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Романо-германская правовая семья

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2

IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

?INOIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE YEIIIIE*ANEEE

OIEAA?NEOAO

TH?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao

EAOAAe?A OAI?EE E ENOI?EE I?AAA E AINOAeA?NOAA

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii eo?no «Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa»

Oaia: ?IIAII-AA?IAINEAss I?AAIAAss NAIUess

Auiieiee: nooaeaio 1 eo?na

a?oiiu ? 613-CN

*oaa?aaaa N.Ae.

Iao/iue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

______________________

?INOIA-IA-AeIIO

2004

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 3

1. Enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiuee 5

2. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea e ioee/ey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu 8

2.1.I?aaiaie iau/ae ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu 8

2.2. Cia/aiea caeiiia aeey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu 11

2.3. ?acee/ey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaiu a ea?a?oee enoi/ieeia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 15

3. I?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu e aa
aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo 18

Caeeth/aiea 20

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 22

Aaaaeaiea

A ?????i ?? ??? ????o? ??o ?? ??i, a ??? e o?, ?i a ??i e
?i ? ?????a ???otho ????i ????oth?o ???? ???. N?a ??i ?atho e
????????? ????: ?????? ??i, ??????a ??i, ????a ??i, ????a ??i. N????o
??a ??????a ??i, ????? ?????? ? ????i ?e ?????? ????
????????? e ??????? ??oa?y. Aeaaeae ?., AEioo?a-Nieiice E. Iniiaiua
i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.: Ia?. n o?. A. A. Ooiaiiaa. I.:
Iaaeaeoia?. ioiioaiey, 1997.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiie ?aaioie, iinayuaiiie nia?aiaiiui i?aaiaui nenoaiai,
yaeyaony eieaa ecaanoiiai o?aioeocneiai th?enoa ?aia Aeaaeaea,
auaea?aeaaoay o ian aeaa ecaeaiey. Aeaaeae ?. Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu
nia?aiaiiinoe / Ia? n o?. I., 1988, Naeaeia A.O. Aaaaeaiea a iniiaiua
i?aaiaua nenoaia nia?aiaiiinoe. Oaoeaio, 1988 A niaaoneia a?aiy aue
auiouai aeaoooiiiee, a eioi?ii aeaaaeanue iiae?iaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
nouanoaiaaaoae oiaaea nioeeaeenoe/aneie i?aaiaie nenoaiu. I?aaiaay
nenoaia nioeeaeecia/ Iiae ?aae.A.I. Aaneeueaaa.O1.I.1986; O2.I.,1987
Iiyaeeanue ?aaioa O.I. ?aoaoieeiaa «I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai ie?a».
O.I.?aoaoieeiaa I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai ie?a. I.,1993

Enoi?eei – eoeueoo?iua e aaiaoe/aneea aniaeou ?inneeneie i?aaiaie
nenoaiu ianoiyoaeueii enneaaeiaaiu A.I. Neitheiaui. Neitheia A.I.
?inneeneay i?aaiaay nenoaia. Na?aoia,1994

Eae aeaeii, o/aiua-i?aaiaaaeu ana aieaa aeoeaii ia/eiatho ?ac?aaaouaaoue
iaeii ec iaaeno?aeueiuo iai?aaeaiee th?eaee/aneie iaoee iaoeo aeiae. I?e
yoii any i?iaeaia niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai oaycuaaaony n eaeaae i?aa
/aeiaaea, naiaiaeu ee/iinoe, oneeaieai nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaie caueuaiiinoe
a?aaeaeai, oi?i/aieai caeiiiinoe, ii?yaeea e noaaeeueiinoe a no?aia.

Oeaiiinoue iiiyoey i?aaiaie nenoaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iii aeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiua aiaeeoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca
i?aaiaie noa?u aeecie iauanoaa. Yoi iicaieyao iieiaa, eiio?anoiaa
auyaeoue iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua ei??aeyoeeiiiua, noai?aeeiaoeeiiiua e
ae?oaea nayce e ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oeaeui e aai /anoyie, a oaeaea
iineaaeieo iaaeaeo niaie, oi/iaa ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi e ?ieue eaaeaeiai
caaia nenoaiu a iauae ?aaioa anaai i?aaiaiai iaoaiecia, iaoiaeyuaainy a
?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaa. Iiyoiio eioaa?aoeaiue iiaeoiae e i?aaiaie
nenoaia – aaeeinoaaiiue aiciiaeiue.

Aoiaeyuea a i?aaiaoth nenoaio eiiiiiaiou iaiaeeiaeiau ii naiaio
cia/aieth, th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaea, oaeaeueiiio aano, naiinoiyoaeueiinoe,
noaiaie aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, ii a oi aea a?aiy iie
iiae/eiaiu iaeioi?ui iauei caeiiiia?iinoyi, oa?aeoa?ecothony aaeeinoaii.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oaeie nenoaiu – neiaeiaeoee i?ioeann. Iiyoiio
nia?aiaiiay oai?ey i?aaa aeieaeia iiaeiyoueny ia oaeie o?iaaiue
iaiauaiey, /oiau iiaeii auei au aieaa aeoaiei e ananoi?iiia
aiaeece?iaaoue e ioeaieaaoue aicieeooth naaiaeiy iiaoth i?aaiaoth
?aaeueiinoue eae oeaeinoiue oaiiiai, eae nenoaio. Iniiau ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa: O/.iiniaea.?inoia-ia-Aeiio,Oaieen,1995, -n.37

???i-????ay ???ay ??y – y? ??y ?eth?? ???, a ???o th????ay ??a
?i??? ? ?i?a ???? ??a. Cae?ue ? ??? ?? ????u ??u ??a, ???a
?????ath?y ?e ??u ?a??ey, ???th?a ????eyi ??????? e ???.
I????ue, ??? ? ??? ?? y? ??u, – ?o ???ay ??? th????? i??; ?????y y?e
???e, ???? a ???e ?? ????a?y ????e ????ey, ?????? ???o?y e ?????i
??a; y?i ???th?y th??u-????. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Eo?n eaeoeee/
Iiae ?aae. I.E. Iaoociaa e A.A. Iaeueei – I: TH?enou, 1997,N.158

Aeooaeueiinoue oaiu i/aaeaeia.

Oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou – ?anniio?aoue ?iiaii-aa?iaineoth i?aaiaoth
nenoaio, aa iniaaiiinoe.

A ?aaioa eniieueciaaeenue o?oaeu ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo iieeoieiaia
– i?io. I.E. Iaoociaa, ?.I. Aeonaaaa, ?.Aeaaeaea e ae?.

1. Enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiuee

N?uey ???-????? ???? ??? ???? a A??a. I? ????ue a ????? ???
?????o ????o??, ???a ????? e ???e ???y n XII ?? ? ?? ?????e ?????a
TH???? ??th ?y ?? th????oth ??o, ???????th e ???yi n?????i ??. O??i
“???-????ay” ?e ??? ?y ??, ??u ??? ???a ????? ??eyi, ??????y
??a???i ??????? ????o e ????? ??i.

A ????? ?????e ???-???n?y ???a ?????i??ue ? ???ua ?????, ?a a ??iy?a
??y ???otho ???? ???u, ??????a e y?e ??a ?e ?????a ?. A??a n ?i
?????a e ? ?????ay ???ey, a ????? ???e ? ?????ny n
???-????ie ???? a ?y? ??i, ???a ? ?? i? ?????i ?????, ? ?? ???a?
?????a ?? e ?a ?? ??? ?i ???? ????e.

A? A??u ??ny??y e ???-????? ??a ???? ???u ??? ????a ???e??? ??u,
???a ?a?tho ? ???? ? ??? ?????. Ai ??? ???o ??? “???ue” ????e? ??i. Ii ?
?? y?o ???o ?????? ?a ? ???? ?????y oe????ey, ???y ?? ???a ??? ????y
e ?? ????u. ????y ?y?? ? ??? ??ayo ?? ?? ????e: ?????ay ??ue ???????
(e ???? ??? ???) ????????? ??????e ???e. I?iaeaiu oai?ee i?aaa e
ainoaea?noaa / Iiae ?aae. I.I. Ia?/aiei. – I.:TH?aeo-I,1999.-N.78

?????i ???th ???ey ???-a????e ???u ????.

Ae??, ??a n ???e ??e ??ey ?y??? ???a ???-?????i ??a,
????y XIII ?e. Aei y?? ???e, ?a ?y?? ???ey, ?????? y??i?, n ???th ???o
?????ue ???a, ? ??a ?? ?a ?? ???? i ???a e, ??o ??, ?aea i ??a. Iiy??
??? ???? ??i ???ue ???, ?????th?e XIII ??, ?a? ????? ????u, ? ?a
?????a? ???e ??????ue ? e ??a ? ?? ?? ??e-?? ???u. A??e ??? ???y
n ?????y ???ey ???? ??a a ??????o. A ???a iy? ??a a ???a ?n?????a
????, ?ae ???eyth?i ?ey?? ???e y?eth?????a e ???ay ???? a ????o
??????. Ae???a ?????a ??? ? ??? ??????i ??a ?????a ??oth?? ????,
a ???i ? ????y e a ??iy?a ??y – ???a, ?a ?????o c???????i.

N???a ???-????? ???? ?i? ?y?? n ??????, ???a ???o? a XIII e XIII
??o ? ??? A??u. Y? ?????a ?iy??? ? ?? ???; ??i ? ?i ??? ???? a?
??? th?????. I?? ???? ??ue ???? ??????ue ??a; ?i ??? ????, ?i ??? ??i
??o ????? ??y?e e ??????, ???uo ???o ?????? ???e e ???a ????? ?y
????a. E?? ??????i ????, ?????i ? ?????, ?e ????, ??i ?e e ?ay
n???y ? C?? ??a ???i. N?a oe??? ??a ??a ????i ????ue ?e???ia ????
??th?o e ??n?a ????, ?ae ???e e ????? e ???a a y? y?? ??????
???a ??i. A XIII ?? ?a ????e ????ue ???th e ??? n ?????i ??y?? e
???; ? ??? ??ue ?? ???? ?i ??o??ay ?? e ????y, ???a ??? ??e ?????? ?y
???? ??? ??e e ?????e.

E?y, ?i ???? ??? ???y?ny ??? e ???y?ny ??? ???, ? ?? ????? ??e.
A ????yo i?? ???? ??? ?a ae????? ??y??. Ii ???o e y?e ?? a XII ?? –
??eth???e ?a. O???u e th??u ????e, ??u ?????? ????y ?? ???? ? ??a e ??u
?e ???i ??oe ??? ???e e ????a, ????o a ???a ??a. I? ?o?e ??? ??a,
?????i ? ???????, ????? ???th ???y? ??i; ?e ?????? ???? ???? e
????e ????a a ?????o ????yo e ?????????o. Y? ???? a XII e XIII ??o
??ue ? ??eth???, e? a XVIII ?? ???? ? ?i?o ??? ??? ?????e ?e ???? XX
??, ???a ????y ???? ???th ????????? ??y ?????? ?????? ??????.
A????? ???? ??? ?????ny ? ??a: ??i ae??i ????? a ?????i ????
i?y?e e ????. Y? ?? ???y?y ?????th?? a C???e A??a a XII e XIII ??o
e ??o ?i ?????? ??? ??? ? ??o ??.

C????a ???-????? ???? n??? a XII e OIII ??o ??? ??c? ? y?y?ny ?????i
?????y i?????e ??? ?e ??????e, ??????? ?????e ???th. Y?i
???-????ay ???ay ???a ????ny ? ?????i ??a, ?a ???? ??? ??a ?? ?y?ii n
????i e????? ??? e n ??????? ??? ???????? ?????o ??a. Ia
A????? ????? ??? ????i ? ??th???. N??? ???-?????i ?a?, ????,
?????ny a y??, ??a A??a ia ??? ? ???ey? ???i ???, ? ?? ?ay ??? ??
???y ?????e. A y? y?oo ????ny ????i, ?i ??ey ???a ?e ???e ? ???? e
??????eth a ?????? ??a ???? ???ie ???e. N??? ?ia?-?????i ??a ???a
? ?????? ? ? ?i ??, ??a ???? ????. I? ???? e ????? ?????? ????? ?
??o-?? ?????? ?e?; y? ??i ?????ue. Aeaaeae ?., AEioo?a-Nieiice E.
Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.: Ia?. n o?. A. A. Ooiaiiaa. I.:
Iaaeaeoia?. ioiioaiey, 1997.

Ae????a ???? ???-????? ???? ???u ??o ?????i a ?? ???ey ???a, ?? e ???a.

2. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea e ioee/ey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu

2.1.I?aaiaie iau/ae ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu

A ?iiaii-aa?iaineie naiuea, nicaeaiiie iiae neeueiui aeeyieai
eeanne/aneiai ?eineiai i?aaa, nouanoaiaaiea i?aaiaii iau/ay iaoneiaeaii,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iauaeoeaiiai ii?aaeaeaiey oiai, /oi
o aeaiiie iaoeee n/eoaaony ni?aaaaeeeaui, a n ae?oaie – iio?aaiinoueth a
iauyniaiee iiiyoee, eniieuecoaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeai. Oi, /oi aeaiiay
nenoaia i?eaeaao caeiio (eiaeeoeeaoeee) eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia
cia/aiea, nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaaao noa?o aeaenoaey iau/ay eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai enoi/ieea i?aaa, iiieii caeiia, a oai aieaa, ii/oe
naiaeeo ia iao ?ieue iau/ay, eioi?ue iia au aeaenoaiaaoue i?ioea caeiia.

A ia?eiae ?aiiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey a ?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaia
aeiieie?iaae iau/ae. Iiea ia auee nicaeaiu ia?aua ienueiaiiua nai?ieee
caeiiia, aanueia cia/eoaeueiie auea ?ieue oao, eoi oieeiaae i?aaiaua
iau/ae. O ae?aaieo o?aieia eo iacuaaee ?aoeiao?aaie (?aoeiao?aaie), o
ae?aaieo neaiaeeiaaia – eaaiaiaie e o. i. Iineieueeo o neaiaeeiaaia
cia/aiea i?aaiaiai iau/ay nio?aiyeinue aeieueoa, /ai o ae?oaeo ia?iaeia,
aei ian aeioei e aieueoa aeinoiaa?iuo naaaeaiee i aeayoaeueiinoe
eaaiaiia (iniaaiii a Oaaoeee). Ia?aiia/aeueii eaaiaiia auae?aee ia
nia?aieyo eaaeaeiai ieaiaie (eaiaenoeiaao). Iicaeiaa yoa aeieaeiinoue,
o?aaiaaaoay ciaiey iaeconoue iau/aaa oiai eee eiiai ieaiaie, noaea
ianeaaeoaiie. A yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey, eiaaea a a?aieoeao iinaeaiey
ioaeaeueiuo oaaaeneeo ieaiai auee ia?aciaaiu i?iaeioeee Oaaaeneiai
ei?ieaanoaa, aeieaeiinoe i?iaeioeeaeueiuo eaaiaiia nio?aiyeenue.

Iniiaiuie iaycaiiinoyie eaaiaiia e a oi a?aiy auee:

1. oi?ioaa ciaiea i?aaiauo iau/aaa;

2. aunooieaiey ia?aae ianaeaieai ia eaiaenoeiaao n ia?aneacii e
eiiiaioe?iaaieai iau/aaa;

3. nicaeaiea eee ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea iiauo i?aaiauo iau/aaa, anee a yoii
auea iaiaoiaeeiinoue, e aeiaaaeaiea eo aei naaaeaiey ianaeaiey ia
eaiaenoeiaa aeey iaeia?aiey.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi, o?aeooy e eiiiaioe?oy i?aaiaie iau/ae,
eaaiai ia eiae i?aaa ia?yaeo n noaeueyie o/anoaiaaoue a auianaiee
i?eaiai?a eee ?aoaiey ii aeaeo. A eaeie-oi ia?a a yoii ioiioaiee ii
iaiiieiae ae?aaia?eineiai i?aoi?a.

Iiae aeeyieai ana oe?a ?ani?ino?aiyaoaainy ?aoeaie?iaaiiiai eee
aoeueaa?ece?iaaiiiai ?eineiai i?aaa, a oaeaea ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ei?ieyie
nai?ieeia caeiiia, ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo i?aaenoaaeyaoeo niaie caienaiiua
e naieoeeiie?iaaiiua ainoaea?noaii iau/ae, noa?a i?eiaiaiey onoiiai
i?aaiaiai iau/ay ana aieaa noaeaeanue. Iniaaiii aeoeaii a
?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaia yoio i?ioeann iioae n XIV a. Iaei noiaeea a
ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao (i?iaeioeeyo) ianoiua iau/ae noaee ionooiaoue ia
aoi?ie ieai iiae aeaaeaieai i?aaiauo ii?i (noaoooia, i?aeiiainia,
oeacia, yaeeeoia e o. ae.), enoiaeeaoeo io oe?aieyaoae naie iiceoeee
ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. Eae oeacuaaao ?aia Aeaaeae iau/ae “…auee i?eaieaiu
eeoue a oneiaeyo caieiooie yeiiiieee; eo o?oaeii auei ociaoue e o?oaeii
ia ieo nnueaoueny. Ianoiua iau/ae nio?aiyeenue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee
a neeo ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?aa?oiie?iaee iie iieo/eee aaia?aoe/anee aieaa
oe?ieoth noa?o i?eiaiaiey e anee auea inouanoaeaia eiiieeyoeey,
iicaieythuay eaaei iciaeiieoueny n ieie”. Aeaaeae ?., AEioo?a-Nieiice E.
Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.: Ia?. n o?. A. A. Ooiaiiaa. I.:
Iaaeaeoia?. ioiioaiey, 1997.

E /eneo oaeeo e?oiiuo eiiieeyoeeiiiuo ?aaio iiaeii ioianoe “Eoothiu
Aiay” O. aea Aiiaioa?a (ai O?aioeee), “Naeniineia ca?oeaei” Y. oii
?aioioa (a Aa?iaiee) e a eaeie-oi ia?a oae iacuaaaiua “I?iaeioeeaeueiua
caeiiu” (a Ii?aaaee e Oaaoeee), caienaiiua eaaiaiaie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
i?eiaiaiea i?aaiaiai iau/ay noaei aeoeaii naea?aeeaaoueny eaiiie/aneei
i?aaii e oae iacuaaaiui i?aaii o/aiuo e oieaa?neoaoia (o.a. i?aaiaie
aeieo?eiie, ia eioi?oth eae ia enoi/iee i?aaa ana aieaa aeoeaii
nnueaeenue noaeu i?e ?ac?aoaiee aeae).

