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?eineia i?aai

?eineia i?aai — i?aaiaay nenoaia, aicieeoay a Ae?aaiai ?eia e
?acaeaaaoayny aieioue aei iaaeaiey Aecaioeeneie eiia?ee, a oaeaea
io?aneue i?aaiaie iaoee, caieiathuayny a? eco/aieai.

?eineia i?aai yaeeinue ia?acoeii eee i?iia?acii i?aaiauo nenoai iiiaeo
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, yaeyaony enoi?e/aneie iniiaie ?iiaii-aa?iaineie
(eiioeiaioaeueiie) i?aaiaie naiuee.

I NENOAIA, ENOI*IEEE, ENOI?E*ANEAss O?AAeEOeEss ?EINEIAI I?AAA

1.1 ?eineia i?aai a nia?aiaiiie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?a

?eineia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyao eneeth/eoaeueiue ii naiei iniaaiiinoyi e
cia/aieth i?aaeiao th?eaee/aneiai eco/aiey. Ainoiaey a naiai
enoi?e/aneii noaiiaeaiee e aeaaii ieioaoei a?aiaiai aioe/iinoe (e a yoii
niunea i?aaenoaaeyy oaiiiai en/acioaoae oeeaeeecaoeee, aeaaea i?eieiay
ai aieiaiea iiiaiaaeiaoth iiaoi?ioth aeeciue ?eineiai i?aaa a iaoea e
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea iicaeiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey, Aic?iaeaeaiey e Iiaiai
a?aiaie), a nia?aiaiiie th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?a e a nia?aiaiiuo nenoaiao
i?aaa ?eineia i?aai ia eiaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaenoaeoaeueiiai,
i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey. Aieiaiea, eioi?ia caneoaeaiii i?eiyoi oaeaeyoue
?eineiio i?aao a ?aieao th?eaee/aneiai ia?aciaaiey eee iauaai iao/iiai
iiciaiey i?aaa, iauyniyaony ia oieueei ia?iiiui aeeyieai ?eineiai i?aaa
a naia enoi?e/aneia a?aiy ia noaiiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo .i?aaiauo
eoeueoo? anae oae iacuaaaiie ?iiaii-aa?iaineie naiuee (e eioi?ie
i?eiaaeeaaeeo aieueoeinoai no?ai Aa?iiu, a oaeaea Eaoeineie Aia?eee,
Ao?eee, Acee), ii iniauie iai?aoiaeyueie aioo?aiieie ea/anoaaie
nianoaaiii ?eineiai i?aaa, iaycaiiuie eae iiiaiaaeiaie ?aaioa iaae iei
o/aiuo-th?enoia e i?aaiaaaeia-i?aeoeeia, oae e iniaui eoeueoo?iui
oneiaeyi aai ia?aiia/aeueiiai aicieeiiaaiey. Ii neiaai aeaeiiai
nia?aiaiiiai o?aioeocneiai i?aaiaaaea ?. Aeaaeaea, “?eineay eiia?ey
ciaea aeanoyuoth oeeaeeecaoeeth, e ?eineee aaiee nicaeae th?eaee/aneoth
nenoaio ia eiathuoth i?aoeaaeaioia a ie?a”.

Aeey i?aaiauo nenoai ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai oeia, e eioi?iio, n iaiai?eaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e o?aaeeoeeiiiia ?inneeneia i?aai, ?eineia i?aai eiaao
iniaoth oeeinioneoth, enoi?e/aneoth e eoeueoo?ioth cia/eiinoue Iiiaea
/a?ou iauae i?aaiaie o?aaeeoeee, iiiaea i?aaiaua einoeooou e
aeiaiaoe/aneea eaoaai?ee nia?aiaiiuo i?aaiauo nenoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ainoiaeyo e i?eioeeiai e no?oeoo?a ?eineiai i?aaa, au?aaaouaaeenue eee
ia aai iniiaa, eee n o/aoii e?eoe/aneiai aini?eyoey. Ioaeaeueiua
nii?yaeaiey e aeiaiaoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey, ainoiaeyuea e ?eineiio i?aao
i?iaeieaeatho aeeoue a nia?aiaiiii i?aaa — yaii eee iayaii, a i?yii
caeinoaiaaiiii aeaea eee aoaeo/e i?aeiieaiiuie /a?ac nianoaaiioth
iaoeeiiaeueioth o?aaeeoeeth. E yoa aaiaoe/aneay naycue n ?eineei i?aaii
noi?ie?iaaea aaeaa ee ia aeaaioth ea/anoaaiioth iniaaiiinoue anaai
iacaaiiiai oeia i?aaiauo nenoai, i?aaenoaaeythuaai e oiio aea iaeaieaa
?acaeoue — a iao/iii ioiioaiee — oei, n?aaieoaeueii n ae?oaeie
ecaanoiuie ie?iaie th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea.

N?aaieoaeueii n ae?oaeie, enoi?e/aneeie eee nia?aiaiiuie, nenoaiaie
i?aaa, ?eineia i?aai a iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioia/aii ia/aeii
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe ia ?aaoeyoeee naiaiaeiiai e
naiinoiyoaeueiiai a oicyenoaaiiii e a?aaeaeaineii ioiioaiee iieiaeaiey
eiaeeaeaea, i?eciaiiiai iauanoaii e ainoaea?noaii ca iieiii?aaiiai
noauaeoa. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aa?aioe?iaaiiinoue niioaaonoaothuae i?aaiaui
ia/aeai iauaaeeoey aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aea e i?aaiaay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea yoeo ia/ae ninoaaeee iniiao ?eineiai
i?aaa. Iieeoe/aneay, i?aaiaay e eoeueoo?iay oeaiiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeecia
a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa ieacuaaaony, eae i oii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iiiaie?aoiua aaconiaoiua iiiuoee nioeeaeueiuo
oieoeeaoeee e oioaeeoa?iiai niei/aiey, iai?aoiaeyuae, aaeeinoaaiii
ieiaeioai?iie a nioeeaeueiie ia?niaeoeaa. Aioo?aiiea ea/anoaa ?eineiai
i?aaa i?eia?aoatho a yoii ioiioaiee cia/aiea eeanne/aneiai i?eaioe?a
anyeee ?ac, eiaaea aicieeaao iauanoaaiiay e th?eaee/aneay iio?aaiinoue a
i?aaiaii aiieiuaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie naiaiaeu a?aaeaeaieia. Oioy yoi
aiana ia icia/aao, /oi eiie?aoiua th?eaee/aneea aeinoeaeaiey ?eineiai
i?aaa e naycaiiie n iei i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u a oeaeii i?aaenoaaeytho
eaeaaeueii-caeii/aiiue ia?acaoe. “Iooai ?eineiai i?aaa, ii i?aacieaey
aai, aeaeueoa /a?ac iaai — aio aeaaec, a eioi?ii aeey iaiy, — ienae
iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo ciaoieia ?eineiai i?aaa anao a?aiai ?.

Eneeth/eoaeueiinoue ?eineiai i?aaa aua e a oii, /oi iii i?iaeieaeeei
naith th?eaee/aneoth aeeciue aeaaea iinea ?aniaaea e ia?a?iaeaeaiey
ainoaea?noaa e ia?iaea, aeaaoaai aio ia?aoth aeeciue. Yoi noi?ie?iaaei
ii/oe aeaooouny/aeaoiee iiuo i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u, th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee
e iaoee. Ca iiiaea aaea ?eineea e ia?eineea th?enou, inoaaaynue a ?aieao
aaeeiuo ia/ae, ?ac?aaioaee e ia?ainiuneeee iiiaea noi?iiu i?aaiaie
aeecie iauanoaa, iiiaea th?eaee/aneea i?iaeaiu e eaconu. Aa?iyoii, a
iaeioi?uo aii?inao oaeei iooai auea aeinoeaiooa naiaai ?iaea
aani?iaaeueiinoue th?eaee/aneiai ciaiey, e ?eineia i?aai noaei iiaeiaii
Aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee iaycaoaeueiinoueth naieo aeneii (i?e oneiaee
iauaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee /aeiaa/aneiai iauaaeeoey). Eiia/ii, iiiaia ec
yoiai niaeoeyoeaiiai iiuoa inoaeinue naiicaieiooie noieanoeeie, i?inoie
ea?ie th?eaee/aneiai ?acoia. *oi-oi aoaeao oieueei i?eia?aie e iiuoii
th?eaee/aneeo ooieeia, /oi-oi ninoaaeei iniiau anae eiaeee i?aaa. Oioy
eiae/iinoue e aeineiiaeueiinoue o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai i?aaa — ia
aaeeinoaaiiua aa aeinoieinoaa. “Eiaiii iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?eineeo
th?enoia e i?aoi?ia neaaeoao n/eoaoue iaeiei ec eo aaee/aeoeo
aeinoieinoa, eioi?ia iicaieyei ei ionooiaoue io iani?aaaaeeeauo e
ioa?aoeoaeueiuo einoeoooia”.

Iaeiiaoe, aacioiineoaeueii e niaea?aeaieth i?aaiauo i?eioeeiia e
einoeoooia ?eineiio i?aao a aieueoeinoaa iaycaia naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai
nia?aiaiiay oa?ieiieiaey oeeinioee i?aaa e th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee.
Iiiaea iiiyoey e oa?ieiu nia?aiaiiie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u i?aaenoaaeytho
i?yiua caeinoaiaaiey: “?anioaeeea”, “eiinoeoooeey”, “iaiaeao”,
“aeiaeeeaoeey”, “iaeeaaoeey” e o.ae. E oioy niune yoeo iiiyoee auaaao
oaea cia/eoaeueii ioaeaeai io naiaai ia?aienoi/ieea, eco/aiea
enoi?e/aneeo niiinoaaeaiee ieacuaaaony iaaaniieaciui. E a yoii ioiioaiee
?eineia i?aai ieacuaaaony /anoueth iiciaiey oaea aiieia nia?aiaiiie
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee e i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u.

1.2 Nenoaia ?eineiai i?aaa

Iiiyoea i?aaa.

Iaicia/aieth iauaai iiiyoey i?aaa— ai anai iiiaeanoaa i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
iooaieia e niioiioaiee —neoaeeei eaoeineia neiai jus, eiathuaa
ae?aaiaeoaa, aua eiaeia?eeneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. A enoiaeiii,
oeeieiae/aneii cia/aiee yoiai neiaa (iin?aaenoaii /aai au?aaeaaony e
iauaa aeooiaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u i oie eee eiie
eaoaai?ee) ionoonoaoao eaeia-eeai nii?yaeaiea n i?aaenoaaeaieai i
ni?aaaaeeeaii, iiaeiaii oiio eae a aiaeiae/iia ?onneia neiai “i?aai”
eiiaiaioii aioei iiiyoea “i?aaiou”, “i?aaaeu”. Ecia/aeueiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?aaa a ?eineii th?eaee/aneii iaeoiaea auei eeoaii
iooaiea ii?aeueiiai aeieaeainoaiaaiey, i?aai iieaaaaony oieueei eae
iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aeaiiinoue — e yoi aiieioeeinue ai anae nenoaia
eaoaai?ee, naycuaaaiuo n iauei iiiyoeai i?aaa.

Iiiyoea i?aaa, jus, eiaei /enoi nioeeaeueioth iaiieiaiiinoue. A yoii
ioiioaiee ?eieyia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee fas eae onoaiiaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey e jus eae onoaiiaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai iauaaeeoey. Ia?aia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?iae nayuaiiiai, aaeeiiaeaeu e iaanaaaea a
iaeciaiiii aeaea onoaiiaeaiiiai i?aaa, ia?aaeaiiiai ethaeyi a aeaea
iaueo caaaoia aeey iaoeinieoaeueiiai neaaeiaaiey, ia iiaeaa?aeaiiiai
niiiaieth e eoeaaiio enoieeiaaieth, aa?aioe?iaaiiiai Aiaeanoaaiiui
aiciacaeeai; aeaaiaeaoaeueiinoue i?aaeia/a?oaiee e o?aaiaaiee fas
neaaeoao ec i?acoiioeee aai iaoiieeiie aoiaiiinoe. Fas ii?aaeaeyao
niaith eae au aiaoiea ?aiee nouanoaiaaiey iaueiu (nayoinoue
ainoai?eeinoaa, niaethaeaiea iaaeaeoiaueiiuo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia, noaoon aeaau ?iaea eee iaueiu), e naieoeeae ca aai ia?ooaiey
neaaeoao ecaiaiea ec iaueiu eee “i?aaeaiea aiea aiaia”. Jus — yoi
aioo?aiiaa i?aai iaueiu, oi?ie?oaony iii iauanoaaiiui niaeaneai aac
anyeiai o/anoey aunoeo nee, e aai iaycaoaeueiinoue iniiauaaaony eeai ia
oeaeaniia?aciinoe neaaeiaaiey i?aaeienaiiiio, eeai ia aeanoiie
i?eioaeeoaeueiinoe. Fas lex divina, jus lex humana est.

Yoeiieiaey neiaa jus, eioi?ay au iicaieeea oi/iaa oa?aeoa?eciaaoue
iiiyoea i i?aaa, e?aaoaieueiia aeey ?eineie th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?u, ia
ynia. Aeeaeaeoea niiinoaaeaiey, eioi?ua i?eiyoi aeaeaoue, naiaeyony e
aiaeiaeyi c jussum (i?eeac, iiaaeaiea) e n eiaiai aa?oiaiiai aiaeanoaa
?eineiai ycu/aneiai iaioaiia Jupiter; e a ia?aii e ai aoi?ii neo/aa
aaeeinoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie enoiaeiiai iiiyoey i i?aaa noaiiaeony
aeanoiay iaycaoaeueiinoue, iie?athuayny ia iiae/eiaiea neea.

Iiiyoea i?aaa a ?eineie th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?a eiaei iiiai ?aciuo
nii?yaeaiee. I?aaii iiaee iaicia/aoueny i?aaeea iauaaeeoey a ioee/ea io
i?aaia e iau/aaa. I?aai iiaei icia/aoue ii?aaeaeaiiia iauanoaaiiia eee
ainoaea?noaaiiia ninoiyiea — a ioee/ea io aani?aaey. Iaeiiaoe, i?aai
iiaei neeaaoueny n aieaa iauei iiiyoeai i?aaiii?yaeea aiiaua. Oai aea
neiaii iiaea iaicia/aoueny niaieoiiinoue ii?i, ioee/athuayny ii naiaio
enoi/ieeo: i?aai aiaeanoaaiiia — i?aai /aeiaa/aneia; ii naiaio
oi?iaeueiiio oa?aeoa?o: i?aai ienaiia — i?aai iaienaiia; ii
enoi?e/aneiio cia/aieth: i?aai iiaia — i?aai ae?aaiaa. Jus iaicia/aei e
noauaeoeaiia i?aai: i?aai eiai-eeai ia au?aaeaiea aiee, ia caaauaiea, ia
aauue, eee aeaaea aieaa ocei — ia ioeac io iiaeoia. Ianiio?y ia
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue naieo cia/aiee, aeey oiai /oiau auoue ?anniao?eaaaiui
a ea/anoaa th?eaee/aneiai i?aaa, o.a. ooieoeeiie?othuaai a noa?a
?aaoee?iaaiey th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee, iiieii aeanoiie
i?eioaeeoaeueiinoe, i?aai aeieaeii ioaa/aoue iaeioi?ui iniiaiui
e?eoa?eyi.

