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Разделение властей в государственном механизме

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?ACAeAEAIEA AEANOAE A AINOAeA?NOAAIIII IAOAIECIA

?acaeaeaiea aeanoe — iieeoeei-i?aaiaay oai?ey, niaeanii eioi?ie
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue aeieaeia auoue ?acaeaeaia ia iacaaeneiua ae?oa
io ae?oaa (ii i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiio?iee?othuea ae?oa ae?oaa) aaoae:
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth, eniieieoaeueioth e noaeaaioth. I?aaeeiaeaia Aeaeiiii
Eieeii. Oa?iei aaaae?i Iiioaneue? (o?. separation des pouvoirs, eao.
trias politica).

Iaeioi?ua aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, a oaeaea Oaeaaiue, caeiiiaeaoaeueii
auaeaeytho aeiiieieoaeueii eiio?ieueioth, yecaiaiaoeeiiioth,
th?eaee/aneoth, e, e?iia oiai, o/?aaeeoaeueioth e ecae?aoaeueioth aaoae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Enoiee, ?ieue e iacia/aiea oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae

Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, eiaioaiay ia?aaeei i?eioeeiii ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, a oii aeaea, eae iia aini?eieiaaony iuia i?eiaieoaeueii e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio ?aaeeio, iiyaeeanue aieaa o?aonio eao iacaae.
Iniiaaoaeyie aa n/eoathony aiaeeeneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno, nicaeaoaeue
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneie aeieo?eiu iaoa?eaeecia Aeaeii Eiee e o?aioeocneee
i?inaaoeoaeue, oeeinio e i?aaiaaae Oa?eue Eoe Iiioaneuea.

Eaeae Eieea ioiineoaeueii iaiaoiaeeiinoe e aaaeiinoe ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
eceiaeaiu a aeaaiii aai o?oaea “Aeaa o?aeoaoa i ainoaea?noaaiiii
i?aaeaiee” (1690), a eaeae Iiioaneuea i ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae e ae?oaea
aai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea aicc?aiey – a ?iiaia “Ia?neaeneea ienueia”,
enoi?e/aneii i/a?ea “?aciuoeaiey i i?e/eiao aaee/ey e iaaeaiey ?eieyi” e
iniiaiii aai i?iecaaaeaiee – “I aeooa caeiiia” (1748).

Iiaeiaii ae?oaei iao/iui eaeayi e eiioeaioeeyi oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae aicieeea ia ia ionoii ianoa. Iia auea iiaeaioiaeaia anai
i?aaeoanoaothuei nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei ?acaeoeai e iaeiieaieai
enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa a i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie aeecie e
iiaeaea?aeaiee noaaeeueiinoe a iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa.

?annoaeaeay ia yoo oaio, ecaanoiue ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue ?innee,
aaoi? ieaia eeaa?aeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a no?aia I.I. Nia?aineee ienae,
/oi “oea?noaa caiiua eiatho naie yiioe aaee/ey e oiaaeea, e a eaaeaeie
yiioa ia?ac i?aaeaiey aeieaeai auoue ni?acia?ai oie noaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey, ia eiai noieo ainoaea?noai”. Eaaeaeue
?ac, iiae/a?eeaae aaoi?, “eiaaea ia?ac i?aaeaiey ionoaao eee i?aaeaa?yao
neth noaiaiue”, ii “ieni?iaa?aaaony aieueoei eee iaiueoei iio?ynaieai”.

Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia iiaea aicieeiooue, a oai aieaa
“iaoa?eaeeciaaoueny”, ia oie nooiaie ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa – “noaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey”, eioi?ay iau/ii eiaioaony “ainoi/iui
aeaniioeciii” eee “aa?iiaeneei aaniethoeciii”. Eai aeanoue a yoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo nenoaiao, “ecae?aaea ?acaeaeyaoeo iieeoe/aneee ie?”,
iaeciaiii nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue eeoue a iaeieo ?oeao – ainoi/iiai
aeaniioa, oea?y, oa?aiia, iiia?oa. Caeii a ioiioaiee oaeie aeanoe aue
niaa?oaiii aaniiiiuai.

Aeaniioe/aneay aeanoue, ii neiaai I. Nia?aineiai, a ioiioaiee naiiai
i?iecaieueii ecaeaaaaiiai ath caeiia “ia aeiioneaea ie ia?u, ie
a?aieoe”. *oi aea eanaaony aaniethoecia, oi io?aaeaaoay e ?aaeeciaaaoay
aai ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoeia “auea iniiaaia ia aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaiie,
ia?aie/eaaaiie ia caeiiaie, ii aauanoaaiiui” eee “iaoa?eaeueiui aa
?acaeaeaieai”.

Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae aicieeaao e ia/eiaao “iaoa?eaeeciauaaoueny”
eeoue ia oie noaaeee ?acaeoey iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa, eiaaea nic?aaatho
ana iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey aeoeaiiai o/anoey oe?ieeo neiaa
iauanoaa a nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie e iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannao
no?aiu, oi?aeanoaoao oioy au a oi?iaeueiii ieaia iieeoe/aneee e
eaeaieiae/aneee ieth?aeeci; n?aaee eioaeeaeooaeueiuo neiaa iauanoaa
eaeao oneeaiiue iiene iooae e n?aaenoa nicaeaiey iaaeaaeiuo aa?aioee
i?aa e naiaiae iiaeaeaiiuo eee a?aaeaeai; i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee
ia?aaeaeaiey eo, a aianoa n ieie anaai iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa io
aiciiaeiie oco?iaoeee anae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe eae ni noi?iiu
ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, oae e ni noi?iiu ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaa.

Eiaiii a oaeie ia?eiae, a eiioea XVII a., a ia?eiae oae iacuaaaiie
“neaaiie ?aaiethoeee” a Aiaeee, e a na?aaeeia XVIII a., a ia?eiae
ia?anoaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iano?iaiee ai O?aioeee, oneeeyie Aeae. Eieea
e O. Iiioaneuea ?ac?aaaouaathony iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, caeeaaeuaaaony
ooiaeaiaio e nicaeaaony ea?ean caeaiey iiae iacaaieai oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae.

I?e ?anniio?aiee i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a iau/ii auaeaeytho o?e oacu. Ai-ia?auo, yoi nicaeaiea
oaeeo ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai oiiaea e ianoaiiaee, a eioi?uo noaei aiciiaeiui
iiyaeaiea eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ioi?ieaiea ninoaaeythueo aa
yeaiaioia. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi nicaeaiea nianoaaiii eiioeaioeee, ioi?ieaiea
aa ioaeaeueiuo /anoae e aa?iiie/aneia niaaeeiaiea eo aiaaeeii. E,
a-o?aoueeo, yoi aianaiea ia?auo ei??aeoe?iaie, iiyaeaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa
iaeiieaiey i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa ii i?aoai?aieth iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee
oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a aeeciue”.

Ii iiaieth o/aiuo, aeeeoaeueiinoue yoeo oac ii a?aiaie aeaeaei ia
iaeeiaeiaa. Ia?aay oaca ioaaouaaao ia?eiae n XVI a. aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu
XVII a. Aoi?ay, iniiaiay, oaca – ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVII aei na?aaeeiu
XVIII a. E o?aouey, caaa?oathuay, oaca ioaaouaaao ia?eiae n na?aaeeiu
XVII e aei eiioea ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a.

N oi/ee c?aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai
?acaeoey, yoi auee ai iiiaii aanueia ?acii?iaeiua ia?eiaeu. Iaeiaei, n
oi/ee c?aiey noaiiaeaiey eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ana yoe
i?ioeannu iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu “a ?aieao i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iaeiie
ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee”. A eiaiii oie, eioi?ay caiyea ainiiaenoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea a Oeaio?aeueiie e Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, a caoai ?ani?ino?aieeanue
e ia Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo. “Iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a, ninoaaiie /anoueth
eioi?ie noaea eiioeaioeey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, auea ii?iaeaeaieai eiaiii
yoie oeeaeeecaoeee”.

Aiai?y i eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo e i?aaeiinueeao aicieeiiaaiey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a Aiaeee (a eioa?i?aoaoeee Aeae. Eieea) e ai
O?aioeee (a i?aaenoaaeaiee O. Iiioaneuea), iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei
enoiaeeoue ec aiaeeca iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, ii e i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea
noauaeoeaiua aicc?aiey aa iniiaaoaeae.

A /anoiinoe, aeey aeoaieiai iiieiaiey enoieia, ?iee e iacia/aiey aeaiiie
eiioeaioeee a Aiaeee aanueia aaaeiui yaeyaony ia oieueei eiinoaoaoeey
oaeeo iauaeoeaii nouanoaiaaaoeo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua naiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii neacaeenue ia niaea?aeaiee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, ii e noaiiaeaiea “oaeiaiie” aeey iaae?aaoaai a oio ia?eiae neeo
iiaiai eeanna ao?aeoacee eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee, iieo/eaoae caoai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea a Aeeea i i?aaao (1689) e Aeoa ia
ono?iaiee (1710), a oaeaea aeinoeaeaiea nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai
eiii?iienna iaaeaeo caiaeueiie e aeaiaaeiie a?enoie?aoeae, iaaeaeo
oaeoe/anee ainiiaenoaiaaaoae a no?aia ao?aeoaceae e ioeoeeaeueii
i?aayuei aeai?yinoaii, e ae?.

Iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u – ?aaeueii nouanoaothuea oneiaey e i?aaeiinueee,
ianiiiaiii, yaeythony oie aacie, iniiaie, ia eioi?ie aicieeatho e
ooieoeeiie?otho eae ioaeaeueiua eaeae, oae e naia oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. Iie, aaconeiaii, eiatho aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea aeey i?ioeanna
aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey ?anniao?eaaaiie eiioeaioeee e ea?atho i?e yoii
aeiieie?othuoth ?ieue.

Iaeiaei aeaeaei ia aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey aeaiiiai i?ioeanna
eiatho e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, a /anoiinoe, iieeoeei-i?aaiaua e
oeeinioneea aicc?aiey naiiai iniiaaoaey aeieo?eiu ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
Aeae. Eieea.

Aoaeo/e noi?iiieeii oai?ee anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a,
iaio/oaeaeaaiinoe anoanoaaiiuo i?aa e naiaiae ee/iinoe, iaeiiaoe,
eaeaieiaii nioeeaeueiiai eiii?iienna e caueoieeii eaeae eeaa?aeecia,
Aeae. Eiee ia aac iniiaaiee ?anniao?eaae ?ac?aaaouaaaiue ei i?eioeei eee
oai?eth ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae eae iaeei ec niiniaia aeinoeaeaiey
neiaeeaoeony a aai ie?iaicc?aiee oeaeae e ?aoaiey ?yaea
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo caaea/.

