacaaoue e yenia?oeco. Yoi
ioiineony ia oieueei e oae iacuaaaiie neooaoeeiiiie yenia?oeca,
nouiinoue eioi?ie ninoieo a ?aeiino?oeoeee e?eieiaeueiie neooaoeee ii
?acoeueoaoai iniio?a ianoa i?ienoanoaey, ii e e ethaie ae?oaie.

Yenia?oiie neooaoeeae, ii iaoaio iiaieth, neaaeoao n/eoaoue oo
neooaoeeth, eioi?ay aicieeaao a oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa yenia?oecu e
?ac?aoaiea eioi?ie eaaeeo, eae i?aaeei, ia yenia?oa.

Oae, e i?eia?o, i?e i?iaaaeaiee EYIAE, ia ia?aiia/aeueiie aiaeeoe/aneie
noaaeee eco/aiey iauaeoia yenia?o oaaaeeeny a oii, /oi i?eneaiiua ia
yenia?oeco iauaeou: eo?oea iioa?iaaoae e naeoa? iiaeic?aaaaiiai
iaoiaeeeenue a eiioaeoa aneaaenoaea iai?aaeeueiie eo oiaeiaee. A
iineieueeo iniiaiui aii?inii yenia?oo aue aii?in i iaee/ee iaeiaeaiey
iee?i/anoeoe iaeiiai iauaeoa ia ae?oaie, i?iaaaeaiea yenia?oecu a
oeacaiiie neooaoeee noaei iaoeaeania?aciui1.

A ae?oaeo yenia?oiuo neooaoeeyo iaaiciiaeiinoue aea/e caeeth/aiey iiaeao
auoue aucaaia iainoi?iaeiuie aeaenoaeyie naiiai yenia?oa. Oae, i?e
i?iaaaeaiee aeaeoeeineiie/aneie yenia?oecu a oiaea yenia?oiiai
enneaaeiaaiey yenia?o o?iiee aiioeo n i?iiaaeieii, ia eioi?ie eiaeenue
ioia/aoee iaeueoeaa ?oe iiaeic?aaaaiiai2.

Iacia/aieth yenia?oecu aeieaeii i?aaeoanoaiaaoue ouaoaeueiia eco/aiea
neaaeiaaoaeai neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee ?anneaaeiaaiey. Ioeaiea iaee/iie
eioi?iaoeee e enoi/ieeia aa iieo/aiey iicaieyao neaaeiaaoaeth
ii?aaeaeeoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?iaaaeaiey oie eee eiie yenia?oecu e
i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i aa iacia/aiee, i?aaeeueii aua?aoue iiiaio iacia/aiey
yenia?oecu e iauai caaeaiey yenia?oo, ioeaieoue cia/aiea aa ?acoeueoaoia
aeey neiaeeaoaeny neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee e ?anneaaeiaaiey aeaea a
oeaeii.

Oyniaiea neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee ia iiiaio iacia/aiey yenia?oecu aaaeii
ia oieueei aeey neaaeiaaoaey, ii e aeey yenia?oa. Ia/aoeia
i?aaenoaaeaiea yenia?oa i neaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi,
?aaeaeoe?oy oi?ioee?iaee aii?inia neaaeiaaoaey, yenia?ou ii?ie
iaiainiiaaiii noaeatho iauai caaeaiey, a oaeaea ia auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu
caaeaiey a ii?yaeea yenia?oiie eieoeeaoeau, eiaaea yoi aeeeooaony
eioa?anaie onoaiiaeaiey enoeiu ii aeaeo.

