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Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aaeai?iaeneee th?eaee/aneee einoeooo

Eaoaae?a a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo aeenoeeieei

Aeenoeeieeia «A?aaeaeaineia i?aai»

?aoa?ao

Ia Oaio: «Naeaeee»

Iiaeaioiaee:

Neooaoaeue 345 a?oiiu

Eiiaa I.E.

I?iaa?ee:

I?aiiaeaaaoaoue eaoaae?u

Noaeeia E.A.

Aaeai?iae

2008

§ 1. Iiiyoea naeaeee

A neeo no. 153 AE naeaeeaie i?eciathony aeaenoaey a?aaeaeai e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, iai?aaeaiiua ia onoaiiaeaiea, eciaiaiea eee
i?ae?auaiea a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae.

A yoie noaouea AE auaeaeaiu aeaa iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueany a?oiiu
o/anoieeia naeaeie – a?aaeaeaia e th?eaee/aneea eeoea ?O. Ia naiii aeaea
naeaeee iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu e ae?oaeie noauaeoaie ?aaoee?oaiuo
a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ioiioaiee – eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie
e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa, anee eiia ia
i?aaeoniio?aii oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii, ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeae,
noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee, ioieoeeiaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie.

Iiiyoea “aeaenoaey” aeeth/aao a naay eae noauaeoeaiue, oae e iauaeoeaiue
yeaiaiou. I?aaeaea anaai, eeoei, anooiathuaa a naeaeeo, aeieaeii eiaoue
iaia?aiea aa niaa?oeoue (omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum
– aeaenoaey ioeaieaathony ii iaia?aieth oiai, eoi eo niaa?oaao). Oaeia
iaia?aiea icia/aao aieth eeoea e niaa?oaieth naeaeee e i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie noauaeoeaioth i?aaeiinueeo au?aaeaiey yoie aiee.
Iauaeoeae?iaaiiay, o.a. au?aaeaiiay aiaia aiey, iacuaaaony
aieaecuyaeaieai e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauaeoeaiue yeaiaio naeaeee.

Eiiaaea aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeee aieaecuyaeaiey eee niaiaaeathueo
aieaecuyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eiio?aaaioia naeaeee ieacuaaaony
iaaeinoaoi/ii. A yoeo neo/ayo naeaeea n/eoaaony caeeth/aiiie eeoue iinea
niaa?oaiey aeaenoaey, eae i?aaeei, ia?aaea/e aeaiaa, aaue, a?oca e o.i.
(caai, o?aiaiea, ia?aaicea a?oca e i?.). Oaeea naeaeee iacuaathony
?aaeueiuie (io eao. res – aauue).

Iineieueeo caeii n niaa?oaieai naeaeee naycuaaao onoaiiaeaiea, eciaiaiea
eee i?ae?auaiea a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae, naeaeee ioiinyony e
eaoaai?ee th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia. Eae th?eaee/aneea oaeou, iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiioth a?oiio i?aaiia?iuo
aeaenoaee, o.a. aeaenoaee, ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi caeiia, ae?oaeo
i?aaiauo aeoia. Yoei naeaeee ioee/athony io iai?aaiia?iuo aeaenoaee eae
aeaenoaee, eaeoueo a?ac?ac n o?aaiaaieyie a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Naeaeee anaaaea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aieaaua aeou. Iie niaa?oathony ii
aiea o/anoieeia a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa.

Naeaeea – aeaenoaea, iai?aaeaiiia ia aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
i?aaiaiai ?acoeueoaoa. Iai?aaeaiiinoue aiee noauaeoa, niaa?oathuaai
naeaeeo, ioee/aao aa io th?eaee/aneiai iinooiea. I?e niaa?oaiee oaeiai
iinooiea i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey ianooiatho oieueei a neeo aeinoeaeaiey
oeacaiiiai a caeiia ?acoeueoaoa iacaaeneii io oiai, ia /oi auee
iai?aaeaiu aeaenoaey eeoea (iaoiaeea iioa?yiiie aaue – no. no. 227 – 229
AE, iaia?oaeaiea eeaaea – no. 233 AE e ae?.).

Iaeiiaoe, naeaeee, eae iaeei ec aeaeia th?eaee/aneeo aeoia, aeieaeiu
auoue ioa?aie/aiu io ae?oaeo aeaeia yoeo aeoia – aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeoia
e noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee. Iiae aaeieieno?aoeaiuie aeoaie iiieiathony aeou
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai cia/aiey e
i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Eae e naeaeee, aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou
iai?aaeaiu ia oi, /oiau aucaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey. Ii
yoiio i?eciaeo naeaeee, aaeieieno?aoeaiua aeou e noaeaaiua ?aoaiey iiaoo
auoue iauaaeeiaiu a iaeio a?oiio – th?eaee/aneeo aeoia.

Ii, ai-ia?auo, aaeieieno?aoeaiue aeo iai?aaeai ia oieueei e ia noieueei
ia a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ?acoeueoao, neieueei ia oi, /oiau aucaaoue
i?aaeaea anaai aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey. Iai?eia?,
?anii?yaeaiea eiiiaoaioiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia i ia?aaea/a
caeaiey, iaoiaeyuaainy a iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee iaeiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, a oi?aaeaiea ae?oaiio ii?iaeaeaao
aaeieieno?aoeaiia ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii e
iaycaiiuie auiieieoue yoi ?anii?yaeaiea o/?aaeaeaieyie. Aianoa n oai
iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie o/?aaeaeaieyie aicieeatho e
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey, oae eae ia?aia ec ieo iaycaii
ia?aaeaoue caeaiea aoi?iio, a iineaaeiaa i?eia?aoaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue
ia?aaea/e. Naeaeea aea iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau aucaaoue oieueei
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey. Ai-aoi?uo, i?aai, io eioi?iai
enoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuee aaeieieno?aoeaiue aeo, iaycaoaeueii yaeyaony
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii eee i?aaiii ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. A yoii
ea/anoaa ii ia noaiiaeony o/anoieeii a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa e noauaeoii
aicieeoaai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaiioiioaiey. Iai?ioea, o/anoieee naeaeee a
niioaaonoaee n aa oneiaeyie noaiiayony noauaeoaie eiie?aoiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaiioiioaiey, aucaaiiiai aeaiiie naeaeeie.

Noaeaaiua ?aoaiey a ioee/ea io naeaeie, o.a. aeaenoaee, niaa?oaaiuo
noauaeoaie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, iiaoo auoue auianaiu eeoue
th?enaeeeoeeiiiuie i?aaiaie. Yoe i?aaiu naie ia noaiiayony o/anoieeaie
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaiioiioaiey, oiaaea eae eeoei, niaa?oeaoaa naeaeeo,
yaeyaony oaeiaui. Ii noaeaaiua ?aoaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai
aicieeiiaaiey, eciaiaiey eee i?ae?auaiey a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae, iai?eia?, i?eciaiea noaeii i?aaa nianoaaiieea ia
naiiaieueioth iino?ieeo (i. 3 no. 222 AE), i?eciaiea iaaeaaniiniaiui
aeiaa?eoaey eee iiaa?aiiiai (i. 1 no. 977 AE).

§ 2. Aeaeu naeaeie

Aeaeaiea naeaeie ia aeaeu aiciiaeii enoiaey ec ianeieueeeo i?eciaeia.

A caaeneiinoe io /enea o/anoaothueo a naeaeea noi?ii iie iiaoo auoue
?acaeaeaiu ia iaeiinoi?iiiea, aeaonoi?iiiea, iiiainoi?iiiea.

Iaeiinoi?iiiae n/eoaaony naeaeea, aeey niaa?oaiey eioi?ie a niioaaonoaee
n caeiiii, eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie eee niaeaoaieai noi?ii iaiaoiaeeii e
aeinoaoi/ii au?aaeaiey aiee iaeiie noi?iiu (i. 2 no. 154 AE). Iai?eia?,
e iaeiinoi?iiiei naeaeeai ioiinyony ninoaaeaiea caaauaiey, ioeac io
ianeaaenoaa, i?eiyoea ianeaaenoaa, auaea/a aeiaa?aiiinoe, ioeac io
eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a, eiaaea oaeie iaeiinoi?iiiee ioeac noi?iiu
aeiioneaaony caeiiii eee niaeaoaieai noi?ii; iauyaeaiea eiieo?na eee
aoeoeeiia e ae?.

Iaeia noi?iia a oaeeo naeaeeao iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia ianeieueeeie
eeoeaie (ianeieueei a?aaeaeai, auaeathueo aeiaa?aiiinoue, ianeieueei
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, ioeacuaathueony a aeiionoeiuo neo/ayo io eniieiaiey
aeiaiai?a, e o.i.). A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo ianeieueei eeoe ?anniao?eaathony
eae iaeia noi?iia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naeaeea inoaaony iaeiinoi?iiiae.

Niaeanii no. 155 AE iaeiinoi?iiiyy naeaeea, eae i?aaeei, aucuaaao
iaycaiiinoe oieueei o niaa?oeaoaai aa eeoea. Iai?eia?, iauyaeaiea
aoeoeeiia iaeeaaeuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaiiinoe ia aai i?aaiecaoi?a.
Aeey ae?oaeo eeoe iii iiaeao nicaeaaaoue eeoue i?aaa. Iaeiaei yoi
ae?oaia eeoei iiaeao ioeacaoueny io eo i?eia?aoaiey (iai?eia?, ioeac io
i?eiyoey ianeaaenoaa e ae?.).

Eiaaea noauaeo iaeiinoi?iiiae naeaeee i?aaeeaaaao caeeth/eoue naeaeeo
ae?oaiio noauaeoo, i?aaeeiaeeaoee naycuaaao naay oaeei i?aaeeiaeaieai. O
oiai, e eiio ia?auaii iiaeiaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea, aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue
aai i?eiyoue.

Iaeiinoi?iiiyy naeaeea iiaeao nicaeaaaoue iaycaiiinoe aeey ae?oaeo eeoe
(eeoe, ia niaa?oaaoeo naeaeeo) eeoue a neo/ayo, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii
eeai niaeaoaieai n yoeie eeoeaie (no. 155 AE).

Ia iaeiinoi?iiiea naeaeee ?ani?ino?aiythony iauea iieiaeaiey
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ia iaycaoaeuenoaao e aeiaiai?ao. Iaeiaei iie ia
iiaeeaaeao i?eiaiaieth, anee yoi i?ioeai?a/eo caeiio, iaeiinoi?iiiaio
oa?aeoa?o e nouanoao naeaeee. Oae, noi?iia oaeie naeaeee a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa ia noaiiaeony e?aaeeoi?ii ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei eeoeai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoe eeoea ia ianoo ia?aae iae iaycaiiinoe niaa?oeoue a
aa iieueco ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaenoaea, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeaonoi?iiieo
iaycaoaeuenoa.

Aeaonoi?iiiae aeieaeia auoue i?eciaia naeaeea, aeey niaa?oaiey eioi?ie
iaiaoiaeeii au?aaeaiea niaeaniaaiiie eaaeaeie ec aeaoo noi?ii aiee.
Eiuie neiaaie, iaiaoiaeeii niaiaaeaiea aeaoo ano?a/iuo aieaecuyaeaiee.
Iineieueeo aieaecuyaeaiea enoiaeeo io eaaeaeie ec aeaoo noi?ii, oaeea
naeaeee iacuaatho oaeaea acaeiiuie. Iai?eia?, i?e naeaeea
eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa i?aaeeiaeaieth i?iaeaaoea i i?iaeaaea aaue
aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue niaeanea iieoiaoaey i?eia?anoe yoo aauue.
Eaaeaeay ec aeaoo noi?ii a oaeie naeaeea iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia ia
iaeiei, a ianeieueeeie noauaeoaie, ii ana iie ninoaaeytho eeoue iaeio
noi?iio (iiiaeanoaaiiinoue noauaeoia ia iaeiie eee iaaeo noi?iiao
naeaeee).

Iiiainoi?iiiyy naeaeea ioee/aaony io iaeii- eee aeaonoi?iiiae oai, /oi
/enei noi?ii a oaeie naeaeea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, /enei niaeaniaaiiuo
aieaecuyaeaiee ia iiaeao auoue iaiaa o?ao. Aiey eaaeaeie ec ianeieueeeo
noi?ii oaeie naeaeee aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia ia aeinoeaeaiea iauae
aeey anao noi?ii oeaee. I?eia?ii iiiainoi?iiiae naeaeee iiaeao neoaeeoue
aeiaiai? i?inoiai oiaa?euanoaa (aeiaiai? i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe),
ii eioi?iio ianeieueei eeoe (oiaa?euae) iaycothony niaaeeieoue naie
aeeaaeu e niaianoii aeaenoaiaaoue aeey ecaea/aiey i?eauee eee
aeinoeaeaiey eiie oeaee, ia i?ioeai?a/auae caeiio (no. 1041 AE).
Eaaeaeue ec ianeieueeeo eeoe (oiaa?euae) a oaeie naeaeea n/eoaaony aa
noi?iiie.

Aeaonoi?iiiea e iiiainoi?iiiea naeaeee yaeythony aeiaiai?aie. Oaeei
ia?acii, ii naiaio iauaio iiiyoey “naeaeee” e “aeiaiai?u” ia
niaiaaeatho. Naeaeee iiaoo auoue iaeii-, aeao- e iiiainoi?iiieie. E
aeiaiai?ai ioiinyony oieueei aeaonoi?iiiea e iiiainoi?iiiea, ii ia
iaeiinoi?iiiea naeaeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ethaie aeiaiai? yaeyaony
naeaeeie, ii ia ethaay naeaeea iiaeao n/eoaoueny aeiaiai?ii.

Naeaeee iiaoo auoue oaeaea ?acaeaeaiu ia aiciacaeiua e aacaiciacaeiua.
Aiciacaeiie i?eciaaony naeaeea, ii eioi?ie noi?iia ca eniieiaiea naieo
iaycaiiinoae iieo/aao ieaoo, ii?aaeaeaiiia eiouanoai eee eiia ano?a/iia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea (eoiey-i?iaeaaea, iaia, ?aioa e ae?.). A ioee/ea io
yoiai a aacaiciacaeiuo naeaeeao noi?iia ca eniieiaiea naiae iaycaiiinoe
ia iieo/aao ano?a/iiai i?aaeinoaaeaiey (aea?aiea, aacaiciacaeiue caai,
aacaiciacaeiia iieueciaaiea eiouanoaii e ae?.).

Aeaeaiea naeaeie ia eiinainoaeueiua (io eao. consensus) e ?aaeueiua
iniiaaii ia oii, /oi i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii eiinainoaeueiie naeaeea
aicieeatho n iiiaioa aeinoeaeaiey niaeaoaiey noi?ii, au?aaeaiiiai a
o?aaoaiie oi?ia (eoiey-i?iaeaaea, a?aiaea, iiae?yae e ae?.). Aeey
aicieeiiaaiey i?aa e iaycaiiinoae noi?ii ii ?aaeueiie naeaeea, iiieii
niaeaoaiey noi?ii, iaiaoiaeei aua iaeei th?eaee/aneee oaeo – ia?aaea/a
iaeiei noauaeoii ae?oaiio aeaiaa, eiuo aauae e ae?. (caai, ia?aaea/a
a?oca aeaeaciie aei?iaa eae ia?aaic/eeo e ae?.). Oaeea th?eaee/aneea
aeaenoaey iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu n?aco aea ii aeinoeaeaiee niaeaoaiey
noi?ii eee /a?ac eaeia-oi a?aiy iinea aai aeinoeaeaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, i?aaeoniao?eaaao ee naeaeea eee iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeeoue aeaiue aa eniieiaiey (ia?eiae a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
iia aeieaeia auoue eniieiaia), eeai iao, naeaeee iiaoo auoue n?i/iuie e
aann?i/iuie.

A n?i/iuo naeaeeao i?yii i?aaeoniio?aiu eee iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu
iaeei ec aeaoo eee iaa neaaeothueo iiiaioa: 1) eniieiaiea iaeiie eee
ianeieueeeo iaycaiiinoae e 2) eniieiaiea inoaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae ii
naeaeea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa i?ae?auaiea.

Oae, ii aeiaiai?o a?aiaeu a?aiaeiaeaoaeue iaycai ia?aaeaoue ai aeaaeaiea
e iieueciaaiea a?aiaeaoi?a eiouanoai ia iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey 2003 a. Oaeei
ia?acii, ii?aaeaeai n?ie eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoe a?aiaeiaeaoaeai (ia?aue
ec oeacaiiuo aeaoo iiiaioia). A yoii aea aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue oeacaii,
/oi eiouanoai iiaeeaaeeo aica?aoo a?aiaeiaeaoaeth ia iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey
2008 a. (iiiaio i?ae?auaiey naeaeee a nayce n eniieiaieai iineaaeiae
iaycaiiinoe a?aiaeaoi?a). Iaeiiaoe, a aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue
iaeiia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeaii, /oi eiouanoai ia?aaeaaony a?aiaeaoi?o ia
iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey 2003 a., a iiaeeaaeeo aica?aoo a?aiaeiaeaoaeth ia
iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey 2007 a. (iaa n?iea ii?aaeaeaiu).

