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Регулируемый рыночнй оборот и частная собственность на землю

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?AAOEE?OAIUE ?UII*IUE IAI?IO CAIEE E *ANOIAss NIANOAAIIINOUe IA CAIETH

Ia anao yoaiao inouanoaeyaiuo a ?innee ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i caiaeueiue aii?in
yaeyeny i?aaeiaoii iacaoooathueo nii?ia e aaneiii?iienniie iieeoe/aneie
e eaeaieiae/aneie ai?ueau. Iie iniaaiii iaino?eeenue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
a nayce n ianoaeaeaieai i?iaeoa Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena a Ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeoia ?O. I?e yoii eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey noae aii?in i ?uii/iii iai?ioa
caiee, aa eoiea e i?iaeaaea. Iineieueeo ?uii/iue iai?io caiee ii naiae
nooe aunooiaao oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth,
y?inoiua aeeneonnee ?acai?aeenue e ii iiaiaeo aa i?eioeeieaeueiiai
i?eciaiey.

I?enoaeueiia aieiaiea e iacaaiiui i?iaeaiai iauyniyaony, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iniaui cia/aieai caiee a aeeciaiaania/aiee iauanoaa, a n
ae?oaie – ia?aoaiiinoueth caiaeueiiai aii?ina a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.
Ianeieueei neia i ia?aii aniaeoa. Caiaeueiue aii?in – ecaa/iue, /oi
iaoneiaeaii iai?aoiaeyuae e anaiauaiethuae ?ieueth caiaeueiiai oaeoi?a.
Caiey – iniiaiia, iacaiaieiia e iaaini?iecaiaeeiia n?aaenoai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio n naiiai ia/aea ?aoi?i i?iaeaia i?aia?aciaaiey
caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee iiieiaeanue eae ?aaeueiia i?aaeinoaaeaiea cai,ee
e?anoueyiai. Aianoa n oai caiey – aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? ?acaeoey anae
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee e iauanoaa a oeaeii. Iia neoaeeo
i?ino?ainoaaiiie noa?ie ?aciauaiey ai?iaeia e iinaeeia, i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa e ae?oaeo io?aneae, ecae?aaea
aunooiaao iniiaie iaiiaoi?eiiai naeueneiai oeeaaea aeecie. Ioaeii
o/eouaaoue e oi, /oi caiey – yoi i?ino?ainoaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiue aacen
aaeeiie ?inneeneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e eiinoeoooeeiiii cae?aieaiiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaii-?aaeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Iaeiiaoe, ioiioaiea e caiea, e
aii?ino ?aaoee?iaaiey aa eniieueciaaiey anaaaea auei aaaeiaeoei
e?eoa?eai i?aanoaaiiinoe e a?aaeaeaineie c?aeinoe iauanoaa.

Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth inoaaaeanue iauaeoii
ino?ie ai?ueau, iniaaiii a ia?aeiiiua ia?eiaeu a noaeueaao iaoae no?aiu.
Aniiiiei, eaeay iieaieea ii aeaiiiio aii?ino aaeanue a Ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeoia aei 1917 a. Ia neo/aeii aieueoaaeee, aeaaiie oeaeueth eioi?uo auei
onoaiiaeaiea e oe?aieaiea iiiiiieueiie ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe,
a ea/anoaa aa iniiau aaaee aaeaeaaoioth ae iiiiiieueii-ainoaea?noaaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth.

Anoanoaaiii, caiaeueiue aii?in aue iaeiei ec oeaio?aeueiuo i?e
iiaeaioiaea i?ia?aii ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i. Ia ca?a ia?ano?ieee
niiaa i?eia?ae iiioey?iinoue o?aaeeoeeiiiue eicoia “Caiey -e?anoueyiai”,
iaiieiaiiue iiaui niaea?aeaieai. Iaeiei ec ia?auo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
aeoia, n iiaeaioiaee eioi?uo ia/ae ?aaioo aiiaue eca?aiiue Aa?oiaiue
Niaao NNN?, aue ./aeii ia iniiaao caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oaea
oiaaea aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii ino?uo ?aciiaeanee noae aii?in i /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, aa eoiea e i?iaeaaea. I?e/ai a ea/anoaa
a?aoiaioia “i?ioea” i?eaiaeeeenue aeiaiaeu, oi?ioi ecaanoiua ec iuiaoieo
nii?ia aie?oa Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena: i?eciaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth iaecaaaeii ii?iaeeo aa eoieth e i?iaeaaeo, /oi i?eaaaeao e
?acaaca?eaaieth caiee.

Aeiiieieoaeueiue eiioeuen yoei aeeneonneyi i?eaeaei iaaeaaiaa
ianoaeaeaiea Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena aia/aea ia i?aceaeeoia
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa ?O, a iioii – ia aai ?anoe?aiiii canaaeaiee.
*oiau onei?eoue i?ioeann i?eiyoey Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena, Ainniino
?aeiiaiaeiaae eneeth/eoue ec iaai aii?in i eoiea-i?iaeaaea caiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey e o ?aaoee?iaaoue “aai” iicaeiaa,
i?eiya niaoeeaeueiue caeii ?aii/iiai oa?aeoa?a. Oaeiai aea iiaiey
i?eaea?aeeaathony e a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e?oaao. A ?acoeueoaoa 15 ethiy
2001 a. Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia ?O ianiio?y ia y?inoiia nii?ioeaeaiea
eaauo i?eiyea Caiaeueiue eiaeaen a ia?aii /oaiee, a 14 ethey – ai aoi?ii
aac niioaaonoaothueo aeaa. Eiia/ii, aeaiiia ?aoaiea – eiii?iienn,
iaeiaei ii ia anaaaea ii?aaaeai. Iiaeii eneeth/eoue aii?in i
eoiea-i?iaeaaea naeueoiccaiee ec oaenoa Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena, ii a
?aaeueiie aeecie yoiai naeaeaoue iaeuecy. E oiio aea i?e iiaeaioiaea
niaoeeaeueiiai caeiia iaecaaaeii iiaoi?aiea iuiaoieo nii?ia. A oai
a?aiaiai ia i?aeoeea a oneiaeyo i?aaiaiai aaeooia aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny
“/a?iue” ia?aaeae caiee.

*oi eanaaony i?eciaiey i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, oi
th?eaee/anee aii?in aeaaii ?aoai. Aua a Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?, / i?eiyoie
a aeaeaa?a 1990 a., yoi i?aai i?eciaii, i?aaaea, n 10-eaoiei ii?aoi?eai
ia eoieth-i?iaeaaeo caiee. Caoai aeaiiia iieiaeaiea iieo- : /eei
?acaeoea a ae?oaeo i?aaiauo aeieoiaioao, i?aaeaea anaai a oeacao
i?aceaeaioa ?O (oaea aac 10-eaoiaai ii?aoi?ey). Iaeiiaoe, a aeaenoaoth-
j uae Eiinoeoooeee ?O i?yii neacaii, /oi a?aaeaeaia ai?aaa eiaoue
cai- –eth a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe (no. 36, i. 1).

Aaaaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth i?aneaaeiaaei aeaaioth oeaeue
– nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iiyaeaiey ianoiyuaai ?a/eoaeueiiai oicyeia,
iaania/eoue e?anoueyiai aeinooi e caiea e i?inoi? aeey ?acaeoey
oa?ia?neiai oeeaaea. Naeueneei aeeoaeyi auee iianaianoii ia?aaeaiu
caiaeueiua (ii n?aaeia?aeiiiie ii?ia, aac ia?acee a iaoo?a) e
eiouanoaaiiua iae (ii ii?iai a ?aieao aeaiiiai oicyenoaa), /oi
nicaeaaaei i?aaiaoth aaco yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu e?anoueyi e iaeaa/aei
ia?aoiae e oa?ia?noao.

Iaeiaei aicieeaao ?aciiiue aii?in: anee /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth
cae?aieaia aeaaea eiinoeoooeeiiii, oi ii/aio aiiaue ?acai?aeenue nii?u i
iae? Aeaei a oii” /oi na i?aaiaia i?eciaiea ai iiiaii

iineo oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Naaiaeiy aaaeii iaiieieoue yoi i?aai
?aaeueiui niaea?aeaie?i e?anoueyia aeieaeiu ia i?inoi eiaoue
iiieiaeueiua iae e naeaeaoaeuenoai nianoaaiiinoe ia ieo, a auoue
iiaeeeiiuie nianoaaiieeaie, ?aniieaaaoue aiciiaeiinoyie ?anii?yaeaiey
caieae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa nianoaaiiinoue i?aa?auaaony a th?eaee/aneoth
oi?iaeueiinoue. A i. 3 no. 36 Eiinoeoooeee ?O neacaii, /oi “oneiaey e
ii?yaeie iieueciaaiey caieae ii?aaeaeythony ia iniiaa oaaea?aeueiiai
caeiia” . Oae /oi nae/an iaaei ianoaeaeaoue niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey
“/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth”, iaoaieciu aa ?aaeecaoeee, aeeth/ay
eoieth-i?iaeaaeo caiee. Yoo caaea/o ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie aii?inaie
caieaiieueciaaiey i?ecaai ?aoeoue Caiaeueiue eiaeaen.

A nia?aiaiiuo aeeneonneyo i?iaeaiu ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee e i?aaa
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, eae i?aaeei, acaeiioaycaiu. I?e yoii
/aoei auyaeeenue aeaa e?aeiea iiceoeee – caeiiiaeaoaeueiia’ iaaeiiouaiea
eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth (ca eneeth/aieai
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia aeey ee/iiai iiaeniaiiai oicyenoaa,
naaeiai-iai?iaeiuo eiiia?aoeaia e aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa) e
aaciaeyaeiay iiaeaea?aeea i?aaiaiai cae?aieaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth e aa iaia?aie/aiiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Noi?iiieeaie ia?aie iiceoeee
yaeythony eaaua iieeoe/aneea neeu, aoi?ie – i?aaua. A oa/aiea iiiaeo eao
iaaeaeo ieie eaeao iacaoooathuay ai?ueaa. Ii?ie neeaaeuaaaony
aia/aoeaiea, /oi iie i?inoi ia a ninoiyiee iiiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa. O iaaeo
noi?ii yaii iuouathony neaaia ciaiea nooe i?iaeaiu, aeaoeoeeo
eiiiaoaioiinoe, ieceee i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?iaaiue.

Noi?iiieee aeaoo e?aeieo iiceoeee noiaeyony a iaoiaeieiae/aneii e
oai?aoe/aneii iiieiaiee nouiinoe ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee, aa
eoiee-i?iaeaaee e naiie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iaa. Iie o?aeootho
?uii/iue iai?io caiee eae aa naiaiaeioth eoieth-i?iaeaaeo, ia i?iaiaey
?acee/ee iaaeaeo iae e eoieae-i?iaeaaeae caiee aiiaua. Iiaeiaioth
iiaeiaio iiiyoee ia?aaeei aeiioneatho e ?oeiaiaeeoaee ?aciuo ?aiaia.
Oaeie iiaeoiae e ?uii/iiio iai?ioo caiee iaoneiaeai niioaaonoaothuei
i?aaenoaaeaieai i /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. Noi?iiieee iaaeo
iiceoeee ia?aiinyo ia iaa iauea i?eioeeiu, niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeaua
i?eiaieoaeueii e ae?oaei iauaeoai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai
aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai ?anii?yaeaiey nianoaaiiinoueth aa
aeaaeaeueoeai, ?acoiaaony, anee yoi ia iaiineo oua?aa iauanoaaiiui
eioa?anai. I?e o?aeoiaea ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee eae aa naiaiaeiie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth eae i?aaa iieiiai
aaca?aie/iiai ?anii?yaeaiey caieae noaiiayony iiiyoiuie eiaeea
?annoaeaeaiee noi?iiieeia e?aeieo iiceoeee e eo auaiaeu aeey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Aeoiaaony, aieueoeinoai noi?iiieeia eaaie iiceoeee ene?aiia icaai/aiu
ninoiyieai caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia e naeueneiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii e
no?aiyony i?aaeioa?aoeoue aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaaca?eaaiea caiee. Iaeuecy ia
niaeaneoueny n ieie a oii, /oi naiaiaeiay eoiey-i?iaeaaea caiee
iaecaaaeii i?eaaaeao e aa ia?aoiaeo a ?oee oao, eoi iaaeee ia?iiiua
eaieoaeu, i?e/ai ca/anooth ia/anoiui iooai. E oiio aea iiaeiaiua
neoiueee ?ac?ooao iineaaeiea “ino?iaee” caei?iaiai e?anoueyineiai
oeeaaea aeecie. A ?acoeueoaoa aua aieueoa oneeeony iaaccaiaeeaaiea e aac
oiai iaacaeieaiiue e?anoueyi. Iineieueeo oaeie ?uii/iue iai?io
iaoneiaeai nouanoaiaaieai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, oi aiieia
eiae/iui auaeyaeeo o?aaiaaiea eaauo ia aeiioneaoue aa caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
i?eciaiey e, ?acoiaaony, ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee.

Naiy eiaeea eiaaony e o noi?iiieeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiie iiceoeee. Iie
aaaeue aunooiatho ca noaiiaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e aiieia ?aciiii
n/eoatho, /oi aac aaaaeaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e aa
?uii/iiai iai?ioa ?aoeoue aeaiioth caaea/o iaaiciiaeii. N yoei iaeuecy
ia niaeaneoueny. A aio aeaeueoa ia/eiaaony eo “oe?iaiiay” eiaeea.
Iineieueeo iie ia?ac?uaii oaycuaatho /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth n
aa naiaiaeiie eoieae-i?iaeaaeae, oi caeiiiaeaoaeueiia iaaeiiouaiea
iineaaeiae icia/aao aeey ieo io?eoeaiea naiie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth – iaiaoiaeeiiai e aaaeiaeoaai oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee.