I?aaenoaaeyy ainoaea?noai eae niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, iauaaeeieaoeony a
iaeii oeaeia iiae yaeaeie eie aea onoaiiaeaiiiai iauaai caeiia e
nicaeaaoeo noaeaaioth einoaioeeth, i?aaiii/ioth oeaaeeaaoue eiioeeeou
iaaeaeo ieie, Aeae. Eiee n/eoae, /oi oieueei oaeie, a ia eaeie au oi ie
auei eiie einoeooo eae ainoaea?noai – iineoaeue ioaee/iie (iieeoe/aneie)
aeanoe, niiniaai caueoeoue i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai, aa?aioe?iaaoue eo
o/anoea a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie, aeiaeoueny “aeaaiie e aaeeeie
oeaee” – nio?aiaiey nianoaaiiinoe, ?aaee eioi?ie ethaee iauaaeeiythony a
iieeoe/aneia niiauanoai.

Iaeiaei oniaoiia auiieiaiea yoie neiaeiie e aanueia iiiaia?aiiie iennee
ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa iai?aiaiii o?aaoao, niaeanii aicc?aieyi
ciaiaieoiai oeeinioa, /aoeiai ?acaeaeaiey aai ioaee/ii-i?aaiauo
iieiiii/ee ia o?aaiiaaoeaathuea ae?oa ae?oaa ninoaaiua /anoe e
niioaaonoaaiii iaaeaeaiey eie ?acee/iuo “naea?aeeaathueo” ae?oa ae?oaa
io /?acia?iuo aeanoiuo i?eoycaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeaeaieai aii?ina iieiiii/ey i?eieiaoue caeiiu
(caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue) aiceaaathony ia ia?eaiaio, a iieiiii/ey
inouanoaeyoue eo (eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue) – ia iiia?oa e i?aaeoaeuenoai
(eaaeiao ieieno?ia). Ana aeaeu ioaee/ii-aeanoiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
?aaeecothuea eo ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu ?aniieaaathony a ea?a?oe/aneii
ii?yaeea. Aa?oiaiie aeanoueth iauyaeyaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue. Ana
eiua aaoae aeanoe iiae/eiythony ae, ii aianoa n oai ieacuaatho ia iaa
aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea.

Ionoaeaay aeaiiue niinia i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, Aeae. Eiee aeoeaii aunooiae
i?ioea eiioeaioeee aaniethoecaoeee e iaia?aie/aiiinoe aeanoe.
Aaniethoiay iiia?oey, ienae a nayce n yoei aaoi?, eioi?oth ia eioi?ua
n/eoatho “aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie i?aaeaiey a ie?a”, ia naiii aeaea
“ianiaianoeia n a?aaeaeaineei iauanoaii e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaeao
auoue oi?iie a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaeaiey”.

Aeaei a oii, iiyniye o/aiue, /oi iineieueeo iia naia ia iiae/eiyaony
caeiio, oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia ia iiaeao iaania/eoue iiae/eiaiea aio e
ae?oaeo aeanoae e eeoe. Oaeay aeanoue ia niiniaia oaeaea aa?aioe?iaaoue
e anoanoaaiioth naiaiaeo /aeiaaea.

Iineaaeiyy caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi /aeiaae ii i?e?iaea naiae iieiinoueth
naiaiaeai “io eaeie au oi ie auei noiyuae auoa aai aeanoe ia caiea e ia
iiae/eiyaony aeanoe ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, ii ?oeiaiaenoaoaony oieueei
caeiiii i?e?iaeu”. A ioee/ea io anoanoaaiiie naiaiaeu “naiaiaea /aeiaaea
a iauanoaa” ninoieo a oii, /oi ii ia iiae/eiyaony ieeaeie ae?oaie
“caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, e?iia oie, eioi?ay onoaiiaeaia ii niaeaneth a
ainoaea?noaa, e ia iaoiaeeony a iiae/eiaiee /ueae-eeai aiea e ia
ia?aie/ai eaeei-eeai caeiiii, ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua aoaeoo
onoaiiaeaiu yoei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii a niioaaonoaee n ieacaiiui
aio aeiaa?eai”.

Niaeanii oeeinioneei e iieeoe/aneei aicc?aieyi Aeae. Eieea, anee
aaniethoiay iiia?oey – yoi iino?iaiiay oe?aiey e aaccaeiiea – iaoiaeeony
a aeoaieii i?ioeai?a/ee n i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea e iauanoaaiiui aeiaiai?ii,
oi ioaee/iay iieeoe/aneay aeanoue, iino?iaiiay ia iniiaa i?eioeeia
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ecia/aeueii niioaaonoaoao anoanoaaiiie i?e?iaea
ethaeae.

Iainiiauaay aeaiiue oacen, aaoi? ia?auaeny e oaeei i?e?iaeiui /a?oai
/aeiaaea, eae aai niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue iauea aeey anao i?aaeea
iiaaaeaiey e a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny eie; eae
niiniaiinoue i?aoai?youe a aeeciue i?eieiaaiua ei ?aoaiey e i?eiaiyoue
iauea i?aaeea e eiie?aoiui neooaoeeyi; iaeiiaoe, eae niiniaiinoue ia
oieueei onoaiaaeeaaoue, ii e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia e
a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aieao naie ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Iaee/eai
aeaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo /a?o /aeiaaea iainiiauaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue e
anoanoaaiiinoue ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth,
eniieieoaeueioth, noaeaaioth e oaaea?aoeaioth (aaaeathuoth
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie ioiioaieyie) aeanoe.

?acoiaaony, ?aaeueiia i?iyaeaiea iacaaiiuo /a?o, eae e naii ?acaeaeaiea
aeanoae, aiciiaeii eeoue a oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai, a ia
aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai, anoanoaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey e ninoiyiey
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e anaai iauanoaa. Eai, ai-ia?auo, a anoanoaaiiii
ninoiyiee, ii iiaieth Eieea, “ia oaaoaao onoaiiaeaiiiai, ii?aaeaeaiiiai,
ecaanoiiai caeiia”, eioi?ue aue au i?eciai e aeiiouai ii iauaio
niaeaneth a ea/anoaa “ii?iu ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iani?aaaaeeeainoe e
neoaeee au iauei ia?eeii”, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai ?ac?aoaeenue au nii?u
iaaeaeo ieie.

Ai-aoi?uo, a anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee “ia oaaoaao ciathuaai e
aani?eno?anoiiai noaeuee”, eioi?ue iaeaaeae au aeanoueth ?ac?aoaoue ana
cao?oaeiaiey a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii.

E, a-o?aoueeo, a anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee /anoi “iaaeinoaao neeu, eioi?ay
iiaea au iiaee?aieoue e iiaeaea?aeaoue ni?aaaaeeeaue i?eaiai? e i?eaanoe
aai a eniieiaiea”.

Aiaeiae/iua eaeae i ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae ?acaeaaeenue e aeiiieiyeenue
iicaeiaa a ?aaioao O. Iiioaneuea. A eaaeaeii ainoaea?noaa, ienae ii,
“anoue o?e ?iaea aeanoe: aeanoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiay, aeanoue
eniieieoaeueiay, aaaeathuay aii?inaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa, e aeanoue
eniieieoaeueiay, aaaeathuay aii?inaie i?aaa a?aaeaeaineiai.

A neeo ia?aie /anoe ainoaea?ue eee o/?aaeaeaiea nicaeatho caeiiu,
a?aiaiiua eee iinoiyiiua, e eni?aaeytho eee ioiaiytho nouanoaothuea. A
neeo aoi?ie iie iauyaeytho aieio eee caeeth/atho ie?, iinueatho e
i?eieiatho iineia, iaania/eaatho aaciianiinoue, i?aaeioa?auatho
iaoanoaey. A neeo o?aoueae aeanoe iie ea?atho i?anooieaiey e ?ac?aoatho
noieeiiaaiey /anoiuo eeoe. Iineaaeithth aeanoue iiaeii iacaaoue
noaeaaiie, a aoi?oth – i?inoi eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth ainoaea?noaa”.

Ia?ac?uaii naycuaay eaeath iieeoe/aneie naiaiaeu n eaeaae a?aaeaeaineie
naiaiaeu e aunooiay ca no?iaia niaethaeaiea caeiiia, ?aaoee?othueo
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie e ainoaea?noaii, Iiioaneuea, oae aea, eae
e Eiee, oniao?eaae a /aoeii ?acaeaeaiee e acaeiiii naea?aeeaaiee aeanoae
ia oieueei ?aaeueioth aa?aioeth i?aa e naiaiae a?aaeaeai, ii e eo caueoo
io ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?iecaiea e aaccaeiiey.

Ionoonoaea oaeiai ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ?aaii eae e ionoonoaea iaoaiecia
eo acaeiiiai naea?aeeaaiey ae?oa ae?oaa, n iaecaaaeiinoueth aaaeao, ii
iiaieth iuneeoaey, e nin?aaeioi/aieth aeanoe a ?oeao iaeiiai eeoea,
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia eee iaaieueoie a?oiiu ethaeae, a oaeaea e
ceioiio?aaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth e i?iecaieo.

?anniao?eaay enoiee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ?aaii eae e i?ioeann aa
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey, a iao/iie e o/aaiie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai oeacuaaaony ia oi, /oi, ianiio?y ia iauiinoue
iiiaeo iieiaeaiee, auneacaiiuo Eieeii e Iiioaneuea a ioiioaiee
?anniao?eaaaiie oai?ee, o/aiea Iiioaneuea i ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae
“iaeaaeaei cia/eoaeueiie iiaeciie ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaothueie
eiioeaioeeyie”.

A /ai yoi i?iyaeyeinue? Ai-ia?auo, a oii, /oi Iiioaneuea niaaeeiee
eeaa?aeueiia iiieiaiea naiaiaeu n eaeaae eiinoeoooeeiiiiai cae?aieaiey
iaoaiecia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Naiaiaea, aeieacuaae i?inaaoeoaeue,
“onoaiaaeeaaaony oieueei caeiiaie e aeaaea caeiiaie iniiaiuie”. A,
ai-aoi?uo, a oii, /oi ii aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii auneacaeny ca aeeth/aiea a
ninoaa aeanoae, iiaeeaaeaueo ?aca?aie/aieth, noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. Nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, iino?iaiiay ia iniiaa i?eioeeia
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, aeiiieiyeanue o Iiioaneuea i?eioeeiii
iacaaeneiinoe noaeae.