Aann?i/iay naeaeea ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao n?ie aa eniieiaiey e ia
niaea?aeeo oneiaee, iicaieythueo ii?aaeaeeoue yoio n?ie. Oaeay naeaeea
aeieaeia auoue eniieiaia a ?acoiiue n?ie iinea aa aicieeiiaaiey. A
neo/aa iaeniieiaiey a ?acoiiue n?ie, a oaeaea eiaaea n?ie eniieiaiey
ii?aaeaeai iiiaioii aino?aaiaaiey, aeieaeiee iaycai eniieieoue naeaeeo a
naieaeiaaiue n?ie ni aeiy i?aaeuyaeaiey e?aaeeoi?ii o?aaiaaiey i aa
eniieiaiee, anee iaycaiiinoue eniieiaiey a ae?oaie n?ie ia auoaeaao ec
caeiia, eiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, oneiaee iaycaoaeuenoaa, iau/aaa aeaeiaiai
iai?ioa eee nouanoaa iaycaoaeuenoaa (i. 2 no. 314 AE).

Ii i?eciaeo ianooieaiey i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee naeaeee a caaeneiinoe io
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa (oneiaey) naeaeee aeaeyony ia oneiaiua e
aaconeiaiua.

A ioee/ea io n?iea, eioi?ue iaecaaaeii aeieaeai ianooieoue,
ianoiyoaeuenoai (niauoea, yaeaiea, aeaenoaea o?aoueaai eeoea),
?anniao?eaaaiia eae oneiaea naeaeee, iiaeao ianooieoue eee ia ianooieoue
a aoaeouai. E iiiaioo niaa?oaiey naeaeee iii aua ia ianooieei. I?e
oneiaiie naeaeea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe aa o/anoieeia aicieeatho eee,
iaiai?io, iiaeeaaeao i?ae?auaieth, anee ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai
aicieeaao.

Oneiaiua naeaeee ?acaeaeythony ia niaa?oaiiua iiae ioeaaaoaeueiui eee
iiae ioiaieoaeueiui oneiaeai.

Naeaeea n/eoaaony niaa?oaiiie iiae ioeaaaoaeueiui oneiaeai, anee noi?iiu
iinoaaeee aicieeiiaaiea i?aa e iaycaiiinoae a caaeneiinoue io
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ioiineoaeueii eioi?iai iaecaanoii, ianooieo iii eee ia
ianooieo (i. 1 no. 157 AE). Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiaie ?acoeueoao naeaeee
ianooieo, anee niioaaonoaothuaa niauoea eee yaeaiea i?iecieaeao eee
aeaenoaea o?aoueaai eeoea aoaeao niaa?oaii. I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii
naeaeea ia aicieeioo, anee aeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai ia ianooieo.
Iai?eia?, aeaaeaeaoe aea/e iaycoaony naeaoue aa a a?aiaeo ae?oaiio eeoeo
i?e oneiaee, /oi no?ieoaeuenoai aea/e aoaeao caeii/aii e 1 ethiy
niioaaonoaothuaai aiaea.

I?e ioiaieoaeueiii oneiaee noi?iiu noaayo i?ae?auaiea i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae ii naeaeea a caaeneiinoue io ianoiyoaeuenoaa, ioiineoaeueii
eioi?iai iaecaanoii, ianooieo iii eee ia ianooieo (i. 2 no. 157 AE).
I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii oaeie naeaeea aicieeatho n iiiaioa aa niaa?oaiey.
Iaeiaei iie i?ae?auathony, anee ianooieo ioiaieoaeueiia oneiaea.
I?aaiaua iineaaenoaey naeaeee, ianooieaoea aei oiai, eae i?iecioei yoi
niauoea eee yaeaiea, nio?aiytho neeo. Oae, aeaaeaeaoe aea/e naeae aa a
a?aiaeo n 1 ia?oa niioaaonoaothuaai aiaea. A aeiaiai? auei aeeth/aii
oneiaea i i?ae?auaiee a?aiaeu, anee a yoii aiaeo aica?aoeony ec-ca
a?aieoeu naiuey nuia aeaaeaeueoea. Naiuey nuia aica?aoeeanue 1 ethey
oiai aea aiaea. Naeaeea i?ae?aoeea aeaenoaea n 1 ethey. Iaeiaei
a?aiaeiay ieaoa, ia?aaeaiiay aeaaeaeueoeo ca ia?eiae n 1 ia?oa ii 1
ethey, inoaaony ca iei.

Anee ianooieaieth oneiaey iaaeia?iniaanoii aini?aiyonoaiaaea noi?iia,
eioi?ie ianooieaiea oneiaey iaauaiaeii, oi oneiaea i?eciaaony
ianooieaoei. Anee ianooieaieth oneiaey iaaeia?iniaanoii niaeaenoaiaaea
noi?iia, eioi?ie ianooieaiea oneiaey auaiaeii, iii i?eciaaony ia
ianooieaoei.

Ianooieaiea i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee aaconeiaiie naeaeee ia iinoaaeaii a
caaeneiinoue io eaeiai-eeai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, oeacaiiiai a naeaeea.

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, iiaeao ee naeaeea auoue aeaenoaeoaeueiie oieueei
i?e iaee/ee aa i?aaiaiai iniiaaiey eee iacaaeneii io yoiai, naeaeee
aeaeyony ia eaocaeueiua (io eao. causa – iniiaaiea) e aano?aeoiua (io
eao. abstrahere – ioaeaeaoue).

Eaocaeueiay naeaeea ianoieueei oanii naycaia n aa iniiaaieai, /oi
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naiie naeaeee noaaeony a caaeneiinoue io iaee/ey aa
iniiaaiey, niioaaonoaey naeaeee oie oeaee, ?aaee eioi?ie iia aeieaeia
auoue niaa?oaia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiionoeiu inia?eaaiea iniiaaiey
naeaeee, aeieacuaaiea aai ionoonoaey eee i?enoueo aio nouanoaaiiuo
ii?ieia. I?e aeieacaiiinoe ionoonoaey iniiaaiey naeaeee, aa
ianiioaaonoaey oeaee, e aeinoeaeaieth eioi?ie iia aeieaeia auoue
iai?aaeaia, naeaeea i?eciaaony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie. Oae, niaeanii no. 812
AE caaiuee ai?aaa inia?eaaoue aeiaiai? caeia ii aai aacaeaiaaeiinoe,
aeieacuaay, /oi aeaiueae eee aaue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iieo/aiu ei io
caeiiaeaaoea eee iieo/aiu a iaiueoai eiee/anoaa, /ai oeacaii a
aeiaiai?a. Aeieacuaay iaiieo/aiea aeaiaa, caaiuee inia?eaaao naiia
iniiaaiea naeaeee, ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iii ecia/aeueii ionoonoaiaaei
iieiinoueth eee a niioaaonoaothuae /anoe, iiyoiio naeaeea ia auea
niaa?oaia aiiaua eee a eaeie-oi aa /anoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiaiai?
caeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaocaeueioth naeaeeo.

Aieueoeinoai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo naeaeie, caeeth/aaiuo a ?O, iineo
eaocaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oaeoe/aneea oeaee, eioi?ua noaayo ia?aae niaie
noi?iiu i?e eo niaa?oaiee, aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue niaea?aeaieth e
i?aaeiacia/aieth oaeeo naeaeie.

I?e niaa?oaiee aano?aeoiuo naeaeie eo iniiaaiea ionooiaao ia aoi?ie
ieai, eae au io?uaaaony io naiie naeaeee. Iiyoiio ii?iee, naienoaaiiua
iniiaaieth naeaeee, eee aeaaea aai iieiia ionoonoaea ia iicaieytho
i?eciaoue oaeoth naeaeeo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie. Iniiaaiea naeaeee yaeyaony
th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iui. Yoei iauyniyaony cai?ao inia?eaaoue iniiaaiea
aano?aeoiie naeaeee, anee i?e aa niaa?oaiee niaethaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?aaiaaiey. Oae, aiaoiaoi?aiaue eiiinaiaio, eae oiaa?iay oeaiiay aoiaaa,
iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai o?aoueaio ii ioiioaieth e noi?iiai ii?neie
ia?aaicee a?oca eeoeo. A neo/aa oaeiai ia?aoiaea ii?neie ia?aaic/ee ia
ai?aaa inia?eaaoue niaea?aeaueany a eiiinaiaioa aeaiiua i a?oca a nii?a
n yoei o?aoueei eeoeii Ii?neie ia?aaic/ee ai?aaa inia?eaaoue aeaiiua
eiiinaiaioa i a?oca a nii?a n ioi?aaeoaeai.. Ii eeoai i?aaa
aeieacuaaoue, iai?eia?, /oi a?oca ii ia iieo/ae aiiaua (ionoonoaea
iniiaaiey naeaeee) eee iieo/ee aai a iaiueoai eiee/anoaa, /ai oeacaii a
eiiinaiaioa, eeai, iaeiiaoe, ia a oii ninoiyiee, eaeia io?aaeaii a
eiiinaiaioa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaea/a eiiinaiaioa e aai ia?aoiae e
o?aoueaio eeoeo – aano?aeoiay naeaeea.

Aano?aeoiie naeaeeie yaeyaony oaeaea aaenaeue, i?aaenoaaeythuee iaauaiea
auieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaiaaeioth noiio aacioiineoaeueii e
iniiaaieyi aa auieaou. A neo/aa ia?aaea/e aaenaey aaenaeaiieo/aoaeai
ae?oaiio eeoeo aaenaeaaeaoaeue ia ai?aaa inia?eaaoue iaaeeaaeaua
ia?aioi?ieaiiue aaenaeue ii iioeaai ionoonoaey iniiaaiey aai auaea/e.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aano?aeoiuo naeaeie, iaaeiionoeiinoue inia?eaaiey eo
iniiaaiey aiciiaeiu eeoue i?e iaycaoaeueiii io?aaeaiee eo aano?aeoiiai
oa?aeoa?a e onoaiiaeaiee niioaaonoaothuaai cai?aoa a caeiia.

Caaeneiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoeo naeaeie io eo iniiaaiey,
aeiionoeiinoue inia?eaaiey iineaaeieo iiaee au nouanoaaiii iiaei?aaoue
eo iai?ioiniiniaiinoue.

§ 3. Oi?ia naeaeie

Eae ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeee aiey eeoea aa niaa?oeoue
aeieaeia iieo/eoue au?aaeaiea aiaia, auoue aeiaaaeaia aei naaaeaiey
ae?oaeo eeoe. Niinia au?aaeaiey aiee, o.a. niinia aieaecuyaeaiey,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io naeaeee. Nouanoaotho ianeieueei oaeeo
niiniaia.

1. I?aaeaea anaai, naeaeea iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia onoii iooai neiaaniiai
au?aaeaiey aiee. I?e oaeii au?aaeaiee aiee o/anoiee naeaeee ia neiaao
oi?ioee?oao aioiaiinoue niaa?oeoue naeaeeo e oneiaey aa niaa?oaiey.

Naeaeea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia onoii, n/eoaaony niaa?oaiiie e
i?e ionoonoaee neiaaniiai au?aaeaiey aiee, anee niaa?oaaony iooai
eiieethaeaioiuo aeaenoaee, o.a. eiaaea ec iiaaaeaiey eeoea (eee eeoe)
yanoaoao aai aiey niaa?oeoue naeaeeo (iai?eia?, eeoei iioneaao aeaiueae
eee aeaoii a aaoiiao aeey i?eia?aoaiey aaue e o.ae.). Niaa?oaiea naeaeee
iiaeiaiui ia?acii aeiioneaeinue aua a ?eineii i?aaa: non refert an quis
assensum suum praefert verbis, aut rebus ipsis et factis (ia
nouanoaaiii, au?aaeaaony ee niaeanea neiaaie eee aeaenoaeyie).

Naeaeea iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia iooai iie/aiey, anee oieueei yoi i?yii
i?aaeoniio?aii a caeiia eee niaeaoaiee noi?ii. Oae, a?aiaeiaeaoaeue
iinea enoa/aiey n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu iiaeao ia aic?aaeaoue
i?ioea aeaeueiaeoaai iieueciaaiey a?aiaeaoi?ii eiouanoaii. A yoii neo/aa
aeiaiai? n/eoaaony aiciaiiaeaiiui ia iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie (i. 2 no. 621
AE). Oaeei ia?acii, iie/aiea a?aiaeiaeaoaey ?anniao?eaaaony a caeiia eae
oi?ia aai niaeaney niaa?oeoue naeaeeo.

A ioiioaiee onoiuo naeaeie a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena nia/aea iauei
ia?acii oeacaii, /oi ethaay naeaeea, aeey eioi?ie caeiiii ia onoaiiaeaia
ienueiaiiay oi?ia, iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia onoii (i. 1 no. 159 AE).
Iaeiaei a iineaaeothueo noaoueyo (no. no. 161, 163, 164 e ae?. AE)
aeiaieueii oe?iei ii?aaeaeai e?oa naeaeie, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaa?oaoueny
a ienueiaiiie oi?ia. Iiyoiio a AE ?O a aeiiieiaiea e iauaio i?aaeeo, i
eioi?ii neacaii auoa, iniai auaeaeaiu aeaa neo/ay, eiaaea naeaeee iiaoo
niaa?oaoueny onoii.

A onoiie oi?ia iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu naeaeee, eniieiyaiua i?e naiii eo
niaa?oaiee (i. 2 no. 159 AE). Iai?eia?, i?e eoiea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia a
iaaaceia naii niaeaoaiea i i?eia?aoaiee oiaa?a, ia?aaea/a oiaa?a e
iieaoa noieiinoe i?iecaiaeyony iaeiia?aiaiii.

A caeiia i?aaeoniio?aiu aeaa eneeth/aiey ec i?aaeea i aeiionoeiinoe
onoiie oi?iu naeaeie, eniieiyaiuo i?e eo niaa?oaiee. Ai-ia?auo, noi?iiu
iiaoo aeiaiai?eoueny i ienueiaiiii ioi?ieaiee oaeeo naeaeie. Ai-aoi?uo,
onoiay oi?ia iaaeiionoeia aeey naeaeie, oioy au e eniieiyaiuo i?e naiii
eo niaa?oaiee, anee aeey oaeeo naeaeie onoaiiaeaia iioa?eaeueiay oi?ia
eee anee ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu aea/ao eo
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

A onoiie oi?ia ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu naeaeee ai
eniieiaiea ienueiaiiiai aeiaiai?a, anee oieueei yoi ia i?ioeai?a/eo
caeiio, eiui i?aaiaui aeoai e aeiaiai?o (i. 3 no. 159 AE). Oae, aeiaiai?
iinoaaee oiaa?a a cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa iiaeeaaeeo caeeth/aieth a
ienueiaiiie oi?ia. Ii noi?iiu oneiaeeenue a yoii aeiaiai?a, /oi iinoaaea
aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny iaeeeie ia?oeyie ia iniiaaiee onoiuo cayaie
iinoaaueea. Oaeiai ?iaea cayaee e eo aeoeaioiaaiea iieoiaoaeai aoaeoo
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie onoioth oi?io naeaeee.

2. Ienueiaiiie neaaeoao i?eciaoue naeaeeo, niaa?oaiioth iooai
ninoaaeaiey aeieoiaioa, au?aaeathuaai aa niaea?aeaiea.

A caeiia, eiuo i?aaiauo aeoao, niaeaoaiee noi?ii iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu
aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ui aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue
ienueiaiiay oi?ia naeaeee. Yoe o?aaiaaiey iiaoo eanaoueny
iaycaoaeueiinoe eceiaeaiey naeaeee ia aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu,
aeeth/aiey a aeieoiaio iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia, ne?aieaiey naeaeee
ia/aoueth. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia oaeeo aeieoiaioia iiaoo auoue i?eaaaeaiu
aeiaiai?u ia?aaicee: i?e ia?aaiceao ii aeaeaciie aei?iaa e aioo?aiiei
aiaeiui iooyi – iaeeaaeiay, ia aicaeooiii o?ainii?oa – a?ociaay
iaeeaaeiay, i?e ii?neeo ia?aaiceao – /a?oa? eeai eiiinaiaio, eee
aeieoiaiou, ioi?ieythuea aeiaiai? no?aoiaaiey.

A aeaenoaothuai A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena io?aaeaia neiaeeaoayny i?aeoeea
eniieueciaaiey oaeneieeueiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey iiaeiene n iiiiuueth
n?aaenoa iaoaie/aneiai eee eiiai eiie?iaaiey, yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie
iiaeiene eee eiiai aiaeiaa nianoaaiii?o/iie iiaeiene. Iaeiaei
eniieueciaaiea oaeeo aiaeiaia aeiionoeii eeoue a neo/ayo e a ii?yaeea,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie eee niaeaoaieai noi?ii
(i. 2 no. 160 AE) Ni.: Oaaea?aeueiue caeii io 10 yiaa?y 2002 a. N 1-OC
“Ia yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene”.. Ia?ooaiea yoeo o?aaiaaiee icia/aao
ianiaethaeaiea ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee (ni. i. 3 aeaiiiai ia?aa?aoa).

