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Система обязательств позднейшего права. Обязательства внедоговорные

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NENOAIA IAssCAOAEUeNOA IICAeIAEOAAI I?AAA. IAssCAOAEUeNOAA
AIAAeIAIAI?IUA

IAssCAOAEUeNOAA EC AeAEEEOIA

Iaycaoaeuenoaa ec aeaeeeoia oaeaea iiaeaa?aathony, ia/eiay ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu ?anioaeeee, aanueia nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
?aoi?ie?othony aeaeeeou noa?iai oeeaeeueiiai i?aaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
i?aoi?neei yaeeeoii nicaeathony iiaua. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaeeeou
inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaeaieaa ino?uo yeaiaioia noa?ie ianoe; ?yaeii n
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth a aeaea oo?aoa (actiones poenales) iiyaeyaony a
ecaanoiuo neo/ayo i?inoay iaycaiiinoue aicianoeoue i?e/eiaiiue a?aae
(actiones rei persecutoriae); eiiaaea aiciauaiea a?aaea e oo?ao
eiiaeie?othony a iaeiii enea (actiones mixtae). Ii noa?ia i?aaenoaaeaiea
i aeaeeeoiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eae i /enoi ee/iie, io?aaeaaony aua a oii,
/oi a i?eioeeia e oaia?ue ianeaaeiee aeaeeieaaioa ioaa/aao eeoue a
i?aaeaeao naiaai iaiaiuaiey io aeaiiiai eiie?aoiiai aeaeeeoa (Gai. IV,
112: “Est certissima juris regula ex maleficiis poenales actiones in
heredem nec competere nec dari solere”; fr. 38. D. 50. 17). ?anniio?ei
i?aaeaea [n.435] anaai, eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a iaeanoe aeaeeeoia
noa?iai oeeaeeueiiai i?aaa.

I. Aeaeeeou oeeaeeueiiai i?aaa. 1) Injuria. Iieiaeaiea caeiiia XII
oaaeeoe ia injuria auee ?aaeeeaeueii ?aoi?ie?iaaiu i?aoi?neei yaeeeoii.
I?e yoii yaeeeo iaiauee eacoenoe/aneea ii?iu yoeo caeiiia (edictum
generale) e oai aeae aiciiaeiinoue th?eni?oaeaioeee ?acaeaaoue e
?anoe?youe naiia iiiyoea injuria, ?ani?ino?aiyy aai ii/oe ia anyeea
iinyaaoaeuenoaa i?ioea /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe. Aianoa n oai auee eciaiaiu
naiua iineaaenoaey aeaeeeoa. I?eioeei oaeeiia, i?eciaaaaiue caeiiaie XII
oaaeeoe aeey neo/ay membrum ruptum, ieii/aoaeueii ioaeee naie aae;
iaiiaeaeaeiua ii?iu oo?aoia (300 annia, 25 annia) ia n/eoaeenue n
iniaaiiinoyie eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai neo/ay, a n ?acaeoeai aiaanoa
ieacaeenue e /?acia?ii ieceeie (o Aaea Aaeeey (20, 1, 13) niiauaaony i
iaeioi?ii E. Aa?aoeee, eioi?ue ca oaeiaieuenoaea n/eoae (pro
delectamento habebat) oiaeeoue ii oeeoeai e ?acaeaaaoue iiua/eiu; ca iei
oae ?aa n iaoeii, iieiui aeaiaa, e ooo aea auiea/eaae eaaeaeiio ii 25
annia). Aaeaeo anaai yoiai i?aoi?neee yaeeeo, ioiaiea iaiiaeaeaeiua
oaenu, onoaiiaee actio injuriarum aestimatoria. I?e iaee/iinoe injuria
atrox i?aoi? nai a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa ii?aaeaeye oo noiio
oo?aoa, e eioi?ie aeieaeai auoue i?eaiai?ai iaeae/ee: a ae?oaeo neo/ayo
yoi i?aaeinoaaeyeinue noaeuea in judicio. – ?yaeii n yoie a?aaeaeaineie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth n oa/aieai a?aiaie aicieeaao e ioaaonoaaiiinoue
oaieiaiay. Lex Cornelia de injuriis onoaiiaeea oaeoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aeey neo/aaa pulsare, verberare, vi domum introire; iicaeiaeoaa
eiia?aoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?ani?ino?aieei aa e ia ae?oaea neo/ae,
aneaaenoaea /aai a iicaeiaeoai i?aaa iioa?iaaoee anaaaea iiaeao
auae?aoue iaaeaeo actio aestimatoria e oaieiaiui i?aneaaeiaaieai (§ 10
In. 4. 4: “In summa sciendum est de omni injuria eum, qui passus est,
posse vel criminaliter agere vel civiliter”).

2. Furtum. Aaaeiaeoath ?aoi?iie a iaeanoe furtum auea ioiaia ee/iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe (ductio ni anaie aa iineaaenoaeyie) ai anao oao neo/ayo,
aaea iia ii noa?iio i?aao ianooiaea – oi anoue i?e furtum manifestum e
i?e quaestio lance et licio; aeey anao yoeo neo/aaa i?aoi? onoaiiaee
ioaaonoaaiiinoue in quadruplum (actio furti manifesti, actio furti
prohibiti e non exhibiti). Inoaeueiua enee – actio furti nec manifesti
in duplum, actio furti concepti e oblati in triplum i?aoi?ii auee
nio?aiaiu. A ia?eiae eiia?ee, iaeiaei, /anoiue iaune, a aianoa n oai e
ana naycaiiua n iei enee auoiaeyo ec oiio?aaeaiey, oae /oi a eiioea
eiioeia inoathony oieueei actio furti manifesti in quadruplum e actio
furti nec manifesti in duplum.

Ii yoe enee eiatho oieueei oo?aoiie oa?aeoa?; iie – actiones poenales.
Iiieii eo, iioa?iaaoee anaaaea iia auo?aaiaaoue oe?aaeaiioth aauue
iin?aaenoaii rei vindicatio, a anee aaue o ai?a oaea ia auei, oi – aai
oeaiiinoue iin?aaenoaii iniaie condictio furtiva.