Aeaaea i?e nicaeaiee e?oiiuo eiiieeyoeee iau/iiai i?aaa iineaaeiea ia
iiaee i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia ananoi?iiiaa, anaioaaouaathuaa ?aaoee?iaaiea
nouanoaiaaaoeo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. E iioiio ninoaaeoaee eiiieeyoeee
e eo ?aaeaeoi?u naiie aeeciueth ana aieaa iiaeoaeeeaaeenue e auaiaeo i
aoi?inoaiaiiii cia/aiee ianoiiai iau/ay eae enoi/ieea i?aaa. Naie
iaiythueany oneiaey aeecie canoaaeyee eiiieeyoi?ia ioa?anuaaoue
/anoiinoe ianoiiai cia/aiey, iooiaeeoue io eacoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
ni/eiaiee e i?eaeeaeaoueny e oieaa?naeecio i?aaiauo ii?i. Ii ia?a
?anoe?aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ecaeaaaeinue ana aieueoa
caeiiia, cao?aaeaaaoeo ioaee/iia i?aai (ainoaea?noaaiiia, oaieiaiia,
aaeieieno?aoeaiia, i?ioeannoaeueiia). Iaeiaei iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ai
anao noa?ao ioaee/iiai i?aaa ?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaiu iau/ae onooiae
ianoi caeiio iaeeiaeiai auno?i. Oae, a Oaaoeee e Oeieyiaeee a Iauai
oeiaeaiee 1734 a., a ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiii i?ioeannoaeueiiio i?aao, auei
cae?aieaii i?aaeei, /oi noaeuee iiaoo i?eiaiyoue i?ioeannoaeueiua
iau/ae, anee a caeiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii niioaaonoaothuae i?aaiaie
?aaeaiaioaoeee. A Oeieyiaeee, aaea yoio ?acaeae Oeiaeaiey aeaenoaiaae
aei 1948 a., noaeueyi ?ac?aoaeinue eniieueciaaoue ianoiua iau/ae
(iiaeoaa?aeaeay ee/iui aeiniio?ii ienueiaiiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
naeaeaoaeuenoaa niaoeeaeenoia).

A iniiaiii noa?a aeaenoaey iau/ay ia?aie/eaaeanue /anoiii?aaiauie
ioiioaieyie iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie a?aaeaeaiaie (o. a. noa?aie
a?aaeaeaineiai, naiaeiith, caiaeueiiai i?aaa). Iai?eia?, a oeineie
Ea?aeee e a ainoi/iie Oeieyiaeee aei neo ii? nouanoaoao iau/ae, niaeanii
eioi?iio aeaiueia aeieaeia eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai i?eaeaiiai
i?e caeeth/aiee a?a/iiai aeiaiai?a. Aeonaaa ?.I.Iniiaiua i?aaiaua
nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.O/aaiia iiniaea ii oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.-
I.:TH?enou,2000.-N.71-72

2.2. Cia/aiea caeiiia aeey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu

A no?aiao n ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiueae i?ei?eoao n?aaee
enoi/ieeia i?aaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo caeiio. Caeiiu ?ac?aaaouaathony e
i?eieiathony aunoeie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie, iacuaathueieny eeai
ia?eaiaioii, eae ai O?aioeee, eeai aoiaeanoaaii, eae a Aa?iaiee, eeai
?eenaeaaii, eae a Oaaoeee, eeai yaeoneoioa, eae a Oeieyiaeee, eeai
naeiii, eae a Iieueoa, eeai Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiie, eae a ?innee, e o.
i. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou a ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiuea
iiae/eiythony no?iaie ea?a?oee. Ai aeaaa aa iaoiaeeony Eiinoeoooeey,
ninoiyuay ec iaeiiai caeiia (eae ai O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee, Oaaoeee) eee
?yaea iniiaiuo caeiiia (eae ai O?aioeee ia?eiaea O?aoueae ?anioaeeee eee
a nia?aiaiiie Oeieyiaeee). Eiinoeoooeee a aeaiiie naiuea yaeythony
ienaiuie. A ieo ii?aaeaeytho iniiau ainoaea?noaaiiiai e iauanoaaiiiai
no?iy, no?oeoo?a e eiiiaoaioeey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie e noaeaaiie
aeanoe, a oaeaea eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia. ?ac?aaioaia iniaay i?ioeaaeo?a
i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee (iau/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui aieueoeinoaii aieinia
ia io /enea i?enoonoaothueo ia canaaeaieyo aunoaai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai
i?aaia, a io iauaai eiee/anoaa aai aeaiooaoia). Nouanoaotho
niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu, i?ecaaiiua aa io?aiyoue (iai?eia?,
Eiinoeoooeeiiiue niaao ai O?aioeee, Eiinoeoooeeiiiue noae a ?innee e o.
ae.), e iniaay i?ioeaaeo?a aa eciaiaiey e ioiaiu. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony
oae iacuaaaiuo “aeanoeeo eiinoeoooeee”. Ana yoi aeieaeii i?aaeoi?aaeeoue
iaiaaeoiaiiinoue e iiniaoiinoue i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia eciaiaiee
Iniiaiiai caeiia. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Eo?n eaeoeee iiae
?aaeaeoeeae I.E. Iaoociaa e A.A. Iaeueei. I.2000.- N.188

Ii naiaio cia/aieth a ?aaoee?iaaiee ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
ioaaouaaaiuo oeaeuie io?aneyie i?aaa, ii oieaa?naeueiiio oa?aeoa?o
?aaoee?iaaiey, ii cae?aieaieth iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeiia
?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaiaie io?anee a yoeo caeiiao, ii iaiaeaeoiiio eee aea
einoeoooeeiiiiio iino?iaieth n?aaee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia auaeaeythony
eiaeaenu. A XIX a. iie i?aiaeaaeaee a ?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaia. Oae aea
ianoieo aeaei e a OO a., i?e/ai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiiaeo no?ai i?eciatho ca
ieie iniaue aaoi?eoao (iau/ii yoi iaiaa?eaaaony a oaenoa naiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aeoa).

Cia/aiea oa?ieia “eiaeaen” eciaiyeinue n oa/aieai a?aiaie.
Ia?aiia/aeueii oae iacuaaeenue ?anii?yaeaiey ?eineeo eiia?aoi?ia. Caoai
oae noaee iacuaaoue nai?ieee naiuo ?acee/iuo caeiiia. ss?eei i?eia?ii
iineaaeieo yaeyaony “Eiaeeoeeaoeey eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia” 534 a., aaea
iiaeaaaeai eoia ii/oe ouny/aeaoiae ?eineie i?aaiaie enoi?ee e iieacaii
th?eaee/aneia ?acaeoea yoiai ainoaea?noaa.