A AE aeai en/a?iuaathuee ia?a/aiue neo/aaa, eiaaea ?ac?aoaaony
iiaeienaiea naeaeee ia naiei a?aaeaeaieiii, yaeythueiny noi?iiie
naeaeee, a ii aai i?inueaa ae?oaei eeoeii. Oaeia eeoei eiaioaony
?oeii?eeeaae/eeii. A neeo i. 3 no. 160 AE iiaeienaiea naeaeee
?oeii?eeeaae/eeii aeiionoeii, anee a?aaeaeaiei aneaaenoaea oece/aneiai
iaaeinoaoea, aieacie eee iaa?aiioiinoe ia iiaeao nianoaaiii?o/ii
iiaeienaoueny. Iiaeienue ?oeii?eeeaae/eea aeieaeia auoue iioa?eaeueii
oaeinoiaa?aia n oeacaieai i?e/ei, a neeo eioi?uo niaa?oathuee naeaeeo
a?aaeaeaiei ia iia iiaeienaoue aa nianoaaiii?o/ii. Aeey ?oeii?eeeaae/eea
ieeaeeo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae ii naeaeea, eioi?ay ei iiaeienaia, ia
aicieeaao. Ii ia noaiiaeony aa o/anoieeii.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen (i. 4 no. 185) onoaiiaee oi?iuaiioth i?ioeaaeo?o
oaeinoiaa?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiie eaoaai?ee naeaeie e aeiaa?aiiinoae ia eo
niaa?oaiea. Iiaeienue eeoea ii oaeie naeaeea iiaeao auoue oaeinoiaa?aia
i?aaiecaoeeae, aaea ?aaioaao a?aaeaeaiei, eioi?ue ia iiaeao
nianoaaiii?o/ii aa iiaeienaoue, eee aaeieieno?aoeeae noaoeeiia?iiai
ea/aaiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, a eioi?ii ii iaoiaeeony ia ecea/aiee. E oaeei
naeaeeai ioiinyony aeiaa?aiiinoe ia iieo/aiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e eiuo
ieaoaaeae, naycaiiuo n o?oaeiauie ioiioaieyie, ia iieo/aiea
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aaoi?ia e ecia?aoaoaeae, iainee, iiniaee e noeiaiaeee,
aeeaaeia a?aaeaeai a aaieao e ia iieo/aiea ei??aniiiaeaioeee.

Ana ienueiaiiua naeaeee aeaeyony ia niaa?oaaiua a oi?ia:

a) i?inoie ienueiaiiie; a) ienueiaiiie, ia iiaeeaaeauae iioa?eaeueiiio
oaeinoiaa?aieth, ii n iaycaoaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeae; a)
iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aiiie aac ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee; a)
o?aaothuae iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee.

I?inoay ienueiaiiay oi?ia icia/aao, /oi naeaeea iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia
iooai ninoaaeaiey iaeiiai aeieoiaioa, iiaeienaiiiai noi?iiaie. Oaeie
aeieoiaio aeieaeai eiaoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeaiiie naeaeee
?aeaeceou – eceiaeaiea niaea?aeaiey naeaeee, iaeiaiiaaiea noi?ii e
iiaeiene eeoe, niaa?oathueo naeaeeo. Aeao- e iiiainoi?iiiea naeaeee
(aeiaiai?u) ia anaaaea i?aaeiieaaatho ninoaaeaiea aaeeiiai aeieoiaioa,
iiaeienuaaaiiai noi?iiaie. Aeiaiai?u iiaoo caeeth/aoueny e iooai iaiaia
aeieoiaioaie iin?aaenoaii ii/oiaie, oaeaa?aoiie, oaeaoaeiiie,
oaeaoiiiie, yeaeo?iiiie eee eiie nayce, iicaieythuae aeinoiaa?ii
onoaiiaeoue, /oi aeieoiaio enoiaeeo io noi?iiu ii aeiaiai?o.

I?inoua ienueiaiiua naeaeee, caeeth/aaiua iooai ninoaaeaiey iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa eee iaiaia aeieoiaioaie, niaa?oathony aac o/anoey
ioeoeeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo eee eiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ii yoiio i?eciaeo
i?inoua ienueiaiiua naeaeee ioa?aie/eaathony io naeaeie, iiaeeaaeaueo
iioa?eaeueiiio oaeinoiaa?aieth eee ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

A caeiia onoaiiaeaia iaycaoaeueiinoue i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu aeey
oeaeiai ?yaea naeaeie. Niaeanii i. 1 no. 161 AE a yoie oi?ia aeieaeiu
niaa?oaoueny:

1) naeaeee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe iaaeaeo niaie e n a?aaeaeaiaie. Iineieueeo
?a/ue eaeao ia iaycaoaeueiii o/anoee a oaeeo naeaeeao ethauo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, eiathony a aeaeo ia oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiua, ii e
ioieoeeiaeueiua, a oaeaea /anoiua i?aaiecaoeee. A i. 1 no. 161 AE
aiai?eony i naeaeeao iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, iaaeaeo ieie e
a?aaeaeaiaie. Aoeaaeueiia oieeiaaiea yoiai ioieoa icia/aao, /oi aai
aeaenoaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia naeaeee, a eioi?uo o/anoaotho ia iaiaa
aeaoo noi?ii. Iaeiaei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiae aeaenoaea yoiai ioieoa
iiaeiaaeatho e iaeiinoi?iiiea naeaeee, nicaeathuea iaycaiiinoe eeoue o
eeoea, niaa?oathuaai naeaeeo, iai?eia?, ninoaaeaiea e auaea/a
aeiaa?aiiinoe e o.ae.;

2) naeaeee a?aaeaeai iaaeaeo niaie ia noiio, i?aauoathuoth ia iaiaa /ai
a aeanyoue ?ac onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea.
Oaeie ?acia? iieaou onoaiaaeeaaaony Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie e a oneiaeyo
eioeyoeeiiiie yeiiiieee aeinoaoi/ii /anoi eciaiyaony. Iiae noiiie
naeaeee iiieiaaony oeaia ia?aaeaaaaiiai eiouanoaa eee oeaia ano?a/iiai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey;

3) i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii naeaeee iacaaeneii io oiai, eoi a ieo
o/anoaoao e eaeiaa eo noiia. E yoie a?oiia ioiinyony aeiaiai?u i?iaeaaee
iaaeaeaeeiinoe (no. 550 AE), a?aiaeu ia n?ie aieaa aiaea (i. 1 no. 609
AE), a?aiaeu o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa n yeeiaaeai (no. 633 AE) e aac
yeeiaaea (no. 643 AE), iaeia aeeeiai iiiauaiey (no. 674 AE),
o?ainii?oiie yeniaaeeoeee (no. 802 AE), e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai? (no. 820
AE), aeiaiai? aaieianeiai aeeaaea (no. 836 AE), aeiaiai? o?aiaiey,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuee iaycaiiinoue o?aieoaey i?eiyoue aauue ia o?aiaiea
(i. 1 no. 887 AE), no?aoiaaiey (no. 940 AE), aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey
eiouanoaii (no. 1017 AE), eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee (no. 1028 AE),
niaeaoaiea i caeiaa (no. 339 AE), ii?o/eoaeuenoai (no. 362 AE), caaeaoie
(no. 380 AE) e ae?.;

4) naeaeee, aeey eioi?uo yoa oi?ia onoaiiaeaia ia caeiiii, a niaeaoaieai
noi?ii (i. 1 no. 159 AE).

Ienueiaiiay oi?ia, ia iiaeeaaeauay iioa?eaeueiiio oaeinoiaa?aieth n
iaycaoaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeeae, onoaiiaeaia aeey
aeiaiai?ia i?iaeaaee i?aaei?eyoey (no. 560 AE), aea?aiey iaaeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa (i. 3 no. 574 AE), a?aiaeu iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, anee eiia
ia onoaiiaeaii caeiiii (i. 2 no. 609 AE), a?aiaeu caeaiey eee
nii?oaeaiey, caeeth/aiiue ia n?ie ia iaiaa aiaea (i. 2 no. 651 AE),
a?aiaeu i?aaei?eyoey (i. 2 no. 658 AE).

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey iacaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia i?iaiaeeony
o/?aaeaeaieai thnoeoeee ii ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee (no. 9
Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia io 21 ethey 1997 a. N 122-OC “I ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee i?aa ia iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai e naeaeie n iei”) NC ?O.
1997. N 30. No. 3594; 2001. N 11. No. 997; 2002. N 15. No. 1377..

Iiieii yoiai, onoaiiaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey eeoeaiceiiiuo
aeiaiai?ia i i?aaeinoaaeaiee i?aaa iieueciaaiey iauaeoaie iaoaioiiai
i?aaa (i. 2 no. 13 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O io 23 naioya?y 1992 a.) AAN ?O.
1992. N 42. No. 2319., aeiaiai?ia ia onooiea oiaa?iiai ciaea e
eeoeaiceiiiiai aeiaiai?a (no. 27 Caeiia ?O io 23 naioya?y 1992 a. “I
oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaieyo iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia” AAN ?O. 1992. N 42. No. 2322.). Yoe aeiaiai?u
?aaeno?e?othony a iaoaioiii aaaeiinoaa ?O.

Ioeac a ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee, oeeiiaiea io iaa eee iacaeiiiia
niaa?oaiea ?aaeno?aoeee iiaoo auoue iaaeaeiaaiu a noae ii ianoo
iaoiaeaeaiey i?aaia, iaycaiiiai niaa?oeoue ?aaeno?aoeeth.

Ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth naeaeee ioaeii ioee/aoue io
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaa, aicieeathuaai a nayce ni naeaeeie.
Oae, a niioaaonoaee ni no. 550 AE aeey aeiaiai?a i?iaeaaee
iaaeaeaeeiinoe onoaiiaeaia i?inoay ienueiaiiay oi?ia a aeaea iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa, iiaeienaiiiai noi?iiaie, oiaaea eae ia?aoiae i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue ii aeiaiai?o i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiinoe
iiaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee (i. 1 no. 551 AE.

Iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea ienueiaiiie naeaeee aac ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee inouanoaeyaony iooai niaa?oaiey ia aeieoiaioa,
niioaaonoaothuai o?aaiaaieyi no. 160 AE, oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiie iaaeiene
iioa?eonii eee ae?oaei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii, eiathuei i?aai niaa?oaoue
oaeia iioa?eaeueiia aeaenoaea (i. 1 no. 163 AE).

Aeieoiaio, ia eioi?ii niaa?oaaony oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiay iaaeienue,
aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi no. 160 AE. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoio
aeieoiaio iau/ii niaea?aeeo ?aeaeceou, iaycaoaeueiua aeey ienueiaiiie
naeaeee aiiaua, – niaea?aeaiea naeaeee, oiiieiaiea ia aa o/anoieeao e eo
iiaeiene. I?e ianiioaaonoaee aeieoiaioa yoei o?aaiaaieyi iioa?eon eee
ae?oaia aeieaeiinoiia eeoei iaycaiu ioeacaoue a iioa?eaeueiii
oaeinoiaa?aiee naeaeee.

I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe iioa?eona, i?aaeea niaa?oaiey ei iioa?eaeueiuo
aeaenoaee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu Iniiaaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee i iioa?eaoa io 11 oaa?aey 1993 a. AAN ?O. 1993. N 10. No.
357.. Iiieii niaa?oaiey iioa?eaeueiuo aeaenoaee iioa?eon, a /anoiinoe,
ai?aaa ninoaaeyoue i?iaeou naeaeie. Ca niaa?oaiea oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiie
iaaeiene aceiaaony ainoaea?noaaiiay iioeeia. Oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiay
iaaeienue i?eciaaony niaa?oaiiie iinea oieaou ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeiu.

I?aai niaa?oaiey oaeinoiaa?eoaeueiie iaaeiene ia aeieoiaioa
i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaeaea anaai iioa?eonai. E yoie eaoaai?ee ioiinyony
iioa?eonu ainoaea?noaaiiuo iioa?eaeueiuo eiioi? e iioa?eonu,
caieiathueany /anoiie i?aeoeeie. A neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii,
i?aai iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey naeaeie i?eiaaeeaaeeo ae?oaei
aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai (oiieiiii/aiiui aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai eiinoeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee
?O ca a?aieoeae, eaieoaiai noaeia caa?aiieaaaiey, eiiaiaee?ai aieineeo
/anoae, aeaaiui a?a/ai e o.ae.). Iaeiaei i?e yoii e?oa naeaeie, eioi?ua
ai?aaa oaeinoiaa?youe yoe aeieaeiinoiua eeoea, iiaeao auoue ia?aie/ai.
Oae, aeieaeiinoiua eeoea i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe eiatho i?aai
oaeinoiaa?youe oieueei caaauaiey e aeiaa?aiiinoe. Aeieaeiinoiua eeoea
eiinoeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee ai?aaa oaeinoiaa?youe ethaua naeaeee, e?iia
aeiaiai?ia ia io/oaeaeaiee iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy ia
oa??eoi?ee ?O.

Iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea naeaeie iaycaoaeueii a neo/ayo: 1)
oeacaiiuo a caeiia; 2) i?aaeoniio?aiiuo niaeaoaieai noi?ii, oioy au ii
caeiio aeey naeaeie aeaiiiai aeaea yoa oi?ia ia o?aaiaaeanue (i. 2 no.
163 AE).

A oeaeyo eiio?iey ca caeiiiinoueth niaa?oaaiie naeaeee e iiauoaiey
noaiaie aeinoiaa?iinoe aeieoiaioa, a eioi?ue iia iaeaeaaony, a caeiia
ii?aaeaeai e?oa naeaeie, iiaeeaaeaueo iioa?eaeueiiio oaeinoiaa?aieth, –
aeiaa?aiiinoue ia niaa?oaiea naeaeie, o?aaothueo iioa?eaeueiie oi?iu, ca
eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii (i. 2 no. 185 AE);
aeiaa?aiiinoue, auaeaaaaiay a ii?yaeea ia?aaeiaa?ey (i. 3 no. 187 AE);
aeiaiai? ia eiioaea e aeiaiai? i caeiaa aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa eee i?aa
ia eiouanoai a iaania/aiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?o, eioi?ue aeieaeai
auoue iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?ai (i. 2 no. 339 AE); aeiaiai? onooiee
o?aaiaaiee eee ia?aaiaea aeieaa, anee naie o?aaiaaiey eee aeiea iniiaaiu
ia naeaeea, niaa?oaiiie a iioa?eaeueiie oi?ia (i. 1 no. 389, i. 2 no.
391 AE); aeiaiai? ?aiou (no. 584 AE) Aeiaiai?u ia eiioaea e ?aioa
aoiaeyo a yoo a?oiio oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iiaeeaaeao iioa?eaeueiiio
oaeinoiaa?aieth, ii ia o?aaotho ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee. A
iineaaeiai neo/aa ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony i?aaeea i ienueiaiiuo
naeaeeao, o?aaothueo iaeiia?aiaiii iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey e
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee (ni. aeaeaa). ; caaauaiea (i. 1 no. 1124
AE).

O?aaoy oaeinoiaa?aiey caaauaiey iioa?eonii, AE aeiioneaao oaeinoiaa?aiea
caaauaiey ae?oaeie eeoeaie a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i. 7 no. 1125
(aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey eee eiinoeueneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee ?O), no. 1127 (eeoeaie, eiathueie i?aai oaeinoiaa?aiey
caaauaiey, i?e?aaieaaaiiai e iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aiiiio), i. 2 no.
1128 (neoaeaueie aaiea, eiathueie i?aai i?eieiaoue e eniieiaieth
?anii?yaeaiey eeeaioa a ioiioaiee n?aaenoa ia aai n/aoa). Aieaa oiai, a
no. 1129 aeiioneaaony aiciiaeiinoue eceiaeeoue iineaaeithth aieth
caaauaoaey a i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?ia i?e ianoiyoaeuenoaao, yaii
oa?iaeathueo aai aeecie, eeoaiiiai aiciiaeiinoe niaa?oeoue caaauaiea a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie AE.

Niiinoaaeaiea i?eaaaeaiiuo i?aaee aeaenoaothuaai a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n iieiaeaieai AE ?NON? 1964 a. oaaaeaeaao a oii, /oi
AE ?O 1994 a. ioeacaeny io o?aaiaaiey iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey
iaeioi?uo naeaeie, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo ii AE ?NON? 1964 a. oaeia
oaeinoiaa?aiea auei iaycaoaeueiui. Oae, a aeaenoaothuai AE ia
niaea?aeeony i?aaeienaiee ia iaycaoaeueiinoe iioa?eaeueiiai
oaeinoiaa?aiey aeiaiai?a i?iaeaaee i?aaei?eyoey (no. 560), a?aiaeu
caeaiey eee nii?oaeaiey (no. 651), a?aiaeu i?aaei?eyoey (no. 658). Eae
iieacaii auoa, ai anao oeacaiiuo neo/ayo caeii onoaiaaeeaaao
ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth niioaaonoaothueo naeaeie. Ec neacaiiiai
neaaeoao auaiae i oii, /oi aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai n/eoaao
eceeoiei ia?aeeaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey e
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee iiiaeo naeaeie e aeaeaao auai? a iieueco
iineaaeiae.

Ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea naeaeee noaiiaeony
iaycaoaeueiui, oioy au ii caeiio naeaeea iiaea auoue caeeth/aia a onoiie
eee ienueiaiiie oi?ia.

E ienueiaiiui naeaeeai, o?aaothuei iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey e,
e?iia oiai, ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee, ioiineony n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoia /enei naeaeie, ii eioi?ui caeiiiaeaoaeue a iaeneiaeueiie
noaiaie no?aieony aa?aioe?iaaoue niaethaeaiea eioa?ania iaaeo noi?ii e
i?aaeaea anaai neaaie noi?iiu. E oaeei naeaeeai ioiinyony aeiaiai? ia
eiioaea (i. i. 2, 3 no. 339 AE), eiaaea ii o?aaoao iioa?eaeueiiai
oaeinoiaa?aiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee; aeiaiai? ia onooiea
e?aaeeoi?ii o?aaiaaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia naeaeea, niaa?oaiiie a
iioa?eaeueiie oi?ia e iiaeeaaeauae ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee (i. i.
1, 2 no. 389 AE), ia?aaiaea aeieaa ii naeaeea, o?aaothuae iioa?eaeueiiai
oaeinoiaa?aiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee (i. 2 no. 391 e i. i. 1,
2 no. 389 AE); aeiaiai? ?aiou, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee io/oaeaeaiea
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa iiae auieaoo ?aiou (no. 584 AE).

Aii?in i iineaaenoaeyo ianiaethaeaiey ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeie
(i?inoie, iiaeeaaeauae iioa?eaeueiiio oaeinoiaa?aieth, o?aaothuae
iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee) ioaeii
?anniio?aoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiii a caaeneiinoe io oiai cia/aiey, eioi?ia
i?eaeaaony caeiiiaeaoaeai oi?ia naeaeee.

3. A ea/anoaa iauaai i?aaeea ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu
naeaeee aea/ao ca niaie iaaeiionoeiinoue a neo/aa nii?a naeaeaoaeueneeo
iieacaiee (i. 1 no. 162 AE). Eiaaea yoi i?yii oeacaii a caeiia eee a
niaeaoaiee noi?ii, ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee
aea/ao aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Oae, a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?O i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi aeiaiai?u a?aiaeu
ia n?ie aieaa aiaea (i. 1 no. 609), a?aiaeu o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa n
yeeiaaeai (no. 633) e aac yeeiaaea (no. 643), iaeia aeeeiai iiiauaiey
(no. 674), o?ainii?oiie yeniaaeeoeee (no. 802), niaeaoaiea i caaeaoea
(no. 380) e ae?. niaa?oathony a i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?ia. Ai anao yoeo
neo/ayo oi?ia ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaiouaieaiay /anoue naiie naeaeee.
Iia eiaao aeey yoie a?oiiu naeaeie eeoue i?ioeannoaeueii-i?aaiaia
cia/aiea. Naeaeea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, naycuaaaiua n iae i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe nouanoaotho aacioiineoaeueii e oiio, ninoaaeai eee iao
ienueiaiiue aeieoiaio, a eioi?ii aeieaeia auoue aiieiuaia naeaeea. Oaeie
ienueiaiiue aeieoiaio iiaeao ea?aoue ?ieue eeoue iaeiiai ec aeiionoeiuo
n?aaenoa aeieacuaaiey naeaeee.

Enoiaey ec yoeo niia?aaeaiee, caeiiiaeaoaeue a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
ia?aiineo iineaaenoaey ianiaethaeaiey i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee
a i?ioeannoaeueii-i?aaiaoth noa?o. Niaeanii i. 1 no. 162 AE oaeia
ianiaethaeaiea oi?iu naeaeee eeoaao noi?iiu i?aaa a neo/aa nii?a
nnueaoueny a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naeaeee e aa oneiaee ia naeaeaoaeueneea
iieacaiey, ii ia eeoaao eo i?aaa i?eaiaeeoue ienueiaiiua e ae?oaea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Onoaiaaeeaay iauee cai?ao aeiionoeiinoe naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee i?e
ianiaethaeaiee ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee, caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao
ecaanoiua eneeth/aiey ec yoiai cai?aoa. Yoe eneeth/aiey, onoaiiaeaiiua a
naiii caeiia, iiaoo auoue aucaaiu /?acau/aeiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, i?e
eioi?uo niaa?oaaony naeaeea. Oae, a niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no. 887 AE
ia?aaea/a aaue ia o?aiaiea i?e /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao (iiaea?a,
noeoeeiii aaaenoaee, aiacaiiie aieacie, oa?ica iaiaaeaiey e o.i.) iiaeao
aeieacuaaoueny naeaeaoaeueneeie iieacaieyie.

A i. 1 no. 162 AE oeacuaaaony ia iaaeiionoeiinoue nnueee ia
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey eeoue a neo/aa nii?a iaaeaeo noi?iiaie.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee oaeo caeeth/aiey naeaeee e aa niaea?aeaiea
iaoiaeyony aia nii?a, i?eciathony noi?iiaie, oi aeey i?iaa?ee enoeiiinoe
i?eciaiey aeiionoeiu ethaua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a oii /enea
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey. E?iia oiai, noi?iiu naeaeee aeaaea a neo/aa
nii?a ia eeoaiu i?aaa i?aaenoaaeyoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa eiuo
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii aeaeia. I?e yoii iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
iauyniaiey noi?ii, eiua (o.a. e?iia naiiai aeieoiaioa, a eioi?ii
eceiaeaia naeaeea) ienueiaiiua e aauanoaaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
caeeth/aiey yenia?oia, anee, ?acoiaaony, oa?aeoa? aeieacuaaaiuo
i?aaiioiioaiee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue yoe aeaeu
aeieacaoaeuenoa. A ea/anoaa “eiuo ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa” i?e
ianiaethaeaiee o?aaoaiie caeiiii ienueiaiiie oi?iu iiaoo auoue
i?aaenoaaeaiu eanniaua eee oiaa?iua /aee, ianii?oa ia i?eia?aoaiioth
aauue, y?euee, i?ee?aieaiiua e aaue, aeou, oaeaa?aiiu, oaeaenu, ienueia
aeaeiaiai e ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a e ethaua i?aaeiaou, ia eioi?uo n iiiiuueth
ienueiaiiuo ciaeia aeaiu naaaeaiey i naeaeea.

Aeieoiaiou, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie ienueiaiioth oi?io naeaeie, neaaeoao
ioee/aoue io oae iacuaaaiuo aa?aioeeiuo ienai th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, a
eioi?uo au?aaeaaony aiey iaeiie ec noi?ii niaa?oeoue naeaeeo e
aa?aioe?oaony iieaoa oiaa?a eee oneoa. Aianoa n oai aa?aioeeiua ienueia,
ia aoaeo/e ienueiaiiie oi?iie niioaaonoaothuae naeaeee, iiaoo neoaeeoue
ienueiaiiuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie eae naiiai oaeoa niaa?oaiey naeaeee, oae
e aa oneiaee.

A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo a caeiia aeiioneathony eneeth/aiey ec iauaai
i?aaeea no. 160 AE i oii, /oi neaaeoao n/eoaoue ienueiaiiie oi?iie
naeaeee. Oae, niaeanii i. 2 no. 887 AE i?inoay ienueiaiiay oi?ia
aeiaiai?a o?aiaiey n/eoaaony niaethaeaiiie, anee i?eiyoea aaue ia
o?aiaiea oaeinoiaa?aii o?aieoaeai auaea/ae iieeaaeaaeaoaeth ciaea,
oaeinoiaa?ythuaai i?eai aauae ia o?aiaiea, anee oaeay oi?ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia aauae ia o?aiaiea i?aaeoniio?aia caeiiii eee
eiui i?aaiaui aeoii eeai iau/ia aeey aeaiiiai aeaea o?aiaiey.

Ono?aiaiea naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee ec /enea aeiionoeiuo n?aaenoa
aeieacuaaiey eae iineaaenoaea ianiaethaeaiey i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu
naeaeee ioiineony e aeieacuaaieth ia oieueei oaeoa niaa?oaiey naeaeee,
ii e aa oneiaee (i. 1 no. 162 AE), oaeoa eniieiaiey, a oaeaea e
inia?eaaieth naeaeee. Oae, I?aceaeeoi Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?NON? i?eciae,
/oi aeieacuaaiea oeaiu eae oneiaey naeaeee “iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny oaie
n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ua aeiioneathony caeiiii” AAN ?NON?. 1974. N 4. N. 6.
<*>.

Aeieacuaaiea ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii naeaeee, niaa?oaiiie n ia?ooaieai
i?aaeienaiiie caeiiii i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu, aiciiaeii iooai
naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee oieueei a ii?yaeea eneeth/aiey, onoaiiaeaiiiai
a naiii caeiia. Oae, a neeo i. 3 no. 887 AE ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie
ienueiaiiie oi?iu aeiaiai?a o?aiaiey ia eeoaao noi?iiu i?aaa nnueaoueny
ia naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey a neo/aa nii?a i oiaeaeanoaa aaue, i?eiyoie
ia o?aiaiea, e aaue, aica?auaiiie o?aieoaeai.

Anee naeaeea aeieaeia auoue niaa?oaia a i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?ia, oi
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey iaaeiionoeiu e a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oaeoa aa
eniieiaiey. Eiia ?aoaiea aii?ina iinoaaeei au noi?iiu a ia?aaiia
iieiaeaiea, naaei au ia iao ana oneeey th?enaeeeoeeiiiiai i?aaia ii
onoaiiaeaieth oaeoa niaa?oaiey naeaeee e iinoaaeei iiae oa?ico eioa?anu
auyniaiey enoeiu.

Inia?eaaiea naeaeie, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo caeiiii onoaiiaeaia i?inoay
ienueiaiiay oi?ia, oaeaea iaaiciiaeii iooai naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee.
Niioaaonoaothuee cai?ao onoaiiaeai a ioiioaiee aeiaiai?a caeia. Anee
aeiaiai? caeia aeieaeai auoue niaa?oai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia (no. 808 AE),
aai inia?eaaiea ii aacaeaiaaeiinoe iooai naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee ia
aeiioneaaony, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea aeiaiai? aue caeeth/ai
iiae aeeyieai iaiaia, ianeeey, oa?icu, ceiiaia?aiiiai niaeaoaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaey caaiueea n caeiiaeaaoeai eee noa/aiey oyaeaeuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa (i. 2 no. 812 AE). Oioy yoe oeacaiey caeiia ioiinyony e
aeiaiai?o caeia, iie ii aiaeiaee i?eiaieiu ei anai aeaeai naeaeie, aeey
eioi?uo caeii onoaiiaee iaycaoaeueioth ienueiaiioth oi?io.

?aiaa oaea aiai?eeinue i aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?aaiaaieyo, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue onoaiiaeaiu a ioiioaiee ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee (oiio?aaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaiea, iaee/ea ?yaea iiaeienae, ne?aieaiea ia/aoueth e
o.ae.). A caeiia, eiuo i?aaiauo aeoao e niaeaoaiee noi?ii iiaoo auoue
i?aaeoniio?aiu iineaaenoaey ianiaethaeaiey yoeo o?aaiaaiee. Anee oaeea
iineaaenoaey ia i?aaeoniio?aiu, i?eiaiythony iauea iineaaenoaey
ianiaethaeaiey i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu naeaeee, oeacaiiua a i. 1 no.
162 AE. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e ia?ooaiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee e
oi?ia naeaeee noi?iiu ia eeoathony i?aaa aeieacuaaoue oaeo aa niaa?oaiey
eeai eniieiaiey, a oaeaea aa oneiaey. Iaeiaei a neo/aa nii?a iie ia
iiaoo eniieueciaaoue naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey, oioy e ai?aaa
i?eaiaeeoue ienueiaiiua e ae?oaea n?aaenoaa aeieacuaaiey.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa naeaeie ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie
oi?iu aea/ao eo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Caeanue oaeay oi?ia naeaeee
yaeyaony iaeiei ec yeaiaioia oaeoe/aneiai ninoaaa, n eioi?ui caeii
naycuaaao aa nouanoaiaaiea. Oi?ia naeaeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a yoeo
neo/ayo aa aaconeiaii iaycaoaeueiue eiinoeoooeaiue yeaiaio. I?e oaeii
cia/aiee oi?iu naeaeee aa ianiaethaeaiea aeaeaao naeaeeo
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie. I?inoay ienueiaiiay oi?ia naeaeee iiaeao eiaoue
oeacaiiia eiinoeoooeaiia cia/aiea eeoue a neo/ayo, i?yii
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a caeiia eee a niaeaoaiee noi?ii (i. 2 no. 162 AE).

E naeaeeai, ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu eioi?uo aea/ao eo
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a neeo i?yiiai oeacaiey caeiia, ioiinyony
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea naeaeee (i. 3 no. 162 AE), niaeaoaiey i iaonoieea
(no. 331), aeiaiai?u i caeiaa (i. 4 no. 339), aeiaiai?u ii?o/eoaeuenoaa
(no. 362), aeiaiai?u aea?aiey aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, caeeth/aaiua a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo (i. 2 no. 574), e?aaeeoiua aeiaiai?u (no. 820),
aeiaiai?u no?aoiaaiey, ca eneeth/aieai aeiaiai?ia iaycaoaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey (i. 1 no. 940), aeiaiai?u aeiaa?eoaeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey eiouanoaii (i. 3 no. 1017), aeiaiai?u eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee
(i. 1 no. 1028 AE).

I?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee a i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?ia noi?iiu iiaoo a
ea/anoaa iineaaenoaee ianiaethaeaiey yoie oi?iu i?aaeoniio?aoue
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oaeie naeaeee. Iiaeiaiua iineaaenoaey noi?iiu
ai?aaa i?aaeoniio?aoue a naiai niaeaoaiee ioiineoaeueii ethaie naeaeee.

Eae ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, a caeiia, eiuo i?aaiauo aeoao, niaeaoaiee noi?ii
iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey iaauiieiaiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee e oi?ia naeaeee. Oiaaea ianiaethaeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee aea/ao ca niaie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
naeaeee. I?eia?ii onoaiiaeaiey a caeiia aeiiieieoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee e
oi?ia naeaeee e iineaaenoaee eo ia?ooaiey iiaeao neoaeeoue no. 836 AE:

“1. Aeiaiai? aaieianeiai aeeaaea aeieaeai auoue caeeth/ai a ienueiaiiie
oi?ia.

Ienueiaiiay oi?ia aeiaiai?a aaieianeiai aeeaaea n/eoaaony niaethaeaiiie,
anee aianaiea aeeaaea oaeinoiaa?aii naa?aaaoaeueiie eieaeeie,
naa?aaaoaeueiui eee aeaiiceoiui na?oeoeeaoii eeai eiui auaeaiiui aaieii
aeeaae/eeo aeieoiaioii, ioaa/athuei o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeoniio?aiiui aeey
oaeeo aeieoiaioia caeiiii, onoaiiaeaiiuie a niioaaonoaee n iei
aaieianeeie i?aaeeaie e i?eiaiyaiuie a aaieianeie i?aeoeea iau/ayie
aeaeiaiai iai?ioa.

2. Ianiaethaeaiea ienueiaiiie oi?iu aeiaiai?a aaieianeiai aeeaaea aea/ao
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue yoiai aeiaiai?a. Oaeie aeiaiai? yaeyaony
ie/oiaeiui”.

A i. 2 no. 162 AE onoaiiaeaii, /oi ianiaethaeaiea i?inoie ienueiaiiie
oi?iu naeaeee iiaeao a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeacaiiuo a caeiia neo/ayo iiaea/ue
ca niaie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee. Iaeiaei a yoie noaouea ia
ii?aaeaeaii, aoaeao ee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiay naeaeea inii?eiie
(ioiineoaeueii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie) eee ie/oiaeiie (aaniethoii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie). A iineaaeothueo noaoueyo AE, o?aaothueo
ienueiaiiiai ioi?ieaiey naeaeie iiae oa?icie eo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
iineaaenoaey ianiaethaeaiey yoiai o?aaiaaiey ii?aaeaeaiu ii-?aciiio.
E?aaeeoiue aeiaiai? (no. 820 AE), aeiaiai? aaieianeiai aeeaaea (no.
836), aeiaiai? eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee (no. 1028) i?e ianiaethaeaiee
ienueiaiiie oi?iu n/eoathony ie/oiaeiuie. A ioiioaiee niaeaoaiey i
iaonoieea (no. 331), aeiaiai?a i caeiaa (no. 339), ii?o/eoaeuenoaa (no.
362), i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiinoe (no. 550), i?iaeaaee i?aaei?eyoey (no.
560), a?aiaeu caeaiey eee nii?oaeaiey (no. 651), a?aiaeu i?aaei?eyoey
(no. 658), no?aoiaaiey (no. 940), aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eiouanoaii
(no. 1017 AE) caeii aiai?eo eeoue i iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeiaiai?a a
neo/aa ia?ooaiey o?aaiaaiey i aai ienueiaiiie oi?ia, ia ooi/iyy, i eaeii
aeaea iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eaeao ?a/ue – ie/oiaeiinoe eee inii?eiinoe.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue i oii cia/aiee, eioi?ia caeii i?eaeaao oi?ia naeaeee,
o?aaoy aa caeeth/aiey ienueiaiii (eiinoeoooeaiue yeaiaio naeaeee).
Iiyoiio ai anao neo/ayo naeaeee, iaaeaenoaeoaeueiua aneaaenoaea
ianiaethaeaiey eo i?inoie ienueiaiiie oi?iu, yaeythony ie/oiaeiuie. Yoi
niaeanoaony e n oai, /oi ianiaethaeaiea ienueiaiiie oi?iu a ioiioaiee
oaeie naeaeee icia/aao aa ianiioaaonoaea caeiio. A neeo aea no. 168 AE
naeaeea, ia niioaaonoaothuay caeiio, ie/oiaeia, anee a caeiia ia
i?aaeoniio?aiu eiua iineaaenoaey oaeiai ianiioaaonoaey.