3. Damnum injuria datum. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oie/oiaeaiea e
iia?aaeaeaiea /oaeeo aauae auea caiiai iia?aaeaeaia iniaui caeiiii
Aeaeeey, lex Aquilia – aa?iyoii, 287 a. aei ?. O. Caeii yoio niaea?aeae
a naaa o?e aeaau. Aeaaa ia?aay iinoaiiaeyea, /oi oio, eoi oaueao /oaeiai
?aaa eee “animalia quae pecudum numero sunt” (oi anoue aeeaioiia,
i?eiaaeeaaeauaa e eaoaai?ee pecus – eioaaee, auee, iaoeu e o. ae.),
aeieaeai oieaoeoue oicyeio aunooth oeaio, eioi?oth eiaea aauue a oa/aiea
iineaaeiaai aiaea. Aeaaa aoi?ay onoaiaaeeaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue
adstipulator’a, i?e/eieaoaai a?aae stipulator’y iaaeieaeiui i?iuaieai
o?aaiaaiey. Aeaaa o?aouey niiaa aica?auaeanue e aii?ino i iia?aaeaeaiee
aauae e aiai?eea, /oi oio, eoi ?aieo /oaeiai ?aaa eee pecus eee
oie/oiaeeoue eaeoth-eeai eioth aauue, aeieaeai aicianoeoue oicyeio
aunooth oeaio aa a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai ianyoea. I?e yoii lex Aquilia
onoaiaaeeaaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, oeacaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue a oi?ia manus
injectio (“damnas esto”; ionthaea aiineaaenoaee aeey actio legis
Aquiliae nio?aieeinue i?aaeei, /oi a neo/aa io?eoeaiey ioaao/ee
i?eaiaa?eaaaony in duplum: lis infitiando crescit in duplum). Aiciauaiea
aunoae oeaiu, eioi?oth eiaea aauue a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai aiaea eee
ianyoea, iineei ia?aiia/aeueii oieueei oa?aeoa? ecaanoiiai i?eaia aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey oauoeia; ii ianiiiaiii, /oi eiiaaea yoa aunoay oeaia iiaea
ieacaoueny aeey ioaao/eea e oo?aoii (a ?acia?a ?acieoeu iaaeaeo aunoae
oeaiie e iuiaoiae noieiinoueth). Ia yoii iniiaaiee THnoeieai ioian yoio
ene e actiones mixtae. Aeey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii lex Aquilia ia o?aaoaony,
/oia a?aae aue iaianai oiuoeaiii (dolo); aeinoaoi/ii e i?inoie
iaa?aaeiinoe (culpa levis).

Lex Aquilia yaeeanue aacenii aeey aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou th?eni?oaeaioeee.
Caeii yoio ia?aie/eaae iiiyoea damnum injuria datum i/aiue oceeie
?aieaie: niaeanii aai oaenoo, aeey iaee/iinoe ioaaonoaaiiinoe
iaiaoiaeeii auei damnum corpore corpori datum, oi anoue iia?aaeaeaiea
oaeaniie aaue, niaa?oaiiia iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oece/aneei aicaeaenoaeai ia
iaa aeiiaieea (frangere, rumpere e o. ae.). Ae?oaea neo/ae, iai?eia?,
io?aaeaiea yaeii ?aaa eee caia?eaaiea aieiaeii neioa, eaaeaee oaea aia
yoiai iiiyoey: caeanue auei ia “occidere”, a oieueei “causam mortis
praestare” (fr. 7. 6. D. 9. 2; Gai. III. 219).

Aaeaeo yoiai ia?aae th?eni?oaeaioeeae noiye aii?in, eae auoue ni
neo/ayie, ia iiaeoiaeeaoeie iiae aoeao lex Aquilia, e n?aaee
eeanne/aneeo th?enoia iiaeii caiaoeoue aeaa oa/aiey. Iaeie ec ieo
iieaaaee, /oi neaaeoao ana aea neo/ae iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iiae/eiyoue
i?aaeeai lex Aquilia, e aeaaaee caeanue actio legis Aquiliae utilis –
ene n condemnatio ia aunooth noieiinoue aaue e n oaeaiaieai a neo/aa
infitiatio. Ae?oaea, iai?ioea, i?aaeii/eoaee aeaaaoue caeanue i?aoi?neee
ene actio in factum (i?eiueathuee e actio doli) ia i?inoia aiciauaiea
oauoeia; i?e yoii enea ia auei oaeaiaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii caoi ia
auei e ia?aie/aiey aai aunoae noieiinoueth a oa/aiea aiaea eee ianyoea
(eai oauoee iiaoo auoue auoa ?acieoeu iaaeaeo iuiaoiae e auaoae
noieiinoueth). Ei a?aiaie THnoeieaia, ii-aeaeeiiio, yoe eieaaaiey
?ac?aoeeenue oai, /oi ai anao neo/ayo, aaea a?aae i?e/eiai naiie aaue
(damnum corpori datum), eaeei au ia?acii ii ie aue i?e/eiai (oioy au e
ia corpore datum), ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ii i?aaeeai lex
Aquilia; a ae?oaeo aea neo/ayo, aaea aauue oece/anee inoaaony
iaiia?aaeaeaiiie, a oieueei oa?yaony aeey aai aeaaeaeueoea (iai?eia?,
a?inath aaoo aauue a ii?a), aaea, oaeei ia?acii, iao damnum corpori
datum, – oai aeaaony actio in factum (§ 16. In. 4. 3).

II. Aeaeeeou i?aoi?neiai i?aaa. *?acau/aeiay ?anoaoaiiinoue
iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea a iineaaeiai noieaoee ?anioaeeee aucaaea ni
noi?iiu i?aoi?ia iaeeaeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e i?eaaea e nicaeaieth
iiauo aeaeia aeaeeeoia.

1. Rapina, a?aaaae. N oi/ee c?aiey oeeaeeueiiai i?aaa a?aaaae ia
auaeaeyeny ec furtum, e a?aaeoaeue ioaa/ae eae fur manifestus eee eae
nec manifestus, niio?y ii oiio, aue ee ii caoaa/ai ia ianoa i?anooieaiey
eee iao. I?aeoe/anee yoi i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi a?aaeoaeue iaueiiaaiii
ioaa/ae eae fur nec manifestus, oae eae ii iaueiiaaiii ne?uaaeny. Aeey
oneeaiey ?ai?annee i?aoi? Eoeoee a 76 a. aei ?. O. onoaiiaee iniaue ene
– actio vi bonorum raptorum in quadruplum. Yoio ene, aa?iyoii, yaeyeny
ia?aiia/aeueii eneii /enoi oo?aoiui (oi anoue, e?iia iaai, auea
aiciiaeia rei vindicatio e condictio furtiva), ii i?e THnoeieaia ii oaea
actio mixta (pr. In. 4. 2: “in quadruplo inest et rei persecutio, ut
poena tripli sit”). Ai anyeii neo/aa, ii enoa/aiee aiaea ni aeiy
a?aaaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiieaeaaony aei i?inoiai aiciauaiey oauoeia.