?anniio?aiiay ei o?eaaea a aeaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e
noaeaaiie aeanoae ni a?aiaiai noaea eeanne/aneie oi?ioeie oai?ee
eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Eaeaieiae/anee oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae auea iai?aaeaia i?ioea
ei?ieaaneiai aaniethoecia e neoaeeea iainiiaaieth neiaeeaoaainy a
oneiaeyo i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee eiii?iienna ao?aeoacee e
aeai?yinoaa. Ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?iie oaeiai eiii?iienna ai O?aioeee, oae
aea, eae e a Aiaeee, oniao?eaaeanue eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey.

Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae eiaao ia oieueei iao/iia, aeaaeaie/aneia, ii
e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Eaeae ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae auee oe?iei
i?aaenoaaeaiu, iai?eia?, a oaeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aeoao, eiaaoeo
ia?iiiia aeey naiaai a?aiaie th?eaee/aneia e iieeoeei-i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea, eae Aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia (1789), a
eioi?ie aeoeaioe?iaaeinue iniaia aieiaiea ia oieueei ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaao e naiaiaeao, ii e ia aaaeiinoe aeey
onoaiiaeaiey eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ii?yaeea ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae (no. 16);
Eiinoeoooeey O?aioeee (1791), aaea cae?aieyeinue i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiia
iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi “ai O?aioeee iao aeanoe, noiyuae iaae caeiiii”, e
/oi “ei?ieue oea?noaoao eeoue a neeo caeiia, e eeoue eiaiai caeiia ii
iiaeao o?aaiaaoue iiaeiiaaiey” (no. 3 ioae. 1 ae. II); e ae?.

Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a Eiinoeoooeee 1791 a. ia?yaeo n
nio?aiyaoaeny, oioy e ia?aie/aiiie caeiiii, iiia?oeae a ?acaeaea “I
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoyo” auaeaeyeinue iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
“noaa?aieoao anae iaoeee” “aaeei, iaaeaeei, iaio/oaeaeaai e iaiouaieai”.

Aanueia aaaeiui a ieaia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae auei eiinoeoooeeiiiia
onoaiiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio “ie iaeia /anoue ia?iaea, ieeaeia eeoei
ia iiaeao naaa i?enaieoue aai inouanoaeaiea”.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei onoaiiaeaieai “caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue aaa?yaony
Iaoeeiiaeueiiio Nia?aieth, a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeyo i?aaenoaaeoaee,
naiaiaeii eca?aiiua ia?iaeii ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie”. Eniieieoaeueiay
aeanoue “aaa?aia ei?ieth e inouanoaeyaony iiae aai aeaaainoaii
ieieno?aie e i?i/eie ioaaonoaaiiuie i?aaiaie”. Noaeaaiay aea aeanoue
“aaa?aia noaeueyi, ecae?aaiui ia?iaeii ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie” (no. 1-5
?acae. III).

Ii ia?a naiaai noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae iaoea
aeiaieueii oe?ieee ioeeee a aeaaeaie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo e?oaao ia
oieueei Aiaeee e O?aioeee, ii e ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai.

I?e/ai, anee, iai?eia?, a Aia?eea iia n naiiai ia/aea iieueciaaeanue
aieueoei oniaoii e ianoiuie o/aiuie e iieeoe/aneeie aeayoaeyie a?aeanue
ia aii?oaeaiea, oi a Aa?iaiee n?aaee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
eioaeeaeooaeueiie yeeou ?yae aa iieiaeaiee iiaeaa?aaeny niiiaieth.

Oae, a ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ?aaioa “Iauaa o/aiea i ainoaea?noaa” A. Aeeeiae
auneacuaaao naia yaii neaioe/aneia ioiioaiea ii iiaiaeo aiciiaeiinoe a
?aaeueiie aeecie aeiaeoueny oaeiai iieiaeaiey, eiaaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
aeanoue a eeoea ia?eaiaioa niiaeao oaeoe/anee naea?aeeaaoue
eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue, iaoiaeyuothny a ?oeao iiia?oa, eiaaea iaaeaeo
ieie iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi ?aaiiaanea.

Oaeia ninoiyiea yaeyaony “iieeoe/anee iaeiaiaa aa?iyoiui, oae eae
niioiioaiea nioeeaeueiuo nee, ninoaaeythueo iniiao iieeoe/aneiai
iiaouanoaa, e?aeia ?aaeei e oae ai anyeii neo/aa oieueei a?aiaiii
neeaaeuaaaony oae, /oiau auei aiciiaeii iieiia ?aaiiaanea aeaoo
iinoiyiiuo iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia”. Ii eiaiii ia “oaeoth iaaa?iyoioth
eiiaeiaoeeth ?ann/eoaia oai?ey ?aaiiaaney” Iiioaneuea e ae?oaeo aa
noi?iiieeia, e oaea iiyoiio ?aaeueiinoue i?eiaiaiey yoie oai?ee e aa
aeaenoaaiiinoue iiaeaa?aaeenue niiiaieth.

A ?innee iniaia aieiaiea oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae oaeaeye I.I.
Nia?aineee. A naiai “Aaaaeaiee e oeiaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia”
(1809) ii ienae a nayce n iiiuoeie eniieueciaaiey yoie oai?ee aeey
“i?aia?aciaaiey” naiiaea?aeaaey e no?aieaieai iinoaaeoue aa a ?aiee
caeiia, /oi “iaeuecy iniiaaoue i?aaeaiea ia caeiia, anee iaeia
aea?aeaaiay aeanoue aoaeao e ninoaaeyoue caeii e eniieiyoue aai”.
Iaiaoiaeeii aa ?acaeaeaiea. Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau iaeie “onoaiiaeaiey”
aeaenoaiaaee a i?ioeanna ninoaaeaiey caeiia, a ae?oaea – i?e eo
eniieiaiee.

Ec o?iyeiai ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiuo nee aicieeaao “o?iyeee ii?yaeie
nee onoaiiaeaiee”. Iaeii ec ieo “aeieaeii aeaenoaiaaoue a ia?aciaaiee
caeiia, ae?oaia – a eniieiaiee, o?aouea – a /anoe noaeiie. ?acoi anao
nee onoaiiaeaiee iiaeao auoue ?acee/ai”.

I.I. Nia?aineee i?aaeeaaae “aeaa ?acee/iuo ono?ienoaa” naiiaea?aeaaiie
aeanoe ia iniiaa caeiia e i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.

Ia?aue aa?eaio oaeiai ono?ienoaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau “iaea/ue i?aaeaiea
naiiaea?aeaaiia” anaie “aiaoieie oi?iaie caeiia, inoaaea a nouanoaa aai
oo aea neeo e oi aea i?ino?ainoai naiiaea?aeaaey”.

Aeaaiua /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe oaeiai ono?ienoaa naiaeyony e oiio, /oiau:
1) “onoaiiaeoue nineiaea, eioi?ia au i?aaenoaaeyei neeo
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth, naiaiaeioth”, eioi?ay ia naiii aeaea auea au “iiae
aeeyieai e a niaa?oaiiie caaeneiinoe io aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaiie”; 2) neeo
eniieieoaeueioth “oae o/?aaeeoue, /oiau iia ii au?aaeaieth caeiia
ninoiyea a ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii ii ?acoio aai auea au niaa?oaiii
iacaaeneia”; 3) aeanoe noaeiie “aeaoue ana i?aeiouanoaa aeaeeiie
naiaiaeu, ii naycaoue aa ia naiii aeaea oaeeie o/?aaeaeaieyie, /oiau iia
a nouanoaa naiai anaaaea ninoiyea ai aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaiie”.

Aeaiiue aa?eaio naiiaea?aeaaiiai ono?ienoaa, aeaeae auaiae Nia?aineee,
aoaeao eeoue eacaoueny “ai iiaiee ia?iaeiii” aeaenoaothuei. Ii ia naiii
aeaea ii ieeiaaea ia aoaeao oaeiaui.

Nooue aoi?iai aa?eaioa ono?ienoaa naiaeeony e oiio, /oiau ia oieueei
“aiaoieie oi?iaie iie?uoue naiiaea?aeaaea”, ii e ia?aie/eoue aai
“aioo?aiiath e aiaoiath, nouanoaaiiith neeith onoaiiaeaiee”. Ioaeii
“o/?aaeeoue aea?aeaaioth aeanoue ia caeiia ia neiaaie, ii naiei aeaeii”.

Anee, ienae aaoi?, i?aaeii/oaiea aoaeao ioaeaii yoiio aa?eaioo, oiaaea
ana “onoaiiaeaiey” aeieaeiu auoue “?aniieiaeaiu ia eiuo i?aaeeao”.

A eiaiii: 1) caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nineiaea aeieaeii auoue oae ono?iaii,
“/oiau iii ia iiaei niaa?oaoue naieo iieiaeaiee aac aea?aeaaiie aeanoe,
ii /oiau iiaiey aai auee naiaiaeiu e au?aaeaee au niaith iiaiea
ia?iaeiia”; 2) nineiaea noaeaaiia aeieaeii auoue oae ia?aciaaii, “/oiau
a auoee naiai iii caaenaei io naiaiaeiiai auai?a, e iaeei oieueei
iaaeci? oi?i noaeaaiuo e io?aiaiea iauae aaciianiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeaee
i?aaeoaeuenoao”; 3) aeanoue eniieieoaeueiay “aeieaeia auoue any
eneeth/eoaeueii aaa?aia i?aaeoaeuenoao”. A /oiau yoa aeanoue
“?anii?yaeaieyie naieie iiae aeaeii eniieiaiey caeiiia” ia iiaea au “ie
iaacia?aceoue”, “ie nianai oie/oiaeeoue” eo, oi iia aeieaeia auoue
iinoaaeaia iiae “ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiie”.

N?aaieaay aeaa yoe aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioa i?aia?aciaaiey naiiaea?aeaaey n
iiiiuueth oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, Nia?aineee aeaeae ieii/aoaeueiue
auaiae a iieueco aoi?iai eae aieaa niaa?oaiiiai e aieaa aeaenoaaiiiai
aa?eaioa.