Iaeieie ec ia?auo a nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee yoiai oa?ieia auee
eiaeeoeeaoeee ii iyoe iniiaiui io?aneyi o?aioeocneiai iaoa?eaeueiiai e
i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei n?aaee ieo, iai?eia?, oneiaiia i?aai
ia?aiia/aeueii eiaei a ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee /aou?a ia?aeeaeueii
nouanoaiaaaoeo eiaeeoeeaoeee: OE 1791 a., Eiaeaen ioieoeeiaeueiie e
eni?aaeoaeueiie iieeoeee io 19 ethey 1791 a., Eiaeaen naeueneie iieeoeee
io 28 naioya?y 1791 a. e Eiaeaen aeaeeeoia e iaeacaiee ca ieo io 25
ieoya?y 1795 a. Eeoue iinea iiyaeaiey OE 1810 a. i?aaeiea aeou oo?aoeee
neeo.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaeaieueoaai oieaa?naeecia a nicaeaiee
anaioaaouaathueo (anaio?aneaauo) eiaeaenia aeinoeaee Neaiaeeiaaneea
no?aiu. N aeiiieiaieyie e eciaiaieyie yoe eiaeaenu aeaenoaotho a Aeaiee
(n 1683 a.), Ii?aaaee (n 1687 a.), Oaaoeee e Oeieyiaeee (n 1734 a.). Yoe
anaiauea eiaeaenu ii naiae no?oeoo?a aanueia iaiiieiatho Naiae caeiiia
?inneeneie eiia?ee 1832 a.

A Aa?iaiee, Eniaiee e iiiaeo no?aiao Eaoeineie Aia?eee i?ioeannoaeueiia
i?aai ia ioaaouaaaony eiaeaenaie, iineieueeo oai n/eoaaony, /oi ia iaai
ieacuaaao aeiieie?othuaa aeeyiea “iaoeeiiaeueiue ia?oeeoey?eci”, a ia
iauai?aaiaua i?eioeeiu. O?iiaithe A.I. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa – I.:
«Aeaaaoia, Oea/aa, Aeeiia», 1995.- N.56-58

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey i?aaiauo nenoai ?anoe?yaony acaeiiaeaenoaea e
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaa.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy yoi ?aaeeciauaaeinue o?aiy iniiaiuie iooyie:

· acaeiiui o/aoii “noueiauo” i?eioeeiia i?e ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoee
niioaaonoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa;

· aini?iecaaaeaieai ai aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (a oii
/enea e a eiaeaenao) niioaaonoaothueo iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo ii?i e
aeaaea oeaeuo eiiaaioeee;

· eeai i?yiui eo aini?eyoeai e oiio?aaeaieai a i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

ss?eei i?eia?ii i?ia?anneaiiai aeeyiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa e aai
i?eioeeiia ia aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiua caeiiu e eiaeaenu a
?iiaii-aa?iaineie e a aiaeinaeniineie nenoaiao yaeyaony aaoiiaoe/aneay
ioiaia a 60-70-a aa. nia?oiie eacie eae aeaea iaeacaiey a no?aiao,
iiaeienaaoeo i?ioieie 6 e Anaiauae aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea.

A ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaia oaea a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey iau/ae
noaee auoaniyoueny caeiiaie: eae ?eineei i?aaii (eeai ?aoeeie?iaaiiui,
eeai aoeueaa?ece?iaaiiui), oae e caienaiiui e ooaa?aeaeaiiui i?aaiaui
iau/aai, eioi?ue noaiiaeeny oaeei ia?acii caeiiii. Ii eeoue a ia?eiae
iicaeiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey ei?iee ia/eiaee aeoeaii aiaoeaaoueny a
i?ioeann i?aaioai?/anoaa – aia/aea a iaeanoe ioaee/iiai i?aaa, a caoai –
e /anoiiai. Oae, ai O?aioeee y?eeie i?eia?aie aeoeaiiai ei?ieaaneiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea
aaniethoecia neoaeao Aieueoie I?aeiiain 1670 a., a oaeaea Ii?neie e
*a?iue eiaeaenu. Iineaaeiee ?aaoee?iaae ?aaioi?aiaeth a eieiieyo. Ii
iiaeao auoue ioianai e /anoiiio i?aao. A Aa?iaiee aea, iioaaeoae ii iooe
eiyaeaneiai aaniethoecia, caeiiu iineee ia?oeeoey?iue oa?aeoa?;
iineaaeiei iauaeiia?neei aeoii, ioiinyueiny e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio i?aao, yaeyaony Aanooaeueneee ie?iue aeiaiai? 1648 a.

Oeiea anoanoaaiiii i?aaa a OVII a. eiioeaiooaeueii iainiiaaea yoi
nouanoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea i?a?iaaoea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe: anee ?aiaa
nthca?ai ioaeaaae iaycaoaeueiua i?eeacu, oi a ia?eiae aaniethoecia ca
iei auee i?eciaiu ooieoeee caeiiiaeaoaey, /oiau i?eaeaoue aieueoee
aaoi?eoao nicaeaaaaiiio iauaainoaea?noaaiiiio i?aao (iaaea?ii a oi a?aiy
aicieeea eaeay a?aaeaeainoaa) e iaeiia?aiaiii eni?aaeoue i?aaeiea
ia?oeeoey?iua caeiiu, eioi?ua ieacaeenue aieaa aeeao/eie, /ai eo
nicaeaoaee.

E eeoue oieueei iinea Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee iiae caeiiii
aiiaue (eae e ai a?aiaia ?eineie ?anioaeeee) noaee iiieiaoue ii?iaoeaiue
aeo, ?ac?aaioaiiue e i?eiyoue aunoei i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui i?aaiii no?aiu e
aneaaenoaea yoiai iaeaaeathuee aa?oiaainoaii ii ioiioaieth e eiui
i?aaiaui aeoai (iai?eia? eino?oeoeeyi, ?aaeaiaioai, ?anii?yaeaieyi,
aeae?aoai e o. i., eioi?ua i?eieiathony ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaiiuie
i?aaiaie). Oi aea naiia ioiineony e e aeoai i?eiaiaiey i?aaa e aai
oieeiaaiey. Iie aeieaeiu auoaeaoue ec caeiiia e niioaaonoaiaaoue ei
(iiaeiaiue i?eioeei aeaenoaoao aeaaea i?e aooaioe/iii oieeiaaiee). N
eiioea XIX – ia/aea OO a. a no?aiao n ?iiaii-aa?iaineie naiueae (ca
eneeth/aieai Aa?iaiee) ?ani?ino?aieeinue oae iacuaaaiia aeaeaae?iaaiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. I?aaeoaeuenoai iieo/eei i?aai ecaeaiey ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia (iai?eia?, aeae?aoia-caeiiia ai O?aioeee), eioi?ua ioaaouaatho
i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai aii?inu, eioi?ua o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiinyony e noa?a
aeaenoaey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Iineaaeiea ia naieo canaaeaieyo
ooaa?aeaeatho ia?iiiia eiee/anoai caeiiia, ?ac?aaioaiiuo e i?eiyouo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, aaeaa oniaaay iciaeiieoueny n ieie. I?ioeann nicaeaiey
aeaeaae?iaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao oniae
ioaaoeoue e ?inneth, aua aieaa oaeoaea eae yeiiiie/aneee, oae e
iieeoe/aneee e?ecen a no?aia, iineieueeo i?eaae e ia?anoaieth
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth.
Aaaeue a ioee/ea io caiaaeiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa yooaeoeaiay
nenoaia “naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania” eae oa?aeoa?iue iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee
oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie aeecie a iaoae
no?aia aei neo ii? ia nicaeaia. Aeonaaa ?.I.Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu
nia?aiaiiinoe.O/aaiia iiniaea ii oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.-
I.:TH?enou,2000.-N.75-80