Eae aeaeei, a iniiaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iiaeoiaeia e caeiiiaeaoaeueiiio
?aaoee?iaaieth caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee eaaeeo iaiiieiaiea niaoeeoeee
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth. A iia anoue, i?e/ai iineo
i?eioeeieaeueiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo naycaia n iniaaiiinoueth caiee eae
iauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe. Aacaea caiey aunooiaao iaoeeiiaeueiui
aeinoiyieai, e iauanoai ia iiaeao aeiionoeoue, /oiau /anoiue nianoaaiiee
?anii?yaeaeny ei iieiiaeanoii, ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Ai anao
oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?aiao aeaenoaotho iniaua iaoaieciu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
?aaeecaoeee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, iaania/eaathuea o/ao e
caueoo eioa?ania anaai iauanoaa ii nio?aiaieth, aini?iecaiaenoao e
yooaeoeaiiio oeaeaaiio eniieueciaaieth caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia. *anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth neoaeeo a ieo iniiaie anao oi?i caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee. Niioaaonoaaiii nouanoaotho e ?aaeueiue ?uii/iue iai?io caiee,
aa eoiey e i?iaeaaea.

Aianoa n oai ie a iaeiie no?aia naiaiaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee iao.
?uiie caiee yaeyaony ?aaoee?oaiui. Ainoaea?noai a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea ii?aaeaeyao, eiio iiaeii i?iaeaaaoue caieth, aeey eaeeo oeaeae
e a eaeeo ianooaaao. Iii aeanoei eiio?iee?oao e ?aaoee?oao ia oieueei
?uiie caiee, ii e oe?ieee niaeo? i?iaeai aa eniieueciaaiey, i?e/ai eae
ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiii, oae e ia ioieoeeiaeueiii o?iaia, a oeaeyo
i?aaeioa?auaiey ?acee/iuo ceioiio?aaeaiee e iaaaoeaiuo i?ioeannia,
naycaiiuo n caiaeueiuie ioiioaieyie. Ainoaea?noai no?aieony ia
aeiioneaoue niaeoeyoeee caiaeueiuie o/anoeaie, eo iiiiiieueiie
eiioeaio?aoeee, a oaeaea ae?iaeaiey i?e ia?aaea/a ii ianeaaenoao,
?aaoee?oy iaeneiaeueiua e ieieiaeueiua ?acia?u caiaeueiuo o/anoeia i?e
i?iaeaaea, ianeaaeiaaiee e a?aiaea.

Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe iaeaaeatho i?aaii ?ac?aoaoue nicaeaiea i aaaeaiea
oa?ia?neiai oicyenoaa. I?e yoii o/eouaathony ia?aciaaiea,
i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea e iiuo i?aoaiaeaioia. Oaeea ooieoeee,
iai?eia?, ai O?aioeee, auiieiytho aeaia?oaiaioneea eiiennee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, a Aeaiee – ioieoeeiaeueiua
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eiiennee. I?aai ia aaaeaiea oicyenoaa aeaaeaeueoeo
oa?iu e a?aiaeaoi?o i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?e iaee/ee o i?aoaiaeaioa ia iaiaa
3-5 eao i?ioanneiiaeueiiai noaaea eee aeeieiia i niaoeeaeueiii
ia?aciaaiee. Ainoaea?noai eiio?iee?oao eni?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey
caiaeue (/oiau ia aeiionoeoue eo eniieueciaaiey a ae?oaeo, i?aaeaea
anaai ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oeaeyo), a oaeaea aai yooaeoeaiinoue.
Eiie?aoiua oi?iu ?aaoee?iaaiey eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee ?acee/athony ii
no?aiai.

Noi?iiieee eaaie iiceoeee, ioaa?aathuea /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue ia
caieth e aa ?uii/iue iai?io, a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec aaaeiaeoeo a?aoiaioia
i?eaiaeyo oacen i yeiau eiathueony i?aeiouanoaao ae?oaeo oi?i caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee. I?e yoii iniaue oii? aeaeaaony ia a?aiaeo, eae i?aaeei, ni
nnueeie ia ca?oaaaeiue iiuo. Iineieueeo oaeia iiaiea iieo/eei oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea, ?anniio?ei aii?inu a?aiaeu iiae?iaiaa.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ai anai ie?a nouanoaoao a?aiaeiay oi?ia caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee. Oa?ia?u ?aaioatho eae ia nianoaaiiie, oae e ia a?aiaeiaaiiie
caiea. Iaeiaei, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, iniiaiie e aieaa niaa?oaiiie
oi?iie caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee yaeyaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue. Iia
iaania/eaaao e?anoueyiai yeiiiie/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue, oaa?aiiinoue a
caao?aoiai aeia. Nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth – aaceniay oi?ia caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee eae a eiee/anoaaiiii, oae e a ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee.

A NOA ec anae caiee, eniieuecoaiie oa?ia?aie, ia a?aiaeiaaiioth
i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 35%, a no?aiao AN – ieiei 33%. Inoaeueiay caiey
iaoiaeeony a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe oa?ia?ia. I?e/ai /aoei
i?ineaaeeaaaony ie?iaay oaiaeaioeey nieaeaiey oaeaeueiiai aana a?aiaeu e
iiauoaiey aeiee nianoaaiiie caiee. Iai?eia?, a NOA a 1935 a. ia a?aiaeo
i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 50% oa?ia?neie caiee, a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy -ieiei
35%. A Aiaeee ia?aae ia?aie ie?iaie aieiie a?aiaea ninoaaeyea 88%
oa?ia?neie caiee, a 1950 a. – 62 e a 1985 a. – 39%. A Ieaea?eaiaeao
oaeaeueiue aan a?aiaeiaaiiie caiee nieceeny n 52% a 1959 a. aei 35% a
1987 a.