I?aai iiaeao eiaoue noauaeoeaiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, ii ia noauaeoeaiia,
/enoi eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea. A iai aeieaeia i?enoonoaiaaoue
iaua/aeiaa/aneay oeaeaniia?aciinoue: “I?aaa onoaiiaeaiu ia aeey aaeeiie
ia?niiu, ii aeey iauaai cia/aiey”. Caoai, i?aai aeieaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoue
naiaai ?iaea ia?o iauanoaaiiiai niaeaney ioiineoaeueii oao eee eiuo
aii?inia iauaaeeoey: “Ana i?aai aaaaeaii niaeaoaieai, eee onoaiiaeaii
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, eee cae?aieaii iau/aai”. Yoi, neaaeoy ?eineiio
eeanne/aneiio th?enoo Iiaeanoeio, naiaai ?iaea iauanoaaiiua enoi/ieee
i?aaa, e iaee/ea eiie?aoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey (ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai e
i?eiyoiai o?aaeeoeeae enoi/ieea) yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie /a?oie aeey iaai.
Iaeiiaoe iicaeiaeoaa enoi?e/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iiieiaiea i?aaa
aioe/iie oeeinioee noieoeecia aeeth/eea a niaea?aeaiea i?aaa oeaiiinoiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey: “I?aaeienaiey i?aaa nooue neaaeothuea: /anoii aeeoue ia
inei?aeyoue ae?oaiai, aicaeaaaoue eaaeaeiio aeieaeiia”.

Aeaaiui e?eoa?eai nianoaaiii th?eaee/aneiai i?aaa (a ioee/ea io
ioaea/aiiuo iiiyoee – anoanoaaiiia i?aai, aiaeanoaaiiia i?aai eoea/iia
i?aai e o. i.) yaeyaony aai au?aaeaiiinoue a eiie?aoiuo th?eaee/aneeo
ii?iao, i?aaenoaaeythueo eae oi?io nouanoaiaaiey i?aaa oae e
i?aiaeaaeathuee aeae aai aeeciaiiiai i?eiaiaiey a th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea

Eeanneoeeaoeey th?eaee/aneeo ii?i.

TH?eaee/aneay ii?ia (norma agendi) ninoaaeyao au?aaeaiea i?aaiaie aiee
noauaeoa oi?aaiii/aiiiai ia yoi anai aeaiiui niiauanoaii eee ia?iaeii;
iiyoiio iia iacuaaeanue iauaeoeaiui i?aaii a ioee/ea io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iioaioeeaeueiiai i?aaiii/ey, eee noauaeoeaiiai i?aaa.
Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeeo ii?i naiaeeony iaueiiaaiii e ianeieueeei iaeaieaa
iauei enoi?e/aneei iiiyoeyi eee enoi?eei-eiae/aneei i?ioeaaeo?ai.

TH?eaee/aneay ii?ia iiaeao auoue (1) iaiin?aaenoaaiii onoaiiaeaia
i?aaeienaieai enoi/ieea, eiathuaai i?aaiaoth neeo – iau/ay caeiia,
noaeaaiie i?aeoeee; oaeay ii?ia, eae i?aaeei, ii?aaeaeaiia e
iaeiicia/ia. Ii?ia iiaeao auoue (2) onoaiiaeaia iooai enoieeiaaiey iaueo
eee eiie?aoiuo i?aaeienaiee enoi/ieea i?aaa, i?e/ai yoi enoieeiaaiea
aeieaeii iiae/eiyoueny ii?aaeaeaiiui au?aaioaiiui i?aaeeai. Enoieeiaaiea
iiaeao auoue eaaaeueiui eee aeieo?eiaeueiui; ia?aia anoue ?acuyniaiea
ii?iu n iiiiuueth eiie?aoiuo ii?i, ii/a?iioouo ec oiai aea eee
?iaenoaaiiiai i?aaiaiai enoi/ieea — oiai aea caeiia, oiai aea
iinoaiiaeaiey noaea e o.ae. Eaaaeueiia oieeiaaiea eiaao neeo, ?aaioth
nianoaaiii enoieeiauaaaiie ii?ia, iineieueeo a no?iaii niunea, i?e
niaethaeaiee iieiiou e eiae/aneeo i?aaee, ia nicaeaao ie/aai iiaiai.
Aeieo?eiaeueiia enoieeiaaiea – yoi ?acuyniaiea ii?iu ia iniiaaiee iauaai
iiieiaiey neia (oiaaea iii niaoeeaeueii iacuaaaony a?aiiaoe/aneia
enoieeiaaiea) eee ianoiyoaeuenoa nouanoaiaaiey caeiia (eiae/aneia
enoieeiaaiea). Aeey iieiiai e i?aaeeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i ea/anoaa
th?eaee/aneie ii?iu ?eineay i?aaiaay eoeueoo?a o?aaiaaea anaiauaiethuaai
enoieeiaaiey: “Ciaoue caeiiu — yoi ia i?eaea?aeeaaoueny eo neia, ii neeu
e cia/aiey”. Ii naiei oi?iaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi enoieeiaaiea iiaei auoue
?ani?ino?aieoaeueiui, eiaaea ii?ia ia?aiineeanue ia oaeea ioiioaiey,
eioi?ua aoeaaeueii yoei i?aaiaui enoi/ieeii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue, ii
auee au i?aaeoniio?aiu, anee au i?aaiia?aciaaoaeue eo einioeny, e
ia?aie/eoaeueiui, eiaaea eniieiaiea iaeioi?uo oneiaee i?aaeaeueii
noaeaei aeaenoaea enoieeiauaaaiie ii?iu. Iaeiiaoe, th?eaee/aneay ii?ia
iiaeao auoue auieeaia (3) iooai aiaeiaee, o.a. ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeaenoaey
?iaenoaaiiuo ii?i ia iniiaaiee oiaeaeanoaa i?aaiauo ia/ae. Ia ana
th?eaee/aneea neo/ae iiaee auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu eiie?aoiuie
?anii?yaeaieyie enoi/ieeia i?aaa, e anee i?eioeei ?aoaiey oaeeo aeae
ynai, oi ie/oi ia aeieaeii inoaiaaeeaaoue io ?aoaiey ii nouanoao,
i?eiaiyy eee aiaeiaeth eiie?aoiie ii?iu, eee iauaai i?aaeienaiey i?aaa:
Ubi eadem legis ratio, ibi eadem legis dispositio.

A ioiioaiee ea/anoaaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee th?eaee/aneeo ii?i iaeaieaa
aaaeiuie neaaeoao i?eciaoue neaaeothuea: ii oa?aeoa?o, ii
i?aainiaea?aeaieth e ii iauaio i?aaiaiai aeaenoaey.

Ii oa?aeoa?o th?eaee/aneea ii?iu iiaoo aiieiuaoue no?iaia i?aai (jus
strictum) eee ni?aaaaeeeaia i?aai (jus aequum et bonum). Ia?aua
oi?ie?othony oi/iui i?aaeienaieai enoi/ieea i?aaa eae a ioiioaiee
iauaia, oae e a ioiioaiee iauaeoa e ianoiyoaeuenoa th?eaee/aneiai
aeaenoaey, ia aeiioneatho ioeeiiaiee i?e eo i?eiaiaiee, aeanoee e
iaeciaiiu. Aoi?ua oi?ie?othony oeacaieai enoi/ieea i?aaa ia iauee
i?eioeei th?eaee/aneiai ?aoaiey neooaoeee, aeiioneatho ioeeiiaiey a
caaeneiinoe io ianoiyoaeuenoa, ee/iinoe o/anoieeia i?aaiia?ooaiey.
“Ni?aaaaeeeaia i?aai” i?aaenoaaeyao aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue
i?aaioai?/anoaa, oioy e cia/eoaeueii ineiaeiythuaa th?eaee/aneoth
i?aeoeeo, o?aaothuaa aieaa niaa?oaiiie th?eni?oaeaioeee. Iaoiieeiia
i?eiaiaiea “no?iaiai i?aaa” aucuaaei a ?eineie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?a
inoaeaeaiea, iineieueeo iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi ii?iu i?aaa nouanoaotho
ia naie ii naaa, a aeey oeaeae /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Au?aaeaieai yoiai
ioiioaiey noaea iiaiai?ea Summum jus summa injuria.

Ii naiaio i?aaiaiio niaea?aeaieth th?eaee/aneea ii?iu iiaoo
i?aaenoaaeyoue i?eioaeeoaeueiia i?aai (jus cogens) e ?ac?aoeoaeueiia,
eee aeicaieeoaeueiia, i?aai (jus dispositum). Niune i?aaiaiai
i?aaeienaiey ?eineia i?aai oniao?eaaei a oii, /oiau “iiaaeaaaoue,
cai?auaoue, ?ac?aoaoue, iaeacuaaoue”. I?eioaeeoaeueiua ii?iu ia
aeiioneatho naiaiaeiiai oniio?aiey o/anoieeia i?aaiauo ioiioaiee, iie
o?aaotho oieueei i?aaeienaiiiai iiaaaeaiey, ia iiaoo eciaiyoueny ii
oniio?aieth o/anoieeia i?aaiioiioaiee. Oaeiau a aieueoeinoaa ii?iu, ia
eioi?uo iniiauaathony ioiioaiey a?aaeaeai e ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea
ioaeaeueiua einoeooou a?aaeaeaineie aeecie iauanoaaiiie cia/eiinoe
(a?ae, ainieoaiea aeaoae neaaeiaaiea ii?iai i?aanoaaiiinoe e o.ae.).
I?eioaeeoaeueiua ii?iu a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeythony ia
iiaaeeoaeueiua, eee i?aaeienothuea, eioi?ua iaeiicia/ii oeacuaatho ia
niaea?aeaiea aeieaeiiai i?aaiaiai iiaaaeaiey — iai?eia?, iaycaiiinoue
ainieouaaoue nianoaaiiuo aeaoae, e ia cai?aoeoaeueiua, eioi?ua
oeacuaatho ia inoaeaeaaiia i?aaiaia iiaaaeaiea (aac?acee/ii i?yiui ee
ia?ooaieai eee “anaai eeoue” a iaoiae caeiia) e, eae i?aaeei,
iiae?acoiaaatho iaeacaiea ca yoe ia?ooaiey — oaeiau ana i?aaeienaiey
oaieiaiiai i?aaa. Aeicaieeoaeueiua ii?iu i?aaeinoaaeytho o/anoieeai
i?aaiioiioaiee, iiae?acoiaaay eo ?aaiii?aaiuie e ?aaiicia/iuie,
aiciiaeiinoue naiei ii?aaeaeeoue oi?io ?aaeecaoeee aeicaieaiiiai
i?aaiaiai iiaaaeaiey. Aieueoeinoai ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey ii
iiaiaeo eiouanoa, naeaeie e o.i., ioiinyony e aeeniiceoeaiui. I?e/ai
eiie?aoiue aeae naieo yoeo ii?i e nicaeaaony, eae i?aaeei, iooai
naiaiaeiiai enoi?e/aneiai auai?a a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa.

Ii iauaio i?aaiaiai aeaenoaey th?eaee/aneea ii?iu iiae?acaeaeythony ia
i?aai iauaa (jus generale) e i?aai eneeth/eoaeueiia, eee niaoeeaeueiia
(jus speciale). Iauaa i?aai au?aaeaao iauee niune enoi/ieea i?aaa ii
iiaiaeo ?aaoeyoeee oiai eee eiiai aii?ina i?aaiioiioaiee, yoa ii?iu
i?eiaiythony anaaaea, anee iao i?yiiai oeacaiey ia iniaaiiinoe
th?eaee/aneie ioeaiee ?anniao?eaaaiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa i?eiaieoaeueii e
oai eee ae?oaei oneiaeyi. Iauaa i?aai iiaeao i?aaenoaaaoue a aeaea aeaoo
eaoaai?ee: i?aaa iaueiiaaiiiai (jus commune), caeeth/athuaai anaiaua
i?eiyoua iieiaeaiey, eee i?aaa iniaaiiiai (jus singulare), eioi?ui
i?aaiecothony aeiioneaaiua iaueie ?aieaie i?aaiaie ?aaoeyoeee
ionooieaiey eee ioeeiiaiey io iaeiicia/iuo iaueo i?eioeeiia. Ii?iu
iniaaiiiai i?aaa oi?ie?iaaeenue ionooieaieyie aaeaeo eaeie-eeai
iauanoaaiiie iieuecu, a eo iniiaa i?aaeiieaaaeanue ni?aaaaeeeainoue,
eioi?ie ioaeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny. A neeo oaeiai oa?aeoa?a iniaaiiua
ii?iu iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue oieueei a i?aaeaeao ia?aiia/aeueii
io?aaoee?iaaiiiai n eo iiiiuueth ioiioaiey, iie ie a eiai neo/aa ia
iiaoo noaiiaeoueny enoi/ieeii aiaeiaee i?aaa, iiaeeaaeao oieueei
ia?aie/aiiiio enoieeiaaieth. Iniaaiiua ii?iu au?aaeatho, eae i?aaeei,
iaeioi?oth th?eaee/aneoth eueaioo (iai?eia?, aeey aeaiuei ecaeieoaeueiui
iiae?acoiaaaeinue iaciaiea caeiiia) eee aea ia?aaeeoee noa?uo
th?eaee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee. I?aai eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aaenoaaeyei ecuyoea
ec aeaenoaey iaueo caeiiia, onoaiiaeaiiia a ii?yaeea i?eaeeaaee e no?iai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii (i?aaiaua i?eaeeaaee eeoeo, ia ia?aoiaeyuea ii
ianeaaenoao; iniaue noaoon eiouanoaa eee eiie nianoaaiiinoe; i?eaeeaaee
ii i?aaiiniiaaieth, iai?eia?, ia?aiai e?aaeeoi?a ia ia?aii/a?aaeiinoue a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee aeieaa). I?eaeeaaee, eae e ii?iu iniaaiiiai i?aaa, ia
iiaoo auoue iauaeoii aiaeiaee e ?anoe?eoaeueiiai oieeiaaiey.
Iiae?acoiaaaeinue oaeaea, /oi eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iiaeao ianoe n
niaie eae auaiaeu aeey o/anoieea i?aaiioiioaiey, oae e ia?aiaiaiey e
aeaaea i?yioth iaauaiaeiinoue (iiae?acaeaeaiea ia aeaaii?eyoiua e oae
iacuaaaiua iaeeiciua i?eaeeaaee).

TH?eaee/aneea ii?iu, e?iia oiai, iiaee ?acee/aoueny ii a?aiaie aeaenoaey
(oieueei ia aoaeouaa a?aiy eee n iiae?acoiaieai ia?aoiie eo neeu), ii
oa??eoi?ee (iauaainoaea?noaaiiua, ianoiua, yenoa??eoi?eaeueiua), ii
ii?yaeeo i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey (ecia/aeueii a?aiaiiua ii?iu,
aiciaiiaeyaiua, iiae?acoiaaaaiua ioiaiaiiuie n i?eiyoeai iiauo ii
aeaiiiio iiaiaeo, n iaycaoaeueiie i?yiie ioiaiie e o.ae.). Yoe
iineaaeiea eeanneoeeaoeee iieo/eee iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea oieueei
i?eiaieoaeueii e ii?iai caeiia e a oaniie nayce n iauei ea/anoaii caeiia
ii ?eineiio i?aao.

Nenoaia ?eineiai i?aaa

Nenoaia ?eineiai i?aaa, ia aoaeo/e ?ac?aaioaiiie e onoaiiaeaiiie
aaeeiia?aiaiii, a neiaeeaoayny a oiaea aeeeoaeueiie o?aaeeoeee
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee e ?ac?aaioie th?eni?oaeaioeee, ioee/aaony io
io?aneaaiai (eee eiiai) iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaiauo nenoai nia?aiaiiinoe.
Aeaaiui eaaeeoeoee?othuei i?eciaeii eeanneoeeaoeee einoeoooia e a oeaeii
nenoaiu ?eineiai i?aaa yaeeinue aeaeaiea ia i?aai ioaee/iia e i?aai
/anoiia (jus publicum — jus privatum). Niaeanii iniiaiiieaaathuaio
ii?aaeaeaieth, “ioaee/iia i?aai anoue oi, eioi?ia ?anniao?eaaao
ninoiyiea ?eineiai ainoaea?noaa, /anoiia — oi, eioi?ia iinayuaii
eioa?anai ioaeaeueiuo eeoe”.