2.3. ?acee/ey ?iiaii-aa?iaineie nenoaiu a ea?a?oee enoi/ieeia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa

A ?acee/iuo nenoaiao caeii, iau/ae, noaeaaiay i?aeoeea, aeieo?eia,
ni?aaaaeeeainoue eiatho ?aciia cia/aiea. Iaeia nenoaia iineo ?aeeaeiciue
oa?aeoa?, e ieeaeie caeiiiaeaoaeue ia iiaeao eciaiyoue ii?iu oaeiai
i?aaa. A ae?oaeo no?aiao caeiiu – yoi eeoue iiaeaeue, ia?ooaiea eioi?ie
n/eoatho anoanoaaiiui, anee oiai o?aaoao iau/ae. Aaea-eeai aua
noaeaaiiio ?aoaieth i?eaeaaony cia/aiea, auoiaeyuaa ca ?aiee aeaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Eniieueciaaiea iaueo i?eioeeiia e oi?ioe oaeaea iiaeao a
iaeioi?uo i?aaiauo nenoaiao neoaeeoue aeey oiai, /oiau iii?aaeoue a oo
eee eioth noi?iio oi?iaeueioth ii?io aeaenoaothuaai i?aaa.

Aeaei ineiaeiyaony aua e oai, /oi auaiaeu oai?aoeeia ia enoi/ieeao i?aaa
eee niiniaao oieeiaaiey caeiia ia anaaaea aeatho oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
?aaeueiii iieiaeaiee. Oae, i?aaiaay aeieo?eia ai O?aioeee ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi noaeaaiay i?aeoeea ia yaeyaony enoi/ieeii i?aaa. Oai ia iaiaa a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ?aoaiey
Eannaoeeiiiiai noaea eee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa /anoi ea?atho ai
O?aioeee ?ieue ioithaeue ia iaiueooth, /ai caeii. Aua e naaiaeiy a
Aiaeee caeii ioioii ecia?aaeatho eae eneeth/eoaeueiue oaiiiai a nenoaia,
eioi?ay yaeyaony eeanne/aneie nenoaiie noaeaaiiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei caeiiu
a Aiaeee noieue aea iiiai/eneaiiu, e iie ea?atho oai ?ieue ie/ooue ia
iaiueooth, /ai ai O?aioeee. Eo ia?anoaee oieeiaaoue aoeaaeueii e
ia?aie/eoaeueii, eae yoi i?aaeienuaaeinue noa?eiiuie eaiiiaie. Inoaaony
aa?iui eeoue oi, /oi aiaeeeneea th?enou iii?aaeiaio ieioi iia?e?otho
iaueie ii?iaie, noi?ioee?iaaiiuie caeiiiaeaoaeai, e no?aiyony eae iiaeii
nei?aa “?anoai?eoue” eo a noaeaaiuo ?aoaieyo, auianaiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa
i?eiyoey yoeo ii?i.

Oai ia iaiaa aieaa iiae?iaiia eco/aiea “eaiiie/aneeo” enoi/ieeia i?aaa a
nenoaiao iauaai e ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa iicaieeo iai iieo/eoue
aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth i ooieoeeiie?iaaiee i?aaiauo einoeoooia a
?acee/iuo no?aiao.

A ?iiaii-aa?iaineii i?aaa iiaua ii?iu i?eieiathony ia iniiaa aeaaeoeoeee
ec oaea nouanoaothueo caeiiia (eiinoeoooeee, eiaeaenia, i?inouo caeiiia,
?aaeaiaioia e aeae?aoia). Caeanue ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeioou ii?iu i?aaa,
eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony eae ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, ioaa/athuea o?aaiaaieyi
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ii?aee. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeeie aea aeieaeiu auoue yoe
ii?iu, – aio iniiaiay caaea/a th?eaee/aneie iaoee. Iiaeiuaiiay yoie
caaea/ae, aeieo?eia a iaiueoae noaiaie eioa?anoaony aii?inaie
oi?aaeaiey, ioi?aaeaiey i?aainoaeey e i?eiaiaieai i?aa (yoei caieiathony
th?enou-i?aeoeee).

A neeo enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei i?aai aunooiaao caeanue i?aaeaea anaai eae
n?aaenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie. Ae?oaea aea
io?anee i?aaa auee ?ac?aaioaiu ai?acaei iicaeiaa e iaiaa niaa?oaiiu ii
n?aaiaieth n a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii, eioi?ia e inoaaony iniiaie
?iiaii-aa?iaineie th?eaee/aneie iaoee.

ss?eei i?eia?ii, eeethno?e?othuei ainiiaenoaothuoth ?ieue caeiia a
eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iia, yaeeenue ciaiaieoua les cinq codes (iyoue
eiaeaenia): Code Civil (aai /anoi iacuaatho Code Napoleon) 1804 a., Code
de Procedure Civil 1806 a., Node de Commerce 1807 a., Code d’instruction
Criminelle 1808 a. e Code Penal 1810 a. Caeiiiaeaoaee yiioe O?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee, caieiaynue iauae eiaeeoeeaoeeae caeiiia, nia?aee e iaiaueee
ia?iiiue oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae, a neeo /aai les cinq codes (i?aaeaea
anaai A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen) iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. E?iia
oiai, neeueiua iiceoeee A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ai iiiaeo no?aiao auee
iaoneiaeaiu oaeaea oai, /oi ii yaeeny oaea/iui eiii?iiennii iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie i?aaiauie enoi/ieeaie ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa. Les cinq
codes – yoi ia?aua aieueoea naiaeu caeiiia
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/anei-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, eiaeeoeoee?iaaaoea
?acoeueoaou anao nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee. Ae?oaei ia iaiaa aaaeiui eo i?aeiouanoaii auei oi, /oi iie
yaeeenue oaea/iui eiii?iiennii iaaeaeo aano?aeoiinoueth e oi/iinoueth
i?aaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eiie?aoeeie e iaaeyaeiinoueth i?aaiauo ii?i –
n ae?oaie. Les cinq codes aeaaea naaiaeiy neoaeao iniiaie ia oieueei
o?aioeocneie i?aaiaie nenoaiu, ii e i?aaiauo nenoai no?ai, i?eiyaoeo
iaeiaaea iaiieaiiianeea eiaeaenu.