4. Niaeanii i. 1 no. 165 AE ianiaethaeaiea iioa?eaeueiie oi?iu naeaeee
aea/ao aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Oaeay naeaeea n/eoaaony ie/oiaeiie. Yoi
ioiineony, i?aaeaea anaai, e naeaeeai, iioa?eaeueiay oi?ia eioi?uo
i?aaeienaia caeiiii (i. 1 no. 389, i. 2 no. 391, no. 584 AE). Ai anao
oeacaiiuo neo/ayo caeii aiai?eo eeoue ia iaycaoaeueiinoe iioa?eaeueiiai
oaeinoiaa?aiey naeaeee, ia i?aaeoniao?eaay eiie?aoiuo iineaaenoaee
ia?ooaiey yoiai o?aaiaaiey. Iineaaenoaey oaeiai ia?ooaiey a aeaea
ie/oiaeiinoe naeaeee ii?aaeaeaiu a iauae ii?ia – i. 1 no. 165 AE. Yoe
iineaaenoaey ianooiatho e oiaaea, eiaaea iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea
naeaeee i?aaeoniio?aii niaeaoaieai noi?ii, oioy au caeii e ia o?aaiaae
aa iioa?eaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey.

5. A ioee/ea io ia?ooaiey iioa?eaeueiie oi?iu naeaeee ianiaethaeaiea
o?aaiaaiey i aa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aea/ao
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue (ie/oiaeiinoue) naeaeee eeoue a neo/ayo,
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii (i. 1 no. 165 AE).

E iei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioiinyony ia?ooaiey i?aaee i ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee aeiaiai?a ia eiioaea (i. i. 3, 4 no. 339 AE), ia?aaea/e
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa a aeiaa?eoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea (i. 3 no. 1017) e
eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee ia eniieueciaaiea iauaeoa, io?aiyaiiai a
niioaaonoaee n iaoaioiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e iiaeeaaeauaai
?aaeno?aoeee a oaaea?aeueiii i?aaia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a iaeanoe
iaoaioia e oiaa?iuo ciaeia (i. 2 no. 1028 AE).

A i. 2 no. 1028 AE oeacuaaaony, /oi i?e ianiaethaeaiee o?aaiaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee iauaeoa,
io?aiyaiiai a niioaaonoaee n iaoaioiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, aeiaiai?
n/eoaaony ie/oiaeiui. A i. 4 no. 339 e a i. 3 no. 1017 AE caeiiiaeaoaeue
ia?aie/eaaaony oeacaieai ia oi, /oi i?e ia?ooaiee o?aaiaaiey i
?aaeno?aoeee aeiaiai?u eiioaee e ia?aaea/e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa a
aeiaa?eoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea iaaeaenoaeoaeueiu.

Iaeuecy, iaeiaei, oioneaoue ec aeaeo i. 1 no. 165 e no. 168 AE, a
eioi?uo niaea?aeeony i?acoiioeey ie/oiaeiinoe naeaeee, ia
niioaaonoaothuae o?aaiaaieyi caeiia, anee a caeiia ia onoaiiaeaii, /oi
iia inii?eia. Iiyoiio ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea aiai?eony i
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie aaeaeo ia?ooaiey o?aaiaaiey ?aaeno?aoeee,
neaaeoao n/eoaoue eo ie/oiaeiuie.

A ?yaea neo/aaa i?e ia?ooaiee o?aaiaaiey i ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee
aeiaiai?a a caeiia oeacuaaaony ia ia aai iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a ia oi,
/oi ii n/eoaaony caeeth/aiiui n iiiaioa ?aaeno?aoeee. Oaeia iineaaenoaea
ia?ooaiey ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaeoniio?aii a ioiioaiee aeiaiai?ia i?iaeaaee
i?aaei?eyoey (i. 3 no. 560 AE), a?aiaeu caeaiey eee nii?oaeaiey,
caeeth/aiiie ia n?ie ia iaiaa aiaea (i. 2 no. 651), a?aiaeu i?aaei?eyoey
(i. 2 no. 658 AE). Ai anao oeacaiiuo neo/ayo ionoonoaea ?aaeno?aoeee
aeiaiai?a icia/aao, /oi ii ia aue caeeth/ai.

A A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena i?aaeoniio?aiu e eiiai ?iaea iineaaenoaey
ianiaethaeaiey o?aaiaaiey ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeie. A ioiioaiee i?iaeaaee
iaaeaeaeeiinoe (i. 2 no. 551), iaiu iaaeaeaeeiinoe (i. 2 no. 567, i. 2
no. 551) eniieiaiea aeiaiai?a noi?iiaie aei ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey
eciaiaiey eo ioiioaiee n o?aoueeie eeoeaie. A neeo i. 2 no. 1028 AE a
ioiioaieyo n o?aoueeie eeoeaie noi?iiu aeiaiai?a eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee
ai?aaa nnueaoueny ia aeiaiai? eeoue n iiiaioa aai ?aaeno?aoeee.

Ai anao o?ao i?eaaaeaiiuo neo/ayo niaa?oaiea niioaaonoaothueo naeaeie ia
iiaeao io?aceoueny ia ioiioaieyo n o?aoueeie eeoeaie, anee ia auiieiaiu
o?aaiaaiey i ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeie. Aiieia iiiyoii, /oi aeeth/aiea a
i?aaiaoth ?aaeaiaioaoeeth iacaaiiuo naeaeie yoiai i?aaeea i?iaeeeoiaaii
niia?aaeaieyie iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aaeeoue i?aaa e caeiiiua eioa?anu
o?aoueeo eeoe, eneeth/eoue ia?aaea/o yoei eeoeai eiaeiie eioi?iaoeee e
o.i. Oaeei ia?acii, ia iauyaeyy iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie yoe naeaeee a
ioiioaiee eo noi?ii, caeii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aeey o?aoueeo eeoe iie
eae au ia nouanoaotho.

6. A niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 165 AE, anee iaeia ec noi?ii iieiinoueth
eee /anoe/ii eniieieea naeaeeo, o?aaothuoth iioa?eaeueiiai
oaeinoiaa?aiey, a ae?oaay noi?iia oeeiiyaony io oaeiai oaeinoiaa?aiey
naeaeee, noae ai?aaa ii o?aaiaaieth eniieieaoae naeaeeo noi?iiu
i?eciaoue naeaeeo aeaenoaeoaeueiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?aia oneiaea i?eciaiey oaeie naeaeee aeaenoaeoaeueiie a
noaeaaiii ii?yaeea – iieiia eee /anoe/iia aa eniieiaiea iaeiie ec noi?ii
aei iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey naeaeee.

Aoi?ui oneiaeai i?eciaiey naeaeee aeaenoaeoaeueiie i?eciaaony oeeiiaiea
ae?oaie noi?iiu naeaeee io aa iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, ec anao aiciiaeiuo i?e/ei ianiaethaeaiey iioa?eaeueiie oi?iu
naeaeee (iai?eia?, th?eaee/aneay iainaaaeiieaiiinoue noi?ii,
oaeaeaiiinoue iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?u e o.ae.) a caeiia auaeaeiooa eeoue
iaeia a ea/anoaa iniiaaiey aeey o?aaiaaiey i i?eciaiee naeaeee
aeaenoaeoaeueiie. Oaeie iiaeoiae caeiia e ioeaiea i?e/ei ionooieaiey io
o?aaoaiie oi?iu naeaeee i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia iiiyoiui e ii?aaaeaiiui.
Ii iai?aaeai ia i?ana/aiea iiiuoie noi?iiu, eioi?ie yoi auaiaeii,
iaaeia?iniaanoii aini?aiyonoaiaaoue iaaeeaaeauaio ioi?ieaieth aeiaiai?a.

A noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea noi?iia, a iieueco
eioi?ie naeaeea eniieiaia aei aa iioa?eaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey, auauaaao n
i?aaeiaai ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa, a aa iiaia ianoii?aauaaiea iaecaanoii.
Iai?eia?, nianoaaiiee-aeiiiaeaaeaeaoe, iieo/ea io iieoiaoaey aeaiueae,
auaoae, ia ecaanoea naiaai eiio?aaaioa i ia?aiaia aae?ana e ia
oaeinoiaa?ea aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee a iioa?eaeueiii ii?yaeea.
Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea neo/ae neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae oeeiiaiea iaeiie ec
noi?ii io iaaeeaaeauaai ioi?ieaiey naeaeee. Ene i i?eciaiee oaeie
naeaeee aeaenoaeoaeueiie iiaeao auoue i?aaeuyaeai niaeanii /. 1 no. 29
AIE ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey eiouanoaa ioaao/eea eee ii iineaaeiaio
ecaanoiiio ianoo aai aeeoaeuenoaa.

Noaeai i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny e n oaeeie oaeoaie, eiaaea naeaeea
ieacuaaaony iioa?eaeueii ia oaeinoiaa?aiiie aneaaenoaea nia?oe iaeiie ec
noi?ii. Anee ianeaaeieee ioeacuaathony iaea/ue naeaeeo a iioa?eaeueioth
oi?io, oi i?aaeuyaeaiea enea a niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 165 AE
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia i?aaiia?iui. Oaeie ene iiaeao auoue i?aaeuyaeai e
ianeaaeieeai oia?oaai, a anee eiouanoai ia?aoei a ii?yaeea no. 1151 AE e
ainoaea?noao, oi e oeiainiaui i?aaiai.

?anniio?aiea eneia i i?eciaiee naeaeee aeaenoaeoaeueiie i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie neiaeiinoue oiaaea, eiaaea i?aaeiao naeaeee iaiaeiie?aoii
io/oaeaeaeny e a eaaeaeii ec yoeo neo/aaa naeaeea ia auea iioa?eaeueii
ioi?ieaia. Anee i?e caeeth/aiee ia?aie naeaeee iaeia ec noi?ii
oeeiieeanue io niaethaeaiey onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu naeaeee, iineaaeiee
aeaaeaeaoe oiai eee eiiai eiouanoaa ai?aaa niaeanii i. 2 no. 165 AE
o?aaiaaoue i?eciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiuie eae ia?aie, oae e iineaaeothueo
naeaeie. A ea/anoaa niioaao/eeia ii oaeiio aeaeo aeieaeiu auoue
i?eaea/aiu noi?iia ii ia?aiia/aeueiie naeaeea, th?eaee/anee yaeythuayny
nianoaaiieeii eiouanoaa, e noi?iiu ii iineaaeothuei naeaeeai.

Anee naeaeea, ia ioi?ieaiiay iioa?eaeueii, i?eciaia noaeii
aeaenoaeoaeueiie, aa iineaaeothuaa iioa?eaeueiia oaeinoiaa?aiea ia
o?aaoaony.

7. A i. 3 no. 165 AE i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue “enoeaeaiey” ii?ieia
naeaeee, aucaaiiuo ianiaethaeaieai o?aaiaaiey i aa ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee, o.a. iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (ie/oiaeiinoe) oaeie naeaeee,
ioeaca a i?eciaiee aa caeeth/aiiie aei iiiaioa ?aaeno?aoeee,
iaaeiionoeiinoe aeeyiey ia ioiioaiey n o?aoueeie eeoeaie eee nnueee ia
naeaeeo a ioiioaieyo n o?aoueeie eeoeaie. I?e iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaee noae ai?aaa auianoe ?aoaiea i ?aaeno?aoeee yoie naeaeee.

E oaeei oneiaeyi ioiinyony:

a) niaa?oaiea naeaeee a iaaeeaaeauae oi?ia, o.a. niaethaeaiea o?aaoaiie
caeiiii i?inoie ienueiaiiie eee iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aiiie oi?iu;

a) oeeiiaiea iaeiie ec noi?ii io ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee;

a) i?aaeuyaeaiea a noae o?aaiaaiey ae?oaie noi?iiu i ?aaeno?aoeee
naeaeee.

A ioee/ea io i?eciaiey noaeii aeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeee, ia o?aaothuae aa
iineaaeothuaai iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey, iinea auianaiey ?aoaiey i
?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee iia aeieaeia auoue a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieai noaea
ca?aaeno?e?iaaia a iaaeeaaeauai ii?yaeea.

Oeeiiaiea noi?iiu io iioa?eaeueiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey eee ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee iiaeao i?e/eieoue oauoee ae?oaie noi?iia. I?e
iaiainiiaaiiinoe oaeiai oeeiiaiey, o.a. iaee/ee aeiu oeeiiythuaeny
noi?iiu, iia aeieaeia aicianoeoue ae?oaie noi?iia oauoee, aucaaiiua
caaea?aeeie a niaa?oaiee eee ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee (i. 4 no. 165 AE).

§ 4. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeie: iiiyoea, aeaeu e iineaaenoaey

1. Oneiaey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee auoaeatho ec aa ii?aaeaeaiey eae
i?aaiia?iiai th?eaee/aneiai aeaenoaey noauaeoia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa,
iai?aaeaiiiai ia onoaiiaeaiea, eciaiaiea eee i?ae?auaiea a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa e iaycaiiinoae.

Naeaeea aeaenoaeoaeueia i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii iaee/ee neaaeothueo oneiaee:

a) niaea?aeaiea e i?aaiaie ?acoeueoao naeaeee ia i?ioeai?a/ao caeiio e
eiui i?aaiaui aeoai;

a) eaaeaeue o/anoiee naeaeee iaeaaeaao aeaaniiniaiinoueth, iaiaoiaeeiie
aeey aa niaa?oaiey;

a) aieaecuyaeaiea o/anoieea naeaeee niioaaonoaoao aai aeaenoaeoaeueiie
aiea;

a) aieaecuyaeaiea niaa?oaii a oi?ia, i?aaeoniio?aiiie caeiiii aeey
aeaiiie naeaeee.

Iaauiieiaiea yoeo oneiaee aea/ao iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee, anee
eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii caeiiii.

2. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee icia/aao, /oi aeaenoaea, niaa?oaiiia a
aeaea naeaeee, ia ii?iaeaeaao th?eaee/aneeo iineaaenoaee, o.a. ia aea/ao
aicieeiiaaiea, eciaiaiea eee i?ae?auaiea a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae, e?iia oao, eioi?ua naycaiu n aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.
Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiay naeaeea yaeyaony iai?aaiia?iui th?eaee/aneei
aeaenoaeai.

Caeii (i. 1 no. 166 AE) iiae?acaeaeyao ana iaaeaenoaeoaeueiua naeaeee ia
aeaa aeaea – ie/oiaeiua e inii?eiua.

Ie/oiaeiay naeaeea iaaeaenoaeoaeueia a neeo ii?iu i?aaa a iiiaio aa
niaa?oaiey, iiyoiio noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey i i?eciaiee aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie
ia o?aaoaony (quae contra ius fiunt debent utique pro infectis haberi –
naeaeaiiia i?ioea caeiia aeieaeii n/eoaoueny ie/oiaeiui). Ie/oiaeiay
naeaeea ia iiaeeaaeeo eniieiaieth. Ia ie/oiaeiinoue naeaeee ai?aaa
nnueaoueny e o?aaiaaoue a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea i?eiaiaiey iineaaenoaee aa
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ethaua caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea.

Noae, onoaiiaea i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaea oaeo niaa?oaiey ie/oiaeiie
naeaeee, eiinoaoe?oao aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue e ai?aaa i?eiaieoue
iineaaenoaey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ie/oiaeiie naeaeee ii nianoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeaa (i. 2 no. 166 AE). Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue
i?eciaiey noaeii a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo (no. no. 171, 172 AE)
ie/oiaeiie naeaeee aeaenoaeoaeueiie.

Oioy n?aaee ia?a/eneaiiuo a no. 12 AE niiniaia caueou a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa
ionoonoaoao oaeie niinia, eae i?eciaiea ie/oiaeiie naeaeee
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie, Ieaioiu Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O e Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai
Noaea ?O a i. 32 Iinoaiiaeaiey io 1 ethey 1996 a. N 6/8 “I iaeioi?uo
aii?inao, naycaiiuo n i?eiaiaieai /anoe ia?aie A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” oeacaee, /oi AE ia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeuyaeaiey eneia i i?eciaiee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ie/oiaeiie naeaeee,
iiyoiio oaeea o?aaiaaiey iiaoo auoue i?aaeuyaeaiu a noae a n?iee,
onoaiiaeaiiua i. 1 no. 181 AE, e iiaeeaaeao ?anniio?aieth noaeii a iauai
ii?yaeea ii cayaeaieth ethaiai caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea Ni.: AAAN ?O.
1996. N 9..