2. Metus, oa?icu. Oio, eoi auioaeeo oa?icaie o ae?oaiai eaeoth-eeai
oeaiiinoue, niaeanii yaeeeoo i?aoi?a Ieoaaey, i?eaeeceoaeueii oiai aea
a?aiaie, iiaeeaaeeo actio quod metus causa, oaeaea n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth
in quadruplum. Ii yoio ene anoue actio arbitraria: ioaao/ee, auaeaa
iieo/aiiia ii i?aaeeiaeaieth noaeuee aeia?iaieueii, io ioaaonoaaiiinoe
inaiaiaeaeaaony.

3. Dolus, iaiai, iioaiie/anoai. Aeey neo/aaa yoiai ?iaea i?aoi?ii e
ecaanoiui th?enoii Aeaeeeai Aaeeii a 66 a. aei ?. O. aue onoaiiaeai
eioaie?othuee ene – actio doli – ia i?inoia aiciauaiea a?aaea. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, aeey ono?aiaiey eioaie?othueo iineaaenoaee, actio
doli caiaiyaony i?inoith actio in factum. Eae actio doli, oae e
i?eiueathuay e iaio actio in factum auee caoai oe?iei eniieueciaaiu
eeanne/aneeie th?enoaie aeey oao neo/aaa, aaea iie cao?oaeiyeenue a
iiaeuneaiee iiaeoiaeyuaai enea. Aeaaiaea?y /?acau/aeii yeanoe/iiio
iiiyoeth dolus, iiae iaai iiaeii auei eaaei iiaeaanoe naiua
?aciiia?aciua ioiioaiey, aneaaenoaea /aai actio doli e actio in factum a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ea?aee ?ieue eneia noaneaeea?iuo.

Oeacaiiua aeaeu en/a?iuaaee anth aeaeeeoioth nenoaio iicaeiaeoaai
?eineiai i?aaa. Eae aeaeei, e caeanue nenoaia no?ieony ia ia
eaeii-ieaoaeue iauai e aaeeiii iiiyoee aeaeeeoa, a ia ioaeaeueiuo oeiao
aai. Aeey enea i aiciauaiee a?aaea iaaei auei iiaeaanoe aai [n.439] iiae
oio eee ae?oaie ec yoeo oeiia. Ai?i/ai, e caeanue (eae i?e eiio?aeoao)
iicaeiaeoaa ?eineia i?aai, a iniaaiiinoe aeaaiaea?y oeacaiiui actio doli
e actio in factum, i?aeoe/anee oaeiaeaoai?yei ii/oe anai cai?inai naiaai
a?aiaie.

QUASI-EIIO?AEOU E QUASI-AeAEEEOU

Eiio?aeoaie e aeaeeeoaie ia en/a?iuaaeinue ana aaceiia/iia ?aciiia?acea
iaycaoaeuenoa e, eae iu ciaai, ?eineay th?eni?oaeaioeey, a ca iae e
THnoeieai, iuoaeenue naanoe ana yoe aiaeiio?aeoiua e aiaaeaeeeoiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa e eaoaai?eyi quasi-eiio?aeoia e quasi-aeaeeeoia. Auoa
auei oeacaii, /oi yoio i?eai nenoaiaoecaoeee ia auaea?aeeaaao iao/iie
e?eoeee: naanoe ana obligationes ex lege, ana “variae causarum figurae”
e eaeei-ieaoaeue iauei i?eioeeiai aaeaa ee aiciiaeii. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua
ec ?eineeo quasi-eiio?aeoia e quasi-aeaeeeoia caneoaeeaatho caeanue
oiiieiaiey.

1) Obligationes quasi ex contractu (Inst. 3. 27). Nthaea ioiinyony,
i?aaeaea anaai: a) enee ec iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey – condictiones
sine causa a oe?ieii niunea neiaa. Aiiaua condictio, aaaeouay naia
ia/aei io legis actio per condictionem, anoue aano?aeoiue ene stricti
juris, eaeouee ia dare oportere. Ene yoio i?eiaiyeny a naiuo
?aciiia?aciuo ioiioaieyo; iu aeaeaee aai i?eiaiaiea i?e mutuum, i?e
eeoa?aeueiuo eiio?aeoao, i?e stipulatio. Yoio aea ene i?eiaiyeny
th?eni?oaeaioeeae e e oai neo/ayi, eiaaea eoi-eeai aac iniiaaiey
iaiaaoeeny ia /oaeie n/ao, eiaaea eoi-eeai aeaaeaao /oaeie oeaiiinoueth
sine causa. I?e yoii, ?acoiaaony, aicieeae aii?in i oii, eiaaea iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi eeoei iaiaaoeeinue ia /oaeie n/ao aac aeinoaoi/iiai e oiio
iniiaaiey – sine causa, oae eae nieioue e ?yaeii iaeii eeoei aeaeaaony
aiaa/a ia n/ao ae?oaiai, e i?aai, oai ia iaiaa, iacaeiiiiai iaiaiuaiey
ia oniao?eaaao (iai?eia?, i?e aea?aiee, aacaiciacaeiie nnoaea e o. ae.).
Ia aeaaay eaeiai-eeai iauaai i?eioeeieaeueiiai ?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina,
?eineay th?eni?oaeaioeey iinoaiaiii onoaiiaeea neaaeothuea neo/ae
iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaiuaiey: 1) Condictio indebiti – [n.440] ieaoaae
aeieaa ia nouanoaothuaai: a ioeai/iii oaaaeaeaiee, /oi y aai aeieaeai, y
aai oiea/eaath; oaia?ue y iiao oiea/aiiia iio?aaiaaoue ia?aoii. 2)
Condictio ob causam datorum eee condictio causa data causa non secuta: y
aeae aai /oi-eeai n oai, /oiau au n naiae noi?iiu /oi-eeai eniieieee,
i?e iaeniieiaiee ioiaaeaao causa aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oaea?aeaiey aaie
ia?aaeaiiiai. Iu oaea aeaeaee yoo condictio a enoi?ee contractus
innominati. 3) Condictio ob injustam eee ob turpem causam: ia?aaeaii
/oi-eeai aeey oeaee, cai?auaiiie caeiiii (causa injusta – iai?eia?,
oiei/aiu i?ioeaiou nauoa caeiiiie ii?iu) eee aeey oeaee, i?ioeaiie
i?aanoaaiiinoe (causa turpis; ii turpitudo ia aeieaeia auoue ia noi?iia
aeathuaai). 4) Oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo neo/aaa, eioi?ua iaeuecy auei
iiaeaanoe iiae ia?a/eneaiiua condictiones, inoaaaeny iiae iauei eiaiai
condictiones sine causa (iai?eia?, neo/ae caeia o iaeieaoiaai: caai, eae
aeiaiai?, iaaeaenoaeoaeai, ii acyaoee ana aea iaiaaoeeny sine causa).
Iniiaaieai aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee anao neo/aaa iainiiaaoaeueiiai
iaiaauaiey, eae quasi-eiio?aeoia, iineoaeeei iaeioi?ia iauaa noiaenoai
ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo caeanue iaaeaeo noi?iiaie, n ioiioaieyie i?e
mutuum.