Eco/aiea yenia?oiie i?aeoeee iieacuaaao, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaicia/eeanue oaiaeaioeey oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa auaiaeia a ii?yaeea
yenia?oiie eieoeeaoeau niaeanii no. 191 OIE ?O. Oae, ii aeaiiui
O.A.Naaeiaie, a 73% neo/aaa aii?inu ia ioiineiinoe iauaeoa e oie eee
eiie eiie?aoiie a?oiia eee iaaeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua aii?inu i
niioaaonoaee, iaeeiaeiainoe i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia enneaaeiaaiea aauanoa
auee caiaiaiu yenia?oaie ia aanueia oe?ieea iaeiie?aoiua aii?inu ia
iauae ?iaeiaie e a?oiiiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe1. A yoii neo/aa yenia?ou
aianee ia oieueei ?aaeaeoeeiiiua eciaiaiey, ii e noceee iauai caaeaiey,
/aai iie aeaeaoue ia ai?aaa. A neooaoeee ino?iai aeaoeoeeoa
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, /ai e oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue eco/aaiua
aeaea, ia iiiaio iacia/aiey yenia?oecu aeey neaaeiaaoaeae auei aaaeii
iieo/eoue ia oieueei naiua iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee enneaaeoaiuo iauaeoia,
ii e aieaa eiie?aoiua aeaiiua i eo i?ienoiaeaeaiee.

A nayce n yoei neaaeoao i?eciaoue oeaeaniia?aciui oeacuaaoue a
iinoaiiaeaieyo i iacia/aiee yenia?oecu ia oa iiiaiou neaaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, eioi?ua eiatho cia/aiea aeey i?aaeeueiiai oyniaiey yenia?oaie
aeaiiuo (iiieii oeacaiiuo a aii?inao), nouanoaaiiuo aeey aeaea. Yoi
iiiiaeao yenia?oai i?aaeeueii i?eaioe?iaaoueny i?e oi?ioee?iaaiee naieo
aii?inia e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee i auoiaea a ii?yaeea yenia?oiie eieoeeaoeau
ca i?aaeaeu caaeaiey neaaeiaaoaey.

Iia?aoeaii-?icuneiua neooaoeee.

E iia?aoeaiui neooaoeeyi iu ioianai oa, eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony a
iia?aoeaii-?icuneiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei a ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee
iu ia aoaeai inoaiaaeeaaoue ia ieo naia aieiaiea a neeo oiai, /oi
eco/aiea iiaeiaiiai ?iaea neooaoeee – i?aaeiao oai?ee
iia?aoeaii-?icuneiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Noaeaaiua neooaoeee.

Auianaiea caeiiiuo, ni?aaaaeeeauo e iainiiaaiiuo noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee
aiciiaeii oieueei ia iniiaa ananoi?iiiaai, iieiiai e iauaeoeaiiai
enneaaeiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea e i?e o/aoa niioaaonoaothuae
noaeaaiie neooaoeee. Ec /aai neaaeoao, /oi ananoi?iiiinoue, iieiioa e
iauaeoeaiinoue noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey iaania/eaathony ia oieueei
niaethaeaieai o?aaiaaiee oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiia, ii e
a?aiioiui i?eiaiaieai ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e?eieiaeenoeee. Iaeiaei aii?in i
?ac?aaioea o/aiey i noaeaaiuo neooaoeeyo a ?aieao e?eieiaeenoeee
iaaannii?ai, e aeaaea naia aai iinoaiiaea aucuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an
n?aaee o/aiuo.

Iineieueeo e?eieiaeenoeea aicieeea eae iaoea i iaoiaeao ?anneaaeiaaiey
i?anooieaiee, ia?aiia/aeueiie noa?ie i?eiaiaiey aa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee auea
eneeth/eoaeueii iaeanoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea e?eieiaeenoe/aneie iaoee e noaeaaiie i?aeoeee
iieacaei, /oi aa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee n oniaoii iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny e a
i?ioeanna noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey.

Iiaeaeoe, iaeiei ec ia?auo iinoaaee yoo i?iaeaio A.Oeuieei1. Ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa iao/iie ?ac?aaioee oeacuaaee a naith i/a?aaeue oaeaea
E.Aa?ei e I. A?iaeceineee2. Ia?aua iiae?iaiua e iniiaaoaeueiua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iaoiaeeea noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey auee ?ac?aaioaiu
i?ioeannoaeenoaie E.O. Ia?eiaui, ?.Ae. ?aooiiaui, I.N. No?iaiae/ai.
E?eieiaeenou, ia?auie ec eioi?uo auee E.A. A?ioeea?, N.I. Ieo?e/aa,
noaee caieiaoueny yoie i?iaeaiie ianeieueei iicaeiaa. E ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie enneaaeiaaiey ii aii?inai oaeoeee noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey
cia/eoaeueii aeoeaece?iaaeenue1.