Anee ia?aay ec n?aaieaaaiuo iaaeaeo niaie iioaioeeaeueiuo nenoai,
aiaeece?iaae ii, “eiaao oieueei aeae caeiia”, oi ae?oaay anoue “naiia
nouanoai aai”. Anee ia?aay iaaeieaiaa/ia e “ecaeaeaea naia aioiaeo naaa
i?ae?auaiea”, oi ae?oaay i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao “iiaeao
ooaa?aeeoueny, aeieaia a?aiy aac aaaeiuo ia?aiai iinoaiaiii neaaeiaaoue
ca a?aaeaeaineei oniaa?oainoaiaaieai”. Iaeiiaoe, anee ia?aay iiaeao
auoue “ii?aaaeaiia a ia?iaea naiaaieueiii, iaiinoiyiiii, i?aeeiiiii ei
anai iiaui oinoaiaaieyi e iniaeeai oiaaea, eiaaea ia?iae nae auoiaeeo ec
aia?oee n i?aa?aoiuie i?eau/eaie”, oi aoi?ay “iaeia iiaeao auoue
naienoaaiia ia?iaeo, eioi?ue eiaao aieaa aeia?iai niunea, iaaeaee
iuoeeainoe, aieaa i?inoiai e oaa?aeiai ?acoia, iaaeaee aiia?aaeaiey,
eiaai oa?aeoa? o?oaeii iaieuenoeoue, iaeaaei oaaaeeoue i?inoith
enoeiith”.

Aiai?y i aieiaiee e oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a ?innee e a ae?oaeo
no?aiao, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e yoii ia oieueei oe?iei
eniieueciaaeanue aa o?aaeeoeeiiiay iiaeaeue – o?eaaea, ninoiyuay ec
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoae, ii e
i?aaeeaaaeenue ae?oaea aa aa?eaiou.

Oae, I.I. Nia?aineee i?aaeeaaae, iiieii o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, eniieueciaaoue eo eeanneoeeaoeeth ia oece/aneoth e
iaoa?eaeueioth aeanoe. Ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee th?eno eiioea XIX – ia/aea
XX a. I. I?eo a naiae ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ?aaioa “Iniiau ioaee/iiai i?aaa”
auaeaeye e aiaeece?iaae, n oi/ee c?aiey acaeiinayce e acaeiiiai
“?aaiiaaney” aeanoae, iieeoe/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth, aiaiioth e
a?aaeaeaineoth, a?aaeaeaineoth e ?aeeaeicioth aeanoe, e ae?.

Ii ni?aaaaeeeaiio caia/aieth aaoi?a, “iaeiei ec i?aeiouanoa oai?ee
?aaiiaaney yaeyaony oi, /oi iia i?eaeaao niune e cia/aiea iiiai/eneaiiui
?acaeaeaieyi, eioi?ua aeaeiu aeaaea i?e naiii iiaa?oiinoiii iaaethaeaiee
iaae ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaeeiii”. Iineaaeiee aea anaaaea yaeyaony
“?aaeeiii ?acaeaeaiee”. A ?aaiiaanee ii iaoiaeeony eeoue aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi “?acaeaeyao ie?oaeathuea aai neeu, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy eo ae?oa
ae?oao e ainiieiyy iaeio ca n/ao ae?oaie”.

I. I?eo ia aac iniiaaiee n/eoae aiciiaeiui eniieueciaaiea oai?ee eee
i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey e naea?aeeaaiey (?aaiiaaney) aeanoae ia oieueei
aeey aiaeeca aeanoiuo acaeiiioiioaiee, aicieeathueo a ainoaea?noaaiiie
noa?a, ii e a ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo noa?ao. “A nouiinoe a?aaeaeaineia
iauanoai, – caia/ae ii, – iieieony ia iniiaiii ?acaeaeaiee iaaeaeo
iieeoe/aneie aeanoueth e yeiiiie/aneei iiaouanoaii”.

Aiaeiae/iua iiaeoiaeu e aiaeeco ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e ?anoe?eoaeueiie
o?aeoiaea yoie oai?ee a iineaaeothuai eniieueciaaeenue e iiiaeie
ae?oaeie aaoi?aie.

?aciiia?acea acaeyaeia ia oai?eth ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia Caiaaea

1. Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae caieiaao cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a nia?aiaiiie
th?eaee/aneie e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a Caiaaea. Oyniaieth e
?acuyniaieth iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee aeaiiie eiioeaioeee iinayuaia iao/iay,
iiioey?iay e o/aaiay eeoa?aoo?a. I?aeoe/anee iao oaeeo o/aaieeia e
o/aaiuo iiniaee, iai?eia?, ii eiinoeoooeeiiiiio i?aao, a eioi?uo ia
niaea?aeaeenue au aeaau eee ?acaeaeu, eanathueany ?anniao?eaaaiie
oai?ee.

Aiaeeco niaea?aeaiey iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, aa ianoa e ?iee a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaii e eiinoeoooeeiiiii
iaoaiecia ?acee/iuo no?ai iinayuaiu iiiai/eneaiiua iiiia?aoee, iao/iua
noaouee, a?ioth?u. A ieo ia oieueei ?ane?uaathony enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey
aeaiiie eiioeaioeee, ii e i?eiaieoaeueii e eciaiythuaeny yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie n?aaea i?aaeeaaaaony eo ii?ie aanueia
i?ioeai?a/eaia iiieiaiea e oieeiaaiea.

Iineaaeiaa iniaaiii /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony oiaaea, eiaaea eiathuea aeaei
n oai?eae ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa
aaoi?u a naieo nii?ao aa?oo ca enoiaeiia ?acee/iua aa enoiee eee o/aiey.
Oae, acya ca enoiaeiia a naieo ?annoaeaeaieyo o/aiea Aeae. Eieea i oii,
/oi a “eiinoeoooeeiiiii ainoaea?noaa, iie?athuainy ia naie nianoaaiiue
aacen e aeaenoaothuai a niioaaonoaee ni naiae nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeie,
o.a. aeaenoaothuai ?aaee nio?aiaiey niiauanoaa, iiaeao auoue anaai iaeia
aa?oiaiay aeanoue, a eiaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiay, eioi?ie ana inoaeueiua
iiae/eiythony e aeieaeiu iiae/eiyoueny”, aaoi?u iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeyo e
auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe /?acia?iiai i?aoaaee/aiey, a ii?ie e
aaniethoecaoeee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.

Iie?aynue aea a naieo nii?ao e noaeaeaieyo i oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
ia iniiaiua iieiaeaiey, noi?ioee?iaaiiua O. Iiioaneuea, ioiineoaeueii
oiai, /oi aeey ia?aciaaiey “oia?aiiiai i?aaeaiey” iaaei oiaoue
“eiiaeie?iaaoue aeanoe, ?aaoee?iaaoue eo, oia?youe, i?eaiaeeoue eo a
aeaenoaea, iiaeaaaeyoue, oae neacaoue, aaeeanoo iaeiie, /oiau iia iiaea
o?aaiiaaoeaaoue ae?oaoth…”, nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee e
eioa?i?aoaoi?u oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae naiie eiaeeie naieo
?annoaeaeaiee iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeyo e ianeieueei eiiio auaiaeo. A eiaiii,
ia io?eoeay aeiieie?othuae ?iee e cia/aiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe a
nenoaia anao inoaeueiuo aaoaae e i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iie
neeiiythony e auaiaeo i oii, /oi iineaaeithth, oai ia iaiaa, ia neaaeoao
aicaiaeeoue a aanietho e ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeia /ooue ee ia
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia eee iaaei?aaiaia ia?aciaaiea.

Aaaeue oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi aua Aeae. Iyaeenii e ae?oaea aaoi?u ia
i?eia?a NOA aeiaieueii oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaee, /oi “iieiiii/ey,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea iaeiiio aaaeiinoao, ia aeieaeiu i?yii eee einaaiii
inouanoaeyoueny ie iaeiei ec aeaoo ae?oaeo” e /oi “iaiiia?ii ?acaoooay e
anaioaaouaathuay i?a?iaaoeaa ianeaaenoaaiiie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, aea
aua iiaeaea?aeaiiay e iiaee?aieaiiay ianeaaenoaaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie”,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?iiioth iianiinoue aeey naiaiaeu e iacaaeneiinoe
ia?iaea. Oco?iaoeey anae aeanoe ni noi?iiu caeiiiaeaoaeae “aaaeao e
oaeie aea oe?aiee, eae e oco?iaoeey i?aaeaiey eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoueth”.

Ii eaeei aea ae?oaei iai?aaeaieyi i?ineaaeeaaaony ?acee/iia iiieiaiea e
niioaaonoaothuaa aio oieeiaaiea ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae? I?aeoe/anee ii anai. Ii iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec ieo yaeythony
neaaeothuea. Ai-ia?auo, ?acii/oaiey ii aii?ino i ianoa e ?iee naiie
eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a nia?aiaiiie ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie
oai?ee e i?aeoeea. Ai-aoi?uo, ?acee/iay eioa?i?aoaoeey i?iaeai
niioiioaiey iauae oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e “iaoeeiiaeueiie” i?aeoeee
aa i?eiaiaiey. E, a-o?aoueeo, ?acii?a/eaia iiieiaiea e iaiaeeiaeiaia
oieeiaaiea aii?inia, eanathueony iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ianoa e
?iee a ?anniao?eaaaiie o?eaaea noaeaaiuo i?aaiia – n ae?oaie.

Ia aaeaaaynue a iiae?iaiinoe, inoaiiaeiny ia e?aoeii ?anniio?aiee
eaaeaeiai ec yoeo iai?aaeaiee.

2. Aia/aea ianeieueei neia i ?aciuo acaeyaeao e iiaeoiaeao e naiie
oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e i?aeoeea aa i?eiaiaiey.

A yoii aii?ina iao aaeeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eaeaieiae/aneie,
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aaaeiinoe e i?aeoe/aneie cia/eiinoe aeaiiie
oai?ee. Niaeo? iiaiee e noaeaeaiee aanueia aaeee. Io iieiiai aini?eyoey
aei aaciaiai?i/iiai iai?eiyoey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae – oaeia
aeeaiacii ?acii?a/eauo iiaiee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino.