Iiiai/eneaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a?aiaea yooaeoeaia
eeoue ia aaca eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiie caiee, a ni/aoaiee n iae. Iia
iicaieyao a?aiaiii i?aiaeieaoue aunieee eiaanoeoeeiiiue aa?uea? aeey
oa?ia?ia, ia/eiathueo aanoe oicyenoai e ia eiathueo aeinoaoi/iuo
n?aaenoa. Oae, a NOA /enoua a?aiaeaoi?u, ?aaioathuea oieueei ia
a?aiaeiaaiiie caiea, a 1940 a. ninoaaeyee 39% anao oa?ia?ia, a nae/an –
eeoue ieiei 12%. A?aiaea yaeyaony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii oaaee/aiey ?acia?ia
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa. I?e aunieeo oeaiao ia caieth aa aeiiieieoaeueiua
ieiuaaee yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiaa ia iieoiaoue, a a?aoue a a?aiaeo. Ia
neo/aeii oaeaeueiue aan a?aiaeu auoa a e?oiiuo ii ?acia?o a?oiiao
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa. Ioaeii o/eouaaoue e ae?oaie i?eioeeieaeueiue
aniaeo. A?aiaea caiaeueiiai o/anoea ia icia/aao, /oi ii ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo
/anoiiio nianoaaiieeo. *anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e a?aiaea
?aca?aie/eaathony ii ioiioaieth oieueei e aeaiiiio oa?ia?o. Ii ii
a?aiaeoao caieth o ae?oaiai /anoiiai nianoaaiieea, eioi?ue ii eaeei-oi
i?e/eiai nai aa ia aicaeaeuaaao. Cia/eo, anee ?anniao?eaaoue anth
niaieoiiinoue nianoaaiieeia caiee, oi iiaeaaeythuay aa /anoue iaoiaeeony
a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Iao aiaeec iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iaa ?anniio?aiiua iiceoeee ia
ninoiyoaeueiu ia oieueei a iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneii ieaia, ii e n oi/ee
c?aiey ie?iaiai iiuoa ?aoaiey caiaeueiiai aii?ina. E eaeei aea
i?aeoe/aneei ?acoeueoaoai e iineaaenoaeyi iie i?eaiaeyo, i?e/ai
iauaeoeaii, iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeea aeaaea oeaee e caaea/e
i?iaicaeaoatho eo noi?iiieee? I?ioeaieee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth
e aa eoiee-i?iaeaaee a?aoiaioe?otho naith oi/eo c?aiey iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
caueou eioa?ania e?anoueyi, iaania/aiey eo caieae, i?aaeioa?auaiey aa
?acaaca?eaaiey. Ia aeaea yoi icia/aao io?eoeaiea ?aaoee?oaiiai
ainoaea?noaii ?uiea caiee. A ?acoeueoaoa a aeaiiie noa?a aicieeaao
i?aaiaie aaeooi, /oi nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey th?eaee/aneeo
ceioiio?aaeaiee e ?acaaca?eaaiey caiee.

Noi?iiieee naiaiaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee oiaea aunooiatho ca
?anoe?aiea aeinooia e?anoueyi e caiea, iineieueeo ae ioaeai yooaeoeaiue
oicyei. Ii eo iiaieth, eo/oee iooue e yoiio – oi?ie?iaaiea iieiioeaiiiai
?uiea caiee, aa naiaiaeiay eoi ey-i?iaeaaea. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iineaaeiyy naeaeaao caieth aua aieaa iaaeinooiiie aeey e?anoueyi, ia
eiathueo n?aaenoa ia aa i?eia?aoaiea. Ia aoaeao iia niinianoaiaaoue e
nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, ia /oi iaaeathony
i?aaua. Aaaeue ii?iaeueiay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea i?aaeiieaaaao ia
naiaiaeiue, a ?aaoee?oaiue ainoaea?noaii ?uiie caiee. ?aooy ca
naiaiaeiue ?uiie, noi?iiieee yoie iiceoeee auioaeaeatho iiiaeo ethaeae
aunooiaoue i?ioea eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee a i?eioeeia. A cia/eo,
?acoeueoao aoaeao oio aea: ?acaaca?eaaiea caiee e i?iecaie a oiaea
noaiiaeaiey caiaeueiiai ?uiea.

Ii/aio aea oae aeeao/e ?anniio?aiiua aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua
iiceoeee ii caiaeueiiio aii?ino, noaaoea eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey ia iooe
i?eiyoey Caiaeueiiai eiaeaena? Iaoaeaee ca noieueei eao nii?ia iaeuecy
auei iiiyoue, /oi iie i?ioeai?a/ao cae?aaiio niuneo, iauaeoeaiiio oiaeo
?acaeoey yeiiiieee e anaai iauanoaa, ie?iaiio iiuoo?

Aeoiaaony, caeanue ia iiaeao auoue iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa. Aaaeue n?aaee
noi?iiieeia iaaeo iiceoeee anoue eae ia ?acae?athueany a nooe aa?a?iiai
aii?ina, ii ene?aiia ionoaeaathuea naith iiceoeeth, oae e aiieia
iauaeoeaii iniciathuea nouanoai i?iaeaiu. *oi eanaaony oao, eoi
aeaenoaeoaeueii caaioeony i caiea, i oii, /oiau e?anoueyia auee ath
iaania/aiu, oi eo iaeiinoi?iiiyy o?aeoiaea ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee e
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth ai iiiaii iauyniyaony iaaunieei o?iaiai
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee a aeaiiie iaeanoe, a oii /enea e aa i?aaiauo
aniaeoia. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, onoaoaeyaony iieeoe/aneeie oeaeyie e
aiaeoeeyie, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ii?aaeaeaiiie caoeeeeaiiinoe ia naiae
iiceoeee.

I?aaaea, enoiee iai?ioanneiiaeueiiai iiieiaiey caiaeueiiai aii?ina o
eaauo e i?aauo nee, iiaeaeoe, ?aciua. I?ioea ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee
aunooiatho aeaaiui ia?acii aa?a?ee, oioy e iei i?eiueatho e iaiaei
ae?oaeo. I?aaenoaaeoaee naeyi, ?acoiaaony, oi?ioi ciatho aea?aaith,
oeaio caiee-ei?ieeeoeu, iiyoiio iie caeioa?aniaaiu a aa nio?aiaiee e
oeo/oaiee. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi aa?a?ee i?iyaeytho inoi?iaeiinoue,
caei?iaue e?anoueyineee eiina?aaoeci ii ioiioaieth ei anai ?aaeeeaeueiui
iiaoanoaai, iniaaiii anee iie cao?aaeaatho noaeueau caiee. Iaeuecy
na?anuaaoue ni n/aoia e iaaeiaa?ea ianaeaiey e aeanoe, noi?ie?iaaaoaany
a ?acoeueoaoa iaoaea/ii i?iaaaeaiiie aao/a?iie i?eaaoecaoeee. Oa, eoi
aunooiaao ca iieioth naiaiaeo eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee, iai?ioea, ieioi
ciatho ?aaeueiua i?iaeaiu naea. Iie, eae i?aaeei, ?oeiaiaenoaothony
oai?aoeei-aeaaeaie/aneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i “/enoie” /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e aa ?uii/iii iai?ioa.

Aianoa n oai aiaeec iieacuaaao, /oi aeaaiie i?e/eiie ia?aoaiiinoe
aa?a?iiai aii?ina yaeythony ioithaeue ia i?ioanneiiaeueiua ecaea?aeee
iiieiaiey naiie i?iaeaiu. Neeaaeuaaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi iiiaei
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi ianoiuo e auoanoiyueo i?aaiia aeanoe auaiaeii caoyaeaaoue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia o?aaoee?iaaiea ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee. Ca yoei
e?ithony eo ee/iua iioeau e eioa?anu, aeaeaeea io eioa?ania e?anoueyi e
anaai ia?iaea. A oneiaeyo i?aaiaiai aaeooia i?iua ?anii?yaeaoueny caieae
ii nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth. Aeey i?ee?uoey naieo ei?unoiuo oeaeae iie
niciaoaeueii iai?aaeytho ianoaeaeaiea ii eiaeiiio iooe, eneaaeay nooue
i?iaeaiu, aeiioneay aa iiaeiaio. Oai naiui aeiee?oaony i?eiyoea aeaaii
iac?aaoaai ?aoaiey i nicaeaiee ?aaoee?oaiiai ainoaea?noaii ?uiea caiee,
nicaeaaony i?aaiaie “ooiee”.