Aianoa n oai iaiaeia /enei o/aiuo e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ioiinyo
noaeaaiia neaaenoaea e i?aaeiaoo e?eieiaeenoeee. I?e/ai a?aoiaioe?otho
iie yoi ii-?aciiio. E i?eia?o, oai, /oi “iio?aaiinoue ?ac?aaioee
e?eieiaeenoeeie aii?inia noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey ieeai e ie/ai ia
aeieacaia e auaeyaeeo iaeei iaaycuaaieai oiai, /oi i?aeoeea ia
o?aaoaony. A caneoaeeaathuea aieiaiey aii?inu ieaie?iaaiey noaeaaiiai
neaaenoaey yaeythony i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey i?ioeannoaeueiie iaoee”2.

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi yoi ia nianai aa?ii, iineieueeo, a i?eioeeia, n
oaeeo aea iiceoeee iiaeii ?anniio?aoue e oaeoe/aneea aii?inu
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey, iiiaea iieiaeaiey eioi?iai oaeaea
?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu OIE ?O e aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiu
o/aiuie-i?ioeannoaeenoaie.

Aaconeiaii, a ii?yaeea aaaeaiey noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey anoue iieiaeaiey
iniiaiiieaaathuea e iiyoiio /aoei ?aaeaiaioe?oaiua caeiiii. Yoi e anoue
i?aaeiao aaaeaiey i?ioeannoaeenoia. Ii, e?iia oiai, aeey iioeiecaoeee
noaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaoo auoue aeaiu e oeacaiey iaoiaee/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a, iniiaaiiua ia caeiia, ii yaeythueany iieiaeaieyie
iaiaycaoaeueiiai iaoiaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ioe?uaathuea noaeo oai?/aneee
i?inoi? a onoaiiaeaiee enoeiu ii aeaeo, ?ann/eoaiiua ia eiie?aoiua
noaeaaiua neooaoeee. Enoiaey ec yoiai ana aea neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
?acieoeo iaaeaeo i?ioeannoaeueiie ?aaeaiaioaoeeae neaaenoaaiiiai
aeaenoaey e oaeoeeie aai i?iaaaeaiey.

E?iia oiai, ia io?eoeaoaeueiia iiaiea ia enneaaeiaaiee a ?aieao
e?eieiaeenoeee oaeoeee noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey ai iiiaii iiaeeyei oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iaeioi?ua aaoi?u neaaenoaaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aiinyo ia noaeaaiia neaaenoaea, aac o/aoa niaoeeoeee
iineaaeiaai. Yoi a?yae ee iiaeii i?eciaoue i?aaeeueiui, iineieueeo
eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae e i?aaeaeia i?eiaiaiey aeaiiuo e?eieiaeenoeee a
noaeaaiii neaaenoaee auyaeei iaiaoiaeeiinoue au?aaioee oaeeo
e?eieiaeenoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo eneeth/eoaeueii aeey
noaea, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia eiie?aoiua noaeaaiua neooaoeee.

Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, ?acaeoea eioaa?e?othuae ii naiae nooe oai?ee –
e?eieiaeenoe/aneie neooaeiaee – iicaieeo iiaeaanoe /a?oo a aeeneonnee i
oeaeaniia?aciinoe aeeth/aiey a i?aaeiao e?eieiaeenoeee noaeaaiiai
neaaenoaey. Neooaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao o/eouaaoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e niaoeeoeeo oaeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeie ec
?anniao?eaaaiuo noaaeee.

Iaeiaei aeey nicaeaiey eiie?aoiuo iaoiaeee ii aaaeaieth noaeaaiiai
neaaenoaey, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ?ac?aaioaoue o/aiea i noaeaaiuo
neooaoeeyo. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ana aeaaaaiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ieaaeoony
aacaae?aniuie.