b) Negotiorum gestio – aaaeaiea /oaeeo aeae aac ii?o/aiey: iai?eia?, y
ai a?aiy aaoaai ionoonoaey i?aaei?eieiath iaiaoiaeeiue ?aiiio aaoaai
aeiia. I?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo (negotium utiliter gestum) negotiorum
gestor eiaao i?aai ia aiciauaiea i?iecaaaeaiiuo ei ecaea?aeae, aeey /aai
aio i?aaeinoaaeyaony actio negotiorum gestorum contraria. A naith
i/a?aaeue oicyei – dominus negotii – eiaao actio negotiorum gestorum
directa ii iiaiaeo i?e/eiaiiuo aio oauoeia e o. i. (fr. 3 pr. D. 3. 5,
fr. 5 pr. D. 44. 7). Ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea ec negotiorum gestio, ai
iiiaii aiaeiae/iu mandatum. Enee ec negotiorum gestio auee onoaiiaeaiu
ia?aiia/aeueii i?aoi?neei yaeeeoii, ii a yiioo eeanne/aneeo th?enoia iie
oaea actiones in jus e bonae fidei.

E?iia eneia ec iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaiuaiey e negotiorum gestio, e
iaycaoaeuenoaai quasi ex contractu ioiineeanue aua neo/aeiay iauiinoue
eiouanoaa, oae iacuaaaiay communio incidens (iai?eia?, i?e neeyiee aei,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ?aciui eeoeai), aaea ioiioaiey neeaaeuaaeenue
aiaeiae/ii societas; ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiaeoiii e iiaeaaiui – tutela, e
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ianeaaeieeii e ioeaciiieo/aoaeai ii iiaiaeo legata.

2) Ec obligationes quasi ex delicto neaaeoao oiiiyiooue: a) [n.441]
ioaaonoaaiiinoue noaeuee ca iaa?aaeiia auiieiaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae
ia?aae oyaeoueieny a neeo i?aaeea judex litem suam facit (ci. § 25). –
b) Actio de effusis et dejectis: anee ec aeiia aoaeao /oi-eeai aueeoi
eee aua?ioaii ia ieiuaaeue eee oeeoeo e yoei aoaeao i?e/eiai eaeie-eeai
a?aae, oi oicyei iiiauaiey ioaa/aao ca yoio a?aae, oioy au e ia ii aue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeiiaieeii. – n) Actio de positis et suspensis: i?aoi?
aeaao anyeiio aeaeathuaio actio popularis i?ioea oicyeia aeiia, anee o
yoiai aeiia /oi-eeai iinoaaeaii eee iiaaoaii oae, /oi iiaeao oianoue e
oai i?e/eieoue a?aae i?ioiaeyuei (ieioi iiaaoaiiay auaanea e o. i.); ene
eaeao ia oo?ao a aeanyo solidi. – d) Ene i?ioea nautae, caupones e
stabularii ca dolus eee furtum, niaa?oaiiua eo neoaaie ia ei?aaea, a
ainoeieoea eee iinoiyeii aeai?a ii ioiioaieth e i?iacaeathuei (Inst. 4.
5).

Nienie ioiioaiee, eioi?ua n oaeei aea eiae/aneei iniiaaieai iiaee au
auoue i?e/eneaiu e quasi-eiio?aeoiui eee quasi-aeaeeeoiui, iiaeii auei
au oaaee/eoue ai iiiai ?ac, ii oaeia i?e/eneaiea ia eiaei au ieeaeie –
ie oai?aoe/aneie, ie i?aeoe/aneie – oeaiiinoe. Ana aiaaeiaiai?iua e
aiaaeaeeeoiua iaycaoaeuenoaa eo/oa anaai iiaoo auoue iiciaiu a nayce n
oaie iniiaiuie einoeoooaie, e eioi?ui iie i?eiueatho (a nayce n
einoeoooii iiaee, caaauaiey, a?a/iuie e ?iaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie e o.
ae.).

IIAAOAIEA E IA?AIANAIEA IAssCAOAEUeNOA

Iiaaoaiea iaycaoaeuenoa

Iauei i?eioeeiii noa?iai ?eineiai i?aaa a aii?ina i iiaaoaiee
iaycaoaeuenoa yaeyaony i?eioeei contrarius actus. Iiaeiaii oiio, eae
iaycaoaeuenoai ia iiaei auoue onoaiiaeaii i?inoui niaeaoaieai eee
i?inoie ia?aaea/ae aaue eee aeaiaa, a iaiaoiaeei aue oi?iaeueiue aeo per
aes et libram, stipulatio e o. ae. – oae aea oi/ii e iiaaoaii
iaycaoaeuenoai ia iiaei auoue eia/a, eae i?e iiiiue oaeiai aea
oi?iaeueiiai aeoa, oieueei i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai [n.442] niaea?aeaiey.
“Prout quidque contractum est, ita et solvi debet”, – aiai?eo aua th?eno
eeanne/aneiai a?aiaie Iiiiiiee (fr. 80 pr. D. 46. 3). I?inoia
eniieiaiea, i?inoie ieaoaae ia auee aeinoaoi/iu aeey oie/oiaeaiey
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiie nayce. Aneaaenoaea yoiai, eae iu ciaai, nexum
aeieaeii auei auoue i?ae?auaii iin?aaenoaii aeoa per aes et libram, i?e
eioi?ii aiai?eo e aeaenoaoao oaea aeieaeiee, cayaeyy i naiai
inaiaiaeaeaiee e ia?aaeaaay eonie iaoaeea e?aaeeoi?o a ciae ieaoaaea.
Aneaaenoaea aea yoiai noeioeyoeeiiiia iaycaoaeuenoai aeieaeii auei auoue
i?ae?auaii iin?aaenoaii ia?aoiiai aa?aaeueiiai aeoa – acceptilatio
verbis: aeieaeiee ni?aoeaae o e?aaeeoi?a “quod ego tibi debeo, habes ne
acceptum?”, ia /oi e?aaeeoi? ioaa/ae: “Habeo”. ?aaiui ia?acii,
eeoa?aeueiue, eieaeiue aeiea iiaaoaeny iin?aaenoaii acceptilatio
litteris, oi anoue caianaiey ioiaoee i iieo/aiee a a?aoa “acceptum”.