Inii?eiay naeaeea a iiiaio aa niaa?oaiey ii?iaeaeaao naienoaaiiua
aeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeea i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey, ii iie iinyo
iaonoie/eaue oa?aeoa?, oae eae ii o?aaiaaieth en/a?iuaathua
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a caeiia e?oaa eeoe oaeay naeaeea iiaeao auoue i?eciaia
noaeii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii iniiaaieyi, onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii. A yoii
neo/aa i?aaiaie ?acoeueoao naeaeee iiaeao ieacaoueny iieiinoueth
aiioee?iaai, iineieueeo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiay naeaeea iaaeaenoaeoaeueia n
iiiaioa aa niaa?oaiey, e ?aoaiea noaea ii yoiio aii?ino aoaeao eiaoue
ia?aoioth neeo, anee oieueei ec niaea?aeaiey naeaeee ia neaaeoao, /oi aa
aeaenoaea iiaeao auoue i?ae?auaii eeoue ia aoaeouaa a?aiy (i. 3 no. 167
AE).

Ec niunea i. 1 no. 166 AE auoaeaao, /oi iniiaaiey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
naeaeie en/a?iuaathua onoaiiaeaiu a AE.

Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi oaeia oieeiaaiea i. 1 no. 166 AE ia?aie/eoaeueii
e ia iniiaaii ia caeiia Ni.: Eiiiaioa?ee e A?aaeaeaineiio eiaeaeno
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, /anoe ia?aie (iinoaoaeiue) / Iiae ?aae. I.I.
Naaeeeiaa. I., 1997. N. 356.. Yoi iiaiea iainiiauaaaony nnueeie ia
iaee/ea a ?yaea caeiiia (Caeii ?O “I aaethoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e aaethoiii
eiio?iea”, Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao”, Aiaeiue e
Eaniie eiaeaenu ?O e ae?.) aeiiieieoaeueiuo ii n?aaiaieth n AE iniiaaiee
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie. N oaeei iiaieai iaeuecy niaeaneoueny,
iineieueeo a ea/anoaa iniiaaiey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie ai anao
oiiiyioouo caeiiao oeacaii niaa?oaiea naeaeie n ia?ooaieai ii?i
niioaaonoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (aaethoiiai, eaniiai, aiaeiiai e
o.i.), /oi iieiinoueth ioaaouaaaony no. 168 AE.

Caeanue aea neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iiaue AE nio?aiee i?aainoaaiiinoue
ii ioiioaieth e AE ?NON? 1964 a. a /anoe iiaeoiaea e iineaaenoaeyi
ia?ooaiey o?aaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e niaa?oaiee naeaeie.
Ii-i?aaeiaio iineaaenoaeai oaeiai ia?ooaiey inoaaony, ii iauaio i?aaeeo
no. 168 AE, ie/oiaeiinoue naeaeee, e eeoue a niaoeeaeueii
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii neo/ayo iineaaenoaeai yoiai ia?ooaiey
ieacuaaaony aa inii?eiinoue. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi oeaeyi
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a aieueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaiaaea
au ia?aoiay neooaoeey, iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa noaeueaa naeaeee,
niaa?oaiiie n ia?ooaieai o?aaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ieacuaaeanue au,
ii iauaio i?aaeeo, iinoaaeaia a caaeneiinoue io naiaiaeiiai oniio?aiey
oao o/anoieeia a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa, /uee i?aaa e eioa?anu cao?iioou
niioaaonoaothuei ia?ooaieai, a iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeee
aaoiiaoe/anee aeaeea au eeoue niaoeeaeueii i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii
iaeaieaa “oyaeeea” ia?ooaiey.

Iineieueeo a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea iai?aaeaii ia i?eaeaiea
onoie/eainoe ioiioaieyi, neeaaeuaathueiny a a?aaeaeaineii iai?ioa, no.
180 AE i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeoue /anoe
naeaeee i?e nio?aiaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiuie inoaeueiuo aa /anoae.
Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie iiaeao auoue i?eciaia eeoue /anoue naeaeee, anee, eae
oeacaii a no. 180 AE, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi naeaeea auea au
niaa?oaia e aac aeeth/aiey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie aa /anoe. Aeey aeao- e
iiiainoi?iiieo naeaeie oaeia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i?aaiia?ii i?e iaee/ee
aeaoo oneiaee: a) ionoonoaea /anoe naeaeee ia i?aiyonoaoao i?eciaieth
naeaeee niaa?oaiiie a inoaeueiie aa /anoe (iauaeoeaiue e?eoa?ee); a)
noi?iiu a iiiaio niaa?oaiey naeaeee auee au niaeaniu niaa?oeoue naeaeeo
aac aeeth/aiey aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie /anoe (noauaeoeaiue e?eoa?ee). Aeey
iaeiinoi?iiiae naeaeee (iai?eia?, ninoaaeaiea caaauaiey) aeinoaoi/ii
noauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey.

Iaee/ea iauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oaeay /anoue naeaeee ia
aeieaeia ioiineoueny e /eneo aa nouanoaaiiuo oneiaee. Aeaei a oii, /oi
aeey caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a iaiaoiaeeii aeinoeaeaiea noi?iiaie niaeaoaiey
ii anai nouanoaaiiui oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a (i. 1 no. 432 AE), iiyoiio
ionoonoaea niaeaoaiey oioy au ii iaeiiio ec ieo i?eaiaeeo e i?eciaieth
aeiaiai?a iacaeeth/aiiui. Eiia iieiaeaiea aicieeaao i?e
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaeiiai ec nouanoaaiiuo oneiaee aeiaiai?a. A yoii
neo/aa no. 180 AE ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia aaeaeo ionoonoaey
iauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey, oae eae iacaaeneii io iaia?aiee noi?ii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue niaeaoaiey ii nouanoaaiiiio oneiaeth aeiaiai?a ia
iicaieyao n/eoaoue aai caeeth/aiiui, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiaiai? a oeaeii
ieaaeaony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui.

Noaouey 180 AE iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia, iai?eia?, a neo/aa onoaiiaeaiey a
o/?aaeeoaeueiii aeiaiai?a oicyenoaaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa i?aaa o/?aaeeoaey
(o/anoieea) ecuyoue aianaiiia ei a ea/anoaa aeeaaea eiouanoai a iaoo?a
i?e auoiaea ec oiaa?euanoaa. Anee oaeay aiciiaeiinoue niaoeeaeueii ia
i?aaeoniio?aia caeiiii, iiaeiaiia oneiaea aeieaeii auoue i?eciaii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui eae i?ioeai?a/auaa no. 48, i. 3 no. 213 AE (i. 17
Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioiia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O e Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea
?O io 1 ethey 1996 a. N 6/8). Aai iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iiaeao ia
iiaea/ue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a a inoaeueiie
aai /anoe i?e iaee/ee noauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai no. 180
AE.

Ae?oaie i?eia? – onoaiiaeaiea a aeiaiai?a ii?o/aiey oneiaey,
ia?aie/eaathuaai i?aai aeiaa?eoaey ia ioiaio auaeaaaaiie ei
aeiaa?aiiinoe. I?yiia oeacaiea caeiia i ie/oiaeiinoe oaeiai oneiaey (i.
2 no. 188 AE) ia iiaea/ao i?eciaiey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui aeiaiai?a
ii?o/aiey a inoaeueiie aai /anoe, anee aoaeao aeieacaii iaee/ea
noauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey.

3. Ie/oiaeiay naeaeea, eniieiaiea eioi?ie ia ia/aoi ie iaeiie ec noi?ii,
ia ii?iaeaeaao th?eaee/aneeo iineaaenoaee. Aianoa n oai, anee noi?iiu
iaia?aiu ia/aoue eniieiyoue ie/oiaeioth naeaeeo, ethaia caeioa?aniaaiiia
eeoei, i?aaai eioi?iai eniieiaiea yoie naeaeee iiaeao nicaeaoue oa?ico,
ai?aaa ia iniiaaiee no. 12 AE i?aaeuyaeoue ene i cai?auaiee eniieiaiey
naeaeee eae aeaenoaey, nicaeathuaai oa?ico ia?ooaiey i?aaa.

Inii?eiay naeaeea aei auianaiey noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey i i?eciaiee aa
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie nicaeaao a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe aeey aa
o/anoieeia, ii yoe i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey iinyo iaonoie/eaue oa?aeoa?,
oae eae a iauai neo/aa iia iiaeao auoue i?eciaia noaeii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie n iiiaioa aa niaa?oaiey.

Noaouee 167 – 179 AE onoaiaaeeaatho ?acee/iua i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey
/anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth eniieiaiiuo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuo naeaeie, i?e
yoii i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey aeeooa?aioee?othony a caaeneiinoe io
iniiaaiee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee.

Iniiaiua iineaaenoaey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee naycaiu n
ii?aaeaeaieai i?aaiaie noaeueau iieo/aiiiai noi?iiaie ii naeaeea. Iauaa
i?aaeei, ?aaoee?othuaa i?aaiaoth noaeueao iieo/aiiiai noi?iiaie ii
naeaeea, onoaiiaeaii i. 2 no. 167 AE.

Yoi i?aaeei, eiaioaiia a iaoea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa aeaonoi?iiiae
?anoeoooeeae, i?aaeoniao?eaaao aica?auaiea noi?iiaie ae?oa ae?oao anaai
iieo/aiiiai ii naeaeea, a a neo/aa iaaiciiaeiinoe aica?auaiey
iieo/aiiiai a iaoo?a (a oii /enea eiaaea iieo/aiiia au?aaeaaony a
iieueciaaiee eiouanoaii, auiieiaiiie ?aaioa eee i?aaeinoaaeaiiie oneoaa)
– aiciauaiea aai noieiinoe a aeaiueaao.

Aeey iineaaenoaee iaeioi?uo aeaeia iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuo naeaeie (no. 169 e
no. 179 AE), eioi?ua aieaa iiae?iaii aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu ieaea,
i?eiaiythony eiua i?aaeea:

a) iaeiinoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey, o.a. ainnoaiiaeaiea a ia?aiia/aeueiia
ninoiyiea eeoue iaaeiiaiie noi?iiu iooai aica?auaiey yoie noi?iia
eniieiaiiiai ath ii naeaeea, e acuneaiea a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa
iieo/aiiiai aeiiaiie noi?iiie eee i?e/eoaaoaainy yoie noi?iia a
aiciauaiea eniieiaiiiai ath ii naeaeea, eee

a) iaaeiiouaiea ?anoeoooeee, o.a. acuneaiea a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa anaai
iieo/aiiiai noi?iiaie ii naeaeea e a neo/aa eniieiaiey naeaeee iaeiie
noi?iiie n ae?oaie noi?iiu acuneeaathony a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa ana
iieo/aiiia ath e ana i?e/eoaaoaany n iaa ia?aie noi?iia a aiciauaiea
iieo/aiiiai.

Anee ec niaea?aeaiey inii?eiie naeaeee auoaeaao, /oi aa aeaenoaea iiaeao
auoue i?ae?auaii eeoue ia aoaeouaa a?aiy, noae i?ae?auaao aa aeaenoaea
ia aoaeouaa a?aiy (i. 3 no. 167 AE). A yoii neo/aa iieo/aiiia ii naeaeea
inoaaony o noi?ii, ii aeaeueiaeoaio eniieiaieth iia ia iiaeeaaeeo.

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 1103 AE, onoaiaaeeaathuae niioiioaiea o?aaiaaiee i
aica?aoa iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey n ae?oaeie o?aaiaaieyie i caueoa
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, i?aaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua ae. 60 AE “Iaycaoaeuenoaa
aneaaenoaea iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey”, iiaeeaaeao i?eiaiaieth, anee
eiia ia onoaiiaeaii caeiiii e ia auoaeaao ec nouanoaa niioaaonoaothueo
ioiioaiee, e e o?aaiaaieyi i aica?aoa eniieiaiiiai ii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie
naeaeea. Oaeei ia?acii, yoa noaouey onoaiaaeeaaao niioiioaiea ii?i,
i?eiaiyaiuo e iineaaenoaeyi iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuo naeaeie, n o?aaiaaieyie i
aica?aoa iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey, iineieueeo no. no. 1102, 1104 e
1105 AE onoaiaaeeaatho ?anoeoooeeiiiua i?aaeea, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue
i?eiaiaiu e iineaaenoaeyi iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie.

Iaeiaei a neeo i?eioeeia eiieo?aioeee ii?i e iineaaenoaeyi
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuo naeaeie i?eiaiythony niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeea,
onoaiiaeaiiua a no. no. 167, 169 – 179 AE. Eoae, i?eiaiaiea e
iineaaenoaeyi iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee i?aaee ae. 60 AE iineo
noaneaeea?iue oa?aeoa? e iiaeao eiaoue ianoi, anee eiia ia onoaiiaeaii
AE, ae?oaeie caeiiaie eee eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie e ia auoaeaao ec
nouanoaa niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi i?aaeea ae. 60 AE iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny eeoue e
auoaeathuei ec iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee o?aaiaaieyi i aica?aoa
eniieiaiiiai ii iae (i. 1 no. 1103 AE), o.a. e ?anoeoooeeiiiui
o?aaiaaieyi. I?eiaiaiey yoeo i?aaee e eiui iineaaenoaeyi
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee no. 1103 AE ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao, iiyoiio
einoeooo iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey ia iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny a ioiioaiee
acuneaiey iieo/aiiiai ii naeaeea a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa (no. no. 169,
179 AE).

E iineaaenoaeyi iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeee a ioiioaiee aica?aoa
eniieiaiiiai ii iae (i?e i?eiaiaiee aeaonoi?iiiae eee iaeiinoi?iiiae
?anoeoooeee) a iieiii iauaia i?eiaiyaony i?aaeei no. 1107 AE i
aiciauaiee i?eia?aoaoaeai iioa?iaaoaio iaiieo/aiiuo aeioiaeia.

A neo/aa aeaonoi?iiiae ?anoeoooeee a ioiioaiee aiciauaiey iaiieo/aiiuo
aeioiaeia eaaeaeay noi?iia iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeee aoaeao
iaeiia?aiaiii e i?eia?aoaoaeai, e iioa?iaaoei. Aiciauay iaiieo/aiiua
aeioiaeu, i?eia?aoaoaeue iaycai aica?aoeoue eee aicianoeoue iioa?iaaoaio
ana aeioiaeu, eioi?ua ii ecaeae eee aeieaeai aue ecaea/ue ec yoiai
eiouanoaa n oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea ociae eee aeieaeai aue ociaoue i
iainiiaaoaeueiinoe iaiaauaiey; a neo/aa iainiiaaoaeueiiai aeaiaaeiiai
iaiaauaiey aeioiaeu ii?aaeaeythony a i?ioeaioao ca iieueciaaiea /oaeeie
n?aaenoaaie, ia/eneyaiuo ii i?aaeeai no. 395 AE.

Iineaaenoaey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuo naeaeie, onoaiiaeaiiua a no. no. 167,
169 – 179 AE, i?eiaiythony e aeao- e iiiainoi?iiiei iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui
naeaeeai. A neo/aa iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaeiinoi?iiiae naeaeee
(iai?eia?, iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee, caeeth/athuaeny a i?eiyoee
ianeaaenoaa eeoeii, ia aoiaeyuei a e?oa ianeaaeieeia ii caeiio eee
caaauaieth, eee eeoaiiui noaeii i?aaa ianeaaeiaaiey, eee ii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiiio caaauaieth) i?eiaiythony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii?iu ae.
60 AE i aica?aoa iainiiaaoaeueii i?eia?aoaiiiai eiouanoaa.

A i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie i?aeoeea aucuaae neiaeiinoe aii?in i eiieo?aioeee
ii?i i iineaaenoaeyo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie n ii?iaie ae. 20 AE i
caueoa i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo aauiuo i?aa. Nouanoai eieeecee
ninoieo a oii, /oi o?aaiaaieth i aica?aoa eniieiaiiiai ii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeea, iniiaaiiiio ia i. 2 no. 167 AE, eiiaaea
iiaeao auoue i?ioeaiiinoaaeaii aic?aaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia
iaaeiionoeiinoe eno?aaiaaiey io aeia?iniaanoiiai i?eia?aoaoaey
aiciacaeii i?eia?aoaiiiai eiouanoaa.

Ieaioi Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O au?acee neaaeothuee iiaeoiae e
yoiio aii?ino a i. 25 Iinoaiiaeaiey io 25 oaa?aey 1998 a. N 8 “I
iaeioi?uo aii?inao i?aeoeee ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia, naycaiiuo n caueoie i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo aauiuo i?aa” AAAN ?O. 1998. N 10.: anee ii
aiciacaeiiio aeiaiai?o eiouanoai i?eia?aoaii o eeoea, eioi?ia ia eiaei
i?aaa aai io/oaeaeaoue, e nianoaaiieeii cayaeai ene i i?eciaiee
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee e aica?aoa ia?aaeaiiiai
iieoiaoaeth eiouanoaa, e i?e ?ac?aoaiee aeaiiiai nii?a aoaeao
onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieoiaoaeue ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e
aeia?iniaanoiiio i?eia?aoaoaeth (no. 302 AE), a oaeiaeaoai?aiee eneiauo
o?aaiaaiee i aica?aoa eiouanoaa aeieaeii auoue ioeacaii; anee i?e yoii
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe iiaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee, oaeia
?aoaiea noaea yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ?aaeno?aoeee ia?aoiaea i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe e iieoiaoaeth.