Iiae?iaiie e caeii/aiiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee yoeo aeaoo iaeanoae i?aaa a
?eineie th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?a ia neiaeeeinue, e iiae?acaeaeaiea iineei
oneiaii-eaoaai?eaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oae, ?eineee th?eno-eeannee Oeueieai a
ea/anoaa iiyniythuaai i?eia?a ioia/ae, /oi “ioaee/iia i?aai anoue oi,
/oi ia?auaii e iieiaeaieth ?eia, e nayouiyi, ae?aoeai, iaaeno?aoai…
/anoiia aea i?aai ioiineony e iieueca ioaeaeueiuo eeoe”. Niaoeeoeeaoeey
noi?ie?iaaeanue oieueei a iaeanoe i?aaicaueou e enoi/ieeia i?aaa,
i?eciaaaaiuo aeey aeaiiie noa?u aeiionoeiui. Ioaee/iia i?aai, io?aaeay
eioa?anu ?eineiai ia?iaea, iiaeeaaeaei i?aaiaie io?aia io eiaie ?eineiai
ia?iaea e eneeth/eoaeueii n aai naieoeee. O?aaeeoeeiiii iiyoiio a yoo
iaeanoue aeeth/aeenue i?eioeeiu e einoeooou, eioi?ua nia?aiaiiay
i?aaiaay eoeueoo?a ioiineo e ainoaea?noaaiiiio, aaeieieno?aoeaiiio,
oaieiaiiio, oeiainiaiio i?aao, ?aaoee?iaaieth nayuaiii-eoeueoiauo
aii?inia, iauei ia/aeai noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna (n nouanoaaiiuie
ecuyoeyie), iaeiiaoe, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio i?aao. A iaeanoue ?eineiai
/anoiiai i?aaa aioee oaeea einoeooou e i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua iicaeiaa noaee
ioiineoueny e a?aaeaeaineiio iaoa?eaeueiiio e i?ioeannoaeueiiio i?aao,
/anoe/ii e noa?a oaieiaiiai i?aaa e i?ioeanna (iineieueeo oai oea ?a/ue
ia io?aia ee/iinoe a?aaeaeaieia io ee/iinoiuo aea iinyaaoaeuenoa).
*anoiia i?aai, iiae?acoiaaaeinue, io?aaeaei eioa?anu eiaeeaeaeooia e ia
iiaei io?aiyoueny iiieii aeaeaiey e eioa?ania ioaeaeueiiai eeoea. Naie
enoi/ieee i?aai /a?iaei ia oieueei a iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo onoaiiaeaieyo,
ii e a aiea /anoiuo eeoe; a o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai i?aaa noi?ie?iaaeinue
i?eciaiea iiyoiio /anoiuo niaeaoaiee a yoie iaeanoe eae eiathueo neeo
iauai?aaiauo onoaiiaeaiee.

Acaeiiioiioaiey o?aaiaaiee ioaee/iiai e /anoiiai i?aaa oaeaea auee
io?aaoee?iaaiu oneiaii. Eaoaai?e/ii i?eciaaaeinue, /oi “ioaee/iia i?aai
iaeuecy iaiyoue /anoiuie niaeaoaieyie”, iaeiaei a no?iaii niunea yoi
icia/aei eeoue, /oi aii?inu, i?eciaiiua i?aaeiaoaie ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioaee/iiai i?aaa, ia iiaoo ?aaoee?iaaoueny niaeaoaieyie /anoiuo eeoe, e
aiana ia o?aaiaaei, /oiau naeaeee /anoiiai oa?aeoa?a neaaeiaaee
onoaiiaeaieyi ainoaea?noaa (iai?eia?, niaeaoaiea aeaoo eeoe i ii?yaeea
aeayoaeueiinoe noaeaaiuo i?aaiia eee oi?ia nai?a iaeiaia a ai?iaea
ecia/aeueii ia iiaei eiaoue ieeaeeo th?eaee/aneeo iineaaenoaee, a oii
/enea e aeey naieo yoeo aeaoo eeoe, aoaeo/e i?eieoeaiie o?aoie a?aiaie e
th?eaee/aneeo iaaueia). Aianoa n oai iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi o?aaiaaiey
ioaee/iiai i?aaa ia aiaoeaathony a onoaiiaeaiey, o?aaeeoeeiiii
n/eoathueany noa?ie /anoiiai i?aaa, e /oi ioaee/iia i?aai oieueei
nicaeaao i?aaiaua oneiaey e aeieaeiua aa?aioee ?aaeecaoeee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-naiaiaeiiai iiaaaeaiey. Iniiaiuie iinooeaoaie anao
o?aaiaaiee /anoiiai i?aaa iieaaaeenue oaeea, /oi “ieeoi ia iiioaeaeaaony
aeaenoaiaaoue i?ioea naieo aeaeaiee” e /oi “eoi iieuecoaony naiei
i?aaii, ieeiio ia a?aaeeo”. Niioaaonoaaiii, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aaoiiiiey
ninoaaeyea i?eciaiiue i?aaeae aiaoaoaeuenoao ioaee/iiai i?aaa a yoo
iaeanoue.

Aoi?oth aaaeiaeooth iniaaiiinoue ?eineiai i?aaa, iniaaiii eeanne/aneiai
ia?eiaea, i?aaenoaaeyao ionoonoaea noieue i?eau/iie nia?aiaiiie i?aaiaie
eoeueoo?a /aoeinoe ?acaeaeaiey ia iaoa?eaeueiia e i?ioeannoaeueiia
i?aai. Aieaa oiai: ?eineia i?aai, aeaaiui ia?acii /anoiia, yoi
eiiaiaioii eneiaia i?aai; i?eciaiea nianoaaiii i?aaiii/ey noauaeoa a
ioiioaiee ee aaue, a ioiioaiee niaa?oaiey eaeiai-oi cia/eiiai
th?eaee/aneiai aeaenoaey a ?eineii i?aaa icia/aei, /oi iaee/anoaotho
oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua e onoaiiaeaiiua oi?iu i?aaiauo o?aaiaaiee — e /oi ia
iiaeao auoue ia io?aiyaiuo e ia aa?aioe?oaiuo i?aa. Ia?ac?uaiinoue
iaoa?eaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey i?aaa e aai noaeaaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai
iaania/aiey auea ia oieueei eoiaii /enoi enoi?e/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?eineiai i?aaa, ia/eiathuaainy n ii?yaeea
oeenaoeee th?eaee/aneeo aeaenoaee a iau/aa eee caeiia. Yoa
ia?ac?uaiinoue eaaeaea a iniiaa anae ?eineie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u
(aiciiaeii, yoi auei aua iaeii au?aaeaiea aa i?aeiouanoaaiiiai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia), a naith i/a?aaeue iaeaaay ioia/aoie e ia niaea?aeaiea
einoeoooia e i?eioeeiia nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa, ia iicaieyy ei
ia?anoe iieioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

1.3 Iniiaiua yoaiu enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?eineiai i?aaa

Oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea ?eineiai i?aaa eae oeaeinoiie e aaeeiie i?aaiaie
nenoaiu ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiua — eae ii naiei
caeiiiia?iinoyi, oae e ii naiaio cia/aieth aeey neiaeaiey i?eioeeiia e
einoeoooia ?eineiai i?aaa — yiioe. Ia?aay yiioa — yoi noaiiaeaiea e
?acaeoea ?eineiai i?aaa a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiinoe Ae?aaiaai ?eia e a
nayce n iauae aioe/iie eoeueoo?ie (VIII a. aei i.y.— V a.i.y.). Aoi?ay
yiioa — yoi aini?eyoea enoi?e/aneie o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai i?aaa ae?oaeie
ia?iaeaie a ?aieao nianoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a eioa?anao ee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee, a oeaeyo ee th?eaee/aneie
iaoee e ia?aciaaiey (n VI a. i.y. ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy). Oioy eiaiii ia
aoi?oth yiioo i?eoiaeeony niaea?aeaoaeueiue e oi?iaeueiue ?anoeaao
?eineiai i?aaa, aioe/iia ?eineia i?aai, i?aai Ae?aaiaai ?eia, i?eiyoi
eaaeeoeoee?iaaoue eae eeanne/aneia ?eineia i?aai, i?aaenoaaeythuaa
ia?acaoe aeiaiaoe/aneie eiino?oeoeee e iiieiaiey ?acee/iuo einoeoooia.

?acaeoea ?eineiai i?aaa a yiioo Ae?aaiaai ?eia.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iao/iuo ia?eiaeecaoeee ?eineiai i?aaa aioe/iie
yiioe. A caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie th?eaee/aneie iaoea ?ani?ino?aiaiiie noaea,
iinea o?oaeia aiaeeeneiai enoi?eea Y. Aeaaiia e iaiaoeeiai ?iiaienoa A.
Aoai, aeaeaiea yoie yiioe ia /aou?a ia?eiaea, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea
cia/aiea a oio eee ae?oaie ia?eiae enoi/ieeia i?aaa (io iau/iiai i?aaa e
eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiiio) eee ?acaeoea ?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee. A ?inneeneie
?iiaienoeea ooaa?aeeeanue aia?aua ?ac?aaioaiiay E.Ae. Iaaieeiui (na?.
XIX a.) o?aocaaiiay ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?ee i?aaa a nayce n enoi?eae
?eineiai ainoaea?noaa: oea?neee, ?anioaeeeaineee, eiia?aoi?neee
ia?eiaeu. A nia?aiaiiie ?iiaienoeea iaua?ani?ino?aiaiiui noaei
iiae?acaeaeaiea aioe/iie yiioe ?eineiai i?aaa ia 4 ia?eiaea, ii n
ae?oaeie niaea?aeaoaeueiuie ?acee/eyie ia?eiaeia. I?eioeeieaeueiiai
cia/aiey aeey eaaeeoeeaoeee nianoaaiii ?eineiai i?aaa yoe ?acee/ey a
ia?eiaeecaoeee ia eiatho, iineieueeo a ethaii neo/aa iaia/atho oieueei
naiua iauea e oneiaiua yoaiu enoi?e/aneeo eciaiaiee.

Ia?aue ia?eiae (VIII a. — III a. aei i.y.) oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae ia?eiae
ia/aeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey ?eineiai i?aaa. Ana aai i?eioeeiu e einoeooou
iiae/eiaiu o?aaeeoeee iaaeeaiii eiiathuaainy a nioeeaeueiii niunea
iao?ea?oaeueii-iaueiiiai no?iy, i?aai nouanoaoao oieueei a ?aieao
iao?ea?oaeueiie ?eineie iaueiu, aeey /eaiia iaueiu e ?aaee nio?aiaiey aa
oeaiiinoae e aianoa n oai i?eaeeaaee, iii ia?ac?uaii n th?eaee/aneie
i?aeoeeie ae?aoeia-iiioeoeeia, i?iiecaii nae?aeueiui, e iioiio
oi?iaeueii-eiina?aaoeaiui ia/aeai. A yoio ia?eiae ioia/aaony noaiiaeaiea
aeaaiuo aeaeia enoi/ieeia ?eineiai i?aaa, ia?aoiae io iau/iiai i?aaa e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e iniiaaiiie ia iai iinoiyiiie
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. A V a. aei i. y. auea inouanoaeaia ia?aay
eiaeeoeeaoeey ?eineiai i?aaa a aeaea caiene-ecaeaiey ciaiaieouo Caeiiia
XII Oaaeeoe, eioi?ua ia aeieaea aaea noaee ioi?aaiuie aeey anao iaeanoae
?eineiai i?aaa. ?eineia i?aai a yoio ia?eiae i?aaenoaaeyao yaii
au?aaeaiiia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia i?aai — o.i. eae?eoneia i?aai, eioi?ia ia
oieueei ioaeaeyao /eaiia ?eineie iaueiu io ia ?eieyi, ii e iineo
nineiaiue oa?aeoa? aeaaea aioo?e ?eia. Eae?eoneia i?aai eiina?ae?iaaei
iao?ea?oaeueiia no?iaiea naiuee n aaconeiaiui ainiiaenoaii
aeiiiaeaaeuee, a aai ?aieao ia auei ?acaeoiai i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e
anaai oiai, /oi caeiiiia?ii iaoneaaeeaaao ia?auaiea oaeie nianoaaiiinoe;
ioiioaiey a?aaeaeainoaa caeai/eaaeenue ia ii?iaa ?eineiai aeiia e
ii?aaeaeyee oieueei aiaiii-iauanoaaiioth e ?aeeaeicioth aeayoaeueiinoue
oceiai e?oaa aeaa ?iaeia e naiae a o?aaeeoeeyo, ainoiaeyueo aua e
a?aiaiai aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee e aeanoe aiaeaeae — oea?ae.

Aoi?ie ia?eiae (III a. — II a. aei i. y.) — ia?aoiaeiue,
i?aaeeeanne/aneee. I?aaeiinueeie i?aaiaiai aeaeaeaiey noaea nioeeaeueiay
oieoeeaoeey ?eineie iaueiu, noe?aiea i?eioeeieaeueiuo a?aiae iaaeaeo
iao?eoeeainoaii e ieaaayie. A yoio ia?eiae i?ienoiaeeo cae?aieaiea a
o?aaeeoeee ia/ae aeayoaeueiinoe anao einoeoooia ?eineie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e noaeaaiie nenoaiu, ia?yaeo n iauaia?iaeiui
ainoaea?noaaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?aaeaeythuoth aeey aeaeaeaiey
i?aaa ?ieue noaei ea?aoue noaeaeneia e iaaeno?aoneia i?aaioai?/anoai,
i?aeoe/anee ?aci?aaaoaa nayce n iiioeoeeaeueiie th?eni?oaeaioeeae e
?aeeaeiciui oieeiaaieai. Ia ianoi no?iai oi?iaeueiie th?eaee/aneie
i?aeoeee i?eoiaeeo eiioeaioeey ooaa?aeaeaiey ni?aaaaeeeainoe, /oi
iicaieyao aeaeaoue noaeaaiia i?aaii?eiaiaiea aieaa nia?aiaiiui,
o/eouaathuei oneiaeiaiea a?aaeaeaineie aeecie e iiauo eieeecee.
Oi?ie?oaony nenoaia e i?aeoeea aa?aioe?othueo eneia, eioi?ua aeeth/atho
a naay eiie?aoiua o?aaiaaiey n iiae?acoiaieai iiea nianoaaiii
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa. Ia o?aaiaaiey i?aaa ia/eiatho ieacuaaoue
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea a?a/aneay oeeinioey e a?a/aneea i?aaiaua aeieo?eiu.
E yoiio aea ia?eiaeo ioiineony e ia/aei aoaeouae ciaiaieoie o?aaeeoeee
?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee e naycaiiie n iath /anoiie i?aeoeee, noaeaaiiai
e?anii?a/ey.

O?aoee ia?eiae (I a. aei i. y. — III a. i. y.) — eeanne/aneee aeey anae
yiioe aioe/iiai ?eineiai i?aaa. A oneiaeyo aeeeoaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai
e?ecena Ae?aaiaai ?eia (I a. aei i. y. — ia/. I a. i. y.), ?aniaaea
?anioaeeeaineeo onoaiiaeaiee e ooaa?aeaeaiey iiia?oee i?ienoiaeeo
oi?ie?iaaiea i?eioeeiia ioaee/iiai i?aaa eae i?aaa, au?aaeathuaai
noaa?aieoao ?eineiai ia?iaea, a caoai ia?ainiuneaiea n eo oi/ee c?aiey
iiaiai iiia?oe/aneiai no?iy. Iaeiia?aiaiii neeaaeuaaaony oaieiaiia i?aai
a nia?aiaiiii niunea n aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiuie iauaeoaie i?aaiaie
io?aiu e i?eioeeiaie i?eiaiaiey. A oneiaeyo ?anoe?aiey ?eineie eiia?ee e
eiino?oe?iaaiey iiae iaa nioeeaeueiuo iii? oi?ie?oaony iauee i?aaiaie
noaoon naiaiaeiiai a?aaeaeaieia, iia?e?othuaai naiui oe?ieei niaeo?ii
iaoi?iaeueii oieeoaiuo, iniiaaiiuo ia no?aieaiee e i?aaiaie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ?aaainoao a ?aieao a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee
einoeoooia nianoaaiiinoe, aeaaeaiey, aeaeia aeicaieaiiuo e io?aiyaiuo
i?aaii naeaeie, i?aaiauo o?aaiaaiee e o.ae. E yoiio a?aiaie ioiineony
?anoeaao ?eineie th?eaee/aneie iaoee e noaeaaiie th?eni?oaeaioeee
(aeayoaeueiinoue I.O. Oeeoea?iia), i?e/ai a iaoea oi?ie?oaony oaea
nouanoaaiii ?acee/athueany oa/aiey iunee, e aa?eaiou i?aaiiiieiaiey
ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia iauee oiae th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee. Iaeiiaoe,
a eaeaeii-oeeinioneii niunea iaoea e th?eaee/aneay i?aeoeea eniuouaatho
iiuiia aicaeaenoaea oeeinioee noieoeecia, e yoi io?aaeaaony aeaaea a
iaiiaeyaiii iiieiaiee i?eioeeiia e einoeoooia /anoiiai i?aaa.