Ana yoe oi?iaeueiua aeou iiaaoaiey iaycaoaeuenoa auee ii nouanoao aeoaie
aano?aeoiuie, niiniaiuie iie?uaaoue ia oieueei aeaenoaeoaeueiia
eniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoaa, ia oieueei aeaenoaeoaeueiue ieaoaae, ii e
?aciua ae?oaea causae liberationis, iai?eia?, i?iuaiea aeieaa.

N oa/aieai a?aiaie ia/eiaao iieo/aoue i?eciaiea e i?inoie ieaoaae,
i?inoay solutio. Aa?iyoii, yoi i?aaeaea anaai e anoanoaaiii neo/eeinue
aeey iaycaoaeuenoa iaoi?iaeueiuo, aicieeathueo re, oi anoue ?aiueoa
anaai aeey aanoi?iaeueiiai mutuum: ?ac iaycaoaeuenoai aeieaeieea
iieieony ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi a aai eiouanoaa iaoiaeeony oeaiiinoue
e?aaeeoi?a, oi a neo/aa oieaou yoi iniiaaiea naii niaie ioiaaeaao.
I?eciaiea i?inoie solutio anoanoaaiii oaeaea aeey obligationes bonae
fidei: o?aaiaaiea aoi?e/iiai ieaoaaea oieueei iioiio, /oi ia?aue ieaoaae
ia aue iaea/ai a oeeaeeueioth oi?io, i?ioeai?a/eei bona fides. Ii caoai
i?inoie ieaoaae i?eia?aoaao iiaaoathuoth neeo e ii ioiioaieth e
iaycaoaeuenoaai oi?iaeueiui (stipulatio e o. i.) – ia?aiia/aeueii,
aa?iyoii, iin?aaenoaii exceptio, a caoai (e eiioeo ?anioaeeee) e ipso
jure.

I/aiue ?aii aoiaeeo a iau/ae oaeinoiaa?youe ieaoaae iin?aaenoaii
ienueiaiiuo ?anienie. Oneeaiea cia/aiey ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia aiiaua a
ia?eiae eiia?ee i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth aeieacaoaeueiie neeu e yoeo
?anienie. A neo/aa auaea/e ?anienee a iaeeaeaiee [n.443] ieaoaaea, anee
ia naiii aeaea ieaoaaea caoai ia iineaaeiaaei, e?aaeeoi? eiaao oaeaea
querela non numeratae pecuniae a oa/aiea caeiiiiai n?iea. Iaeiaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeinoia?ayoue ieaoaae ?anieneie ia nouanoaiaaei. Oieueei
THnoeieai i?aaeienae, /oi iaycaoaeuenoai, caeeth/aiiia a ienueiaiiie
oi?ia, o?aaoao eee ienueiaiiie ?anienee, eee ieaoaaea a i?enoonoaee iyoe
naeaeaoaeae (n. 18. N. 4. 20).

N oao ii? eae aanoi?iaeueiay solutio auea i?eciaia aeey anao
iaycaoaeuenoa, oi?iaeueiue aeo acceptilatio noae oiio?aaeyoueny ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii a oeaeyo i?iuaiey aeieaa. Ii e caeanue ?yaeii n yoei
oi?iaeueiui i?iuaieai iiyaeeinue iaoi?iaeueiia – a aeaea i?aoi?neiai
pactum de non petendo, eioi?ia aeaao aeieaeieeo exceptio pacti. Yoi
pactum de non petendo eiaao, e?iia aanoi?iaeueiinoe, aua e oi oaeianoai,
/oi iiaeao i?eieiaoue a naay ?acee/iua iaiai?ee. Oae, aiciiaeii pactum
de non petendo iiae ecaanoiui oneiaeai, aiciiaeii pactum de non petendo
in perpetuum, oi anoue i?iuaiea aeieaa iaanaaaea, e pactum de non
petendo ad tempus, oi anoue ion?i/ea; i?e iaycaoaeuenoaao n ianeieueeeie
nio/anoieeaie (ianeieueei aeieaeieeia) aiciiaeii i?iuaiea anai – pactum
de non pretendo in rem – e oieueei ioeac acuneeaaoue aeiea n aeaiiiai
eeoea – pactum de non pretendo in personam.

E?iia iiaaoaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa iaeiinoi?iiiei i?iuaieai e?aaeeoi?a,
aeaoonoi?iiiea eiinainoaeueiua eiio?aeou iiaoo auoue oie/oiaeaiu
aeia?iaieueiui niaeaoaieai iaieo eiio?aaaioia – contrarius consensus.

Iaycaoaeuenoai iiaeao auoue, aeaeaa, iiaaoaii iooai iaiiaeaiey –
novatio: noa?ia iaycaoaeuenoai ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii caiaiyaony iiaui,
i?e/ai oaeay novatio iaueiiaaiii niaa?oaeanue iin?aaenoaii stipulatio.
Oeaee iaiiaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?acee/iu. I?aaeaea anaai, aiciiaeii, /oi n
iaiiaeaieai naycuaaaony niaia o/anoieeia iaycaoaeuenoaa – novatio inter
alias personas. E?aaeeoi?, iai?eia?, aeaeaao ia?aaeaoue naia o?aaiaaiea
ae?oaiio eeoeo (delegatio): oiaaea yoi ae?oaia eeoei ni?aoeaaao
aeieaeieea: “Quod tu Titio debes, spondesne mihi dare?”, ia /oi
aeieaeiee ioaa/aao: “Spondeo”. Eee aeieaeiee aeaeaao aianoi naay
iinoaaeoue ae?oaia eeoei (expromissio); oiaaea e?aaeeoi? ni?aoeaaao
iiaiai aeieaeieea: “Quod mihi Titius debet, spondesne dare?”, ia /oi
iineaaeiee ioaa/aao: “Spondeo”737. A [n.444] iaieo neo/ayo noa?ia
iaycaoaeuenoai iiaaoaaony ieii/aoaeueii, a acaiai aai aicieeaao iiaia.