I?e/ai, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia yeoi?ee e aaciaeyaeiii aini?eyoee oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, oi aiana ia eiathony a aeaeo oieueei oae iacuaaaiua
“iieiaeua aeaiie?aoee”, aicieeoea ia ?acaaeeiao NNN? e ae?oaeo
“nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai” Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. A aeaiiii neo/aa iie ia a
n/ao, eai neaii e iiei?ii eiie?otho i?aeoe/anee ethaie iiuo
“oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?ai”, aeeth/ay iiuo i?eiaiaiey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. Eiathony a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai iuia nouanoaothuea,
auniei?acaeoua a i?iiuoeaiiii ioiioaiee caiaaeiua no?aiu: NOA, Eaiaaea,
Eoaeey, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey e ae?.

*oiau oaaaeeoueny a yoii, aeinoaoi/ii ia?aoeoueny e oaenoo eiinoeoooeee
?yaea yoeo no?ai, e a iniaaiiinoe NOA ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia.
O?aaeeoeeiiii iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ec ieo ia oieueei
i?iaicaeaoatho a iauae oi?ia, ii e ianoiyoaeueii cae?aieytho i?eioeei
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Oae, a Eiinoeoooeee ooaoa Ianna/onaon (no. 30)
iniai iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia yoiai ooaoa
“caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu ieeiaaea ia aeieaeiu auiieiyoue ooieoeee
eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoe, eee aea iaaeo eo. Aeanoue yoiai
ooaoa a eiia/iii n/aoa iiaeao auoue oieueei aeanoueth (ainiiaenoaii)
i?aaa, a ia ethaeae”.

A Eiinoeoooeee ooaoa Eiiiaeoeeoo (no. 2) oaeaea cae?aieyaony aeaiiue
i?eioeei. Niaeanii yoiio iniiaiiio aeoo aeanoue a ooaoa “aeieaeia auoue
?acaeaeaia iaaeaeo o?aiy ?acee/iuie aaaeiinoaaie. I?e yoii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue aeieaeia i?eiaaeeaaeaoue iaeiiio aaaeiinoao.
Eniieieoaeueiay – ae?oaiio. E noaeaaiay – o?aoueaio”.

Aiaeiae/ii aeaei ianoieo e n iai?eiyoeai oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.
Iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e iae au?aaeaaony ia oieueei a ?aaioao ?yaea
aaoi?ia, eioi?uo ioeoeeiciay i?anna no?ai “iieiaeie aeaiie?aoee” eiaioao
ia eia/a, eae noi?iiieeaie eiiioiecia e oioaeeoa?ecia, ii e a iao/iuo
o?oaeao iiiaeo ae?oaeo aiieia ?aniaeoaaaeueiuo n eeaa?aeueii-ao?aeoaciie
oi/ee c?aiey aaoi?ia.

Aiaeece?oy iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae iiae oaeii
c?aiey eo i?eiaiaiey e nia?aiaiiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ?yae
o/aiuo-eiinoeoooeeiiaeenoia i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeo i oii, /oi a ?aaeueiie
aeecie aeaiiay oai?ey ia?aaeei inoaaony ia /ai eiui, eae eeoue
“oi?iaeueiie oai?eae”. *oi aea eanaaony i?aeoeee aa eciaiaiey, oi iia
ca/anooth iineo anee ia ioe?iaaiii iaaaoeaiue, oi ai anyeii neo/aa
aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?.

Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi ana o?e aaoae aeanoe i/aiue oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo
niaie e no?aiyony a eiinoeoooeeiiiii ieaia eiio?iee?iaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa,
o?oaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi “niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeiue aeey yooaeoeaiiai
e naiaiaeiiai oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii o?iaaiue ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
ae?oa io ae?oaa iiaeao auoue eiaaea-eeai iaeaeai e aeieaeiui ia?acii a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie nio?aiai”.

A neeo yoiai iinoaiiaea aii?ina, niaeanii eioi?ie a NOA, iai?eia?,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ooieoeee iiaoo auiieiyoueny oieueei Eiia?annii ia
aeaooiaeaoiie iniiaa, ooieoeee eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe – eneeth/eoaeueii
i?aceaeaioii eee ?acee/iuie i?aaiaie, iaoiaeyueieny iiae aai eiio?ieai,
a noaeaaiua, niaeanii no. 3 Eiinoeoooeee, – oieueei noaeueyie e noaeaie,
oaeay iinoaiiaea aii?ina, aea aua ni nnueeaie ia ?aaiou Iiioaneuea e
Iyaeeniia, yaeyaony “a eioaeeaeooaeueiii ioiioaiee ia/anoiie e
enoi?e/anee iaaa?iie”.

Iaeia ec i?e/ei iiaeiaiie ioeaiee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e oaeii
iiaeoiaea ec anaai ?aciiia?acey ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo eaaeaeie ec o?ao
aeanoae, niciaoaeueii eee iainiciaiii eneeth/athony “noiaeiua eee
niaoaiiua ooieoeee”. A yoi i?ioeai?a/eo i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e naiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. E?iia oiai, iaee/ea
oaeiai ?iaea “/enoie”, eee “yeno?aienoneie” (eae aa aua iacuaatho),
oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiuoii
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?aaeueiie aeeciueth.

A nayce n auoaneacaiiui a iieeoe/aneie e th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
Caiaaea eiiaaea au?aaeaaony iiaiea i oii, /oi “oi?iaeenoe/aneee”
iiaeoiae e ?acaeaeaieth aeanoae yaeyaony “aoaeoaeueiui” n oi/ee c?aiey
iauaeoeaiiai enneaaeiaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia e
?aoaiey i?iaeai iioeiaeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo aeanoae. Ii ia
iicaieyao “i?aaeeueii iienaoue oi, eae ia naiii aeaea ooieoeeiie?oao
nia?aiaiiia oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai e eaeiauie ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o
yaeythony acaeiinayce iaaeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoyie”.

Aiaeiae/iiai iiaiey i “/enoie”, enoiaeyuae ec no?iaiai auiieiaiey naieo
ooieoeee eaaeaeie ec aeanoaothueo aaoaae oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
?yaea neo/aaa i?eaea?aeeaathony e noaeaaiua einoaioeee. Yoi i?iyaeyaony
iniaaiii iaaeyaeii ai anao oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ?anniao?eaathony aeaea i
eiinoeoooeeiiiinoe eee iaeiinoeoooeeiiiinoe aeaeaae?iaaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ooieoeee io iaeieo aini?aaiia e ae?oaei e eiaaea oaeei
ia?acii au?aaeaaony ioiioaiea noaeaaiuo i?aaiia e oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, aa ianoo e ?iee a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaii no?ieoaeuenoaa a
oeaeii.

3. Cia/eoaeueiua ?acii/oaiey a caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a e
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie i?aeoeea eiatho ianoi ia oieueei a ioiioaiee
iauae ioeaiee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Ia iaiaa io/aoeeai iie
i?iyaeythony e a ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo, a /anoiinoe, i?e ?aoaiee i?iaeai
niioiioaiey iauae oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e “iaoeeiiaeueiie” i?aeoeee
aa i?eiaiaiey.

Eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii yoi cao/eo ii enoa/aiee ianeieueeeo noieaoee n
iiiaioa iiyaeaiey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ii aii?in e iiiuia
iaeioi?uie aa enneaaeiaaoaeyie noaaeony eiaiii oae: a nouanoaoao ee
oaeay oai?ey aiiaua, a oeaeueiii aeaea? Anee nouanoaoao, oi /oi iia
niaie i?aaenoaaeyao? *oi a yoie oai?ee iauaai e iniaaiiiai,
oieaa?naeueiiai e iaoeeiiaeueiiai?

A caiaaeiuo aeaaeaie/aneeo e?oaao iao aaeeiiai ioaaoa ia aeaiiua
aii?inu. Niaeo? iiaiee aanueia oe?ie e ?aciiia?acai. Ia?yaeo n
i?eciaieai oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey iauae oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae – yoie
“ieeiaaea ia neii/aaiie e aa/ii i?eaiaeyuae e ia?acaa?eoa naaa i
?acaeaeaiee aeanoae” – a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a auooao iiaiea, /oi
nouanoaoao ia iauay oai?ey, a eeoue i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. A
naiai i?aeoe/aneii aiieiuaiee ii, ii iiaieth aia?eeaineiai
enneaaeiaaoaey A. Ceaaia, iai?aaeai ia oi, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue aioo?aiia
i?ioeai?a/eaoth i?iaeaio, naycaiioth n nicaeaieai oaeie
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie nenoaiu, eioi?ay, “n iaeiie noi?iiu, auea au
aeinoaoi/ii aeanoiie, /oiau iieiinoueth auiieiyoue naia i?aaeiacia/aiea,
a n ae?oaie – ia oaeie ananeeueiie, /oiau iiaeaaeyoue iauanoai e
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae. Aaaeue oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi iaia?aie/aiiay aeanoue,
iacaaeneii io oiai, a ?oeao eaeiai i?aaia iia nin?aaeioi/eaaaony –
ei?iey eee ia?eaiaioa, anaaaea niaea?aeeo a naaa ?ene auoue iinoaiaiii
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiiie a iaia?aie/aiioth oe?aieth”.

Aiaeiae/iiai acaeyaea ia ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae nei?aa eae ia
eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?eioeei, /ai ia iauoth oai?eth, i?eaea?aeeaathony e
ae?oaea aaoi?u. Aeiaieueii onoiyaoeiny i?e yoii i?aaenoaaeaieai i
?acaeaeaiee aeanoae yaeyaony iiaiea, ai-ia?auo, i oii, /oi ?acaeaeaiea
aeanoae – yoi ia noaoeea, a aeeiaieea, i?ioeann. A, ai-aoi?uo, /oi yoi
ia iauay oai?ey, a i?eioeei, naycaiiue n iinoiyiiui “ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai
e eciaiaieai aaeaina aeanoe iaaeaeo aa ?acee/iuie aaoayie”.

Ia?yaeo n auneacaiiuie noaeaeaieyie ioiineoaeueii noaiaie e oa?aeoa?a
ioi?ieaiiinoe oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a caiaaeiie iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a
nouanoaotho e eiua iiaiey. Iainiiauaaaony, iai?eia?, oi/ea c?aiey,
niaeanii eioi?ie a iao/iie oai?ee e i?aeoeea ainoaea?noaiaaaeu e
i?aaiaaaeu eiatho aeaei ia n iauae oai?eae ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, a n
eiioeaioeeae ioaeaeaiey ae?oa io ae?oaa “inouanoaeythueo niaianoii
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue ?acee/iuo einoeoooia”.