Eoae, caeii a oe?ieii niunea neiaa – yoi, ii aeaeeiiio, a iaoe aeie
ia?ainoaiaiiue, ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee i?aaa a no?aiao
?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiuee. Ana yoe no?aiu – no?aiu “ienaiiai
i?aaa” (pays de droit ecrit). TH?enou caeanue ia?auathony i?aaeaea anaai
e caeiiiaeaoaeueiui e ?aaeaiaioe?othuei aeoai, i?eiyoui ia?eaiaioii eee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie e aaeieieno?aoeaiuie i?aaiaie. Caaea/o th?enoia
aeaeyo aeaaiui ia?acii a oii, /oiau i?e iiiiue ?acee/iuo niiniaia
oieeiaaiey iaeoe ?aoaiea, eioi?ia a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa
niioaaonoaoao aiea caeiiiaeaoaey. TH?eaee/aneia caeeth/aiea, ia eiathuaa
iniiau a caeiia, ianinoiyoaeueii (Jurisconsulta sine lege loquens
erubescit). Ae?oaea enoi/ieee i?aaa a naaoa yoiai aiaeeca caieiatho
iiae/eiaiiia e iaiueoaa ianoi ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeii/eoaaiui
eeanne/aneei enoi/ieeii i?aaa – caeiiii.

A neeo anaai neacaiiiai i cia/eiinoe caeiia a ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie
nenoaia noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi noaeuea a i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ioaiaeeony
aoi?inoaiaiiay ?ieue. Aeaenoaey noaeuee caeanue eo/oa anaai ii?aaeaeaiu
oa?ieiii “iiae/eiaiea caeiio, o. a. aai caaea/a naiaeeony e iieneo e
i?eiaiaieth oie i?aaiaie ii?iu, eioi?ay iaeeo/oei ia?acii iienuaaao
nii?ioth neooaoeeth. Aeonaaa ?.I.Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu
nia?aiaiiinoe.O/aaiia iiniaea ii oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.-
I.:TH?enou,2000.-N.75-80

3. I?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu e aa
aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iiaii-aa?iaineie e iauae i?aaiauo nenoai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeytho e ia i?eioeeiu oicyenoaiaaiey, i?iaicaeaoaiiua
a ea/anoaa aaciauo a eaaeaeie ec ieo. E oioy a oai?ee iaa nenoaiu
i?iaicaeaoatho, /oi ?ac?aoaii ana, /oi ia cai?auaii, ia i?aeoeea yoiai
i?eioeeia i?eaea?aeeaaaony oieueei nenoaia iauaai i?aaa.
?iiaii-aa?iaineea aea caeiiiaeaoaee, iai?ioea, neeiiiu cai?auaoue oi,
/oi ia ?ac?aoaii.

Eaeiai aea aeeyiea ?acee/ee a o?aeoiaeao aaciauo i?eioeeiia i?aaiauo
nenoai ia ?acee/ey a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee no?ai n ?aciuie i?aaiauie
nenoaiaie?

?ac?aoay oi, /oi ia cai?auaii, o?aaeeoeey iauaai i?aaa aeiioneaao
naiaiaeioth eiieo?aioeeth a ioiioaiee eae i?iecaiaeeiuo a no?aia oiaa?ia
e oneoa, oae e naiiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
iio?aaeoaeyi i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia?iiiue auai? eiaiii oaoiieiae/aneeo
iiaeiie, a ia ii?aeueii onoa?aaoeo, ioaeeaoeo aauae. No?aiu,
i?eaea?aeeaathueany eiiai i?aaiaiai i?eioeeia, iai?ioea, iaeeaaeuaatho
ia?aie/aiey ia eiiiaaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaeae, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia iio?aaiinoe a?aaeaeai.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeiaiuo aeaenoaee ia aioo?aiieo ?uieao neeaaeuaaaony
neaaeothuay neooaoeey. No?aiu n nenoaiie iauaai i?aaa, “i?iecaiaey
ioai?” iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee, aeatho iiuiue oie/ie
aeey ?acaeoey naiae yeiiiieee. ?iiaineea aea no?aiu aini?eieiatho yoi
eae onoaiiaeo e aeaenoaeth, ?ac?aoay ianoiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyi
eniieueciaaoue oieueei oa iaoiaeu, eioi?ua oaea niiaee aeieacaoue naith
aeecianiiniaiinoue, aoaeo/e i?eiaiaiiuie a no?aiao iauaai i?aaa.

Oaeay ?annoaiiaea nee aeeyao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey no?ai e onoaiaaeeaaao ia?acoeu iiaaaeaiey aeey no?ai, i?eiyaoeo
oio eee eiie i?aaiaie i?eioeei, a aianoa n iei e niioaaonoaothuoth
i?aaiaoth nenoaio. Noaeeeaaynue n e?aoein?i/iuie eieaaaieyie
yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u, no?aiu n nenoaiie iauaai i?aaa neeiiiu
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oia?aiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. No?aieoaeueiua oaiiu
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey caeanue eiiiaine?othony aaniethoii oaeeie aea
ii aaee/eia oaiiaie ?ac?ooaiey aaaeiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e
i?aaiauo einoeoooia. Iiyaeaoenue a nayce ni niaoeeoe/aneie eee oeie/iie
aeey eaeiai-oi a?aiaie neooaoeeae, ca/anooth iie auno?i onoa?aaatho.
Oiaaea noaiiaeony anoanoaaiiui eeai iieiinoueth eo ioiaieoue, eeai
nicaeaoue iiaua, eioi?ua aeeth/aee au noa?ue eiiieaen iniia, eeai
ioiineeenue e oie aea iaeanoe yeiiiieee e i?aaa.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yeiiiieea no?ai n ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie
nenoaiie, ?acaeaathuayny iau/ii n?aaeieie oaiiaie, iieo/aao
cia/eoaeueiue oie/ie aeey naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey, aoaeo/e
“iiaeieoaia” iiauie aiciiaeiinoyie ianoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iaeiaei ia
i?aeoeea /aua anaai i?ienoiaeeo e ia?aoiue i?ioeann – noaaiaoeey
yeiiiieee a neeo oiai, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?iiaineeo no?ai ia anaaaea
?ac?aoaao i?eiaiyoue oa eee eiua oaoiieiaee, aeaeay oiaa?u e oneoae,
i?iecaaaeaiiua a yoeo no?aiao, iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuie ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?ai aiaeinaeniineiai e
?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa ?acee/athony a neeo oiai, /oi
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yoeo no?ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeytho ia aaee/eio
a?aiaiiiai eaaa, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey aaeaioaoeee yeiiiieee e
iiaiaaaaeaieyi a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ey?neay I.N. I?aaiaua
nenoaiu e yeiiiieea: n?aaiaiea aiaeinaeniineiai e ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai
i?aaa//Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey i?anooieaiee e iaeacaiee. ?6.2000 – N.53-55