Aiciiaeia, iaeiaei, novatio e aac niaiu eeoe – novatio inter easdem
personas: noi?iiu aiinyo ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth oa eee ae?oaea
eciaiaiey a iaycaoaeuenoai; oae eae iineaaeothuea pacta (pacta ex
intervallo) ii iauaio i?aaeeo neeu ia eiatho, oi iaiaoiaeeii novatio.
Eee e?aaeeoi? aeaeaao, iai?eia?, aeaaay aeieaeieeo ion?i/eo, caiaieoue
eiathueeny o iaai ene bonae fidei aieaa no?iaei eneii ec stipulatio:
“Quod tu mihi ex empto debes, spondes ne dare? – Spondeo” e o. ae.
I/aiue /anoi, iaeiiaoe, novatio oiio?aaeyeanue a oeaeyo eeeaeaeaoeee
oeaeiai ?yaea aeaeiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noi?iiaie iaiiaeiaea
transscriptio a re in personam eeoa?aeueiuo eiio?aeoia: ethaee,
iaoiaeeaoeany iaaeaeo niaie a aeaeiauo ioiioaieyo, e eiioeo aiaea,
iai?eia?, iiaeaiaeyo eoia e caoai, eeeaeaeeo?y yoe noa?ua ioiioaiey, ia
ianoi anae noiiu eo noaayo iaeii iaycaoaeuenoai ia saldo. Oi?ioea oaeie
eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie stipulatio auea au?aaioaia ecaanoiui th?enoii Aeaeeeai
Aaeeii (stipulatio Aquiliana). Ca eeeaeaeaoeeae iiaea iineaaeiaaoue e
acceptilatio (fr. 18. 1. D. 46. 4).

A iicaeiaeoai i?aaa iaycaoaeuenoai iiaeao auoue iiaaoaii oaeaea
iin?aaenoaii ca/aoa aeaoo ano?a/iuo o?aaiaaiee – compensatio; ii aieaa
?aiiaio a?aiaie yoa eaeay /oaeaea: eaaeaeia o?aaiaaiea aeieaeii auei
eaeoe naiei i?ioeannoaeueiui iooai. Oieueei iaaeeaiii e n aieueoei
o?oaeii compensatio iaoea naaa aeinooi a ?eineia i?aai.

Ia?eiae ?anioaeeee e ia?aia a?aiy eiia?ee ciaao ca/ao ano?a/iuo
o?aaiaaiee oieueei a iaiiiaeo eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo: a) I?e
iaycaoaeuenoaao bonae fidei noaeuey iia ii naiaio oniio?aieth,
i?eaiaa?eaay ioaao/eea, au/anoue aai ano?a/iua o?aaiaaiey ec oiai aea
i?aaiioiioaiey (ex eadem causa: iai?eia?, i?eaiaa?eay iieoiueea e oieaoa
iieoiiie oeaiu, au/anoue ec iaa oauoee, i?e/eiaiiua ianaiaa?aiaiiui
aeinoaaeaieai aaue). b) Argentarius, i?aaeuyaeyy ene i?ioea naiaai
eeeaioa, aeieaeai aue nai au/anoue ana ano?a/iua o?aaiaaiey iineaaeiaai
– cogitur cum compensatione agere: aai ene, oaeei ia?acii, aoaeao a oi
aea a?aiy e ieii/aoaeueiie eeeaeaeaoeeae anao eo aeaeiauo ioiioaiee. n)
Bonorum emptor, oi anoue iieoiuee n aoeoeeiia anaai eiouanoaa
ianinoiyoaeueiiai aeieaeieea, i?aaeuyaeyy ene e aai aeieaeieeai, iaycai
cum deductione agere, oi anoue au/anoue aeieae eoieaiiie ei iannu
ioaao/eeo. – Ii ana yoi auee oieueei eneeth/aiey.

Aeaei iaiyaony ni a?aiaie eiia?aoi?a Ia?ea Aa?aeey: a neeo aai ?ane?eioa
ai anao neo/ayo ioaao/ee iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue i?eiyoey e ca/aoo aai
ano?a/iiai o?aaiaaiey oioy au ex alia causa, iin?aaenoaii exceptio doli,
eai “dolo facit qui petit, quod redditurus est” (fr. 173. 3. D. 50. 17).
Ioaao/ee, aeaeathuee eiiiaine?iaaoue, aeieaeai aue, oaeei ia?acii,
cayaeoue i naiai o?aaiaaiee aua in jure e iio?aaiaaoue aianaiey a
oi?ioeo exceptio doli, oae eae aac yoiai judex nai in judicio aai
ano?a/iiai o?aaiaaiey ai aieiaiea ia i?eiao. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a neeo
iauaai cia/aiey exceptio doli aoaeao aeeth/aia a oi?ioeo, iia anaaaea
i?eaaaeao e iieiiio ii?aaaeaieth ioaao/eea – aeaaea oiaaea, anee
ano?a/iia o?aaiaaiea cia/eoaeueii ieaea o?aaiaaiey enooea. Aaeaeo yoiai
cayaeaiea ni noi?iiu ioaao/eea exceptio doli iaueiiaaiii i?eioaeaeaei
enooea oio/an aea ia?aie/eoue naie ene oieueei ?aciinoueth, auaeaeea
inoaeueiia a ioaeaeueiue i?ioeann a nayce n cayaeaiiui ano?a/iui
o?aaiaaieai.

N ia?aoiaeii e yeno?ai?aeeia?iiio i?ioeanno, ia ciathuaio ie oi?ioe, ie
aeaeaiey ia jus e judicium, aic?aaeaiea i compensatio ia naycuaaaony
aieaa n ia/aeueiui iiiaioii i?ioeanna: iii iiaeao auoue cayaeaii a
ethaie noaaeee aai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ioiaei e oi?iaeueiia iniiaaiea
aeey iieiiai ii?aaaeaiey ioaao/eea, anee aai ano?a/iia o?aaiaaiea auei
ieaea o?aaiaaiey enooea. Aaeaeo yoiai THnoeieai i?aaeienae a oaeeo
neo/ayo noaeuea, i?iecaaaey ca/ao, i?eaiaa?eaaoue ioaao/eea e ieaoaaeo
?aciinoe (§ 30 In. 4. 6). I?e yoii, ?ac ioaao/ee cayaeyao o?aaiaaiea i
ca/aoa, ?an/ao i?iecaiaeeony oae, eae anee au iaa ano?a/iua o?aaiaaiey
auee iiaaoaiu oaea n oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea aicieeea eo ano?a/iinoue
(compensabilitas); yoi e iaicia/aao au?aaeaiea “ipso jure compensatur”.