I?iaiaeeony iuneue i oii, /oi, iineieueeo a eaaeaeii nia?aiaiiii
ainoaea?noaa iacaaeneii io oi?iu i?aaeaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa any aeanoue a eiia/iii n/aoa i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?iaeo, ei?aieony
a ia?iaea e nouanoaoao aeey ia?iaea, oi eiae/iaa a oaeii neo/aa aanoe
?a/ue ia i ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae, a i ?acaeaeaiee ooieoeee (eiiiaoaioeee,
noa? aeayoaeueiinoe e iieiiii/ee) ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Iaaacuioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia iniiaa iaeiiai e oiai aea enoiaeiiai
oacena – i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeanoe ia?iaeo – a ?aciuo no?aiao e
iieeoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo aeaeathony aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaua auaiaeu. A
auaoai NNN? e aai ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo naoaeeeoao iainiiauaaeny auaiae i
aaeeinoaa e iaaeaeeiinoe ia?iaeiie aeanoe. Eae iaeia ionooieaiea
aeiioneaeny oacen i ?acaeaeaiee eiiiaoaioeee eee ooieoeee.

*oi aea eanaaony caiaaeiuo no?ai, oi a ieo ia iniiaa aiaeiae/iiai oacena
i anaaeanoee e aaeeiiaeanoee ia?iaea aeaeaeny auaiae i
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneii e oaeoe/aneii ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae, a eiiaaea e
ooieoeee. Yoio aea auaiae cae?aieyeny a oaeouai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e a
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aeoao.

Oae, a Eiinoeoooeee NOA, i?ieeaie?othuae a i?aaiaoea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
anae aeanoe ia?iaeo, a oi aea a?aiy onoaiaaeeaaaony oaeoe/aneia aa
?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aaoayie aeanoe. Noaouey 1 (?acae. 1)
Eiinoeoooeee cae?aieyao, iai?eia?, /oi ana onoaiiaeaiiua a Eiinoeoooeee
“iieiiii/ey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe i?eiaaeeaaeao Eiia?anno
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia, eioi?ue ninoieo ec Naiaoa e Iaeaou
i?aaenoaaeoaeae”. Noaouey 3 (?acae. 1) i?iaicaeaoaao, /oi
“eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyaony I?aceaeaioii Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia
Aia?eee. Ii ninoieo a naiae aeieaeiinoe a i?iaeieaeaiea /aou?aoeaoiaai
n?iea…”. E noaouey 3 (?acae. 1) onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi “noaeaaiay aeanoue
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia inouanoaeyaony Aa?oiaiui noaeii e oaie iecoeie
noaeaie, eioi?ua aoaeoo a?aiy io a?aiaie o/?aaeaeaoueny Eiia?annii”.

A nia?aiaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaieiaee ?innee, aeaeathuae aeoeaio,
eae e i?aaeiyy ioeoeeaeueiay eaeaieiaey, ia “aac?acaeaeueiie aeanoe
ia?iaea e aeey ia?iaea”, aneaae ca caiaaeiuie aaoi?aie neaaeoao auaiae i
nouanoaiaaiee a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia no?aiu ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.
Oacen i iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ?acaeaeaiee iieiiii/ee e ooieoeee iaaeaeo
oeaio?aeueiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, oaeei ia?acii, a
ioeoeeaeueiii (yai/iii) ii?yaeea aue caiaiai oacenii i
“iineaaeiaaoaeueiii” ?acaeaeaiee aeanoae. ?acoiaaony, ieeaeie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a yoii iao e auoue ia iiaeao. Ii ia a yoii nae/an
aeaei.

Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe nii?eoue ii aeaiiiio iiaiaeo Oi/ii oae aea, eae e ii
iiaiaeo oiai, nouanoaoao ee iauay oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a oeaeueiii
aeaea eee ia nouanoaoao. Yoi iiaeao, ii-aeaeeiiio, aeieacaoue oieueei
i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey aeaiiie oai?ee.

Nae/an aaaeii eeoue eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia oe?ieee ?aca?in
iiaiee ioiineoaeueii oeaeueiinoe e noaiaie ioi?ieaiiinoe, oai?ey
nouanoaoao, ii i?eciaieth aieueoeinoaa aaoi?ia, oioy e aeaeaei ia a
“caeii/aiiii” aeaea.

Ia/eiay io Aeae. Eieea e O. Iiioaneuea, n eiaiaie eioi?uo naycuaatho
aeoeaioth ?ac?aaioeo aeaiiie oai?ee, e eii/ay iaoeie nia?aiaiieeaie –
yenia?oaie a aeaiiie noa?a, au?aaioaiu eiie?aoiua, oieaa?naeueiua
iieiaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea iniiao ?anniao?eaaaiie oai?ee. Nicaeaiu
ooiaeaiaio e ea?ean eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, eioi?ua, eae
i?aaenoaaeyaony, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa “iauaai” aeey anao aa
?aciiaeaeiinoae e aa?eaioia, iacaaeneii io oiai, aaea, a eaeie no?aia e
i?e eaeii iieeoe/aneii ?aaeeia iia i?eiaiyaony e eae eioa?i?aoe?oaony.

N?aaee oaeiai ?iaea iaueo, aeinoaoi/ii onoiyaoeony oieaa?naeueiuo
iieiaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo iniiao oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iinooeaou.

A eaaeaeie no?aia, eiaiothuae naay aeaiie?aoe/aneie, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay,
eniieieoaeueiay e noaeaaiay aeanoe ia oieueei oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo
niaie aaeeiui ainoaea?noaaiiui iaoaieciii, ii e ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueiu.

Iaaeaeo aunoeie ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, inouanoaeythueie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua, eniieieoaeueiua e noaeaaiua ooieoeee, nouanoaoao
iaeee aaeain aeanoae, aeaenoaoao nenoaia naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania.

Ana o?e aeanoe aeaenoaotho, eae i?aaeei, ia iinoiyiiie i?aaiaie iniiaa.
Iineieueeo caeiiu, eae ienae a nayce n yoei Aeae. Eiee, “iaeaaeatho
iinoiyiiie e onoie/eaie neeie e ioaeaeathony a iai?a?uaiii eniieiaiee
eee iaaethaeaiee ca yoei eniieiaieai, oi iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ana a?aiy
nouanoaiaaea aeanoue”, eioi?ay neaaeeea au ca eo eniieiaieai.

Iaeiaei ia ai anao nia?aiaiiuo ainoaea?noaao oaeay i?aaiaay aaca
nouanoaoao. Ia neo/aeii iaeioi?ua aia?eeaineea aaoi?u naootho ia oi, /oi
“Aa?oiaiue noae NOA, ianiio?y ia iiiaeanoai ?anniio?aiiuo ei aeae e
nicaeaiiuo i?aoeaaeaioia, oae e ia niia a oa/aiea aieaa /ai aeaoo
noieaoee iaoae enoi?ee nicaeaoue nenoaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
eanathuothny iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae”.

N?aaee iaueo iinooeaoia oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae neaaeoao auaeaeeoue
oaeaea aa?oiaainoai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. Iia nio?aiyaony anaaaea,
ianiio?y ia ioiineoaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ae?oaeo aeanoae e
nouanoaothuea i?aaeaeu aa aeayoaeueiinoe. “Aaaeue oi, /oi iiaeao
nicaeaaaoue caeiiu aeey ae?oaeo, – iiyniyao Aeae, Eiee, – iaiaoiaeeii
aeieaeii auoue auoa eo. A iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue yaeyaony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie a iauanoaa eeoue iioiio, /oi iia iaeaaeaao i?aaii
nicaeaaaoue caeiiu aeey anao /anoae e aeey eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa,
i?aaeienuaay ei i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey e aeaaay neeo aeey iaeacaiey, eiaaea
iie ia?ooaiu, iinoieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aeieaeia auoue aa?oiaiie e ana inoaeueiua aeanoe a eeoea eaeeo-eeai
/eaiia eee /anoae iauanoaa i?ienoaeatho ec iaa e iiae/eiaiu ae”.

Iniiaiie e eiia/iie oeaeueth inouanoaeaiey ia i?aeoeea oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae yaeyaony i?aaeioa?auaiea oco?iaoeee anae
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iaeiei eeoeii eee a?oiiie eeoe e nio?aiaiea
oeaeinoiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia e anaai iauanoaa. Ianiio?y ia
iaeioi?ua ?acee/ey a iiieiaiee eiia/iuo oeaeae oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, iiiaea aaoi?u aaeeiu ai iiaiee i oii, /oi anee a ?oeao iaeiiai
eeoea eee i?aaia nin?aaeioi/eaaaony any aeanoue, “anee iaeei /aeiaae
iiaeao nicaeaaaoue i?aai, i?eiaiyoue aai e noaeeoue i aai ia?ooaieyo, oi
a oaeeo neo/ayo naiaiaea ia iiaeao aeieai nouanoaiaaoue”. Eiia/ii, “iu
ana aua iiaeai aieiniaaoue iaeei ?ac a /aou?a aiaea. Ii yoe auai?u
iaecaaaeii i?aa?aoyony a oi?iaeueiue ii?in, aaea aaeeinoaaiiui ioaaoii a
atheeaoaia aoaeao oieueei “aea”.

Eae i?eiaiythony iieiaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea iauoth oai?eth ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, ia i?aeoeea? Eaeea oaeoi?u aeeytho ia aeaiiue i?ioeann? *ai
iaoneiaeeaaaony iaoeeiiaeueiay niaoeeoeea i?ioeanna i?eiaiaiey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a oie eee eiie no?aia? Ia yoe e ae?oaea ei iiaeiaiua
aii?inu a caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a aaeeiiai ioaaoa iao. Iaeiaei anee
iiiuoaoueny noiie?iaaoue ?acii?a/eaua ioaaou e ioaaoeoue ia iiaeiaiua
aii?inu e?aoei, oi ioaao cao/ae au i?eia?ii oae: iaoeeiiaeueiay
niaoeeoeea, ?aaii eae e oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia i?ioeann i?eiaiaiey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a oie eee eiie no?aia, iaoneiaeeaathony
iniaaiiinoyie ?acaeoey aeaiiie no?aiu, oa?aeoa?ii e o?iaiai ?acaeoey aa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaoaiecia, yeiiiieee e iauanoaa.