I?e ?ac?aaioea aii?ina i oi?iao caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee e ?uii/iii iai?ioa
caiee iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe, eanathueany anao
noi?ii aeecie ianaeaiey: yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua,
iieeoeei-enoi?e/aneea e.iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneea. Iaciaai a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ieioiinoue ianaeaiey e niioaaonoaothuoth iaania/aiiinoue
e?anoueyi caieae. A iaeieo ?aeiiao, i?aaeaea anaai ia Eaaeaca, ia
/aeiaaea i?eoiaeeony ii?ie anaai ianeieueei nioie naeueoicoaiaeee, a a
ae?oaeo – ianeieueei nioai aaeoa?ia. Aaaeii i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea
iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey e
aeecianiiniaiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, neooaoeeth n
o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey aeecie ia naea.
Oieueei ia yoie iniiaa iiaeii ?aoeoue, eaeay oi?ia caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee
e ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee iaeaieaa i?eaieaia a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee.
Anee auai? aeaeaaony a iieueco o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiee
(?acoiaaony, ?aaoee?oaiie), oi aeiiieieoaeueii iaaei o/eouaaoue, a eaeie
noaiaie ?aaeii iiaeaioiaeai e nicaeaieth aieaa eee iaiaa
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ?uiea caiee. Eiathony a aeaeo, a /anoiinoe,
eaaeano?iaay ioeaiea caiee, eio?ano?oeoo?a aa ?uii/iiai iai?ioa,
eaae?iaia iaania/aiea e o.i.

I?aaeoniio?aoue ec oeaio?a ana iiiaiia?acea ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae,
aeeythueo ia auai? aa?eaioa ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee e aai niaoeeoe/aneeo
oi?i, iaaiciiaeii. A ?aoaiee iacaaiiuo aii?inia ioaeii i?aaeinoaaeoue
oe?ieea i?aaa ?aaeiiai. Eiaiii oaeie iiaeoiae niaea?aeeony a
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa ?O, niaeaniaaiiuo a oaa?aea
2001 a. Iaeiaei yoi ia icia/aao, /oi ?aaeiiu iiaoo iaeaaeaoue iieiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth a aeaiiie iaeanoe. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee
oaaea?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe a aa?a?iie noa?a aeieaeii
niioaaonoaiaaoue Eiinoeoooeee ?O e niinianoaiaaoue acaaoaiiiio ?aoaieth
aeaoaaeeiie caaea/e: n iaeiie noi?iiu, oe?aieaieth ?inneeneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, a n ae?oaie – ?acaeoeth naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ?aaeiiia.

Iauea i?eioeeiu ?aaoee?iaaiey caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee e ?uiea caiee
aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoueny oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii. Iie i?ecaaiu i?aaeaea
anaai iaania/eaaoue iauaainoaea?noaaiioth caueoo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?aa
a?aaeaeai, iniaaiii e?anoueyi, ia caieth, a oii /enea ia iieo/aiea aa a
/anoioth nianoaaiiinoue e ?anii?yaeaiea ath. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii
aeieaeai cae?aieoue yoe i?eioeeiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iaoeaeeaaoue
?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaiu ia iineaaeiaaoaeueioth i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth
i?aa a?aaeaeai ia caieth i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi e
iniaaiiinoyi ?aaeiiia.

A iaoiaeieiae/aneii e aeaaea i?aeoe/aneii ieaia i?e naaeaine?iaaiiii
?aoaiee caiaeueiiai aii?ina iieacii eniieueciaaoue iiuo noieuieineie
?aoi?iu. Eae ic-annoei, I. Noieuiei n/eoae, /oi iniiaie naeueneiai
oicyenoaa yaeyaony e?aieee oicyei-nianoaaiiee ia caiea. Iaueia aea
i?aiyonoaiaaea yoiio. Any aa nenoaia caieaiieueciaaiey e aanue oeeaae
aeecie aaee e o?aaieeiaea e ia iicaieyee e?anoueyieio i?iyaeyoue naith
eieoeeaoeao e niaeaeeo. ?aoi?ia Noieuieia i?aneaaeiaaea oeaeue
?acaycaoue ?oee i?aaei?eei/eaui oicyaaai, inaiaiaeeoue eo io iaueiiuo
ioo. Ii ii ia oieueei ia noaaee caaea/o iieiiai ?acaaea iaueiu,
ea?aeeiaeueiie eiiee neiaeeaoeony caiaeueiuo e oicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
ii, iai?ioea, eaoaai?e/anee aunooiae i?ioea yoiai. Aeaaiui aeey iaai
auei i?aaeinoaaeoue e?anoueyiai aiciiaeiinoue aeia?iaieueiiai auoiaea ec
iaueiu. Oaeay iiceoeey, ioaa?aathuay ethaie oaaeiiiue e noaiaea?oiue
iiaeoiae, auea cae?aieaia a caeiia, aeaaoai noieuieineie ?aoi?ia iooaaeo
a aeeciue. “Caeii ia i?ecaai o/eoue e?anoueyi e iaaycuaaoue ei
eaeea-eeai oai?ee, – iiae/a?eeaae I. Noieuiei, aunooiay a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia 10 iay 1907 a. – Ionoue eaaeaeue ono?aeaaaony
ii-naiaio… Naii i?aaeoaeuenoai ai anao naieo no?aieaieyo oeacuaaao
oieueei ia iaeii: ioaeii niyoue on ieiau, eioi?ua iaeiaeaiu ia
e?anoueyinoai, i aeaoue aio aiciiaeiinoue naiiio eca?aoue oio niinia
iieueciaaiey caieae, eioi?ue aai iaeaieaa ono?aeaaao”. Aeaeaa ii
i?iaeieaeae: “Ionoue nianoaaiiinoue … aoaeao iauay oai, aaea iaueia
aua ia ioaeeea, ionoue aoaeao iia iiaeai?iay oai, aaea iaueia oaea ia
aeeciaiia…”.