Caeeth/aiea

?iiaii-aa?iaineay nenoaia i?aaa nouanoaoao ai O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee,
Aano?ee, Aaeueaee, Aieeaiaeee, Aeaiee, Eniaiee, Eneaiaeee, Eoaeee,
Ii?ooaaeee, Ii?aaaee, Ethenaiao?aa, Iiiaei, Oaaoeee, Oaaeoea?ee,
Oeieyiaeee. Ana ainoi/ii-aa?iiaeneea (auaoea nioeeaeenoe/aneea) no?aiu
aiiaue aica?auathony e yoie nenoaia. Aa n iieiui iniiaaieai iiaeii
iacuaaoue iuia nenoaiie (eee naiueae) eiioeiaioaeueiiai i?aaa: iia
ioaaouaaao ana no?aiu aa?iiaeneiai eiioeiaioa ca eneeth/aieai Aiaeee e
E?eaiaeee. Aeaiiay naiuey i?aaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?ani?ino?aiyao naia
aeeyiea ia eniaiiycu/iua ainoaea?noaa Aia?eee (Eaoeineoth Aia?eeo).
Aieaa oiai, i ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie nenoaia iiaeii aiai?eoue aeaaea
ii ioiioaieth e ooaoo Eoeceaia (auaoay o?aioeocneay oa??eoi?ey,
i?eniaaeeiaiiay a 1803 aiaeo e NOA), a oaeaea e eaiaaeneie i?iaeioeee
Eaaaae, canaeaiiie i?aeiouanoaaiii o?aioeocaie (a eioi?ie a 1992 e 1995
aa. i?iaiaeeeenue ?aoa?aiaeoiu ii aii?ino i iacaaeneiinoe io Eaiaaeu).

*oi eanaaony aieueoeinoaa no?ai *a?iie Ao?eee (auaoeo eieiiee Aaeueaee,
Aa?iaiee, Eoaeee, Eniaiee, Ii?ooaaeee e O?aioeee), oi e eo einioeinue
aeeyiea yoie i?aaiaie naiuee. Ethaiiuoii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaea aoiaeyuea
a A?eoaineia Niae?oaeanoai iaoeee ino?ia Iaa?eeee e Naeoaeueneea ino?iaa
aei neo ii? iaoiaeyony iiae aeiieie?othuei aicaeaenoaeai aeaiiie
nenoaiu. Aeeyiea ?iiaii-aa?iaineie i?aaiaie naiuee caiaoii e a aceaoneeo
ainoaea?noaao, iai?eia? a Oo?oeee, auaoeo niaaoneeo aceaoneeo
?anioaeeeao, a E?aea, Ei?aeaiee, Ne?ee, Eiaeiiacee. Oioy a ieo
aeaenoaoao oaeaea e ionoeueiaineia i?aai. I?iaeaiu oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa: O/aaiia iiniaea // Iiae ?aae. I.I. Ia?/aiei – I., 1999.- N.129

???i-????ay ???ay ???a – ??????? ???, ?????? ?????e ???- ????y ????
th??? ?? ? ?y????e, ???ue e ???, ??????ue ? a ???o n?????o
???e. Y? ?????a ??u ???-????? ???? ???u ???? ????i ???? a ?? ??y,
??a ??ue ??e ???? i A??a e i ?????i ??a. ???i-???n?y ???ay ???a ?????
??? A??u, ??ay ?e y?i e ????th?a ?ae? ?? ???ey, ?c ???o A??a ia ?? ?
?i, ?i ?a y?y?ny, e ?e, ??e ? ??i ? ???. Aeaaeae ?., AEioo?a-Nieiice E.
Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.: Ia?. n o?. A. A. Ooiaiiaa. I.:
Iaaeaeoia?. ioiioaiey, 1997.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aeaaeae ?., AEioo?a-Nieiice E. Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu
nia?aiaiiinoe.: Ia?. n o?. A. A. Ooiaiiaa. I.: Iaaeaeoia?. ioiioaiey,
1997.

2. Aeaaeae ?. Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe / Ia? n o?. I.,
1988

3. Aeonaaa ?.I.Iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaiu nia?aiaiiinoe.O/aaiia iiniaea
ii oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.- I.:TH?enou,2000

4. Ey?neay I.N. I?aaiaua nenoaiu e yeiiiieea: n?aaiaiea aiaeinaeniineiai
e ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa//Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey i?anooieaiee e
iaeacaiee. ?6.2000

5. Iniiau ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: O/.iiniaea.?inoia-ia-Aeiio,Oaieen,1995,

6. I?aaiaay nenoaia nioeeaeecia/ Iiae ?aae.A.I. Aaneeueaaa.O1.I.1986;
O2.I.,1987

7. I?iaeaiu oai?ee i?aaa e ainoaea?noaa / Iiae ?aae. I.I. Ia?/aiei. –
I.:TH?aeo-I,1999.

8. ?aoaoieeiaa O.I.I?aaiaua nenoaiu no?ai ie?a. I.,1993

9. Naeaeia A.O. Aaaaeaiea a iniiaiua i?aaiaua nenoaia nia?aiaiiinoe.
Oaoeaio, 1988

10. Neitheia A.I. ?inneeneay i?aaiaay nenoaia. Na?aoia,1994

11. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Eo?n eaeoeee/ Iiae ?aae. I.E. Iaoociaa
e A.A. Iaeueei – I: TH?enou, 1997.

12. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Eo?n eaeoeee iiae ?aaeaeoeeae I.E.
Iaoociaa e A.A. Iaeueei. I.2000.

13. O?iiaithe A.I. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa – I.: «Aeaaaoia, Oea/aa,
Aeeiia», 1995.

14. Buergental T. International Human Right. St. Paul. Minn,1988.

15. Hansen P. Bidrag till Finlands historia.Del. I. Helsingfors,1883.

16. Hemmer R. Suomen oikeuden historia.I.N.Porvoo,1956.

17. Norges Lover 1685-1985. Oslo,1986;Suomen Lakikirja 1734-1991.
Helsinki, 1992.

18. Schaht J. Islamic Religions Law // The legacy of Islam. Oxford,1979.

19. Uniform Commercial Code.12th Ed. Official Text 1990 with comments:
West Publishing Co, 1991.

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