A.E.Aaaei, iiaeaeoe, iaeiei ec ia?auo enneaaeiaae noaeaaiia neaaenoaea n
iiceoeee neooaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea. Ei aea i?aaeeiaeaii e ii?aaeaeaiea
noaeaaiuo neooaoeee. “Iiae noaeaaiie neooaoeeae neaaeoao iiieiaoue
neeaaeuaathuothny a oiaea noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey ianoaiiaeo,
oa?aeoa?ecothuothny iaee/eai o noaea onoaiiaeaiiuo ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii
neaaenoaee e a noaea aeieacaoaeuenoa niauoey i?anooieaiey e eeoea, aai
niaa?oeaoaai, e oneiaeyie e ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, a eioi?uo yoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa enneaaeothony e aeiauaathony iiaua, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeao noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey a oeaeyo onoaiiaeaiey
enoeiu ii aeaeo”1.

Eiaiii neooaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea yaeyaony naaiaeiy
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui. Oae, iai?eia?, ?aciua aaoi?u i?aaeeaaatho e
iiiaea noaeuee eniieuecotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu ninoaaeaiey ieaia
noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea oi, /oi auai? oiai eee eiiai
aa?eaioa caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a i?anooieaiey, eiee/anoaa iiaenoaeeiuo,
iauaia i?aaeuyaeaiiiai iaaeiaiey, niaieoiiinoe nia?aiiuo i?aaiaie
?anneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia e ee/iiai
iiuoa noaeuee. Iaeiaei, e?iia anao ia?a/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia, iio?aaiinoe
i?aeoeee aeeeootho ianoiyoaeueioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?e i?eiyoee
noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee o/eouaaoue, aa?ii ioia?aaeaoue, a?aiioii ioeaieaaoue e
oiaei ?ac?aoaoue eiie?aoioth noaeaaioth neooaoeeth. I?e yoii ieai
noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey aeieaeai auoue iiiaiaa?eaioai, n o/aoii anao
?aaeueii aiciiaeiuo a oiaea noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey neooaoeee, naycaiiuo n
i?iaa?eie oie eee eiie noaeaaiie aa?nee.

Oaeoe/aneea i?eaiu noaeaaiuo aeaenoaee oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue
i?eaioe?iaaiu ia eiie?aoiua noaeaaiua neooaoeee.

Iai?eia?, iiaeaee?oy i?aaenoiyuea noaeaaiua aeii?inu iiaenoaeeiuo
Iaeeiaa e Oa?eoiiiaa, noaeuey i?eiye oaeoe/aneia ?aoaiea enoiaey ec
neaaeothueo ianoiyoaeuenoa. A niioaaonoaee ni no. 279 OIE ?O noae ai?aaa
onoaiaaeeaaoue ethaie ii?yaeie enneaaeiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ec
iaoa?eaeia oaieiaiiai aeaea oniao?eaaeinue oi, /oi iiaenoaeeiue
Oa?eoiiia a niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiey ea?ae aieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue, /ai
Iaeeia, ioee/aeny a?oainoueth e aea?cinoueth, aue ?aiaa noaeei. Iaeeia,
iaiai?io, i?anooieaiea niaa?oee aia?aua, /enoina?aea/ii ?aneaeaaeny.
Enoiaey ec noaeaaiie neooaoeee, noaeuey ?aoee aia/aea aeii?ineoue
Iaeeiaa n oeaeueth, /oiau Oa?eoiiia naiei iiaaaeaieai ia ieacuaae ia
iaai iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea1.

?ac?aaioea o/aiey i noaeaaiuo neooaoeeyo aanueia ia?niaeoeaia,
iineieueeo iicaieeo eniieueciaaoue aeinoeaeaiey e?eieiaeenoeee ia
oieueei a oaieiaiii, ii oaeaea a a?aaeaeaineii e a?aeo?aaeiii i?ioeanna.
Caiaoei, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy inouanoaeaiu iiiuoee ia iniiaa
neooaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea eniieueciaaiey aeaiiuo e?eieiaeenoeee a
a?aaeaeaineii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e aaeieieno?aoeaiii i?ioeanna.

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