Ec ae?oaeo niiniaia iiaaoaiey iaycaoaeuenoa neaaeoao oiiiyiooue o
confusio (neeyiea a iaeiii eeoea e?aaeeoi?a e aeieaeieea – iai?eia?,
aneaaenoaea ianeaaeiaaiey), i iiaaoaiee iaeioi?uo ec ieo nia?oueth
(aeoeaii ia ianeaaeoai, iai?eia?, ene ec injuria; ianneaii ia
ianeaaeoaiu, eae auei oaea neacaii, ana actiones poenales), e, iaeiiaoe,
i iiaaoaiee enea aneaaenoaea litis contestatio eee aneaaenoaea
(iiaaneoaeueiie) aeaaiinoe aai iai?aaeuyaeaiey. Noa?ua oeeaeeueiua enee
ieeaeie aeaaiinoe ia iiaeeaaeaee – auee actiones temporales; eiia?aoi?
Oaiaeinee onoaiiaee iauoth iiaaneoaeueioth aeaaiinoue a 30 eee 40
[n.446] eao. Iaeiaei, iiaaoaiea enea aeaaiinoueth ia aea/ao iieiiai
oie/oiaeaiey naiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa: iii oieueei iecaiaeeony aei noaiaie
obligatio naturalis (iineaaeiaa, ai?i/ai, nii?ii).

IA?AIANAIEA IAssCAOAEUeNOA

A ae?aaiaeooth yiioo, eiaaea iaycaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyeinue no?iai
ee/iie naycueth iaaeaeo aeaoiy eeoeaie, ie i eaeii ia?aianaiee
o?aaiaaiey eee aeieaa ?a/e ia iiaei auoue. Eeoue ii ia?a oiai, eae a
iaycaoaeuenoaa ana aieaa e aieaa aunooiae ia ia?aue ieai eiouanoaaiiue
yeaiaio, iiaea aicieeiooue iio?aaiinoue a iiaeiaiii ia?aianaiee e iuneue
i aai aiciiaeiinoe. *anoi, iai?eia?, e?aaeeoi?, ioaeaeaynue a iaee/iuo
aeaiueaao e eiay o?aaiaaiea, n?ie eioi?iio aua ia ianooiee, iia au
?aaeeciaaoue aai nae/an iooai i?iaeaaee ae?oaiio eeoeo. Oi/ii oaeaea e
aeieaeiee iia aeaeaoue ia?aaeaoue naie aeiea a nayce n oaie eee eiuie
aeaeiauie ioiioaieyie. Aiiaua, ii ia?a oiai, eae oi?aiaue iai?io
?acaeaaaony, ?acaeaaaony e oee?eoeyoeey o?aaiaaiee.

Eiaaea iio?aaiinoue yoiai noaea iuouaoueny a ?eia, iia ia ia?auo ii?ao
oaeiaeaoai?yeanue iaoiaeiui iooai. Ae?aaiaeoee niinia aeey yoie oeaee,
au?aaioaiiue aua a yiioo legis actiones, anoue iienaiiay auoa novatio
oblgationis a aeaea delegatio, anee aeaei oei i ia?aonooiea o?aaiaaiey
ae?oaiio e?aaeeoi?o, e expromissio, anee ia?aiineeny aeiea ia ae?oaiai
aeieaeieea (Dai. II. 38). Ia yoio niinia eiae cia/eoaeueiua iaoaeianoaa.
Ia?aia ec ieo ninoiyei a iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaeaney i?ioeaiie noi?iiu: aac
o/anoey aeieaeieea, aac aai ioaaoa ia noeioeyoeeiiiue aii?in iiaiai
e?aaeeoi?a novatio niaa?oeoueny ia iiaea. I?e ia?aianaiee aeieaa n
iaeiiai aeieaeieea ia ae?oaiai (eopromissio) iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaeaney
e?aaeeoi?a iiiyoia: aianoi iaeiiai aeieaeieea, aiieia iaaeaaeiiai e
ninoiyoaeueiiai, e?aaeeoi? iiaeao iieo/eoue ae?oaiai, auoue iiaeao,
ianinoiyoaeueiiai. Ii i?e ia?aonooiea o?aaiaaiey (delegatio) eioa?anu
aeieaeieea ia no?aaeatho: aio ana ?aaii, eiio ieaoeoue; iaaeaeo oai ii
aeaaea ii naiaio eai?eco iia iiiaoaoue iaiaoiaeeiie ia?aonooiea. –
Aoi?ia nouanoaaiiia iaoaeianoai ninoiyei a oii, /oi i?e novatio ia
noa?ia [n.447] o?aaiaaiea ia?aoiaeeei e iiaiio e?aaeeoi?o, a acaiai
noa?iai aicieeaei iiaia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai n iiaaoaieai noa?iai
iaycaoaeuenoaa iiaaoaeenue eo ipso e ana aai accessoria – iai?eia?,
ii?o/eoaeuenoai, caeeaaeiia i?aai e o. ae.; anee noi?iiu aeaeaee
niaaaeeoue eie e iiaia o?aaiaaiea, iie aeieaeiu auee onoaiiaeoue eo
caiiai, /oi i?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo auei oaea iaeaaei (iai?eia?
ii?o/eoaeue oaea ia oioae aeaaaoue naiaai niaeaney).

Aaeaeo anaai yoiai, oioy delegatio e expromissio i?iaeieaeaee
nouanoaiaaoue e aeaeaa (aeey ia?aaea/e aeieaa expromissio inoaeanue aei
eiioea ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie), ii iai?io ia iia ia ieo
inoaiiaeoueny e eneae iiauo n?aaenoa.