*aoaa?oue ia?eiae (IV — V aa. i. y.) — a?aiy ia/eiathuaeny
o?ainoi?iaoeee ?eineiai i?aaa ec i?aaiaie nenoaiu, i?eniiniaeaiiie
oieueei e ioaeaeai aioe/iiai iauanoaa e niaoeeoe/aneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, a nenoaio, i?eaiaeioth aeey ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo e
iieeoe/aneeo oneiaee. ?acaeoea eiia?aoi?neiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e aai
i?aeiouanoaaiiia cia/aiea iaiyao e?oa enoi/ieeia i?aaa e eo
niiinoaaeoaeueioth cia/eiinoue; i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie i?aaa e
enoi/ieeii ii?i noae caeii, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeei e
ianiiiaiiiio iainoaea?noaeaieth i?aaa. Noaeaaiue i?ioeann oaeaea
noaiiaeony ia?acaeaeei n ainoaea?noaaiiui aaeieieno?e?iaaieai. A yoeo
oneiaeyo ?aaeueiui enoi?e/aneei oaeoi?ii noaea oeaeinoiay i?aaiaay
iieeoeea aeanoe, i?aia?acothuay (aaeaeo nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania e
?acoiaiey) ia/aea e einoeooou i?aaa. ?eineia i?aai, a aeaaiaeoeo naieo
enoi/ieeao, iaiaeiie?aoii eiaeeoeoee?oaony, ia iniiaa /aai oi?ie?oaony
iiaia ioiioaiea e ii?ia i?aaa eae aaconeiaii iaycaoaeueiiio i?aaiaiio
o?aaiaaieth ia oieueei ii niuneo, ii e ii aoeaa; a ecaanoiuo iaiai?eao
aic?iaeaeaaony ia iiaii o?iaia th?eaee/aneee oi?iaeeci. I?eniinaaeeaay
noa?ua aeaoeieoeee e iiaui i?aaiaui oneiaeyi, th?eaee/aneay iaoea e
i?aeoeea aeaoi?ie?oao iiiaea eaiiiu e einoeooou eeanne/aneiai i?aaa; ii
iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei aea aeinoeaaaony ia?niaeoeaiia aeey aeaeaeaiey
ie?iaie eoeueoo?u i?aaa aano?aae?iaaiea aeiaiaoe/aneiai niaea?aeaiey
einoeoooia e i?aaiiieiaeaiee. Iaeiiaoe, a yoi a?aiy ia/eiaaony iiaia
eaeaeii-oeeinioneia aeeyiea ia ?eineia i?aai e aai eaiiiu — aeeyiea
o?enoeainoaa, canoaaeaoaa ia?ainiuneeoue iiiaea iauea ia/aea e iinooeaou
i?aaeiaai i?aaa, ii caoi iaania/eaoaa iin?aaenoaii yoiai aai
i?eniiniaeaiea e iiaie enoi?e/aneie aeecie.

Enoi?e/aneia aini?eyoea ?eineiai i?aaa.

Iaaeaiea Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee, nianoaaiii o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?eineiai
ainoaea?noaa, a V a. i. y. (476 a.) caaa?oeei ia?aoth yiioo enoi?ee
?eineiai i?aaa. Iineaaeothuay enoi?e/aneay aeeciue ?eineiai i?aaa a
oneiaeyo eiuo ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee, ae?oaie
eoeueoo?u e ae?oaeo a oeaeii nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee ieoaeanue nianoaaiiuie
enoi?e/aneeie ei?iyie. A aeaaiii yoa enoi?e/aneay aeeciue naiaeeony e
i?yiiio i?iaeieaeaieth o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai i?aaa, e ?aoeaioeee aai e
aoiaeaeaieth a eioth th?eaee/aneoth i?aeoeeo, e iao/iiio, iaeiiaoe,
inaiaieth oeeinioee e aeiaiu ?eineiai i?aaa. Yoe o?e yaeaiey e
ninoaaeytho niaea?aeaiea aoi?ie yiioe a enoi?ee ?eineiai i?aaa,
ia/eiathuaeny n i?aaiaie o?aaeeoeee Aecaioee e i?iaeieaeathuaeny a
ecaanoiii niunea ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

I?aaiaay eoeueoo?a Aecaioeeneie eiia?ee, auaoae n IV a. i. y.
iainiaeaiiie /anoueth ?eineie, a a V — XV aa. aaeeinoaaiiui enoi?e/aneei
i?iaeieaeaoaeai o?aaeeoeee ?eineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aeaea, ii nooe,
aoi?oth enoi?e/aneoth aeeciue ?eineiio i?aao. Yoa o?aaeeoeey iiiaia
ia?aiaieea a niaea?aeaiee e nenoaia eeanne/aneiai ?eineiai i?aaa, ii
oaea n o/aoii oaeeo ia?aiai ?eineia i?aai eaaei a iniiaaiea i?aaiauo
nenoai iiiaeo ia?iaeia iicaeiaeoae yiioe. Aeey iauae enoi?ee ?eineie
i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u aaaeiaeoeie iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea eoiae
aecaioeeneie o?aaeeoeee. (1) A aecaioeeneia a?aiy ?eineia i?aai ia?aei
naioth iieioth (e aaeaa ee ia eeanne/aneoth ii naiei i?eioeeiai ai anae
ie?iaie i?aaiaie enoi?ee) eiaeeoeeaoeeth — o.i. Naiae THnoeieaia; iiieii
niaea?aeaoaeueiiai e oi?iaeueiiai aa cia/aiey aeey einoeoooia i?aaa yoa
eiaeeoeeaoeey aicuiaea iniaoth iieeoeei-i?aaiaoth ?ieue — au?aaeaiiue a
iae, ooaa?aeaeaiiue ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth Caeii noae anee e ia
aaeeinoaaiiui ia iineaaeothuaa, oi aaconeiaii i?ei?eoaoiui enoi/ieeii
i?aaa. ?ac?uaay n aaeiaie o?aaeeoeeae, ca ?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeeae
nio?aieeanue ioiuia ?ieue oieueei enoieeiaaoaey i?aaa, ii ia
?aaiicia/auaai i?aaioai?oea. (2) Aiiaue eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiia ?eineia i?aai
aecaioeeneiai ia?acoea — iniaaiii Eiaeaen THnoeieaia e aai Iiaaeeu (ni.
§1.5)— noaee iniiaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeie iiaie iaeanoe i?aaiaie
eoeueoo?u — oea?eiaiiai i?aaineaaiiai i?aaa n iniaie o?aaeeoeeae
i?aaiauo iaiyoieeia (o.i. Iiiieaiiiu), iniauie noa?aie ?aaoee?iaaiey,
iniauie einoeoooaie — i?iaeieaeathuae aeeoue, a eciaiaiiii, iaiiaeaiiii,
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiii aeaea, n noaeaiiie a oneiaeyo eiiai a?aiaie
th?enaeeeoeeae e aeiiuia. (3) A oneiaeyo aecaioeeneie o?aaeeoeee ?eineia
i?aai iauaeoeaii auei “ia?a/aii” ia auoiaaiea a ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo
naycyo — a oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa n iiuiaeoei ainoaea?noaaiiui oicyenoaii
e a o/?aaeaeaieyo ath?ie?aoe/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe
eaeaie?aoe/anee-oioaeeoa?iiai oeeiia. Aini?iecaiaeynue a ii?iao iiauo
i?aaiauo eiaeaenia — Yeeiae, I?ioe?iia, Caieaaeaeue/aneiai caeiia e
ae?., — ?eineia i?aai i?eniiniaeyeinue e ?aaoee?iaaieth ea/anoaaiii
iiauo ioiioaiee, e yoei ?anoe?yei naia aeiaiaoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea. (4)
Iniaiio eciaiaieth iiaeaa?aaeinue a aecaioeeneia a?aiy niaea?aeaiea
?eineiai ioaee/iiai i?aaa — iii aeeth/aei einoeooaeecaoeeth neeueiie
iiia?oe/aneie aeanoe e oai naiui noi?ie?iaaei iniiau aeiaiaoe/aneie
eiino?oeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaniethoecia aiiaua. (5) Iaeiiaoe, a
aecaioeeneia a?aiy a ?aieao o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai i?aaa auee nicaeaiu
iaiyoieee i?aaa — eiaeaenu (o.i. Oanoeeieaeea A?iaiiioei, 1345 a.),
eioi?ua neoaeeee i?yiui enoi/ieeii aeey th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee o ae?oaeo
ia?iaeia aieioue aei ia/aea XX a. (iai?eia?, a Aanna?aaee).

Enoi?ey ?eineiai i?aaa a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, ia/eiay io yiioe N?aaeieo
aaeia, i?aaenoaaeyao ii i?aeiouanoao i?eia? aai caeinoaiaaiey a
eioa?anao i?eniiniaeaiey e nianoaaiiie th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?a e
i?aeoeea.

Iinea iaaeaiey Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee e ?acae?iaeaiey aa ia
ioaeaeueiua ainoaea?noaa, iinea ia?aciaaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo e
iaaeieaiaa/iuo aa?aa?neeo ainoaea?noa a Aa?iia ?eineia i?aai oo?aoeei
oai cia/aiea ioeoeeaeueii-eaiiie/aneiai ia?acoea. Iiiaea ia?iaeu iiauo
ainoaea?noa ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue oi?ie?othueiny nianoaaiiui o.i. ?iaeiaui
i?aaii e nianoaaiiuie caeiiaie e eiaeaenaie. A ianenoaiaoe/aneii aeaea,
aac iauaiaycaoaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey ?eineia i?aai ia i?ioyaeaiee aoi?ie
iieiaeiu I ouny/aeaoey nio?aieeinue a i?aaa ei?ieaanoaa Ao?aoiaeia,
Aanoaioneiai ei?ieaanoaa, a ainoaea?noaa O?aieia, a Eniaiee. Caeanue, ia
iniiaa o.i. Eiaeaena Oaiaeiney (ni. 1.5.1.) auee nicaeaiu iaiiaeaiiua
nenoaiaoecaoeee: ?eineee caeii, Nia?aiea iiaaee Oaiaeiney, Yaeeeo
Oaiaei?eoa (ana — V a.). Yoe nenoaiaoecaoeee aeiiieiyee eiia?aoi?neia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeaaiui ia?acii io?uaeaie ec ?aaio th?enoia. Naiui
ecaanoiui noae ?einei-aanoaioneee caeii, eee nie?auaiea Aea?eoa
(A?aaea?ee) (506 a.). Iaeiaei n ooaa?aeaeaieai ei?ieaaneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa o aa?aa?ia cia/aiea ?eineiai i?aaa nie?aoeeinue;
eia-aaea e VIII a. aai auei cai?auaii i?eiaiyoue.

N ia/aeii eoeueoo?iiai iauaai iiaeuaia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ia ?oaaaea XI
— XII aa. i?ienoiaeeo e aic?iaeaeaiea ?eineiai i?aaa, aini?eyoea noa?uo
eeanne/aneeo, aiiaue iaia?oaeeaaaiuo e aaiaeeiuo a th?eaee/aneee e
eoeueoo?iue iaeoiae iaiyoieeia a ea/anoaa aaconeiaiuo ia?acoeia i?aaiaie
aeiaiaoeee e ?aoaiey i?aaiauo eieeecee, ia/eiaaony nianoaaiii ?aoeaioeey
?eineiai i?aaa (io receptio — noaaouaath, onaiyth).

Aic?iaeaeaiea ?eineiai i?aaa a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a ea/anoaa
naiinoiyoaeueiie iaeanoe i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u e i?aeoeee naycaii n eiaiai
ciaiaieoiai i?aaiaaaea, ?aaioaaoaai a noa?aeoai aa?iiaeneii Aieiineii
oieaa?neoaoa, E?ia?ey (ieiei 1050 — 1130 aa.) e iniiaaiiie ei o.i.
aieiineie oeieu. Ii oi?iaeueiie iaoiaea inaiaiey ?eineiai i?aaiaiai
ianeaaeey oeiea E?ia?ey iieo/eea oaeaea iacaaiea aeinnaoi?ia. Aieiineay
oeiea caiyeanue i?aeoe/aneei eco/aieai e inaiaieai Naiaea THnoeieaia e
i?eioeeiia ?eineiai i?aaa a eioa?anao nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee, aa iaoiaeu
oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue ouaoaeueiui eco/aieai enoi/ieeia, naiaiaeiia
oieeiaaiea ii?i eeanne/aneiai i?aaa iinoaiaiii onooieei ianoi oaa?aeiio
neaaeiaaieth oaenoai, a iiaaoeee naiaai iiieiaiey e aeiiieiaiey
aeiaiaoe/aneiai oieeiaaiey io?aaeaeenue a i?eia/aieyo-aeinnao e
?oeiienyi eeanne/aneeo th?eaee/aneeo oaenoia (ioeoaea e iacaaiea oeieu).

I?iaeieaeaoaeyie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie ?aoeaioeee ?eineiai i?aaa a XIII —
XIV aa. noaee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea th?enou, iauaaeeiyaiua iau/ii iiae
iauei iacaaieai eiiiaioaoi?ia eee iinoaeinnaoi?ia. Iniiau iiaiai yoaia
?aoeaioeee auee aeaeea?e?iaaiu eniaineei oeeinioii e i?aaiaaaeii
?aeioiaeii Eoeeeai (1235 — 1315 aa.); iaeaieaa ciaiaieouie th?enoaie
iiaie ieayaeu noaee eoaeueyioeu Aa?oieon (1314— 1357 aa.) e Aaeueaei
(1327 — 1400 aa.).

A oooaeeyo oeieu eiiiaioaoi?ia oa?aeoa?iui noaei no?aieaiea
noi?ie?iaaoue aaeeiue eiae/aneee ii?yaeie i?aaiaie nenoaiu e enoiaey ec
iaai auno?ieoue aeiaiaoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea anao einoeoooia. Iie
no?aieeenue aini?iecaanoe a aieueoae ia?a ia eeanne/aneea ii?iu ?eineiai
i?aaa, a aai aeoo, oai naiui nicaeaaaee aeiaiaoe/aneea eiino?oeoeee,
iniiaaiiua ia eeanne/aneii i?aaa, ii i?yii aio ia ecaanoiua — iai?eia?,
iaiauaiiia iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe. Aoi?ie iniaaiiinoueth iiaie oeieu auei
iiae/eiaiea ?eineiai i?aaa o?aaiaaieyi anoanoaaiiiai (jus naturale):
“iiceoeaiia i?aai aeieaeii naiaeeoueny e i?aao anoanoaaiiiio e n iei
niaeaniauaaoueny”. Ioe?uaay aei?iao iiaiio a th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea
naiaai a?aiaie, yoi aoi?ia no?aieaiea nouanoaaiii aeaoi?ie?iaaei
i?eioeeiu nianoaaiii ?eineiai i?aaa.