E?iia iniiaiuo iineaaenoaee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee, caeii
i?aaeoniao?eaaao e aeiiieieoaeueiua eiouanoaaiiua iineaaenoaey,
caeeth/athueany a iaycaiiinoe aeiiaiie noi?iiu aicianoeoue ae?oaie
noi?iia iiianaiiue ath ?aaeueiue oua?a (no. no. 171, 172, 176 – 178 AE).

Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao niaoeeaeueiua n?iee eneiaie aeaaiinoe aeey
o?aaiaaiee, naycaiiuo n iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth naeaeie (no. 181 AE).
Oae, n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe ii o?aaiaaieth i i?eiaiaiee iineaaenoaee
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeee ninoaaeyao aeanyoue eao e ia/eiaao oa/ue ni
aeiy ia/aea aa eniieiaiey. N?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe aeey i?eciaiey
inii?eiie naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie e i?eiaiaiey iineaaenoaee aa
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeyao iaeei aiae e ia/eiaao oa/ue ni aeiy
i?ae?auaiey ianeeey eee oa?icu, iiae aeeyieai eioi?uo auea niaa?oaia
naeaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiay i. 1 no. 179 AE, eeai ni aeiy, eiaaea enoaoe
ociae eee aeieaeai aue ociaoue ia ianoiyoaeuenoaao, yaeythueony
iniiaaieai aeey i?eciaiey naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie, – aeey inoaeueiuo
aeaeia inii?eiuo naeaeie.

4. A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuea aeaeu ie/oiaeiuo
naeaeie a caaeneiinoe io iniiaaiee eo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe:

a) naeaeea, ia niioaaonoaothuay o?aaiaaieyi caeiia eee eiuo i?aaiauo
aeoia (no. 168);

a) naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay n oeaeueth, i?ioeaiie iniiaai i?aaiii?yaeea e
i?aanoaaiiinoe (no. 169);

a) iieiay e i?eoai?iay naeaeea (no. 170);

a) naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay eeoeii, i?eciaiiui iaaeaaniiniaiui (no. 171), e
naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay iaeieaoiei (no. 172);

ae) naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay n ianiaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii eee
niaeaoaieai noi?ii iaycaoaeueiie oi?iu naeaeee a neo/ayo, eiaaea oaeia
ianiaethaeaiea aea/ao ie/oiaeiinoue naeaeee.

?anniio?ei yoe aeaeu ie/oiaeiuo naeaeie e eo iineaaenoaey.

Noaouey 168 AE onoaiaaeeaaao iauaa i?aaeei i ie/oiaeiinoe naeaeee,
i?ioeai?a/auae caeiio eee eiui i?aaiaui aeoai. Yoa ii?ia i?eiaiyaony ei
anai neo/ayi, eiaaea niaea?aeaiea e i?aaiaie ?acoeueoao naeaeee
i?ioeai?a/ao o?aaiaaieyi caeiia eee eiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, ca eneeth/aieai
neo/aaa, eiaaea caeii onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi oaeay naeaeea inii?eia, eee
i?aaeoniao?eaaao eiua iineaaenoaey ia?ooaiey (iai?eia?, no. no. 174 –
180 AE).

Ii?ia no. 168 AE i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea aeiu noi?ii
ia eiaao th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey aeey i?eiaiaiey yoie noaouee. Oae,
ie/oiaeiu a neeo eo i?ioeai?a/ey no. 288 AE naeaeee, naycaiiua n
a?aiaeie (eiouanoaaiiui iaeiii), aacaiciacaeiui iieueciaaieai e eiui ia
naycaiiui n i?iaeeaaieai a?aaeaeai eniieueciaaieai i?aaiecaoeeyie aeeeuo
iiiauaiee (i. 38 Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioiia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea ?O e Aunoaai
A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O io 1 ethey 1996 a.).

Naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay n oeaeueth, caaaaeiii i?ioeaiie iniiaai
i?aaiii?yaeea e i?aanoaaiiinoe (no. 169 AE), i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aeae iacaeiiiuo naeaeie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 168 AE.

Aeey i?eiaiaiey no. 169 AE iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea neaaeothueo i?eciaeia:

naeaeea ia?ooaao o?aaiaaiey i?aaiauo ii?i, iaania/eaathueo iniiau
i?aaiii?yaeea, o.a. iai?aaeaiiuo ia io?aio e caueoo iniia
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy, i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia,
iai?iiiniiniaiinoe, aaciianiinoe e yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaa
(iai?eia?, naeaeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia ia?aie/aiea ia?aaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia
ii oa??eoi?ee ?O, iacaeiiiue yenii?o i?oaeey e eiuo oiaa?ia, yenii?o
eioi?uo cai?auai eee o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey, oeeiiaiea io
oieaou iaeiaia; naeaeee, ?acoeueoao eioi?uo nicaeaao oa?ico aeecie e
caei?iaueth a?aaeaeai e o.i.), eeai i?ioeai?a/eo iniiaai iauanoaaiiie
i?aanoaaiiinoe, o.a. a?oai ia?ooaao neiaeeaoeany a iauanoaa
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeia?a e cea, oi?ioai e ieioii, ii?iea e aeia?iaeaoaee
e o.i. (iai?eia?, niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo i?anoa?aeui ?iaeeoaeai e
niaa?oaiiieaoiei ?aaaieii ia oieaoa iineaaeiaio aeaiaaeiiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca iinauaiea ei ?iaeeoaey);

iaee/ea o iaaeo eee iaeiie ec noi?ii naeaeee i?yiiai eee einaaiiiai
oiunea a ioiioaiee i?ioeai?a/aueo iniiaai i?aaiii?yaeea eee
i?aanoaaiiinoe iineaaenoaee aa, o.a. iniciaiea eiaiii oaeiai oa?aeoa?a
iineaaenoaee e aeaeaiea eee niciaoaeueiia aeiiouaiea eo ianooieaiey.

Iineaaenoaeyie oaeie naeaeee, a caaeneiinoe io iaee/ey oiunea o iaaeo
eee oieueei o iaeiie ec noi?ii, yaeythony, niioaaonoaaiii, iaaeiiouaiea
?anoeoooeee eee iaeiinoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey.

Iieiay e i?eoai?iay naeaeee (no. 170 AE) aanueia noiaeiu ii iniiaaieyi
eo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: a iaieo neo/ayo eiaao ianoi ianiaiaaeaiea
naeaeaiiiai aieaecuyaeaiey n aeaenoaeoaeueiie aieae noi?ii. Noaouey 170
AE ii?aaeaeyao iieioth naeaeeo eae naeaeeo, niaa?oaiioth eeoue aeey
aeaea, aac iaia?aiey nicaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea ae i?aaiaua
iineaaenoaey, a i?eoai?ioth naeaeeo – eae naeaeeo, niaa?oaiioth n
oeaeueth i?ee?uoue ae?oaoth naeaeeo. Iineieueeo a neo/aa iieiie e
i?eoai?iie naeaeie oeaeueth noi?ii iau/ii yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee, aicieeaao aii?in i i?aaeeueiii
?aca?aie/aiee yoeo aeaeia naeaeie.

A neo/aa niaa?oaiey iieiie naeaeee aiey noi?ii ia iai?aaeaia ia
aeinoeaeaiea eaeeo au oi ie auei a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie naeaeee, e oeaeueth noi?ii yaeyaony aicieeiiaaiea i?aaiauo
iineaaenoaee aeey eaaeaeie eee, /oi /aua ano?a/aaony a i?aeoeea, aeey
iaeiie ec ieo a ioiioaiee o?aoueeo eeoe (iai?eia?, iieiia aea?aiea
eiouanoaa aeieaeieeii n oeaeueth ia aeiionoeoue iiene eee a?anoa yoiai
eiouanoaa).

Iineaaenoaeai iieiie naeaeee yaeythony aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey e
aiciauaiea iaiieo/aiiuo aeioiaeia n iiiaioa i?aaeinoaaeaiey eniieiaiey
ii naeaeea (i. 2 no. 167, no. 1107 AE). Iaee/ea i?e niaa?oaiee iieiie
naeaeee oeaee, caaaaeiii i?ioeaiie iniiaai i?aaiii?yaeea e
i?aanoaaiiinoe, i?aa?auaao aa a naeaeeo, i?aaeoniio?aiioth no. 169 AE, n
niioaaonoaothueie iineaaenoaeyie.

A neo/aa niaa?oaiey i?eoai?iie naeaeee aiey noi?ii iai?aaeaia ia
onoaiiaeaiea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie naeaeee a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee,
ii eiuo ii n?aaiaieth n au?aaeaiiuie a aieaecuyaeaiee noi?ii (iai?eia?,
caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa n
iaycaoaeuenoaii ia?aoiie i?iaeaaee /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie,
i?ee?uaathuaai aeiaiai? i caeiaa a iaania/aiea aica?aoa caeia, n
oeaeueth ecaaaeaoue noaeaaiie i?ioeaaeo?u ia?auaiey acuneaiey ia
caeiaeaiiia eiouanoai).

Niaeanii i. 2 no. 170 AE e naeaeea, eioi?oth noi?iiu aeaenoaeoaeueii
eiaee a aeaeo, i?eiaiythony ioiinyueany e iae i?aaeea, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?uie e ?aoaaony aii?in i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?ee?uaaaiie naeaeee.
Niaa?oaiea i?ee?uaaaiie naeaeee eiaao, eae i?aaeei, iacaeiiioth oeaeue,
/oi, iaeiaei, ia icia/aao aa iaycaoaeueiie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

I?eiaiaiea i?aaee i ie/oiaeiuo naeaeeao, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. no. 171,
172 AE, o?aaoao iaee/ey niaoeeaeueiuo noauaeoia – a?aaeaeaieia,
i?eciaiiiai noaeii iaaeaaniiniaiui aneaaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ?anno?ienoaa
(no. 171), eee iaeieaoiaai, o.a. eeoea, ia aeinoeaoaai 14 eao (no. 172).
Iniiaaieai iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoeo naeaeie yaeyaony ionoonoaea o eo
noauaeoia aeaaniiniaiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeee.
Ie/oiaeiuie yaeythony ana naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua a?aaeaeaieiii, i?eciaiiui
iaaeaaniiniaiui, e naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua iaeieaoiei, ca eneeth/aieai
naeaeie, eioi?ua iaeieaoiee ai?aaa niaa?oaoue naiinoiyoaeueii a
niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 28 AE.

Ie/oiaeiinoue yoeo naeaeie aea/ao iaeeiaeiaua i?aaiaua iineaaenoaey,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua i. 1 no. 171 AE.

Iniiaiui iineaaenoaeai yaeyaony aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey, a
aeiiieieoaeueiui – iaycaiiinoue aeaaniiniaiie noi?iiu aicianoeoue
ae?oaie noi?iia iiianaiiue ath ?aaeueiue oua?a, anee aeaaniiniaiay
noi?iia ciaea eee aeieaeia auea ciaoue i iaaeaaniiniaiinoe eee
iaeieaonoaa ae?oaie noi?iiu. Ii iauaio i?aaeeo, a yoii neo/aa aeaenoaoao
i?eioeei i?acoiioeee aeiu i?aaiia?ooeoaey (i. 2 no. 401, no. 1064 AE),
iiyoiio ia aeaaniiniaioth noi?iio eiaeeony a?aiy aeieacuaaiey ionoonoaey
naiae aeiu.

Noaouee 171, 172 AE i?aaeoniao?eaatho aiciiaeiinoue noaeaaiiai i?eciaiey
?anniao?eaaaiuo naeaeie aeaenoaeoaeueiuie ii eneo caeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaaeaaniiniaiiai e iaeieaoiaai a neo/aa, anee iie
niaa?oaiu e auaiaea iaaeaaniiniaiiai eee iaeieaoiaai. Naeaeea aeieaeia
i?eciaaaoueny niaa?oaiiie e auaiaea iaaeaaniiniaiiai eee iaeieaoiaai,
anee noae i?eaeao e auaiaeo, /oi aeia?iniaanoii aeaenoaothuee iiaeoi,
?iaeeoaeue eee onuiiaeoaeue i?e oao aea ianoiyoaeuenoaao niaa?oee au yoo
naeaeeo io eiaie iaaeaaniiniaiiai eee iaeieaoiaai.

Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeie aneaaenoaea ianiaethaeaiey onoaiiaeaiiie
caeiiii oi?iu e iineaaenoaey iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeie ii yoiio
iniiaaieth ?anniio?aiu a § 3 ianoiyuae aeaau.

5. E eaoaai?ee inii?eiuo naeaeie ioiinyony:

a) naeaeee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu aai
i?aainiiniaiinoe (no. 173 AE);

a) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua eeoeii eee i?aaiii n ia?aie/aiiuie iieiiii/eyie
(no. 174);

a) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao
(no. 175);

a) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua a?aaeaeaiaie, ia?aie/aiiuie noaeii a
aeaaniiniaiinoe (no. 176);

ae) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua a?aaeaeaiaie, ia niiniaiuie iiieiaoue cia/aiea
naieo aeaenoaee eee ?oeiaiaeeoue eie (no. 177);

a) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua iiae aeeyieai caaeoaeaeaiey, eiathuaai
nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea (no. 178);

ae) naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua iiae aeeyieai iaiaia, ianeeey, oa?icu,
ceiiaia?aiiiai niaeaoaiey i?aaenoaaeoaey iaeiie noi?iiu n ae?oaie
noi?iiie eee noa/aiey oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa (no. 179).

Iiae iiiyoea naeaeie, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu i?aainiiniaiinoe
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (no. 173 AE), iiaeiaaeatho aeaa aeaea naeaeie:

naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua th?eaee/aneei eeoeii a i?ioeai?a/ee n oeaeyie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiii ia?aie/aiiuie a aai o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioao, o.a. ca i?aaeaeaie niaoeeaeueiie i?aainiiniaiinoe yoiai
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (iai?eia?, niaa?oaiea iaeiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae
naeaeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia ecaea/aiea i?eauee e ia niioaaonoaothuae oeaeyi
aa nicaeaiey);

naeaeee, niaa?oaiiua th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, ia eiathuei eeoeaicee ia
niioaaonoaothuee aeae aeayoaeueiinoe (iai?eia?, niaa?oaiea aaieianeie
naeaeee eeoeii, ia eiathuei eeoeaicee ia inouanoaeaiea aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe).

A oeacaiiuo neo/ayo ionoonoaoao oaeia oneiaea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
naeaeee, eae iaiaoiaeeiay aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeee i?aainiiniaiinoue
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.

TH?eaee/aneia eeoei aeieaeii i?eciaaaoueny ia eiathuei eeoeaicee ia
caiyoea niioaaonoaothuae aeayoaeueiinoueth ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia
iiiaio niaa?oaiey naeaeee o iaai ionoonoaoao aeaenoaothuay eeoeaicey
(eeoeaicey aiiaua ia auea iieo/aia, eeai aeaenoaea eeoeaicee i?ae?auaii
eee i?einoaiiaeaii auaeaaoei aa i?aaiii, eeai enoae n?ie aeaenoaey
eeoeaicee).

Aeaiiua naeaeee iiaoo auoue i?eciaiu noaeii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie i?e
iaee/ee aeaoo oneiaee:

naeaeea niaa?oaia ca i?aaeaeaie i?aainiiniaiinoe th?eaee/aneiai eeoea;

ae?oaay noi?iia naeaeee ciaea eee caaaaeiii aeieaeia auea ciaoue i aa
iacaeiiiinoe.

Noaouey 173 AE i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?aie/aiiue e?oa eeoe, oi?aaiii/aiiuo
ia i?aaeuyaeaiea enea i i?eciaiee oeacaiiuo naeaeie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie:
naii th?eaee/aneia eeoei; aai o/?aaeeoaeue (o/anoiee); ainoaea?noaaiiue
i?aai, inouanoaeythuee eiio?ieue e iaaeci? ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. Ae?oaay noi?iia ii naeaeea i?aaeuyaeyoue oaeie ene
ia ai?aaa.

A niioaaonoaee n a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannoaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
a?aiy aeieacuaaiey iaee/ey iaieo oneiaee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?eciaiey
naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie, eiaeeony ia enooea, cayaeaoaai yoi
o?aaiaaiea.

Iineaaenoaeai iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoeo naeaeie yaeyaony aeaonoi?iiiyy
?anoeoooeey.