I. Noieuiei aua a ia/aea ?aoi?iu i?aia?aciaae naiaeioth nianoaaiiinoue
eee aeaaeaiea iaaeaeii a nianoaaiiinoue (aeaaeaiea) iaeiiai eeoea –
aeaau oicyenoaa. A aunooieaiee ia canaaeaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa 6
ia?oa 1907 a. ii cayaee, /oi ei i?aaeeaaathony “ia?u i?ioea /?acia?iiai
nin?aaeioi/aiey yoeo caiaeue a iaeieo ?oeao e i?ioea /?acia?iiai
ae?iaeaiey, a ?aaii e ii oi?i/aieth niaa?oaiey ia ieo aeoia”. A ae?oaii
aunooieaiee ie iiae/a?eeaae, /oi caeii aaiaeeo ia?aie/aiey ia
naiaiaeioth i?iaeaaeo caiee n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey e?anoueyinoaa: “…
Iaaeaeueiay caiey ia iiaeao auoue io/oaeaeaia eeoeo eiiai nineiaey,
iaaeaeueiay caiey ia iiaeao auoue caeiaeaia eia/a, eae a E?anoueyineee
Aaie, iia ia iiaeao auoue i?iaeaia ca ee/iua aeieae, iia ia iiaeao auoue
caaauaia eia/a, eae ii iau/ath “.

?aoaaiua naaiaeiy a ?innee caaea/e ai iiiaii noiaeiu n oaie, eioi?ua
noiyee ia?aae aaeeeei ?aoi?iaoi?ii I. Noieuieiui. Oiaaea iaaei auei
inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi io ioo, eioi?uie iaueia neiauaaea eo
i?aaei?eei/eainoue. Yoi o?aaiaaei iiyaeaiey iiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey. A
aeey eo ?acaeoey auei iaiaoiaeeii i?aia?aciaaiea caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.
Aiaeiae/iua i?iaeaiu aicieeee e ia ca?a aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee.
Eieoicii-niaoiciay nenoaia caeaaaeyea e?anoueyi ia iaiueoa, /ai iaueia.
?aoi?iu eae ?ac e auee i?ecaaiu ioe?uoue aei?iao ?acaeoeth ae?oaeo oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe e oicyenoaiaaiey ia naea, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iaoneiaeeaaei iio?aaiinoue a aaeaeaaoiie o?ainoi?iaoeee caiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee.

Ethaua ea?aeeiaeueiua ?aoi?iu anaaaea ianoo ?ac?ooeoaeueiue e
niceaeaoaeueiue ca?yae. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey caaeneo io eo
niioiioaiey e iai?aaeaiiinoe. Iieeoeea I. Noieuieia iiaeao neoaeeoue,
iiaeaeoe, ia?acoeii oiai, eae ni/aoaoue ?ac?ooaiea ioaeeaoeo yeaiaioia n
?acaeoeai iiauo, niceaeaoaeueiuo oi?i, iiae/eiyoue ia?aia aoi?iio e i?e
yoii i?iyaeyoue aeaeinoue, oai?/aneee iiaeoiae, ia aeiioneaoue oaaeiia.
Oai naiui aeinoeaathony iiceoeaiua ?acoeueoaou i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
niya/aiee iaecaaaeiuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee a iauanoaa.
Aeaeay noieuieineay oaeoeea aa?a?iiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iio/eoaeueia aeey
i?aeoeee nia?aiaiiuo ?inneeneeo

Iineaaeiee aniaeo eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea. Enoi?ey ?innee e
ae?oaeo no?ai o/eo, /oi ecaa/iue aii?in i caiea iiaeao auoue
iieiaeeoaeueii o?aaoee?iaai eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iaeiia?aiaiii
?aoathony e inoaeueiua i?iaeaiu aeecie e?anoueyinoaa e iieiie?iaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naeueneie yeiiiieee. E niaeaeaieth, i?eoiaeeony
eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi nae/an i?e ?aaoee?iaaiee caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee a
?innee yoi o?aaiaaiea eaii?e?oaony. Ana aeeneonnee naiaeyony e
caiaeueiie ?aoi?ia. A oi aea a?aiy ia ?aoathony aeooaeueiaeoea i?iaeaiu
naiiai nouanoaiaaiey aea?aaie, aa auaeeaaiey. A eoiaa aeaaea iiceoeaiua
ia?u caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu ia aeaee aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi iineaaenoaey ?aaeeeaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu
iniaaiii aieaciaiii neacaeenue ia naeueneii oicyenoaa, /oi iaoneiaeaii
iniaaiiinoyie yoie io?anee.-Ii naiae i?e?iaea naeueneia oicyenoai
yaeyaony ?aciauaiiui, a oii /enea oa??eoi?eaeueii. Iiyoiio a oneiaeyo
?uiea iii ia iiaeao ia ?aaiuo ionoaeaaoue naie eioa?anu ia?aae
iiiiiieenoaie-niaaeieeaie. A “oeaii/ea” iaaeio?aneaauo naycae naeueneia
oicyenoai aunooiaao e?aeiei ia?aae iio?aaeoaeai. Ia iai i?yii
io?aceeinue ?aceia nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ianaeaiey i?e
eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai. Iaiaeia cia/aiea eiaao e oi, /oi aii?aee ?anoiaeei
ooaa?aeaeaieyi ia?auo ?aoi?iaoi?ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, i?aaei?eyoey
auee a aua iaiueoae noaiaie aioiau e ia?aoiaeo ia ?uii/iua oneiaey
oicyenoaiaaiey (eio?ano?oeoo?a, eco/aiea ?uii/iiai ni?ina e o.i.), /ai
i?aaei?eyoey ae?oaeo io?aneae

A neeo yoeo e ae?oaeo iniaaiiinoae naeueneia oicyenoai ieacaeinue a
i/aiue oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee. ?acei aic?inee aeenia?eoao oeai e naycaiiay
n iei iayeaeaaeaioiinoue iaiaia i?iaeoeoeeae. A 1990-1997 aa. oeaiu ia
iinooiathuea a naei ?ano?nu iiauneeenue a 8848 ?ac, a ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth – oieueei a 2000 ?ac (a
aeaiiieie?iaaiiuo ?oaeyo – niioaaonoaaiii a 8,8 e 2 ?aca). ?ac?ua a
aeeiaieea eiaeaenia oeai ninoaaee 4,4 ?aca. Iinea aeaoieoa aaaonoa 1998
a. eiii?o i?iaeiaieuenoaey ianeieueei nie?aoeeny, /oi niinianoaiaaei
?inoo oeai ?aaeecaoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. A 1999 a.
oeaiu ia ?ano?nu aeey naea oaaee/eeenue a 1,6 ?aca, a oi a?aiy eae ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth – a 2 ?aca. Iaeiaei oaea a 2000 a.
i?iyaeeanue i?aaeiyy oaiaeaioeey: oeaiu ia i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
aic?inee ia 66%, a ia naeueneioicyenoaaiioth – eeoue ia 36%.