?acoiaaony, ia?yaeo n oaeiai ?iaea iauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie ia iaiaa
aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u. Eai aac ieo (a /anoiinoe,
i?eaa?aeaiiinoe eee, iaiai?io, iai?eyoey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae)
i?inoi iaaiciiaeii auei au aanoe ?a/ue i i?eiaiaiee aeaiiie oai?ee a oie
eee eiie no?aia. Yoi i/aaeaeii, eae, ai?i/ai, e oi, /oi io oiai, eae
iiieiaaony oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, eaeea aa iieiaeaiey auaeaeaathony
ia ia?aue ieai, a eaeea inoathony iacaia/aiiuie, /aio oaeaeyaony
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea, ai iiiaii caaenyo oa?aeoa? e iniaaiiinoe aa
i?eiaiaiey.

Anee ioaa/aoue aieaa ianoiyoaeueii ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu, oi ioaao
ioaeii eneaoue a niaoeeoeea iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia,
nouanoaothueo a oie eee eiie ioaeaeueii acyoie no?aia, a eiiaaea e a
iniaaiiinoyo iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ie?oaeaiey. Iai?eia?, ni cia/eoaeueiie
aeieae oaa?aiiinoe iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia aoaeue ia aii?oaeaiee
i?aayuae yeeou nia?aiaiiuo auniei?acaeouo no?ai, ieacuaathueo ia
“ii?aoi?iaiioth” ?inneth e ae?oaea auaoea nithciua ?anioaeeee aieueoia
aeeyiea, i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, oi a?yae ee ii aue au n oaeie
aunieie aioiaiinoueth aini?eiyo iiauie, a iniiaiii i?icaiaaeiuie
iieeoe/aneeie yeeoaie a yoeo “ia?iaeaeathueony aeaiie?aoeyo”. Ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae – yoi ia oieueei e
aeaaea ia noieueei “oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneay”, neieueei iieeoe/aneay e
eaeaieiae/aneay oai?ey.

Noaiaiue e oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie
eiioeaioeee a oie eee eiie no?aia ai iiiaii caaenyo io oaeeo eiie?aoiuo
oaeoi?ia, eae:

a) oi?ia i?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaa. I?aceaeaioneay ?anioaeeea, eaeiaie
yaeyaony, iai?eia?, NOA, a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie oyaioaao e
?acaeaeaieth aeanoae, iaaeaee eiinoeoooeeiiiay iiia?oey a Aaeueaee,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaoeee eee ethaie eiie no?aia;

a) oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. A oaaea?aoeaiii ainoaea?noaa,
iai?eia?, a ioee/ea io oieoa?iiai, cia/eoaeueiue aeoeaio ii aiieia
iiiyoiui i?e/eiai aeaeaaony ia oieueei ia ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae ii
“ai?eciioaee” (iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaa), ii e ii
“aa?oeeaee” (iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e noauaeoaie oaaea?aoeee);

a) iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei. Nia?aiaiiua aeaiie?aoe/aneea iieeoe/aneea
?aaeeiu, eae i?aaeei, i?ieeaie?otho e i?eaea?aeeaathony (ii e?aeiae
ia?a, oai?aoe/anee) i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, a oi a?aiy eae
oioaeeoa?iua e aaoie?aoe/aneea ?aaeeiu, aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea cayaeytho
i i?eaa?aeaiiinoe i?eioeeio ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ia aeaea
i?eaea?aeeaathony eeoue ?acaeaeaiey aeanoiuo ooieoeee;

a) nouanoaothuea enoi?e/aneea, iaoeeiiaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea o?aaeeoeee,
a oaeaea neiaeeaoayny iieeoe/aneay i?aeoeea a oie eee eiie no?aia.

Ia?yaeo n iacaaiiuie aeaenoaotho e eiua iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee a ?aciuo no?aiao oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Eo iiiai. Iie aanueia ?aciiia?aciu e iiiai/eneaiiu.
I i?aeiouanoaao e iaaeinoaoeao eaaeaeiai ec ieo eaeoo nii?u. Aeoaieia e
?aciinoi?iiiaa eo eco/aiea iicaieeo nicaeaoue aieaa iieiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia oieueei ia iniiaiuo iieiaeaieyo oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, ii e ia iniaaiiinoyo iaoeeiiaeueiie i?aeoeee eo i?eiaiaiey.

4. Ianeii/aaiua nii?u a caiaaeiuo aeaaeaie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo e?oaao
eaeoo aie?oa aii?inia, eanathueony iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae, a oaeaea ianoa e ?iee
noaeaaiuo i?aaiia a ?anniao?eaaaiie o?eaaea.

Ia aii?in i cia/eiinoe noaeaaiuo i?aaiia a nenoaia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
neaaeotho oioy e noiaeiua, ii aeaeaei ia anaaaea ?aaiicia/iua ioaaou.

A iaeieo neo/ayo aeoeaio aeaeaaony ia oii, /oi a nenoaia ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae noae aeieaeai aunooiaoue naiaai ?iaea aa?aioii neiaeeaoaainy eo
?aaiiaaney. I?aaaea, eiiaaea iiaeiaiiai ?iaea noaeaeaiey
nii?iaiaeaeathony ia?aeaieyie ia oi, /oi “a iineaaeiea aiaeu noaeu
i?iyaeytho ai?acaei aieueoee eioa?an e ?acaeaeaieth aeanoe eeoue oiaaea,
eiaaea aeaea eanathony aeaoo ae?oaeo aaoaae aeanoe e ii/oe ia i?iyaeytho
ieeaeiai eioa?ana, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i naiie noaeaaiie aeanoe”. Ii yoi
ia iaiyao nouanoaa aeaea.

A ae?oaeo neo/ayo noae a nenoaia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ?anniao?eaaaony eae
naiaia?aciue a?aeo?, eae einoeooo, aunooiathuee a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea
iaaeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoyie. I?e yoii oaeaea
eiiaaea oeacuaaaony ia oi, /oi noae ia ni?aaeyaony n aeaiiie caaea/ae.
Yoi i?ienoiaeeo, ii iiaieth ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?ia, iniaaiii oiaaea, eiaaea
“aeaaiay oeaeue ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae – iaania/eoue iauanoai e ioaeaeueiuo
a?aaeaeai io aacaea?iiai eee oe?aie/aneiai eniieueciaaiey aeanoe
?acee/iuie i?aaiaie caauaaaony”.

Iaeiiaoe, a o?aoueeo neo/ayo noae i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea einoeoooa,
i?ecaaiiiai a oiaea iai?ae?auathuaeny iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aaoayie aeanoe
ai?ueau ca aeeyiea naieie ?aoaieyie “i?eniinaaeeaaoue iai?a?uaii
aic?anoathuoth ainoaea?noaaiioth no?oeoo?o e eiinoeoooeeiiiui
o?aaiaaieyi ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aeieaeia auiieiyoue
naie nianoaaiiua, oieeaeueiua ooieoeee”.

A caaea/o noaea, ii iauaio iiaieth, aoiaeeo ia oieueei ?anniio?aiea
eiie?aoiuo, “niaoeeoe/aneeo” aeae, eanathueony ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ii e
?anniio?aiea aii?inia, cao?aaeaathueo oai?eth ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
oeaeii. Ia noae, a /anoiinoe, aiceaaaaony iaycaiiinoue “ii?aaeaeaiey
noaiaie aoi?aeaiey iaeiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie aaoae aeanoe a ae?oaoth e
onoaiiaeaiea oiai, a eaeie ia?a yoi aiaoaoaeuenoai i?aiyonoaoao
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia, inouanoaeythueo ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeanoue”.

E?iia iacaaiiuo anoue e ae?oaea eioa?i?aoaoeee e iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth
i?iaeai ianoa e ?iee noaeaaiie aeanoe a nenoaia ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeanoae. Iie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aaaeiinoe, neiaeiinoe e aianoa n oai
caiooaiiinoe ?anniao?eaaaiuo i?iaeai.

Ia yoii aea naeaeaoaeuenoaotho e ianeii/aaiua nii?u aie?oa i?iaeai
niioiioaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae. Aii?in, eae
i?aaeei, noaaeony a aeaoo ieineinoyo: a ieaia i?iaeai iioeiaeueiinoe
niioiioaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae e a ieaia
i?aaeaeia aeiionoeiinoe aeaeaae?iaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.

I?e ?anniio?aiee i?iaeai iioeiaeueiinoe niioiioaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae iauae enoiaeiie iinueeie aeey enneaaeiaaoaeae
?aciuo no?ai, aeeth/ay aia?eeaioeaa, yaeyaony neaaeothuay: Eiia?ann
(ia?eaiaio, Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea) i?eieiaao caeiiu, a i?aceaeaio
(i?aaeoaeuenoai, eaaeiao) eo eniieiyao, i?aoai?yao a aeeciue. Yoa
aeneiia eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae cae?aieyaony eiiaaea a oaeoueo
caeiiao, a /aua – a eiinoeoooeeyo. Iia aeiaieueii ?aaeei iiaeaa?aaaony
niiiaieth, ca eneeth/aieai oao aiiiaeueiuo a nia?aiaiiie enoi?ee neo/aaa
(oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey, aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?inney iinea ?anno?aea ia?eaiaioa
3-4 ieoya?y 1993 a.), eiaaea aii?aee cae?aaiio niuneo e Eiinoeoooeee
i?aaeeaaaeinue n/eoaoue aeou eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ii th?eaee/aneie
neea noiyueie iaae caeiiaie – aeoaie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.

Iai?eia?, ii Caeiio “I eeeaeaeaoeee aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ia?iaea e
ainoaea?noaa” io 23 ia?oa 1933 a. a oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee i?aaiai
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a eeoea i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai
ecaeaaaoue aeou, eiathuea neeo caeiia. I?e/ai niaoeeaeueii
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue, /oi anee caeii, i?eieiaaiue i?aaeoaeuenoaii,
?anoiaeeeny n oi?iaeueii aeaenoaothuae eiinoeoooeeae, oi oai ooaea auei
aeey naiie eiinoeoooeee. Iiaeiaiua aeou, niaeanii no. 2 caeiia, iiaee e
ia niioaaonoaiaaoue eiinoeoooeee.

?acoiaaony, i?e yoii “anaia?iaeii eca?aiiue” eaioeea?, ia iaa?aaoee ia
auai?ao 5 ia?oa 1933 a. aeaaea 50% aieinia ecae?aoaeae, iieo/ae oe?ieea
iieiiii/ey ii ?ac?aaioea e aianaieth a i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaeoia oaeiai
?iaea caeiiia, eioi?ua iinea eo oi?iaeueiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey oaea ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue anooiaee a neeo.