Iiae ia?aie/aieai iaiaoiaeeiuo iieiiii/ee ia niaa?oaiea naeaeee (no. 174
AE) iiieiaaony auoiae eeoea, niaa?oathuaai naeaeeo, ca i?aaeaeu naieo
iieiiii/ee a neo/ayo iai/aaeaeiiai ia?aie/aiey aai iieiiii/ee.
Iai/aaeaeiia ia?aie/aiea iieiiii/ee, eae neaaeoao ec oaenoa yoie
noaouee, eiaao ianoi a neo/ayo, eiaaea: iieiiii/ey, ii?aaeaeaiiua a
aeiaa?aiiinoe, caeiia eee i/aaeaeiua ec ianoaiiaee, a eioi?ie
niaa?oaaony naeaeea, i?aauoatho iieiiii/ey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua a aeiaiai?a
iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?aaenoaaeyaiui; iieiiii/ey i?aaia
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea ia?aie/aiu o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie e
iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeee.

Noaouey 174 AE ia i?eiaiyaony a neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aai th?eaee/aneiai
eeoea aeaenoaiaae n i?aauoaieai iieiiii/ee, onoaiiaeaiiuo ia
o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie, a caeiiii. A oeacaiiuo neo/ayo iiaeeaaeeo
i?eiaiaieth no. 168 AE (i. 1 Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai
Noaea ?O io 14 iay 1998 a. N 9 “I iaeioi?uo aii?inao i?eiaiaiey noaouee
174 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?e ?aaeecaoeee
i?aaiaie th?eaee/aneeo eeoe iieiiii/ee ia niaa?oaiea naeaeie” AAAN ?O.
1998. N 7..

Caeii, io?aiyy eioa?anu aeia?iniaanoiuo eiio?aaaioia, aeiioneaao
i?eciaiea oaeeo naeaeie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie eeoue a neo/aa
iaaeia?iniaanoiinoe eiio?aaaioa, eioi?ue ciae eee caaaaeiii aeieaeai aue
ciaoue ia oeacaiiuo ia?aie/aieyo, e oieueei ii eneo eeoea, a eioa?anao
eioi?iai onoaiiaeaiu ia?aie/aiey. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia?aie/aiey
iieiiii/ee i?aaia th?eaee/aneiai eeoea onoaiiaeaiu o/?aaeeoaeueiuie
aeieoiaioaie, oaeei eeoeii, ii niuneo no. 174 AE, yaeyaony naii
th?eaee/aneia eeoei. Eiua eeoea, a oii /enea o/?aaeeoaee, ai?aaa
i?aaeuyaeyoue aeaiiua enee a neo/ayo, i?yii oeacaiiuo a caeiia (i. 4
Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O io 14 iay 1998 a.).

TH?eaee/aneia eeoei, a eioa?anao eioi?iai onoaiiaeaiu ia?aie/aiey,
ai?aaa aiineaaenoaee iaeia?eoue naeaeeo, niaa?oaiioth n ii?ieaie,
oiiiyioouie a no. 174 AE. Iineieueeo no. 174 AE ia niaea?aeeo iieiaeaiee
ia iaeia?aiee naeaeie, a neeo no. 6 AE e oaeei ioiioaieyi a ii?yaeea
aiaeiaee caeiia neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue i?aaeei i. 2 no. 183 AE i
iineaaeothuai iaeia?aiee naeaeee i?aaenoaaeyaiui. Iaeia?aieai naeaeee
iiaeao auoue i?eciai, a /anoiinoe, oaeo i?eiyoey enooeii eniieiaiey ii
inia?eaaaiie naeaeea. I?aaeoniio?aiiua no. 174 AE iniiaaiey aeey
i?eciaiey naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie a oaeii neo/aa ionoonoaotho (i. 7
Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O io 14 iay 1998 a.).

Iineaaenoaeai i?eciaiey naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ia iniiaaiee no. 174
AE yaeyaony aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey.

Naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao (ca
eneeth/aieai ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaai, noaaoaai iieiinoueth aeaaniiniaiui)
aac niaeaney aai ?iaeeoaeae, a neo/ayo, eiaaea oaeia niaeanea o?aaoaony
a niioaaonoaee ni no. 26 AE, iiaeao auoue i?eciaia noaeii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii eneo ?iaeeoaeae, onuiiaeoaeae eee iiia/eoaey (no.
175 AE).

A neo/aa i?eciaiey naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie i?eiaiythony i?aaeea,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua i. 1 no. 171 AE, o.a. aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey e,
e?iia oiai, aiciauaiea aeaaniiniaiie noi?iiie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiaio
?aaeueiiai oua?aa a neo/aa, anee aeaaniiniaiay noi?iia ciaea eee
aeieaeia auea ciaoue i oaeoa ianiaa?oaiiieaoey ae?oaie noi?iiu.

Naeaeea ii ?anii?yaeaieth eiouanoaii (ca eneeth/aieai iaeeeo auoiauo
naeaeie), niaa?oaiiay a?aaeaeaieiii, ia?aie/aiiui noaeii a
aeaaniiniaiinoe aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie eee
ia?eioe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, iiaeao auoue i?eciaia noaeii
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii eneo iiia/eoaey n i?eiaiaieai iineaaenoaee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i. 1 no. 171 AE, o.a. aeaonoi?iiiae ?anoeoooeee e,
e?iia oiai, aiciauaiey aeaaniiniaiie noi?iiie ?aaeueiiai oua?aa,
iiianaiiiai ae?oaie noi?iiie, anee aeaaniiniaiay noi?iia ciaea eee
aeieaeia auea ciaoue ia ia?aie/aiee aeaaniiniaiinoe ae?oaie noi?iiu (no.
176 AE).

Naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay a?aaeaeaieiii, oioy e aeaaniiniaiui, ii a iiiaio
niaa?oaiey naeaeee iaoiaeeaoeiny a oaeii ninoiyiee, eiaaea ii ia
niiniaai aue iiieiaoue cia/aiey naieo aeaenoaee eee ?oeiaiaeeoue eie
(ia?aiia iio?ynaiea, iiueyiaiea, eiia aieaciaiiia ninoiyiea), a
niioaaonoaee ni no. 177 AE iiaeao auoue i?eciaia iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii
eneo yoiai a?aaeaeaieia eeai eiuo eeoe, /uee i?aaa eee io?aiyaiua
caeiiii eioa?anu ia?ooaiu a ?acoeueoaoa aa niaa?oaiey.

Iineaaenoaey i?eciaiey yoie naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii?aaeaeythony
i?aaeeaie i. 1 no. 171 AE, o.a. i?iecaiaeeony aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey
e, e?iia oiai, ?aaeueiue oua?a, i?e/eiaiiue noi?iia, eioi?ay ia iiaea
iniciaaaoue cia/aiea naieo aeaenoaee eee ?oeiaiaeeoue eie, aiciauaaony
ae?oaie noi?iiie, anee iineaaeiyy ciaea eee aeieaeia auea ciaoue i
aieaciaiiii ninoiyiee ia?aie.

A nayce n ianiioaaonoaeai aieaecuyaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiie aiea noi?iiu
iiaeao auoue i?eciaia iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay iiae
aeeyieai caaeoaeaeaiey, eiathuaai nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea. Iiae
caaeoaeaeaieai iiieiaaony iaaa?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea eeoea i eaeeo-eeai
ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Eeoeii, oi?aaiii/aiiui ia i?aaeuyaeaiea enea, yaeyaony
noi?iia, aeaenoaiaaaoay iiae aeeyieai caaeoaeaeaiey (no. 178 AE).
Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea eiaao caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu naeaeee
eeai oaeeo ea/anoa aa i?aaeiaoa, eioi?ua cia/eoaeueii nieaeatho
aiciiaeiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey ii iacia/aieth. Caaeoaeaeaiea
ioiineoaeueii iioeaia niaa?oaiey naeaeee ia eiaao nouanoaaiiiai cia/aiey
(iai?eia?, iieoiea aeoeee a iaii?aaaeaaoainy ?an/aoa ia iieo/aiea
aieueoeo aeeaeaeaiaeia).

*oi neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae caaeoaeaeaieai ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu
naeaeee? Eiaiii yoio aii?in aucuaaao iaeaieueoea o?oaeiinoe a i?aeoeea
i?eiaiaiey no. 178 AE. I?aaeaea anaai caiaoei, /oi no. 178 AE iau/ii
i?eiaiyaony a ioiioaiee aeao- eee iiiainoi?iiieo naeaeie, o.a.
aeiaiai?ia.

Caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu aeiaiai?a n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nii?yaeaii n caaeoaeaeaieai ioiineoaeueii niaea?aeaiey
aeiaiai?iiai iaycaoaeuenoaa. Oaeia caaeoaeaeaiea iiaeao ieacaoueny
neaaenoaeai iaciaiey caeiia, iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa iii ia iiaeao
yaeoueny iniiaaieai aeey i?eiaiaiey no. 178 AE (ignorantia facti non
iuris excusat – ecaeieoaeueii iaciaiea oaeoa, ii ia i?aaa). Iai?eia?,
noi?iiu caeeth/atho aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee e iacuaatho aai i?e yoii
eiaiii oaeei ia?acii, ii iaeia ec noi?ii a neeo i?aaiaie
iainaaaeiieaiiinoe ia eiaao i?aaeeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i ianooiathueo
aneaaenoaea yoiai i?aaiauo iineaaenoaeyo (iai?eia?, i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
i?iaeaaea aaue icia/aao ia?aaea/o aa ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea).

Aeey oeaeae a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec
oiai, /oi caeiiu aeieaeiu auoue ecaanoiu eaaeaeiio o/anoieeo
a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa, iaeaaeathuaio iaiaoiaeeiie aeey niaa?oaiey
niioaaonoaothuae naeaeee aeaaniiniaiinoueth. Eiie iiaeoiae e yoiio
aii?ino noaaee au iiae oa?ico noaaeeueiinoue a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa.

Ii caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu iiaeao e ia auoue
neaaenoaeai iaciaiey iaeiie noi?iiie naeaeee ii?i caeiia. Iii iiaeao
ieacaoueny ?acoeueoaoii iai?aaeeueiie ioeaiee iaeiie ec noi?ii naeaeee
aeaenoaeoaeueiuo iaia?aiee ae?oaie noi?iiu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai noi?iiu
iiaoo a i?eioeeia aeinoe/ue niaeaoaiey i i?aaeiaoa aeiaiai?a (aac /aai
aeiaiai? aiiaua ia iia au n/eoaoueny caeeth/aiiui a neeo i. 1 no. 432
AE), ii oai ia iaiaa caaeoaeaeaoueny ioiineoaeueii aeaea caeeth/aiiiai
aeiaiai?a e, niioaaonoaaiii, naieo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae ii iaio. Oaeia
aiciiaeii a iniiaiii i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a a onoiie oi?ia,
iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa iaaeinoaoi/iay yniinoue au?aaeaiey noi?iiaie
naieo aeaenoaeoaeueiuo iaia?aiee iaeaieaa aa?iyoia. A yoii neo/aa
aeiionoeii i?eiaiaiea no. 178 AE Iiae?iaiaa ia yoii ni.: Y?aeaeaaneee
A.I. Caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu naeaeee // Aecian-Aaeaieao.
2001. N 19..

Iniiaiui iineaaenoaeai i?eciaiey yoie naeaeee iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie
yaeyaony aeaonoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey. E?iia oiai, caaeoaeaeaaoayny noi?iia
ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io ae?oaie noi?iiu aiciauaiey i?e/eiaiiiai ae
?aaeueiiai oua?aa, anee aeieaaeao, /oi caaeoaeaeaiea aicieeei ii aeia
ae?oaie noi?iiu. I?e yoii aeia ae?oaie noi?iiu iiaeao eiaoue oieueei
oi?io iainoi?iaeiinoe, oae eae oiuoeaiiay oi?ia aeiu naienoaaiia
naeaeea, niaa?oaiiie iiae aeeyieai iaiaia. Anee aeia ae?oaie noi?iiu ia
aeieacaia, caaeoaeaeaaoayny noi?iia iaycaia aicianoeoue ae?oaie noi?iia
iiianaiiue ath ?aaeueiue oua?a, aeaaea anee caaeoaeaeaiea aicieeei ii
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, ia caaenyuei io caaeoaeaeaaoaeny noi?iiu.

Naeaeea, niaa?oaiiay iiae aeeyieai iaiaia, ianeeey, oa?icu,
ceiiaia?aiiiai niaeaoaiey i?aaenoaaeoaey iaeiie noi?iiu n ae?oaie
noi?iiie, eee naeaeea, eioi?oth eeoei auei auioaeaeaii niaa?oeoue
aneaaenoaea noa/aiey oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa ia e?aeia iaauaiaeiuo aeey
naay oneiaeyo, iiaeao auoue i?eciaia noaeii iaaeaenoaeoaeueiie ii eneo
iioa?iaaoaai (no. 179 AE). A yoeo neo/ayo aieaecuyaeaiea iioa?iaaoae
noi?iiu ia niioaaonoaoao aa aeaenoaeoaeueiie aiea, eeai iia aiiaua
eeoaia aiciiaeiinoe aeaenoaiaaoue ii naiae aiea e a naieo eioa?anao.

Iaiai – i?aaeiaia?aiiia aaaaeaiea ae?oaiai eeoea a caaeoaeaeaiea iooai
eiaeiiai cayaeaiey, iaauaiey, a oaeaea oiuoeaiiiai oiie/aiey i oaeoao,
iiaoueo iiaeeyoue ia niaa?oaiea naeaeee. A ioee/ea io no. 178 AE, aaea
caaeoaeaeaiea iaeiie ec noi?ii ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oiuoeaiiuo
aeaenoaee eee aacaeaenoaey ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey
i?eiaiaiey no. 179 AE yaeyaony iaee/ea o yoie noi?iiu i?yiiai oiunea.

Iiae ianeeeai a no. 179 AE iiieiaaony i?ioeaii?aaiia oece/aneia
aicaeaenoaea ia ae?oaia eeoei iooai i?e/eiaiey no?aaeaiee aio e aai
aeeceei n oeaeueth canoaaeoue niaa?oeoue naeaeeo.

Oa?ica – i?ioeaii?aaiia ineoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia ae?oaoth noi?iio,
caeeth/athuaany a i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee i i?e/eiaiee aio eee aai aeeceei
nouanoaaiiiai a?aaea a aoaeouai, ai ecaaaeaiea /aai iioa?iaaoee
auioaeaeai niaa?oeoue naeaeeo (qui est timore facit praeceptum, aliter
quam debeat facit, et ideo iam non facit – oio, eoi ec no?aoa aeaenoaoao
oae, eae ia iinooiee au a eiii neo/aa, n/eoaaony ia niaa?oeaoei ieeaeiai
aeaenoaey).

Ceiiaia?aiiia niaeaoaiea i?aaenoaaeoaey iaeiie noi?iiu n ae?oaie
noi?iiie caeeth/aaony a niaeaoaiee i niaa?oaiee naeaeee a oua?a
i?aaenoaaeyaiiio, ii a iieueco eiio?aaaioa e (eee) i?aaenoaaeoaey
(iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea eiouanoaa iiaa?aiiui i?iaeaaoea ii aieaa ieceie
oeaia ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea io iieoiaoaey).

Eaaaeueiay naeaeea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi iioa?iaaoay noi?iia
auioaeaeaia niaa?oeoue aa aneaaenoaea noa/aiey oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa
ia e?aeia iaauaiaeiuo aeey naay oneiaeyo, /ai ae?oaay noi?iia
ainiieueciaaeanue. TH?eaee/aneee ninoaa eaaaeueiie naeaeee aeeth/aao a
naay neaaeothuea oaeou: noa/aiea oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa o iioa?iaaoaai;
yaii (a oa?ieiieiaee caeiia – e?aeia) iaauaiaeiua aeey iioa?iaaoaai
oneiaey niaa?oaiey naeaeee; i?e/eiiay naycue iaaeaeo noa/aieai o
iioa?iaaoaai oyaeaeuo ianoiyoaeuenoa e niaa?oaieai ei naeaeee ia e?aeia
iaauaiaeiuo aeey iaai oneiaeyo; inaaaeiieaiiinoue ae?oaie noi?iiu i
ia?a/eneaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao e eniieueciaaiea eo e naiae auaiaea.

Iineaaenoaeyie i?eciaiey oeacaiiuo naeaeie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie yaeythony
iaeiinoi?iiiyy ?anoeoooeey, a oaeaea aiciauaiea iiianaiiiai iioa?iaaoae
noi?iiie ?aaeueiiai oua?aa.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aaa?eia I.I. Iiiyoea naeaeee ii niaaoneiio a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao //
NAeI. 1946. N 3 – 4.

2. A?aaeineee I.E. Inouanoaeaiea e caueoa a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa. Naeaeee.
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai. Aeiaa?aiiinoue. Eneiaay aeaaiinoue // AAAN ?O.
1995. N 7.

3. Iiaeoeeee E.A. Naeaeee. Eneiaay aeaaiinoue. I., 1954.

4. ?aaeiiae/ I.A. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeie e aa iineaaenoaey. E.,
1960.

5. ?ynaioeaa A.A. Eaeoeee ia oaio “Naeaeee ii niaaoneiio a?aaeaeaineiio
i?aao”. I., 1951.

6. Oaeoaoe O.N. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeie ii ?inneeneiio
a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao. I., 1999.

7. Y?aeaeaaneee A.I. Iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue naeaeie // ?inneeneay
thnoeoeey.1999. N 11 – 12.

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