Caiiai oi?ie?oaiia oaeei ia?acii iiaia ?eineia i?aai noaei e XVI a.
aaaeouei yeaiaioii th?eaee/aneie iaoee e i?aeoeee a Eoaeee, O?aioeee,
iniaaiii a Aa?iaiee, Eniaiee. Yoa iiaay aeeciue aic?iaeaeaiiiai i?aaa
noaea iaicia/aoueny eae usus modernus Pandectarum. Noaeai, eae,
iai?eia?, a Aa?iaiee, i?yii i?aaeienuaaeinue ia?aii/a?aaeii i?eiaiyoue
ia nianoaaiiia iaoeeiiaeueiia, a iaiaeaeoiia ?eineia i?aai; e oieueei
oeacu eiia?aoi?ia eae-oi eiieo?e?iaaee a naiai cia/aiee n ?eineei
i?aaii. I?e/ai iiaiio “i?eiaiaieth” iiaeeaaeaei ?eineia i?aai a oii
eiaiii aeaea, eaeie aue nicaeai o?oaeaie aeinnaoi?ia e eiiiaioaoi?ia,
/oi eie auei “aua?ioaii” ca ae?aaiinoueth, oi e ia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae
ii?iu i?aaa. Ia?yaeo n yoei i?aeoe/aneei i?eiaiaieai ioe?uaaaoaany n
eoeueoo?ie Aic?iaeaeaiey aiiaua iniaia aieiaiea e aioe/iiio ianeaaeeth
iieiaeeei ia/aei e enoi?e/aneiio — th?eaee/aneiio e oeeieiae/aneiio —
eco/aieth ?eineiai i?aaa. O/aiua-i?aaiaaaeu caiyeenue eco/aieai
ia?aienoi/ieeia ?eineiai i?aaa, eo ecaeaieai, enoieeiaaieai a iao/iii
niunea, i/euay io iicaeiaeoeo ianeiaiee e ioaeaaay oaea ia?aainoai
eiaiii eeanne/aneiio i?aao. Naiuie ecaanoiuie ec yoiai iiaiai oa/aiey
noaee o?aioeocneea i?aaiaaaeu AE. Eoyoeee (1522 — 1590 aa.) e Ae.
Aioio?aae (1549 — 1622 aa.), i?aaenoaaeaoea Naiae THnoeieaia a oii
aeaea, a eaeii ii ecaanoai e a nia?aiaiiie iaoea, a oaeaea iaiaoeeee
oeeinio e i?aaiaaae E.A. Aaeiaeoeee (1681 — 1741 aa.), o?oaeu eioi?iai
aeeth/eee aeiaiaoeeo ?eineiai i?aaa a oeeinionei-i?aaiaoth eoeueoo?o
iiaiai a?aiaie.

N XVIII noieaoey ia/eiaaony oaea ia?eiae /enoi iao/iiai inaiaiey
?eineiai i?aaa a ?aieao oae iacuaaaiie enoi?e/aneie oeieu i?aaa,
iniiaaoaeyie eioi?ie auee aa?iaineea o/aiua A. Aoai (1764 — 1844 aa.) e
O.E. Naaeiuee (1779— 1861 aa.). Niaeanii o?aaiaaieyi iiaie oeieu,
enoeiiay nenoaia i?aaa aiiaua iiaeao auoue iino?iaia oieueei ia iniiaa
?eineiai, a aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiia iiieiaiea aeaaiuo einoeoooia i?aaa
aeaao ?eineay i?aaiaay eoeueoo?a. Iaeiaei a o?oaeao yoie oeieu aeiaia
?eineiai i?aaa auea oaeie, eaeie iia ia auea ie a eeanne/aneia a?aiy, ie
a iicaeiaeooth yiioo ?aoeaioeee, a i?aaenoaaeyea noauaeoeaiua
enoi?eei-eiae/aneea eiino?oeoeee, iieaciua a oeeinionei-i?aaiaii
ioiioaiee, ii iaei naycaiiua n nianoaaiii ?eineei i?aaii. Aianoa n oai
eicoia oeieu “iacaae e enoi/ieeai” iieiaeee iniiaaiea iiaeeeiii iao/iiio
eco/aieth enoi?ee e aeiaiaoeee ?eineiai i?aaa, n yoiai a?aiaie noaaoaai
aaaeiie iaycaoaeueiie /anoueth i?aaiaaaeaiey a oeaeii. Aeaaiaea?y oiio
i?aoaaee/aiiiio cia/aieth, eioi?ia i?eaeaaaea a XVII — XIX aa.
th?eaee/aneay iaoea e i?aeoeea oeaiiinoyi ?eineiai i?aaa,
i?aaioai?/anoai Iiaiai a?aiaie eniuoaei iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea
?eineie i?aaiaie nenoaiu e aeiaiaoeee: a o?aaeeoeeyo “iiaiai i?eiaiaiey”
auee nicaeaiu oaeea ecaanoiua e eeanne/aneea aeey iiaie yiioe eiaeaenu,
eae O?aioeocneee a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen 1804 a., Anaiauaa a?aaeaeaineia
oeiaeaiea 1811 a. e Aa?iaineia a?aaeaeaineia oeiaeaiea 1896 a. E?iia
yoiai, ia iniiaa i?aeiouanoaaiii ?eineiai i?aaa ioi?ieeanue ainoiaeyuay
aua e XIV a. oeaeay iiaay i?aaiaay nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai /anoiiai
i?aaa, ia?aua iiiuoee eiaeeoeeaoeee eioi?iai i?yii i?aaenoaaeee ?eineia
i?aai eae eioa?iaoeeiiaeueii i?eaieaiia e ?aaeecoaiia.

1.4 Enoi/ieee ?eineiai i?aaa

Iauay eiioeaioeey ?eineie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u i?aaeoniao?eaaea, /oi
o?aaiaaiey i?aaa ii?aaeaeythony, ai-ia?auo, nianoaaiiuie aeey aeaiiiai
ia?iaea onoaiiaeaieyie, eee i?aaii a?aaeaeaineei a oe?ieii niunea,
ai-aoi?uo — niaeaniaaiiinoueth n anoanoaaiiui ?acoiii iauaaeeoey,
aaeeiiiauei aeey anao ia?iaeia, eee i?aaii iauaia?iaeiui (jus gentium).
Anee ia?aia n/eoaaony aeaaiui enoi/ieeii iieeoe/aneeo e naiaeiuo
onoaiiaeaiee, oi aoi?ui “aaaaeaiu ii/oe ana aeiaiai?u”, iii neoaeeo
iniiaie aeey i?aaiecaoeee eiiia?oeee, iai?ioa e o.ae. Nianoaaiiia
aeaiiiai ia?iaea i?aai iiaeao ninoiyoue ec ienaiiai i?aaa e ec
iaienaiiai; e iineaaeiaio i?aeiouanoaaiii ioiineony iau/ae. Anoanoaaiiia
i?aai n/eoaaony iaeciaiiui, eai iii onoaiiaeaii Aiaeanoaaiiui
i?iaeaeaieai, au?aaeaao iai?aoiaeyuoth iauiinoue oneiaee iauaaeeoey. A
ioee/ea io iaai i?aai a?aaeaeaineia, eee onoaiiaeaiiia ia?iaeii, iiaeao
eciaiyoueny “eee aaciieaiui niaeaneai ia?iaea, eee ae?oaei iicaeiaeoei
caeiiii”. Yoi ienaiia e eciaiyaiia i?aai e iiaeao n/eoaoueny enoi/ieeii
ii?i i?aaa a nianoaaiiii niunea. Aioo?aiiaa iiae?acaeaeaiea, i?eiyoia a
?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee, io?aaeaei aeaeaa oaea ?acee/ey ii oi?ia
ia?aciaaiey yoeo ii?i: caeiiu e iinoaiiaeaiey ?eineiai ia?iaea,
ii?aaeaeaiey Naiaoa, oeacu aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, iinoaiiaeaiey ainoaea?y,
ioaaou eee eiinoeueoaoeee i?aaiaaaeia.

Iau/iia i?aai.

Iau/iia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyao iauaeoeaii enoiaeiue enoi?e/anee enoi/iee
ethaiai i?aaiaiai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiey a naiinoiyoaeueii ?acaeaathuainy
iauanoaa, anee ia noaiiaeoueny ia iiceoeeth i?eciaiey
aiaiaaeioiiaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iieeoe/aneeo onoaiiaeaiee. Aeey
iau/iiai i?aaa ia oa?aeoa?ia au?aaeaiiinoue aai o?aaiaaiee a ne?oioeacii
oi/iuo iinoaiiaeaieyo. Iiyoiio ii?iu, auoaeathuea ec iau/iiai i?aaa —
iniaua ii niaea?aeaieth e ii oa?aeoa?o; aeaaiui ia?acii yoi
i?eioeeieaeueiua i?aaeienaiey a?aieoe eee oeia aeicaieaiiiai i?aaiaiai
iiaaaeaiey. Caeiiiia?ii anoaaae aii?in i e?eoa?eyo aeiionoeiinoe e
i?eiaieiinoe oaeie ?aaoeyoeee i?e iiiiue iau/iiai i?aaa, e ?eineay
th?eaee/aneay o?aaeeoeey au?aaioaea ii?aaeaeaiiua oeacaiey ii yoiio
iiaiaeo.

Iau/ae (mores) iiaoo ea?aoue aeaiyeoth ?ieue: ai-ia?auo, iie caiaiytho
oeacaiey ae?oaeo aieaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo enoi/ieeia i?aaa, i?aaeaea anaai
caeiiia; ai-aoi?uo, iau/ae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i niiniaa i?eiaiaiey
caeiiia e ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia i?aaa a th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea — e yoi
aoi?ia cia/aiea iau/aaa ia en/acaao aeaaea i?e iieiii ia?aoiaea e /enoi
ainoaea?noaaiiiio ii?ie?iaaieth i?aaa.

Iau/ae i?eciaaaeenue enoi/ieeii i?aaa a oii neo/aa anee ionoonoaotho
eiie?aoiua o?aaiaaiey, au?aaeaiiua a ae?oaeo oi?iao: “A oao aeaeao, a
eioi?uo iu ia iieuecoainy ienaiuie caeiiaie, ioaeii niaethaeaoue oi, /oi
oeacaii i?aaaie e iau/ayie”. A yoie neooaoeee o?aaiaaiea iau/ay
aaconeiaii iaycaoaeueii e ?aaiicia/ii ae?oaiio ii?aaeaeaiiiio oeacaieth
ia niaea?aeaiea i?aaiaiai o?aaiaaiey: “Oei?aieaoeeny iau/ae caneoaeaiii
i?eiaiyaony eae caeii e yoi anoue i?aai, i eioi?ii aiai?eony /oi iii
onoaiiaeaii i?aaaie”. Iaeiaei ia anyeee iau/ae iia i?eciaaaoueny
eiathuei i?aaiaoth neeo Iau/ae ia aeieaeai aue i?ioeai?a/eoue caeiio
iiae?acoiaaay, /oi ii aai aeiiieiyao e naiaai ?iaea “iaeeaeyao”;
aaconeiaiui n/eoaeinue, /oi iau/ae ia a neeao ioiaiyoue oeacaiea caeiia.
Aeey naiaai i?eciaiey a ea/anoaa i?aaiaiai o?aaiaaiey, o.a. aeathuaai
iniiaaiea aeey caueou noaeii, iau/ae aeieaeai ioaa/aoue iaeioi?ui
aeiiieieoaeueiui e?eoa?eyi: (1) ii aeieaeai au?aaeaoue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueioth i?aaiaoth i?aeoeeo, ai anyeii neo/aa a i?aaeaeao
aeecie aieaa iaeiiai iieieaiey; (2) ii aeieaeai au?aaeaoue
iaeiiia?acioth i?aeoeeo — i?e/ai aac?acee/ii aeaenoaey eee aacaeaenoaey;
(3) ii aeieaeai aiieiuaoue iaioeiaeioth e ?acoiioth iio?aaiinoue a
i?aaiaii eiaiii ?aaoee?iaaiee neooaoeee, oa aeaeaei ia ana iaueiiaaiey
aeaaea eiiia?/aneiai iai?ioa iiaoo ninoaaeoue i?aaiaia o?aaiaaiea iau/ay
(iai?eia?, ia nicaeatho oaeiaiai iaueiiaaiea “aeaaaoue ia /ae”, ?aciua
i?eiyoua oi?iu io/aoiinoe, iau/ae aeaeaoue iiaea?ee e o.i.). Iaeiiaoe,
niaoeeoeeo i?aaiaiai i?eiaiaiey iau/ay ninoaaeyei oi, /oi nnueathueeny
ia iau/ae aeieaeai nai aeieacuaaoue oaeo aai iaee/ey, iau/ae ia
i?acthie?iaaeny a noaea, a aeieacuaaeny.

Aaaeioth iniaaiiinoue ?eineiai i?aaiaiai iau/ay ninoaaeea iniaaiii a
eeanne/aneii i?aaa, ia?ac?uaiinoue iiieiaiey iau/ay n i?aaaie (/oi
au?aaeaeinue aeaaea a oa?ieiieiaee). I?aaeienaiey iau/ay — yoi
“iie/aeeaia niaeanea ia?iaea, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiia ae?aaieie i?aaaie”. A
neeo yoiai iau/ae iinee /a?ou ?aeeaeiciiai i?aaeea, iie?athuaainy ia
aaoi?eoao ae?a/aneiai oieeiaaiey; a ycu/aneoth ii?o aeaoaoaai iau/ay
ia?aaeei noaiiaeeinue ia?auaiea e i?aeoeo, /oi naii ii naaa iiae/eiyei
auoaeathuea ec iaai i?aaiaua o?aaiaaiey ?aeeaeiciie o?aaeeoeee. A
o?enoeaineoth yiioo aiaeiae/iue oa?aeoa? noaee iineoue nnueee ia
Nayuaiiia ienaiea e aaaiaaee/aneee eaiii.

Caeiiu.

Aeaaiui aiieiuaieai ienaiiai i?aaa ?eineay i?aaiaay eoeueoo?a n/eoaea
caeiiu — leges. Aeey i?eciaiey i?aaiaiai i?aaeienaiey a ea/anoaa caeiia
iaiaoiaeeii auei, /oiau ii enoiaeee io eiathuaai niioaaonoaothuea
iieiiii/ey i?aaia, o.a. oae eee eia/a aiieiuae aanue ?eineee ia?iae, e
/oiau ii aue iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii iaia?iaeiaai: oaeiue i?aaiaie aeo ia
iia eiaoue aa?oiaiie th?eaee/aneie neeu.

Nio?aieeenue iieoeaaaiaea?iua naaaeaiey i caeiiao, ecaeaaaaoeony io
eiaie ?eineiai ia?iaea ia?auie oea?yie — Ioiie Iiiieeeai, Na?aeai
Ooeeeai e ae?. Iaeiaei naiui i?eioeeieaeueiui iiiaioii a noaiiaeaiee
?eineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa noaei ecaeaiea a na?aaeeia V a. aei i.y. (a
eoiaa aeeeoaeueiiai nioeeaeueii iieeoe/aneiai e ?aeeaeiciiai e?ecena
?eineie iaueiu, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaainy ai?ueaie ieaaaeneeo iann n
ae?a/aneie e iao?eoeeaineie a?enoie?aoeae) Caeiiia XII Oaaeeoe — naiaea,
ii neiaai ?eineiai enoi?eea Oeoa Eeaey, aeaaea nionoy ianeieueei aaeia
i?eciaaaaiiai ca “enoi/iee anaai ioaee/iiai e /anoiiai i?aaa”.