A oneiaeyo oneeeaoaainy aeenia?eoaoa oeai ?acei nieceeanue
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa a aa?a?iii naeoi?a. Anee a 1990 a.
oieueei 3% naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee auee oauoi/iuie, oi a 1998
a. eo oaeaeueiue aan ninoaaee oaea 88%. A 1990 a. iauee o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe ?aaiyeny 37%, a a 1998 a. – -28%. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiauoaiey oeai ?aaeecaoeee a 1999 a. oaeaeueiue aan oauoi/iuo oicyenoa
nieceeny aei 54% e n?aaeiyy ?aioaaaeueiinoue ninoaaeea 8,5%. Ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iia iineo oeeoeaiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo
ii?aaeaeyaony i/aiue ieceei o?iaiai iieaou o?oaea, aeeth/aaiiai a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. A 1990 a. n?aaeiaiany/iay iieaoa o?oaea a
naeueneii oicyenoaa ninoaaeyea 93% niioaaonoaothuaai iieacaoaey a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aieaa 95% n?aaeiae iieaou o?oaea a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.
Nae/an yoe oeeo?u ?aaiu niioaaonoaaiii 29 e 38%. ssnii, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa eneonnoaaiii caieaeaaony naaanoieiinoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e caauoaaony aa aeioiaeiinoue.

A 1999 a. iauay i?eaueue naeueoici?naei?eyoee ninoaaeea 14,6 ie?ae. ?oa.
i?e ?aioaaaeueiinoe 8,5%. Anee au iieaoa o?oaea ia naea auea iiauoaia
oioy au aei 66% aa o?iaiy a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi oiiae iieaou o?oaea
oieueei ii ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aic?in au ia 18 ie?ae. ?oa., a ii
anae i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – ia 25,6 ie?ae. ?oa. Yoe noiiu auee au
o/oaiu a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, niioaaonoaaiii oiaiueoeeanue au
i?eaueue (anee au iia auea) eee oaaee/eeenue e aac oiai ianooaaiua
oauoee, en/eneaiiua ia iniiaa yaii caieaeaiiie, i?aeoe/anee iiieiaeueiie
iieaou o?oaea. Oae /oi aicieeoay a 1999 a. i?eaueue, ii nooe, iieiay,
iaiiieiathuay aeioiaeu eieoicia i?e “ionoiii?iaeiai o?oaeiaeia”.

Aeenia?eoao oeai onoaoaeyaony ionoonoaeai eueaioiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey e
no?aoiaaiey, oe?iei i?eiaiyaiuo a ?acaeouo no?aiao. ?acei nie?aoeeanue
ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ii eeiee
athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey. Iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea iacaaiiuo
oaiaeaioeee ai iiiaii oneeeaaeinue iieeoeeie i?eaaoecaoeee a aa?a?iii
naeoi?a, eioi?ay i?eaaea e eeeaeaeaoeee iiiaeo e?oiiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

A ?acoeueoaoa naeueneia oicyenoai ieacaeinue a ninoiyiee aeoaieiai
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. Iii aaciaaeaaeii iiooaii aeieaaie. Ia
ia/aei 2001 a. e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ninoaaeea 229 ie?ae. ?oa., a oii /enea i?in?i/aiiay -158
ie?ae. ?oa. Aeieae ec aiaea a aiae ?anooo. Oae, a 1998 a.
caaeieaeaiiinoue ?aaiyeanue 140 ie?ae. ?oa., a a 1999 a. – 175 ie?ae.
?oa. E?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue i?eia?ii a 1,3 ?aca i?aauoaao
aiaeiaoth au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e a 6,5 ?aca –
aeaaeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo oicyenoaa ia iiaoo inouanoaeyoue ?anoe?aiiia
aini?iecaiaenoai. Iao n?aaenoa ia aiciauaiea e iaiiaeaiea ?ano?nia.
I?eia?aoaiea oaoieee, oaeia?aiee e ai?th/aai nie?aoeeinue a 5-15 ?ac.
Anee a 1990 a. oicyenoaa caeoieee ii/oe 144 oun.. o?aeoi?ia, oi nae/an
caeoiatho iaiaa 10 oun. a aiae, a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae – niioaaonoaaiii
97,6 oun. e iaiaa 4 oun. Iieoiea ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee oiaiueoeeanue
ca yoe aiaeu n 11 iei. aei 1,6 iei. o (a ia?an/aoa ia 100-i?ioeaioiia
niaea?aeaiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa). A 1990 a. oicyenoaa i?eia?aee 11,3
iei. o aaoiaaiceia, a a iineaaeiea aiaeu – iaiaa 2,5 iei. o,
aeecaeueiiai oiieeaa – niioaaonoaaiii 20 iei. e iaiaa a iei. o.

Caeanue aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue niaoeeoeeo ?aaeoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia
?ac?ooeoaeueiua ?aoi?iaoi?neea ia?u. A yoie io?anee iauaeoeaii
neeaaeuaathony naie oeeeeu aini?iecaiaenoaa. A iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo
naeueneia oicyenoai aeaa?aaee?oao iaaeeaiiaa, ii aa?iaa. Iiyoiio aeaaea
i?e oeo/oaiee iaueo oa?aeoa?enoee aini?iecaiaenoaa iii a ioee/ea io
aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo io?aneae ia iiaeao n?aaieoaeueii auno?i aueoe ec
e?eceniiai ninoiyiey.

N iuiaoiei iieiaeaieai naeueneiai oicyenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii
?aoaiea, ii nooe, aeaaiaeoaai aii?ina aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu -noaiiaeaiey
?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee. ?uiie caiee o?aeooaony iau/ii iaeiinoi?iiia,
eae inouanoaeaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Iaaeaeo oai
yoi iiiyoea iaiiiai oe?a e aeeth/aao iai?io i?aa a?aiaeu, ianeaaeiaaiey,
caeiaa caiee. A ?inneeneeo oneiaeyo iniaia cia/aiea eiaao iai?io
caiaeueiuo iaaa (aeieae). N/eoaaony, /oi oaea ieiei 64% caiee iaoiaeeony
a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ii caeanue neaaeoao ooi/ieoue, /oi a iniiaiii
yoi caiaeueiua iae naeyi. I?e ianoaeaeaiee aea aii?ina i ?uiea caiee ia
iai?ioa caiaeueiuo iaaa ii/aio-oi caauaatho, oioy eiaiii /a?ac ieo e
?aaeecoaony a aeecie eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai e?anoueyi ia caiaeueioth
nianoaaiiinoue. Nae/an, eae i?aaeei, iii iineo oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?. *oi
aoaeao n caiaeueiuie iayie iinea i?eciaiey ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee? *oi
aeaeao e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia yoeo iaaa?

Aoaeouaa caiaeueiuo iaaa e i?aaa naeyi ia ieo, eae e eo noaeueaa,
anaoeaei naycaiu n noaeueaie oicyenoa, a eieeaeoeaao eioi?uo iie
ninoiyo. Naaiaeiy e?anoueyia iaoiaeyony a naiaai ?iaea ia?aoiaeiii,
“iiaeaaoaiiii” iieiaeaiee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie eae nianoaaiieee caiee
ia yaeythony oa?ia?aie, naiinoiyoaeueiuie oicyaaaie, a ?aaioatho ia oii
eee eiii i?aaei?eyoee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie, aoaeo/e nianoaaiieeaie
iaaa e /eaiaie eieeaeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey, io/oaeaeaiu io oi?aaeaiey ei
eoaea neeueiaa, /ai ?aiueoa a eieoicao e niaoicao.
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia eeoei e?anoueyi a iuiaoieo oneiaeyo ana a
aieueoae noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony ?aaioie a ee/iii iiaeniaiii oicyenoaa,
ianooaau eioi?iai iaecia?eii au?inee, a oii /enea ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey
caiaeueiie ieiuaaee eae a ?aieao caiaeueiuo iaaa, oae e iiieii ieo.