Oaeia n?aaenoai auei iaeaeaii a einoeoooa i?ioeannoaeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa (Gai. II. 39): e?aaeeoi? aeaeae oiai, eiio ii aeaeae
ia?aonooieoue naia o?aaiaaiea, naiei eiaieoi?ii eee i?ieo?aoi?ii;
ae?oaeie neiaaie, ii ii?o/ae aio acuneaiea ii naiaio o?aaiaaieth, aeaaae
aio mandatum agendi, n oai, /oi acuneaiiia ii iiaeao oaea?aeaoue naaa –
procurator in rem suam. Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio i?eaio, iaaeinoaoee novatio
ioiaaeaee: iiaue e?aaeeoi? oieueei inouanoaeye noa?ia o?aaiaaiea, e aeey
mandatum agendi niaeaney i?ioeaiie noi?iiu ia o?aaiaaeinue. Ii acaiai eo
yoio niinia eiae ae?oaea, ia iaiaa nouanoaaiiua iaoaeianoaa. Iiaue
e?aaeeoi? aeaenoaiaae oieueei ia iniiaaiee mandatum, a mandatum, eae
ecaanoii, iiaaoaeinue nia?oueth eaaeaeie ec noi?ii e iiaei auoue a
ethaie iiiaio acyoi iacaae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, noa?ue e?aaeeoi? ana aua
inoaaaeny e?aaeeoi?ii e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia, iaace?ay ia onooieo,
iieo/eoue ieaoaae, i?inoeoue aeiea e o. ae. Iieiaeaiea iiaiai e?aaeeoi?a
auei, oaeei ia?acii, i/aiue iai?i/iui. Iii aeaeaeinue i?i/iui eeoue n
iiiaioa i?aaeuyaeaiey enea, oi anoue n iiiaioa litiscontestatio: i?aai
e?aaeeoi?a oaea ia?aoiaeeei e aai ianeaaeieeai a neo/aa aai nia?oe, ia
iiaei auoue acyoi iacaae iaiaeaioii e o. ae.; ii iiiaio ia?aonooiee iia
aeaeaei ionoiyoue io n?iea ieaoaaea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, io iiiaioa
aiciiaeiiai i?aaeuyaeaiey enea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeeciue au?aaioaea aeaa niiniaa, ii iaa iie ioaeaeaeenue
a oniaa?oainoaiaaiee. Ia?aue niinia – delegatio, – eae niinia
oi?iaeueiue, o?oaeiaa iiaeaeaaaeny eciaiaieyi, e ?eineia i?aai ia?eiaea
eiia?ee iioei ii iooe oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aoi?iai. Iaiaoiaeeii auei i?e
yoii naeaeaoue iieiaeaiea iiaiai e?aaeeoi?a, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iacaaeneiui io noa?iai, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aieaa i?i/iui ii ioiioaieth
e aeieaeieeo. Yoi auei aeinoeaiooi neaaeothuei ia?acii.

A ia?aii iai?aaeaiee, i?e iaee/iinoe onooiee o?aaiaaiey noaee aeaaaoue
iiaiio e?aaeeoi?o ene oaea iacaaeneii io iaee/iinoe aeaenoaeoaeueiiai
mandatum, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia nia?oue eee
oie/oiaeaiea ii?o/aiey; iiaue e?aaeeoi? (cessionarius) iieo/aao actio
utilis suo nomine. Aia?aua yoi auei aeiiouaii ?ane?eioii eiia?aoi?a
Aioiieia Iey aeey iieoiueeia ianeaaenoaa, eae oeaeiai (fr. 16 pr. D. 2.
14), a caoai e aeey i?eia?aoaoaeae ioaeaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee (n. 2. N. 4.
10).

Ai aoi?ii iai?aaeaiee ieiei oiai aea a?aiaie onoaiiaeeinue i?aaeei, /oi,
anee aeieaeiee aoaeao oaaaeiieai i ninoiyaoaeny onooiea o?aaiaaiey, ii
iaycai aicaea?aeeaaoueny io ieaoaaea noa?iio e?aaeeoi?o (oeaaeaioo,
cedens). Naeaeaa oaeia oaaaeiieaiea, denuntiatio, oeanniia?ee iiaeao
oaia?ue auoue e a yoii ioiioaiee niieieiui (n. 3. N. 8. 41).

A oaeii aeaea e inouanoaeyaony ia?aonooiea o?aaiaaiee (cessio
obligationis eee nominis) a iicaeiaeoai ?eineii i?aaa.

Iaeiaei, ia ii/aa oiai iauaai ?anno?ienoaa iauanoaaiiie e yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie a ia?eiae aaniethoiie iiia?oee, i eioi?ii i?eoiaeeeinue oaea
iaiaeiie?aoii oiiieiaoue, aicieeee iaeioi?ua iniaua ia?aie/aiey cessio.
Oae, oeac eiia?aoi?ia Aiii?ey e Oaiaeiney 422 a. (n. 2. N. 2. 13)
cai?auaao ia?aonooieo o?aaiaaiee eeoeai “aieaa iiaouanoaaiiui”
-potentiores, i/aaeaeii, n oeaeueth ia oooaeoaoue oaeoe/aneiai
iieiaeaiey aeieaeieeia. – Aua aieaa ?aoeoaeai oeac eiia?aoi?a Aianoaney
– lex Anastasiana 506 a. (n. 22 N. 4. 35), cai?auathuee iieoiueeai
o?aaiaaiee acuneeaaoue n aeieaeieeia aieaa oiai, /oi iie caieaoeee naie.
Oeac yoio eiae naiath oeaeueth ai?ueao n i?ioanneiiaeueiuie
neoiueeaie-niaeoeyoi?aie, ii aianoa n oai oaea?ee ii anaio iai?ioo
o?aaiaaiee. Anee iieoiaaony o?aaiaaiea, eioi?iio n?ie aua ia ianooiee,
oi i/aaeaeii, /oi iieoiuee i?aaeeiaeeo anaaaea iaiueoa iiieiaeueiie
oeaiu iaycaoaeuenoaa, i?e/ai a ?acieoea neaaeaony ia oieueei noiia
i?ioeaioia, eioi?ua iia au iieo/eoue iieoiuee ca naie oiea/eaaaiua
oaia?ue iaee/iua aeaiueae, ii e iauee eee iaiueoee ?ene aoaeouaai
acuneaiey. Cai?auay iieoiueeai acuneeaaoue aieaa oiai, /oi iie caieaoeee
naie, lex Anastasiana oioneaea niaa?oaiii ec aeaeo yoio iiiaio ?enea e,
eiia/ii, i?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee iiaea oieueei i?eaanoe e
iieiiio i?ae?auaieth oee?eoeyoeee o?aaiaaiee. Ii, ?acoiaaony, e yoio
caeii aucaae ?aciiia?aciua i?aeoe/aneea iaoiaeu, i eioi?uo
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao nai THnoeieai a oeaca, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuai lex
Anastasiana (c. 23. C. 4. 35).

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