Ionoonoaea iiae?iaiiai ienaiiai i?aaa i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi enoi/ieeii
ciaiey i?aaa auee ae?aoeu-iiioeoeee, aeieaeiinoe eioi?uo caieiaeenue
o?aaeeoeeiiii iao?eoeeainoaii. A 462 a. aei i.y. ieaaaeneee o?eaoi
Oa?aioeeee A?na a oeaeyo caueou nioeeaeueiuo eioa?ania
iai?eaeeaae?iaaiiie /anoe ?eineie iaueiu aian i?aaeeiaeaiea i iacia/aiee
eiiennee aeey iioaeeeiaaiey caeiiia. Iinea ianeieueeeo eao i?iaiei/ae e,
ii-aeaeeiiio, naaioaaea ae?a/aneie aa?oooee auei ?aoaii i?eaaaiooue a
aeaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e /?acau/aeiui ia?ai: i?ae?auaeanue
aeayoaeueiinoue anao aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e i?aaiia aeanoe, auee eca?aiu
aeanyoue niaoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuo eeoe aeey iaia?iaeiaaiey caeiiia.
Nio?aieeinue oaeaea i?aaeaiea, /oi eiienney (eee aeaoeaiae?u) niaa?oeea
iiacaeeo a A?aoeeth aeey iauaai ciaeiinoaa n oaiioieie caeiiaie. A
451/450 a. aei i.y. auee iioaeeeiaaiu ia?aua aeanyoue oaaeeoe — caienae
i?aaa e th?eaee/aneeo iau/aaa. Iinea iiaiai aiciouaiey, aucaaiiiai
iaaeiaieyie aeaoeaiae?ia a ooaeea ?yaea i?aaiiieiaeaiee, a 450/449 aa.
auee iioaeeeiaaiu aua aeaa oaaeeoeu caeiiia, aeaaiui ia?acii eanaaoeony
?aca?aie/aiey i?aa a?aaeaeai aioo?e ?eineie iaueiu. Caeiiu auee
aunoaaeaiu aeey ianoaeaeaiey ia?iaeii (ii iau/ath — ia aea?aayiiuo
auaaeaiiuo aeineao), ooaa?aeaeaiu ia?iaeiui nia?aieai e i?eiyou a
ea/anoaa aeaaiaeoaai naiaea i?aaa. Ianeieueei iicaeiaa caeiiu auee
caia/aoeaiu a aeaea naiaia?aciiai iaiyoieea — aeaoo (o?ao?) iaaeiuo
iiiaia?aiiuo eieiii, aunoaaeaiiuo ia ?eineii oi?oia, ii iiaeaoeo,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ieiei aaea nionoy ai a?aiy aaeeueneiai aoi?aeaiey.

Iiaeeeiiue e iieiue oaeno Caeiiia XII Oaaeeoe iaecaanoai, a o?aaeeoeee
?eineiai i?aaa nouanoaoao ianeieueei aieaa eee iaiaa oaaaeeoaeueiuo
iiiuoie eo ?aeiino?oeoeee e nenoaiaoecaoeee ia iniiaaiee oeeoao ec
ae?oaeo ?eineeo th?eaee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eeanne/aneie yiioe. Cia/aiea
iiaeeeiiuo i?eciaii ca i?eia?ii 140 i?aaiiieiaeaieyie,
nenoaiaoece?oaiuie ii ?acaeaeai: I auciaa a noae (Oaae. I), I aa?oaiee
eneia (Oaae. II), I aeieaiaii ?aanoaa (Oaae. III), I ii?yaeea
iaioeeiaoeee i?e naeaeeao (Oaae. IV), I caaauaiee e naiaeiuo aeaeao
(Oaae. V), I iieueciaaiee caiaeueiui o/anoeii (Oaae. VI), I ai?ianoaa
(Oaae. VII), I ee/iii inei?aeaiee-iaeaea (Oaae. VIII), Ia oaieiaiuo
iaeacaieyo (Oaae. IX), I ii?yaeea iioi?ii e oea?aiiiee (Oaae. X), I
ioaee/iuo aeaeao a ai?iaea (Oaae. XI), I iaeni?aoeaaiee i?eaeeaaee
(Oaae. XII). Iiiaea i?aaiiieiaeaiey ae?aaieo caeiiia auee iaeiiiiyoiu
oaea a aae Oeeoea?iia, ii ai anyeii neo/aa iie ioaaoeee ana aaaeiaeoea
noa?u th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee. Ii neiaai oiai aea Oeeoea?iia, “aeey
anyeiai, eoi euao iniia e enoi/ieeia i?aaa, iaeia iaaieueoay eieaeeoea
caeiiia Aeaaiaaeoeaoe oaaeeoe aanii naiaai aaoi?eoaoa e iauaiii iieuecu
aienoeio i?aainoiaeeo ana aeaeeioaee oeeinioia”.

Jus civile.

Caeiiu XII Oaaeeoe iieiaeeee iniiaaiea ?acaeoeth oiai, /oi noaei
iaiauaiii iacuaaoueny ?eineei iauaa?aaeaeaineei i?aaii e neeaaeuaaeinue
ec aeaoo iniiaiuo oi?i — iiioeoeeaeueiiai enoieeiaaiey e iineaaeothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa — jus civile.

N ecaeaieai Caeiiia XII Oaaeeoe cia/eiinoue i?aaeaea ananeeueiie
iiioeoeeaeueiie thnoeoeee oiaea, caeeth/eoaeueiue oaea? ii iae aue
iaianai a 304 a. aei i.y. iioaeeeiaaieai eaeaiaea?y noaeaaiuo aeiae e
oi?i noaeaaiuo eneia Aiaai Oeaaeai. Iinea yoiai ae?a/aneay a?enoie?aoey
nio?aieea oieueei iieiiii/ey oieeiaaiey ienaiiai i?aaa, a ?aieao ii?i
caeiiia e oieueei a oeaeyo iaeeo/oaai neaaeiaaiey ei a noaeaaiuo aeaeao.
Ec yoie ooieoeee iiioeoeeia, iniiaaiiie oaea ia ia ?aeeaeiciii
aaoi?eoaoa, a ia o?aaeeoeeiiiii eo/oai ciaiee i?aaa, noaea
oi?ie?iaaoueny eiinoeueoaoeeiiiay th?eni?oaeaioeey e nianoaaiii
eeoa?aoo?a i?aaa, neoaeauay aeiiieiaieai e eiiiaioa?eai e ii?iaoeaiiio
o?iaith i?aaa.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia inoaeinue oieueei a ?aieao ecaeaiiuo XII Oaaeeoe.
Iaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea i?eioeeiia, eioi?ua ii/eoaeenue eae au nayuaiiuie
e ia iiaeeaaeaueie ie aeaeieciaiaieth, ie oai aieaa ioiaia, noaei
inouanoaeyoueny iiauie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie. Ni a?aiaiai
neiaeeeenue aeaa iiaeaeaea ?eineeo caeiiia: lex a nianoaaiiii niunea eae
iinoaiiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey, o.a. anaai ?eineiai ia?iaea, eiathuaa
aunooth th?eaee/aneoth neeo, e plebiscitum — oeac e ?anii?yaeaiea
ieaaaeneie /anoe ?eineie iaueiu — “ai?i/ai ieaaaeneea iinoaiiaeaiey ii
ecaeaieth Ai?oaiceaaa caeiia (a 258 a. aei i.y.) noaee eiaoue neeo ia
iaiueoa caeiiia”.

Caeiiii n/eoaeinue iinoaiiaeaiea, i?eiyoia i?e niaethaeaiee
niioaaonoaothuae i?ioeaaeo?u e niioaaonoaothuaai niaea?aeaiey: “Caeiiu —
yoi eiathuea i?aaeienuaathuee oa?aeoa? iauea iinoaiiaeaiey,
i?aaeeiaeaiiua iaaeno?aoii, i?eiyoua ia?iaeiui nia?aieai e
ooaa?aeaeaiiua Naiaoii”. Caeii aeey i?eaeaiey aio aeieaeiie cia/eiinoe
iia enoiaeeoue oieueei io caeiiii eca?aiiiai iaaeno?aoa e oieueei a
i?aaeaeao aai eiiiaoaioeee. ?eineea caeiiu e iieo/aee, eae i?aaeei,
iaeiaiiaaiea ii aai eieoeeaoi?o: caeii Ei?iaeey, caeii Aeaeeey e o ae.
Eiiaaea iaeiaiiaaiea auei aeaieiui ii aeaoi eiaiai, iai?eia?, eiinoeia:
caeii Aaea?ey — Ai?aoeey e o.i. Caeii aeieaeai aue niaea?aeaoue
iaycaoaeueiua yeaiaiou: 1) aaaaeaiea, eee oeacaoaeue ianoiyoaeuenoa
ecaeaiey, 2) rogatio, eee oaeno, eioi?ue iia iiae?acaeaeyoueny ia aeaaee
e o.i. e 3) sanctio, aaea iinoaiiaeyeenue iineaaenoaey ia?ooaiey caeiia
e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?ooeoaeae. Aeey aai i?eiyoey caeii aeieaeai aue
auoue aeiaaaeai aei naaaeaiey a?aaeaeai — aunoaaeai iaaeno?aoii
caaeaaia?aiaiii ia niaoeeaeueiii ianoa oi?oia. I?eieiaoueny caeii iia
oieueei oeaeeeii, eeai oae aea oeaeeeii ioaa?aaoueny, /anoe/iua
eciaiaiey a caeiia, ia aianaiiua naiei iaaeno?aoii, ?eineay i?aeoeea ia
aeiioneaea.

A aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy, eiaaea ?aaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?iaeiuo
nia?aiee noaea iaaiciiaeiie ec-ca eiee/anoaaiiiai ?inoa ?eineeo
a?aaeaeai, aa?oiaioth naieoeeth ia caeii aeaaae Naiao. Niaoeeaeueiua
ii?aaeaeaiey Naiaoa, ?aaiicia/iua caeiio, iacuaaeenue senatusconsultum;
iaeiaei ?aaeueii noa?a naiaoon-eiinoeueoa ana aea ianeieueei ioee/aeanue
io iieiiai caeiia-lex: ecaanoiua ii niaea?aeaieth naiaoon-eiinoeueou a
iniiaiii eanaeenue i?aaiauo oi?i aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeno?aoia e
i?eiaieiinoe eo iieiiii/ee e ?aciui oa??eoi?eyi e oeiai i?aaii?eiaiaiey.

Iniiaiay ianna ?eineeo caeiiia ecaanoia oieueei ii iacaaieyi e ii iauaio
niaea?aeaieth a ia?aaea/a ae?oaeie th?eaee/aneeie enoi/ieeaie; iieiuo
oaenoia nio?aieeinue e?aeia iaiiiai.

Iaaeno?aoneia i?aai.

A o?aaeeoeeyo ?eineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai no?iy ia
nouanoaiaaei /enoi aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ooieoeee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
ainoaea?noaa; aieueoeinoai ec ieo eiaee e noaeaaiua, e nianoaaiii
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua iieiiii/ey. Ec yoiai i?aaa iaaeno?aoia
noi?ie?iaaeanue aa?eaoeey ?eineiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, iniiaaiiay ia
yoii naiaia?aciii enoi/ieea ii?iiia?aciaaiey, — iaaeno?aoneia i?aai, eee
jus honorarium. Au?aaeaiiue a iaee/ee yoie oi?iu i?aaa, ia?yaeo n
caeiiii, aeoaeeci i?aaa ninoaaee iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo /a?o anae ?eineie
th?eaee/aneie eoeueoo?u, iniaaiii nouanoaaiioth aeey enoi?e/aneiai
i?eniiniaeaiey oi?iaeeciaaii-eiina?aaoeaiuo ii?i caeiiia e
iaiiaeythueiny oneiaeyi ae?oaeo a?aiai.

Iieiiii/ey ii ecaeaieth i?aaioi?ie?othueo yaeeeoia eiaee oieueei
iaeioi?ua ec ?eineeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe— iaaeno?aoia. Iieiiii/ey
auoaeaee ec (a) jurisdictio — i?aaa ee/ii ioi?aaeyoue i?aainoaeea a
ii?aaeaeaiiie noa?a, e ec (a) imperium nianoaaiii niaoeeaeueiiai
oiieiiii/ey aunoaai iaaeno?aoa, niaeanii eioi?iio aio i?aaeinoaaeyeanue
aeanoue eae noaeaaiay, oae e aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?eioaeeoaeueiay a oeaeyo
iauaai aeaaa, a oii /enea e “iiaeaea?aeeaaoue, aeiiieiyoue e oeo/oaoue
jus civile”. Oieueei jurisdictio a /enoii aeaea iaeaaeaee o.i.
eo?oeueiua yaeeeu, a iaycaiiinoue eioi?uo aoiaeeei iiaeaea?aeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea a oceii niunea; aoi?ui aeaeii iieiiii/ee, iiieii
eiinoeia, iaeaaeaee ia/aeueieee i?iaeioeee (i?aaeoaee) e i?aoi?u.
Niioaaonoaaiii aaaeiaeoeie aeaeaie iaaeno?aoneeo oeacia (edicta),
oi?ie?iaaaoeo iaaeno?aoneia, eee aeieaeiinoiia, i?aai, noaee: yaeeeou
yaeeeia, i?iaeioeeaeueiua yaeeeou, i?a-oi?neea yaeeeou. (Ia?aiia/aeueii
?anii?yaeaiey iaaeno?aoia aeaaaeenue onoii, ioeoaea i?ienoiaeeei e
iacaaiea e-dicta, caoai iie aunoaaeyeenue ia oi?oia iaienaiiuie ia
aeineao.)

Yaeeeou yaeeeia eanaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii aii?inia i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oi?aiaee, i?aa e iaycaiiinoae o/anoieeia a?aaeaeaineeo
naeaeie, eneiauo o?aaiaaiee, auoaeaaoeo ec ?uii/iiai iai?ioa.
I?iaeioeeaeueiua yaeeeou caeeth/aee a naaa, eae i?aaeei, i?aaeienaiey
o?iyeiai ?iaea: ooaa?aeaeaiea ianoiuo ocaeiiaiee e i?aaiauo iau/aaa,
iiaiaaaaeaiey nianoaaiii ia/aeueieeia i?iaeioeee— aeaaiui ia?acii a
aaeieieno?aoeaiie e oeiainiaie noa?a, caeinoaiaaiey ec i?aoi?neeo
yaeeeoia, i?eaiaeiua aeey oiai eee ae?oaiai ai?iaea eee i?iaeioeee ii
oniio?aieth ia/aeueieea.

Aaaeiaeoeie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey jus honorarium noaee i?aoi?neea yaeeeou.
I?aai ecaeaiey oeacia i?aoi?ii iiyaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii n o/?aaeaeaieai
a 366 a. aei i.y. naiie i?aoi?neie iaaeno?aoo?u. Ii-neieueeo a
iaycaiiinoe e iieiiii/ey ai?iaeneiai i?aoi?a aoiaeeea “io?aia ie?a e
ii?yaeea” a ai?iaea, a oai naiui e iauee eiio?ieue ca i?aaii?eiaiaieai,
iinoieueeo a aai ooieoeee aioee ia oieueei nianoaaiii ee/iia ioi?aaeaiea
i?aainoaeey, ii e aea/a ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiuo oeacaiee iacia/aaiui noaeueyi
ii aii?inai i?eiaiaiey i?aaa. I?e iacia/aiee ia aeieaeiinoue i?aoi?
ecaeaaae oeac, a eioi?ii aeaeea?e?iaae oa i?aaiiieiaeaiey e i?eioeeiu,
eioi?uo aoaeao aea?aeaoueny a oa/aiea aiaea (n?ie i?aoi?neeo
iieiiii/ee). ?acee/aeenue (a) iiaua e (a) ia?aianaiiua yaeeeou: a ia?auo
oeacuaaeenue iiaoanoaa i?aaii?eiaiaiey e th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee,
i?iaicaeaoaaiua i?aoi?ii a inouanoaeaiea i?eioeeiia caeiiia; ai aoi?uo
i?aoi? oieueei cayaeye, /oi aoaeao aea?aeaoueny aicc?aiee e i?aeoeee
naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea. A ae?oaii ioiioaiee yaeeeou iiae?acaeaeyeenue
ia: (1) iinoiyiiua, aaea oeacuaaeenue i?aaiiieiaeaiey, iaycaoaeueiua
aeey th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai n?iea iieiiii/ee, e (2)
iai?aaeaeaeaiiua, eanaaoeany eaconiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, eeai
i?aaii?eiaiaiey a ioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae. Caeiiii Ei?iaeey (67
a. aei i.y.) i?aoi?ai auei no?iai i?aaeienaii aea?aeaoueny aeaeea?aoeee
iinoiyiiiai yaeeeoa.