Ianiio?y ia aic?inoaa aac?acee/ea naeyi e aeaeai naieo i?aaei?eyoee, a
aieueoeinoaa naiai e?anoueyia ia aioiau oeoe n ieo. Iiaeii aeaaea
neacaoue, /oi a oneiaeyo ?ac?ooe, oea?yuae a ?inneeneie aea?aaia,
oe?aieyaony eo naiaia?aciay i?eaycaiiinoue e i?aaei?eyoeyi, yaeythuayny
niiniaii auaeeaaiey. ?aaioa a iauai oicyenoaa (eae au ie iacuaaeinue
oaeia i?aaei?eyoea) aeaao ie/oiaeiue aeioiae. Aeaaiue enoi/iee aeecie –
ee/iia iiaeniaiia oicyenoai. A aai iaaiciiaeii aanoe, anee ia
eniieueciaaoue iioaioeeae i?aaei?eyoey (oaoieeo aeey ia?aaioee caiee,
ei?ia e i?.). Aac iaai ia iaieoenue e a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
oaeiaeaoai?youe yeaiaioa?iua nioeeaeueii-auoiaua ioaeaeu (iaaeeoeeineay
iiiiuue e o.i.). ssnii, /oi i?eaycaiiinoue naeyi e aeaiiiio
i?aaei?eyoeth iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyao ia ?uii/iue iai?io caiaeueiuo
iaaa. E oiio aea iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi caiaeueiua iae a iniiaiii
iaoiaeyony o iaineiia?ia e naeueneie eioaeeeaaioeee, oi anoue o oao
eaoaai?ee naeueneeo aeeoaeae, eioi?ua ia oioyo e ia iiaoo aanoe
oicyenoai ia naiae caiea. Auoa iu ?anniio?aee iauea i?iaeaiu ?uii/iiai
iai?ioa caiaeueiuo iaaa. Ii aieaa eiie?aoii yoe i?iaeaiu iaiaeeiaeiai
i?iyaeythony ia ?aciuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, ?acee/athueony ii o?iaith naiaai
?acaeoey. Einoeooo aa?a?iuo i?iaeai e eioi?iaoeee ?ANOI a oa/aiea iiiaeo
eao enneaaeoao ninoiyiea e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo naeueoic-i?aaei?eyoee ?innee
a ?ac?aca 5 a?oii. A aniaeoa iaoaai aiaeeca naiia oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea
neiaeeeinue a oicyenoaao aeaoo iineaaeieo a?oii, e eioi?ui ioiineony
ieiei iieiaeiu anao i?aaei?eyoee. Aieueoay eo /anoue iaoiaeeony ia a?aie
iieiiai e?aoa e ?aci?aiey. Ei oaea ia iiiiaeao ieeaeia oeiainiaia
icaei?iaeaiea. Aoaeo/e i?aeoe/anee aaie?ioaie, iie, ii nooe,
i?aa?aoeeenue a iaeia iiaeiaea i?aaiecaoeee ii ianeoaeeaaieth ee/iuo
iiaeniaiuo oicyenoa ianaeaiey, iniaaiii oai, aaea n?aaee aeeoaeae
i?aiaeaaeatho iaineiia?u.

Eaeia aea auoiae ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey? Aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia o
oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee iao. Caeanue o?aaoaony ea?aeeiaeueiay ?ai?aaiecaoeey.
Eiie?aoiua aa ia?u e oi?iu iiaoo auoue ?aciuie, a /anoiinoe,
i?eniaaeeiaiea e e?aieiio, aeecianiiniaiiio naeueoici?aae-e?eyoeai,
ioeoeaoaa?eea eee eiiieaeno, aiciiaeii, e n?aaieoaeueii aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiiio i?iiuoeaiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth eee no?ieoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee. A ethaii neo/aa aeieaeiu iiaaoaoueny eee nienuaaoueny ana
aeieae iiaeiaiuo oicyenoa. E?iia oiai, i?aaei?eyoeth-aeiii?o iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeinoaaeoue oioy au aeaoo-o?aoeaoiea “iaeiaiaua eaieeoeu”, inaiaiaeea
aai ia yoio n?ie io anyeeo iaeiaia. A aeaiiie nayce aiiaue noaiiaeony
aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia aa?ii?iiuoeaiiie eioaa?aoeee. Aeeth/aiea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeaea anaai iaaeecianiiniaiuo, a
iauoth eioaa?aoeeiiioth “oeaii/eo” iicaieeo ia i?inoi nio?aieoue eo, a
i?aia?aciaaoue ia iiaie oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneie iniiaa, aaeaioe?oy e
?uii/iui oneiaeyi.

Aaaaeaiea ?uii/iiai iai?ioa caiee i?aaeiieaaaao iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneoth
i?i?aaioeo oe?ieiai e?oaa i?iaeai ii aai eio?ano?oeoo?iiio iaania/aieth.
Yoi i?aaeaea anaai eaaeano?iaay e yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea caiee.
Oaeoaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee o?aaotho aii?inu oeaiu caiee, ieaou ca caieth,
caiaeueiiai iaeiaa e a?aiaeiie ieaou, nouiinoe yoeo eaoaai?ee, eo
acaeiinayce, /oi eiaao i?yiia ioiioaiea e i?iaeaiaoeea
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou e ?aioiuo aeioiaeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iac?aea
iio?aaiinoue a aa ?acaeoee i?eiaieoaeueii e ?uii/iui oneiaeyi, iniaaiii
n o/aoii iaia/aaiiai ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iiio iai?ioo caiee.

I?e ianoaeaeaiee caiaeueiiai aii?ina ana aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyaony aai
ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiui aniaeoai. Eiaaony a aeaeo niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ioiioaiee ii iiaiaeo caiaeue, ia eioi?uo ?aniieiaeaiu ai?iaea e iinaeee,
o?ainii?oiua a?oa?ee, i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee, a oii /enea ii
aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, e o.ae. Caeanue ioaeii onoaiiaeoue aaeeiue,
ii ia oaaeiiiue i?aaiaie ii?yaeie, o/eouaathuee eioa?anu eae eiie?aoiuo
noauaeoia caiaeueiiai i?aaa, oae e anaai iauanoaa.

Aieiothuee ?inneeneia iauanoai ecaa/iue caiaeueiue aii?in iiaeao auoue
iieiaeeoaeueii ?aoai eeoue ia aaca eiiieaeniiai, ananoi?iiia
iainiiaaiiiai iiaeoiaea. I?e yoii iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo e cai?inu
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy, e iio?aaiinoe aoaeouaai.

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