Iinoiyiiue yaeeeo (edictum perpetuum) i?eia?ae iniaia cia/aiea a enoi?ee
iaaeno?aoneiai i?aaa. Aneaaenoaea iniaie ?iee i?aoi?a a noaeaaiii
i?ioeanna, iniaaiii ii /anoiii?aaiaui aeaeai, aai niaea?aeaiea
iinoaiaiii aeeth/eei ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i/aiue iiiaei aii?inai ia oieueei
i?ioeannoaeueiiai, ii e nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa. Eo iauai ni
a?aiaiai i?aaunee i?aaiiieiaeaiey ioi?aaiuo caeiiia, iaiiaeaiea
noaiiaeeinue i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiui. A 131 a. i.y. ?eineee i?aaiaaae
Naaaeee THeeai ii ii?o/aieth eiia?aoi?a eiaeeoeoee?iaae ana
iinoaiiaeaiey i?aaeuaeoueo i?aoi?neeo yaeeeoia a aaeeiue e iaiiaeaeaeiue
Edictum perpetuum. Yoio aeo aue ooaa?aeaeai Naiaoii e naieoeeiie?iaai
eiia?aoi?ii. Eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue “iai?aiaiiue yaeeeo” iaiauee
iinoaiiaeaiey ii: a) iiaeaioiaea i?ioeanna, iiaea/a eneia, auciao
ioaao/eea; a) naiaeo oeacaiee ii ii?aaeaeaieth nouanoaa nii?a; a)
eniieiaieth noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey; a) iniaui oi?iai i?aoi?neie io?aiu.
Niaea?aeaiea “iai?aiaiiiai yaeeeoa” iieacuaaao a oii /enea, /oi aii?inu
oaieiaiiai i?aaa ia aoiaeeee a eiiiaoaioeeth i?aoi?a e /oi iniaaiiinoe
jus honorarium a iaeaieueoae ia?a i?iyaeyeenue a noa?a /anoiiai i?aaa.

Aeayoaeueiinoue th?enoia.

N iauei ?anoe?aieai th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee e ia?aoiaeii aeaea i?aaiauo
eiinoeueoaoeee ec ?oe, aa?iaa ono, iiioeoeeia e naaoneei ciaoieai i?aaa
i?eia?ii a III a. aei i.y. ia/aeinue oi?ie?iaaiea th?eni?oaeaioeee eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai e aaaeiiai enoi/ieea i?aaa. A yoii cia/aiee
iacaeiiiaeaoaeueiie th?eni?oaeaioeee oaeaea ninoieo iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo
iniaaiiinoae anae ?eineie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u.

Caiyoey th?eni?oaeaioeeae auee a o?aaeeoeee ?eineiai iauanoaa iaeiei ec
ii/aoiaeoeo e aeaai?iaeiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Ianoieueei, /oi
Oeeoea?iio a aai a?aiy i?eoiaeeeinue ia ?ac iainiiauaaoue, /oi aiaiiua
eee iieeoe/aneea caneoae caieiatho a e?oao iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae ieeae
ia iaiueoaa ianoi. Iaeia ec iineiaeoe-iaenei ?eineiai th?eaee/aneiai
iaeoiaea aeaneea, /oi iinouaeii ciaoiiio e aeaai?iaeiiio /aeiaaeo ia
ciaoue i?aaa, a eioi?ii ii ia?auaaony — turpe esse patrici et nobili et
causas oranti jus, in quo versaretur, ignorare. TH?enou-ciaoiee
auiieiyee eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua ooieoeee a noaeao, aunooiaee iiiiuieeaie
noi?ii a i?ioeanna, caieiaeenue i?aaiauie enneaaeiaaieyie aeey oeaeae
i?aaii?eiaiaiey e i?aaiaiai ia?aciaaiey. TH?eaee/aneia iiciaiea
?anniao?eaaeinue eae ia/oi nayuaiiia (io o?aaeeoeee iiioeoeeia), iiyoiio
eo o?oae aue a i?aaiaii ioiioaiee aanieaoiui; iaeiaei iiieii
iiioey?iinoe e iauanoaaiiiai oaaaeaiey, iie eiaee i?aanoaaiiia i?aai
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia honorarium ca eo oneoae, e n/eoaeinue iaaeinoieiui
inoaaeyoue oaeea th?eaee/aneea oneoae aac aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

A oeaeii noi?ie?iaaeinue ianeieueei aeaeia i?aaioai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe th?enoia. Ia?aay — cavere — naiaeeeanue e ninoaaeaieth
?aeiiaiaeaoaeueii-iaycaoaeueiuo oi?ioe naeaeie, a oaeaea aeaenoaee ii
?aaeecaoeee ianeaaenoaaiiuo i?aa; a yiioo ?aoeaioeee ec yoiai aeaea
noi?ie?oaony iioa?eaeueiay ooieoeey th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee. Aoi?ay —
respondere — ioaaou ii cai?inai /anoiuo eeoe, a oaeaea noaeae e
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe; a nianoaaiiii niunea eiinoeueoaoeee. Yoi aue
iaeaieaa aaaeiue a i?aaioai?/aneii niunea aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, e ia ana
th?enou eiaee i?eciaiiia jus respondendi, o.a.
iaycaoaeueii-?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiie eiinoeueoaoeee ii enoieeiaaieth i?aaa.
O?aoee aeae — agere — caeeth/aeny a ninoaaeaiee noaeaaiuo oi?ioe,
eioi?ua au?aaeaee nouanoai enea, niioaaonoaiaaee o?aaiaaieyi i?aaa e n
eioi?uie enoaoe ioaee/ii aunooiae a noaea. *aoaa?oue — scribere —
i?aaeiieaaae iaienaiea ni/eiaiee-ienai ii naiinoiyoaeueii eca?aiiiio
i?aaiaiio aii?ino, ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo caoai a i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeyo.

A 426 a. aue ecaeai niaoeeaeueiue caeii, io?aaoee?iaaaoee cia/aiea
aeayoaeueiinoe th?enoia aeey noaeaaiie i?aeoeee: niaeanii caeiio,
oieueei auneacuaaiey iyoe th?enoia — Yieeey Iaieieaia, Aay, Iaaea,
Oeueieaia e Iiaeanoeia — i?eciaaaeenue iaycaoaeueiuie aeey noaeae.
I?e/ai a neo/aa ?aciiaeanee i?ei?eoao i?eiaaeeaaeae Iaieieaio, a i?i/eo
neooaoeeyo niioaaonoaea i?aao ?aoaeinue ii oneiaiiio “aieueoeinoao
aieinia”.

E?iia yoiai, ?eineea th?enou ninoaaeyee iiiai/eneaiiua th?eaee/aneea
o?aeoaou, iiiia?aoee e o/aaiua ?oeiaiaenoaa. Iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiuie e
ecaanoiuie noaee o.i. “O?aaiaiou” Oeueieaia, i?aaiaaaea e
aaeieieno?aoi?a III a. i.y., “Naioaioeee” THeey Iaaea (III a. i.y.), a
oaeaea o/aaiia ?oeiaiaenoai aeey ia/eiathueo, eee naiaai ?iaea i/a?e
i?aaa n oi/ee c?aiey auoiaie iianaaeiaaiinoe, i?aaiaaaea e noaeuee Aay
(II a. i.y.) — “Einoeoooeee”, iieo/eaoea iniaia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
?eineeo i?iaeioeeyo i?inoioie e iauoiaeaiiinoueth eceiaeaiey iniia
i?aaa. A ?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee neiaeeeenue oaeaea aeaa naiaia?aciua
iao/iua oaiaeaioeee — naaeieaioeu (ii eiaie e?oiiiai i?aaiaaaea I a.
Naaeia) e i?ieoeueyieu (ii eiaie aai nia?aiaiieea I?ieea). ?aciua
aicc?aiey ia iaeie e oa aea i?aaiaua i?eioeeiu e einoeooou yoeo aeaoo
oeie auee ianoieueei ?acee/iuie, /oi a th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeea
i?aaeienuaaeinue aei iaeioi?iai a?aiaie o/eouaaoue aeaieiua oieeiaaiey e
neiaeiinoe yoeo ?aciuo iiieiaiee.

Iinoaiiaeaiey ainoaea?y.

N ioi?ieaieai a ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?a aaeeiiee/iie
aa?oiaiie aeanoe, aiineaaenoaee iiia?oe/aneie, enoi/ieeii i?aaa noaee e
ecaeaaaaiua ainoaea?ai, iiia?oii, eiia?aoi?ii iinoaiiaeaiey
(constitutiones). Io?aaeay niaea?aeaiea ia?aaeaiiie ainoaea?th aeanoe
(ni. II.4), yoe iinoaiiaeaiey n/eoaeenue eiathueie aunooth i?aaiaoth
neeo ia?aaia n caeiiaie. Iinoaiiaeaiey eiaee ianeieueei aeaeia,
nouanoaaiiuo ia oieueei a oi?iaeueiii, ii e a niaea?aeaoaeueiii
ioiioaiee.

Yaeeeo, eee oeac, (edictum)n/eoaeny aeoii, ecaeaiiui ainoaea?ai eae
aunoei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii; a iai iiaee i?aaionoaiaaeeaaoueny ana
ii?iu, ioianaiiua e eiiiaoaioeee aiiaua anao iaaeno?aoia ainoaea?noaa —
o.a. eae a noa?a ioaee/iiai, oae e /anoiiai i?aaa. Ii?o/aiea, eee
iaiaeao, (mandatum) niaea?aeaei eino?oeoeee aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai, eae
i?aaeei, a ioiioaiee i?aaii?eiaiaiey; aeaaiui ia?acii yoe aeou eanaeenue
th?enaeeeoeee iaianoieeia e i?aoi?ia, niioaaonoaaiii a ieo
?anniao?eaaeenue naiua ?aciiia?aciua aii?inu ii i?aeiouanoao oaieiaiiai
eee /anoiiai i?aaa. ?ane?eio (rescriptum) aue ioaaoii eiia?aoi?a ia
i?aaiaua cai?inu /anoiuo eee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. A ia?aii neo/aa ioaao
i?aaenoaaeye i?inooth ?aciethoeeth ia i?ioaiee, iaienaiioth naiei
ainoaea?ai. Ai aoi?ii — ioaao ia cai?in iaaeno?aoa ninoaaeyeny a aeaea
iniaiai ienueia e eiae niaoeeaeueiia iaeiaiiaaiea epistola. Aiaeiae/iue
ioaao ia cai?in iaueiu, ai?iaea eee ei?ii?aoeee eaaeeoeoee?iaaeny eae
“i?aaiaoe/aneay naieoeey”. Aeae?ao (decretum) aue noaeaaiui ?aoaieai
ainoaea?y ii eiie?aoiiio aeaeo, eiaaoei ii i?aaeeai aiaeiaee
?ani?ino?aieoaeueiia cia/aiea. Aai niaea?aeaiea i?aaeii?aaeaeyeinue
noaeaaiuie iieiiii/eyie iiia?oa eae aunoaai noaeuee ainoaea?noaa.

Ii neea naiaai aeaenoaey iinoaiiaeaiey ainoaea?y iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia
anaiauea (c.generales) e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua (c.personales). Ia?aua eiaee
cia/aiea ia?aaia n caeiiaie, a no?iaii niunea e iei ioiineeenue oieueei
yaeeeou e iaiaeaou. Ii n i?ae?auaieai aeanoe ainoaea?y (aai eii/eiie e
o.ae.), iiae?acoiaaaeinue, yoe aeou oa?yee th?eaee/aneoth neeo. Aoi?ua —
?ane?eiou e aeae?aou — eae i?aaeei, aae?aniaaeenue eiie?aoiiio eeoeo eee
neooaoeee; ii aeaenoaea eo n/eoaeinue iinoiyiiui aeey i?aaa.

1.5 Eiaeeoeeaoeey eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia (Corpus juris civilis)

I?aaeiinueee anaiauae eiaeeoeeaoeee i?aaa.

Oaea ia ioiineoaeueii ?aiiai yoaia naiaai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey
th?eaee/aneay oaoieea e a oeaeii eoeueoo?a ?eineiai i?aaa iaia?oaeeee
iio?aaiinoue e no?aieaiea e iaiauaieth e oieoeeaoeee enoi/ieeia i?aaa e
auoaeathueo ec ieo i?aaiauo ii?i. Yoi no?aieaiea a iniaaiiinoe
oneeeeinue a eiia?aoi?neee ia?eiae, eiaaea oieoeeaoeey i?aaii?eiaiaiey a
eioa?anao aaeeiie i?aaiaie iieeoeee noaea i?aeoe/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth a nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao aeanoe. ?acaeoea th?eaee/aneie
iaoee a ia?aua aaea i. y. aucaaei e aeecie ia?aua /anoiua
nenoaiaoecaoeee i?aaiauo enoi/ieeia e aiaeiae/iiai cia/aiey eiiieaeniua
th?eaee/aneea o?oaeu. Oae, a eiioea II — ia/aea III aa. th?enoii
Iaie?eai THnoii aue ninoaaeai nenoaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iinoaiiaeaiee
eiia?aoi?a Ia?ea Aa?aeey a 20 eieaao. I?eia?ii a oi aea a?aiy ae?oaie
ecaanoiue th?eno — THeee Iaaae — naae aiaaeeii ana e oiio a?aiaie
iaia?iaeiaaiiua aeae?aou eiia?aoi?ia. Oiaaea aea auea iaia?iaeiaaia
ioeoeeaeueiay eiaeeoeeaoeey i?aoi?neiai yaeeeoa (ni. auoa). Aeaei
eiaeeoeeaoeee i?aaie aeaeii, auei acaeiinaycaii n i?aaiaie iieeoeeie
eiia?aoi?ia, e iaiauaiea eiaiii eiia?aoi?neeo iinoaiiaeaiee
?anniao?eaaeinue eae aeaaiia a yoie ?aaioa. A ia/aea IV a. aue ninoaaeai
Eiaeaen A?eai?eaia, a eioi?ii iaiauaeenue eiinoeoooeee eiia?aoi?ia ca
196—295 aa. Eiaeaen ninoiye ec 14 eiea, iiae?acaeaeyaoeony ia oeooeu, e
aeeth/ae, /oi auei aeaaiui, iiaeeeiiua e iieiua oaenou i?aaeieo aeoia.
Ianeieueei iicaeiaa aue ninoaaeai aua iaeei aiaeiae/iue Eiaeaen
Aa?iiaaieaia, neoaeeaoee eae au i?iaeieaeaieai i?aaeuaeouaai, ioaaouaay
iinoaiiaeaiey ca 291—365 aa. Ii e oio, e ae?oaie auee oaie aea /anoiuie
eiaeeoeeaoeeyie, i?aaaea, iieo/eaoeie ioeoeeaeueiia i?eciaiea.

A V a. i?e eiia?aoi?a Oaiaeinee aue ecaeai (ii ia?acoeo i?aaeuaeoueo)
oaea ioeoeeaeueiue nai?iee eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee — Eiaeaen
Oaiaeiney (438 a.) a 16 oaiaoe/aneeo eieaao. A eiaeaena aia?aua aue
i?iecaaaeai ioai? oieueei aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ana
aiineaaenoaee ecaeaiiia eiia?aoi?aie iaiauaeinue a aeaea nia?aiee o.i.
iiaaee — Novellae leges. Ii n iaaeaieai Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee a
enoi?e/aneie aeecie ?eineiai i?aaa ia?aciaaeanue naiaai ?iaea iaoca;
aeaeueiaeoaa aeaeaeaiea, a aianoa n oai e ?acaeoea eiaeeoeeaoeee
i?eoeinue oaea ia Aecaioeth.

?ac?aaioea Naiaea THnoeieaia.

A?aiy i?aaeaiey aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia (527—565 aa.) auei
ianiiiaiiui e ananoi?iiiei ?anoeaaoii ainoi/ii-?eineie oeeaeeecaoeee. A
oiaea oeaio?aeecaoi?neeo iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo ?aoi?i, i?iaiaeeiuo i?e
aeoeaiii ee/iii o/anoee eiia?aoi?a, auea ?aaeeciaaia e anaiauaiethuay
eiaeeoeeaoeey i?aaa, i?e/ai ia iiauo i?eioeeiao, io?aaeaaoeo aunieee
o?iaaiue th?eni?oaeaioeee e th?eaee/aneie iaoee Aecaioee a ?aieao
?eineie i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u.

A ia/aea 528 a. auea o/?aaeaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiay eiienney ec 10
niaoeeaeenoia — “ethaeae iaoee, iiuoa, iaooiieiiai e iioaaeueiiai
ona?aeey e iauanoaaiiiio aeaeo”, eae aeaneo ioeoeeaeueiay enoi?e/aneay
ni?aaea i eiaeeoeeaoeee, — iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ecaanoiiai th?enoa
O?eaiieaia. A ai?aea 529 a. eiienney iioaeeeiaaea eiaeaen eiia?aoi?neeo
eiinoeoooeee a 12 eieaao, n ecaeaieai eioi?iai ana i?aaeiea nai?ieee e
ioaeaeueiua aeou noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ia eiathuea th?eaee/aneie
neeu. A oiaea yoie ?aaiou aue oaeaea ecaeai nai?iee ii?aaeaeaiee e
auneacuaaiee th?enoia ii ?aciui oaiai — o.i. “50 ii?aaeaeaiee”, a
eioi?ii nenoaiaoece?iaaeny oaeie aaaeiue enoi/iee, eae eiinoeueoaoeee
i?aaiaaaeia. Enoiaey ec yoie i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ?aaiou auea ia/aoa aieaa
nenoaiiay ?aaioa ii ia?aniio?o anaai aaaaaea ?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee. A
aeaeaa?a 530 a. auea iacia/aia iiaay eiienney ec 16 /aeiaae (i?aeoeeia e
ethaeae iaoee) iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii oiai aea O?eaiieaia. Eiienney
inouanoaeea a?aiaeeicioth eiiieeyoeeth io?uaeia ec o?oaeia ?eineeo
th?enoia i?eia?ii iyoe i?aaeuaeoueo noieaoee, iioaeeeiaaiioth a aeaeaa?a
533 a. iiae iacaaieai “Aeeaano”, eee “Iaiaeaeo”. Iaeiia?aiaiii THnoeieai
iinoaaee ia?aae eiienneae caaea/o auaeaeeoue naiua iauea i?eioeeiu
?eineiai i?aaa — a oeaeyo eae o/aaiuo, oae e eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo. A
iiya?a 533 a. auee iioaeeeiaaiu ?ac?aaioaiiua O?eaiieaiii (niaianoii n
aeaoiy ae?oaeie i?aaiaaaeaie) “Einoeoooeee” — ii i?aaeiae o?aaeeoeeiiiie
noaia e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii ia?acoeo “Einoeoooeee” Aay. E?oiiay
th?eaee/aneay ?aaioa nii?iaiaeaeaeanue oi?ie?iaaieai iiaie
iieeoeei-i?aaiaie eiioeaioeee aeanoe. Iiae aa aicaeaenoaeai a iiya?a 534
a. aue ia?a?aaioai e iaiiaeai Eiaeaen eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee, a
eioi?ii ia yoio ?ac i?aeiouanoaaiii iaiauaeinue i?aai oaea o?enoeaineie
yiioe. Iinea auoiaea a naao eiaeaena caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue
THnoeieaia, anoanoaaiii, i?iaeieaeeeanue — ana e?oiiua ecaeaiiua ei aeou
iicaeiaa ninoaaeee o.i. “Iiaaeeu” nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua oaea iinea nia?oe
THnoeieaia.

N ia/aeii aic?iaeaeaiey ?eineiai i?aaa a yiioo aai ?aoeaioeee ana /aou?a
yeaiaioa Naiaea THnoeieaia iieo/eee iaiauaiiia iacaaiea Norpus juris
civilis; iiae oaeei aea iaicia/aieai iie auee aia?aua a aaeeinoaa
ecaeaiu Ae. Aioio?aaeii e aioee a enoi?e/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth Iiaeeeiiua
oaenou Naiaea ia nio?aieeenue; iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiua a?a/aneea e
eaoeineea ?oeiiene ioiinyony e VI—XI aa. A oiaea iiiaiaaeiaie
enoi?eei-i?aaiaie ?aaiou iaae ieie o/aiui oaeaeinue aeinoaoi/ii
ne?oioeacii inaiaiaeeoue ia?aiia/aeueiua oaenou io iicaeiaeoeo
aeiiieiaiee, nie?auaiee e eneaaeaiee a eioa?anao th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee
naiaai a?aiaie.

Ninoaaiua /anoe Naiaea THnoeieaia (iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea).

Nianoaaiii eiaeeoeeaoeeae i?aaa, a aaeeinoaa i?eioeeiia ia?a?aaioee
i?aaiauo enoi/ieeia e nenoaiaoecaoeeiiiuo caaea/, iiaeii n/eoaoue eeoue
o?e ia?aua ninoaaiua /anoe Naiaea.

“Einoeoooeee” (Institutiones) i?aaenoaaeyee nenoaiaoece?iaaiiia
eceiaeaiea iniia i?aaa: iauea ia/aea i?aaii?eiaiaiey e nenoaiaoe/aneia
eceiaeaiea aeiaiaoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia aeaaiui ia?acii /anoiiai i?aaa.
“Einoeoooeee” iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia 4 eieae e 98 oeooeia; eieae auee
neaaeothueie: 1) iauaa o/aiea i i?aaa e o/aiea i noauaeoao i?aa —
eeoeao, 2-3) iauea einoeooou aauiiai i?aaa e iaycaoaeuenoaaiiiai 4)
o/aiea ia eneao e i?eioeeiao i?aaii?eiaiaiey a noaea. N yoiai a?aiaie
aiaeiae/iay noaia nenoaiaoecaoeee i?aaa noaea iacuaaoueny
einoeoooeeiiiie. A /enea iaeaieaa i?eioeeieaeueiuo iiiyoee i?aaiaie
eoeueoo?u “Einoeoooeee” caeeth/aee enoiaeiia ii?aaeaeaiea niunea
i?aaii?eiaiaiey e ciaiey i?aaa eae iinoiyiiiai no?aieaiey aicaeaaaoue
eaaeaeiio aai aeieaeiia: Justitia est constans et perpetua voluntas, jus
suum cuique tribuendi. A naith i/a?aaeue th?eni?oaeaioeey, o.a. iaoea
i?aaa, ii?aaeaeyeanue eae “ciaiea aauae aiaeanoaaiiuo, ?aaii e
/aeiaa/aneeo, iiciaiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai, ?aaii eae e iani?aaaaeeeaiai”. Ia
iauaa o/aiea i i?aaa, i?aaenoaaeaiiia a “Einoeoooeeyo”, iaeaieueoaa
aeeyiea ieacaee i?eioeeiu noie/aneie oeeinioee yeeeiecia.

“Einoeoooeee” ia auee eceiaeaieai oieueei ioaea/aiiie oeeinioee i?aaa.
THnoeieai i?yii i?aaeienae, /oi iie eiatho cia/aiea iaycaoaeueiiai
naiaea iniia i?aaa, a ana oaenooaeueiua i?aaiiieiaeaiey eiatho neeo,
?aaioth ae?oaei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui nai?ieeai eae ooaa?aeaeaiiua
eiia?aoi?ii. O.a. caoeene?iaaiiua a “Einoeoooeeyo” ii?iu i?aaa auee a
iieiii niunea ii?iaoeaiuie o?aaiaaieyie.

Aeeaanou, eee Iaiaeaeou, (Digesta, Pandectae) auee naiie iauaiiie
/anoueth naiaea. Iie i?aaenoaaeyee nenoaiaoe/aneoth eiiieeyoeeth oeeoao
— io?uaeia ec ?aaio iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo ?eineeo i?aaiaaaeia. Anaai a
ninoaaa “Aeeaano” ian/eouaatho aei 9200 io?uaeia ec 2 oun. ?aaio,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo ia?o 39 ecaanoiuo th?enoia I —V aa. i.y., i?e/ai a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ninoaaeoaee i?eaiaeeee aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua
oeacaiey ia iacaaiey e aeaaea ?acaeaeu eniieueciaaiiuo o?oaeia. Yoi auea
naiaai ?iaea yioeeeeiiaaeey ?eineie th?eni?oaeaioeee, ii io?aaeaaoay a
o./. e i?aaiaua i?ei?eoaou. Oae, iaeaieueoaa /enei ioeeeeia i?eoeinue ia
aeieth ?aaio Oeueieaia (2462), Iaaea (2083), Iaieieaia (595), Iiiiiiey,
Aay, Iiaeanoeia, THeeaia (ii ianeieueeo nioai). “Aeeaanou” ?acaeaeyeenue
ia 50 eiea ii ?aciui th?eaee/aneei oaiai, aioo?e eiea — ia oeooeu e
ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou. O?aaiaiou oaeaea ?aniieaaaeenue ia i?iecaieueii:
aia/aea nenoaiaoece?iaaeenue o?aaiaiou, eiiiaioe?othuea th?eaee/aneea
i?iaeaiu, iinoaaeaiiua a ecaanoiii oiaaea ni/eiaiee th?enoa Naaeia ii
a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao; caoai oieeiaaiey e iinoiyiiiio, i?aoi?neiio
yaeeeoo — neaaeoy aai nenoaia e aii?inai; a caeeth/aiea aeaaaeenue
ioaaou i?aeoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe, aeaaiui ia?acii neaaeoy ni/eiaieyi
Iaieieaia; a iaeioi?uo oeooeao “Aeeaano” aue oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiue
Appendix — i?eeiaeaiea.

“Aeeaanou” a oeaeii oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyee niaie no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue naiae
auneacuaaiee e i?aaiiieiaeaiee: aanue iaoa?eae oneiaii iiae?acaeaeyeny
ia naiue /anoae. A ia?aie (ei. 1—4) ?anniao?eaaeenue iauea aii?inu i?aaa
e o/aiea i noauaeoao i?aaa — eeoeao; ai aoi?ie (ei. 5—11) — “i i?aaa
eeoe ia naie nianoaaiiua e ia /oaeea aaue, i caueoa i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe”, o.a. aauiia i?aai; a o?aoueae (ei. 12 —19) — ia
iaycaoaeuenoaao aeaonoi?iiieo, eee aicieeathueo ec “acaeiiiai aeiaa?ey”;
a /aoaa?oie (ei. 20—27) — ia iaania/aiee iaycaoaeuenoa, i naiaai ?iaea
ecaea?aeeao e eneiauo o?aaiaaieyo ec iaycaoaeuenoa e ia iaycaoaeuenoaao,
naycaiiuo n ?aaeecaoeeae naiaeiuo e iiaeoineeo i?aa; a iyoie (ei. 28—36)
— i caaauaieyo; a oanoie (ei. 37—43) — i naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo i?aaiauo
eieeeceyo, ?aoaaiuo ii noaeaeneiio oniio?aieth; a naaeueiie (ei. 44—50)
o?aeoiaaeenue aii?inu, naycaiiua, i?aeiouanoaaiii n oaieiaiui e
ioaee/iui i?aaii; iineaaeiyy eieaa iinayuaeanue noa?ui th?eaee/aneei
au?aaeaieyi, oa?ieiieiaee, auneacuaaieyi, iineiaeoeai e o.i.

Ninoaaeoaee “Aeeaano” ia iiaee, ?acoiaaony, ecaaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo ?aciuie oaenoaie ?aciuo aaoi?ia, ?acaeaeyaiuo
aaeaie e ianoiaenoaii th?eaee/aneeo aicc?aiee. Iiiuoeie /anoe/ii ?aoeoue
yoo i?iaeaio auei ei??aeoe?iai/iia ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea, iiiiaeaiea oaenoia
noa?uo i?aaiaaaeia. Yoi ii?iaeeei o.i. eioa?iieyoeee, o.a. anoaaee,
enoieeiaaiey, i?iecaaaeaiiua ninoaaeoaeyie e ia?ooathuea eiiaaea no?ie
iunee e eiaeeo th?eaee/aneie ioeaiee einoeoooa a ?aieao aieaa ?aiieo
i?eioeeiia. Oae, eeeaeaee?iaaeenue noieue aaaeiua ?aiaa aeey Oeueieaia
?acee/ey a oa?ieiieiaee a aii?inao nianoaaiiinoe eee ?aciua eiino?oeoeee
eneiauo o?aaiaaiee aeey ?aciuo eaoaai?ee ?eineeo a?aaeaeai (/oi oaea
ooei a enoi?eth). Iaeiaei niune einoeoooia aini?iecaiaeeeny, e ca yoeie
ia?aiaiaie iie aeaoi?ie?iaaeenue, i?eia?aoaee eiie aeae. Aeey aeiaiaoeee
?eineiai i?aaa a oeaeii yoi ianouanoaaiii, ii aeey enoi?ee ?eineiai
i?aaa nicaeaao naioth i?eioeeieaeueioth i?iaeaio auyniaiey iiaeeeiiiai
niaea?aeaiey eeanne/aneeo einoeoooia e i?eioeeiia.

I?e iaia?iaeiaaiee “Aeeaano” eiia?aoi? THnoeieai cai?aoee aeaaea ienaoue
e iei eiiiaioa?ee: iie i?aaenoaaeyee ioeoeeaeueii caeiiiaeaoaeueiue
aeieoiaio ia iaiaa, /ai nianoaaiii i?aaiaieiaeaiey caeiiia; ?ac?aoaeinue
oieueei aeaeaoue ecaea/aiey e ia?aaiae ia a?a/aneee ycue.

Eiaeaen (Codex) aue nenoaiaoecaoeeae 4600 eiia?aoi?neeo eiinoeoooeee,
ia/eiay ni 117 a., a 12 eieaao e 765 oeooeao. A 1-e eieaa niaea?aeaeenue
iinoaiiaeaiey ii oea?eiaiiio i?aao, a ioiioaiee enoi/ieeia i?aaa, a
oaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e iayaiiinoae /eiiaieeia, a eieaao ni
2-e ii 8-th a iniiaiii auee iaiauaiu aeou eiia?aoi?ia ii a?aaeaeaineiio
i?aao e noaeii?iecaiaenoao, a 9-e eieaa — ii oaieiaiiio i?aao, a 10—12-e
— ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth, oeiainai e o.ae. I?e nenoaiaoecaoeee
nio?aiyeenue aeaou ecaeaiey eiinoeoooeee e eiaia aea?iaaaoeo eo
ainoaea?ae. A iauai iiaeoiaea, oaenou i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii nio?aiyeenue
iaeciaiiuie, ii iaeiicia/ii noaeeoue ia yoii oiaeaeanoaa iaaiciiaeii
ec-ca ionoonoaey niiinoaaeoaeueiuo oaenoia.

Nia?aiea Iiaaee (Novellae), eioi?ua n/eoathony oneiaii aeiiieieoaeueiie
/aoaa?oie /anoueth Naiaea THnoeieaia, auei naycaii oaea n /anoiie
nenoaiaoecaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth iinea nia?oe eiia?aoi?a.
Nio?aieeenue o?e nai?ieea, ia?aue ec eioi?uo aue ninoaaeai a 556 a. e
aeeth/ee 122 eiinoeoooeee; aeaa ae?oaeo (niaea?aeauea 134 e 168 aeoia)
ioiinyony ei aoi?ie iieiaeia VI a. Iiieii iaiauaiey eiia?aoi?neeo
iinoaiiaeaiee, a ieo anoue yaeeeou ia/aeueieeia e?oiiuo i?iaeioeee e
aiiaua iiiaoe a eo niaea?aeaiee eanaeinue oi?aaeaiey i?iaeioeeyie e
niaoeeoeee iiaoanoa a ianeaaenoaaiiii i?aaa.

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