Iaeiaei oaeia iieiaeaiea, a, oi/iaa, “niioiioaiea” caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae – yoi e?aeiinoue aeey nia?aiaiiuo ainoaea?noa.
Iia, anoanoaaiii, na?ueaciuie o/aiuie-eiinoeoooeeiiaeenoaie ia
ianoaeaeaaony, a inoaeaeaaony.

Ianoaeaeaieth aea ia i?aaeiao iioeiaeueiiai, iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeanoae, n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania anaai iauanoaa, a ia
yaienoe/aneeo eioa?ania i?aayuae eeeee e ioaeaeueiuo eeoe iiaeeaaeao
oieueei oa neo/ae, eiaaea iaa aaoae iaeaaeatho ?aaeueiie, a ia
aeaei?aoeaiie oi?iaeueiie aeanoueth.. Eiaiii oieueei ii ioiioaieth e
oaeei, a ia e?aeiei neooaoeeyi auneacuaathony noaeaeaiey, eanathueany
e?eoa?eaa iioeiaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae, onoaiiaeaiey aaeaina iaaeaeo ieie, eo
aeoeaiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe.

“Aeeeaiia aiieia i/aaeaeia, – ieoao a nayce n yoei N. Oyiaeaeue, – aac
aeanoe ieeaeea aieueoea aeaea ia iiaoo auoue inouanoaeaiu. Iaeiaei
i/aaeaeii e oi, /oi ethaay aeanoue a iioaioeeaea aea/ao ca niaie anyeiai
?iaea ia?ooaiey e ceioiio?aaeaiey. Aii?in caeeth/aaony a oii, eaeeie
i?a?iaaoeaaie aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue, aeey oiai
/oiau ia iaoaoue aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo aeanoae e aianoa n oai auoue
aeoeaiie e yooaeoeaiie. Eaeei ia?acii e eaeeie n?aaenoaaie
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aaeain aeanoae?”

A aaeain aeanoae, eae iieacuaaao iiuo aai iiaeaea?aeaiey a ?aciuo
no?aiao, iiaeao auoue aeaeaei ia anaaaea noaaeeueiui. Iiae aeeyieai
oeaeiai ?yaea iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia ii ia?eiaee/anee
ia?ooaaony a iieueco eniieieoaeueiie eee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.
Eaaeaeay ec aeanoae no?aieony eniieueciaaoue eiioeaioeeth ?acaeaeaiey a
naieo oeaeyo, aeey naiaai oneeaiey.

Oae, iai?eia?, a NOA, niaeanii aia?eeaineei enoi/ieeai, a XIX a. yoi a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oaeaaaeinue naeaeaoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe a
eeoea Eiia?anna. I?iaiaeeeny a aeeciue ecaanoiue oacen Aeae. Eieea,
iiaoi?aiiue Aeae. Iyaeeniiii e A.. Ieeueoiiii, i oii, /oi i?e
?anioaeeeaineii i?aaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
aeieaeia aeiieie?iaaoue iaae eniieieoaeueiie.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai XIX noieaoey a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe NOA
aa?oiaainoai inoaaaeinue ca Eiia?annii. ?ieue i?aceaeaioa oaeaea
n/eoaeanue aanueia aunieie. Ii iia auea iiae/eiaia aiea Eiia?anna.
Aaeieieno?aoeey Y. Aeaeaeniia e A. Eeieieueia n/eoaaony a aeaiiii
ioiioaiee “aieueoei eneeth/aieai ec yoiai i?aaeea”.

A iineaaeothuea aiaeu neooaoeey n niioiioaieai aeanoae cia/eoaeueii
eciaieeanue. Iiae aeeyieai oeaeiai ?yaea iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia iaeueia ia?aainoaa a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia NOA noaea
ia?aoiaeeoue io caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. A naiie
aeecie e a niciaiee iauanoaaiiinoe iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey ?anniio?aiey
aia?eeaineie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu eneeth/eoaeueii n “iiceoeee
ia?niiaeecaoeee einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa”.

N?aaee oaeoi?ia, niinianoaothueo ?acaeoeth aeaiiie oaiaeaioeee, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iacuaathony oneeaiea eieoeeaoeau e aeoeaiinoe
einoeoooa i?aceaeaioa a oi?ie?iaaiee e i?iaaaeaiee aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae
iieeoeee, a ?ac?aoaiee eiioeeeoia. Aiaeece?oaony oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo,
iniiaiuo e aeiiieieoaeueiuo, oaeoi?ia.

Iaeiaei iiiaea ec ieo, ?aaii eae e naia oaiaeaioeey, ia?aaeei
iiaeaa?aathony anee ia ioe?uoiio niiiaieth, oi ai anyeii neo/aa aeaeaei
ia iaeeiaeiaie eioa?i?aoaoeee. Auaeaeaaaony ano?a/iue oacen,
caeeth/athueeny a oii, /oi ia nouanoaoao eae oaeiaie aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
i?iyaeythuaeny oaiaeaioeee iii/a?aaeiiai oneeaiey iaeiie e
niioaaonoaaiii ineaaeaiey ae?oaie aaoae aeanoe. Eiaao ianoi eeoue
ia?eiaee/aneia (eee yieciaee/aneia) ia?ooaiea aaeaina caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Iii, eae i?aaeei, iauyniyaony a?aiy io a?aiaie
aicieeathueie e?eoe/aneeie aeey oie eee eiie aaoae aeanoe neooaoeeyie
(oaeeie, iai?eia?, eae Oioa?aaeo, E?ai-eiio?an a NOA) eee aea
noauaeoeaiuie ea/anoaaie (Ea?oa?, ?aeaai) ?acee/iuo aeaa ainoaea?noa,
i?aceaeaioia-eiia?aoi?ia.

E?iia oiai, i?e/eio ia?ooaiey aaeaina caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae iaeioi?ua aaoi?u oniao?eaatho a i?aeoeea
aeaeaae?iaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. N eo oi/ee c?aiey, aeaiiue i?ioeann
iiaeaa?aaao “y?icee e a eiia/iii n/aoa ?ac?ooaao i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae”. I?eiaieoaeueii e NOA e iaeioi?ui ae?oaei no?aiai
iaiaa?eaaaony, i?aaaea, /oi i?ioeann y?icee “?acaeaeaiey aeanoae”
naea?aeeaaaony aunoeie noaeaaiuie einoaioeeyie. Iaeiaei yoi ia iaiyao
nouanoaa aeaea.

Aiai?y i iaaaoeaiii ioiioaiee iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia e aeaeaae?iaaieth
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eae ia?ooathuaio aaeain aeanoae, neaaeoao
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ii yoiio aii?ino nouanoaotho e eiua iiaiey.

Ia?yaeo n iieiui io?eoeaieai aeiionoeiinoe aeaeaae?iaaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ooieoeee e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe a ?yaea iao/iuo
ecaeaiee i?eaiaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua a?aoiaiou a iieueco aa noieue aea
aaconeiaiiai i?eciaiey. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia aeaaioai?iiai aicaeaenoaey
i?ioeannia aeaeaae?iaaiey ia yeiiiieeo e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth
aeeciue oeacuaaaony, a /anoiinoe, ia aia?eeaineee iiuo “ianneaiiai
aeaeaae?iaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe io Eiia?anna e eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe ai aeaaa n i?aceaeaioii O. ?ocaaeueoii” a 30-a aiaeu, a ia?eiae
Aaeeeie aeai?annee, a oaeaea ia aiaeiae/iue iiuo NOA 70-o aiaeia
(i?aceaeaionoai ?. Ieeniia) e io/anoe 80-o aiaeia (i?aceaeaionoai ?.
?aeaaia).

Nouanoaoao e o?aoee, naiaai ?iaea “i?iiaaeooi/iue” iaaeaeo iieiui
io?eoeaieai e aaciaiai?i/iui i?eciaieai, iiaeoiae e i?ioeanno
aeaeaae?iaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. Ia io?eoeay aaaeiinoe i?ioeanna
aeaeaae?iaaiey eae oaeiaiai, noi?iiieee aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea n/eoatho
aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeiui aeey iaeo?aeecaoeee iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey
ia “?acaeaeaiea aeanoae” aea?aeaoue yoio i?ioeann iiae noaeaaiui eee
eiui aeaenoaaiiui eiio?ieai.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue, ?annoaeaeatho a nayce n yoei aia?eeaineea
aaoi?u, iiaeao aic?anoaoue a iniiaiii aeaaiaea?y aeaoi i?e/eiai.
Ai-ia?auo, a neeo “oniaoiiai aeaaeaiey i?aceaeaioa ia Eiia?ann”. A,
ai-aoi?uo, “aeaaiaea?y aeia?iaieueiiio aeaeaae?iaaieth Eiia?annii /anoe
naieo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iieiiii/ee eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe”. Eiaaea
Eiia?ann “i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeinoaaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoao aieueoeo iieiiii/ee aeey ?aoaiey oao eee eiuo i?iaeai,
i?aceaeaio aeiaieueii /anoi iieo/aao eo”.

Iaeiaei yoi aeaeaaony ia eia/a, eae iiae eiio?ieai naiiai Eiia?anna eee
noaeaaiuo i?aaiia. A, e?iia oiai, oaeay ia?aaea/a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
i?a?iaaoea iineo a?aiaiiie e aanueia ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?, ia ?ac?ooay
oai naiui nouanoaothuaai aaeaina caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoae.

Iiieii iacaaiiuo a caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai e eiuo
oi/ae c?aiey e iiaeoiaeia e i?iaeaiai nio?aiaiey aaeaina iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie aaoayie aeanoe, ?aaii eae e e i?iaeaiai, eanathueiny ae?oaeo
aniaeoia oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Yoi aiieia iiiyoii e anoanoaaiii,
o/eouaay neiaeiinoue, iiiaianiaeoiinoue, i?ioeai?a/eainoue e aianoa n
oai aieueooth oai?aoe/aneoth e i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue eiioeaioeee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.

Oai?ey ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e nia?aiaiiua ?inneeneea aeeeaiiu

Auei au aieueoei i?aoaaee/aieai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a i?aaeiae niaaoneie
e iuiaoiae iinoniaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a ?innee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
oaeaeyeinue na?ueaciia aieiaiea. Aei aaniu 1985 a. (ia/aea
“ia?ano?ieee”) i iae anee e aiai?eeinue, oi a iniiaiii n noaoai
aeaaeaie/aneeo iiceoeee eee a e?eoe/aneii ieaia. Ni nnueeie ia eeanneeia
ia?enecia-eaieiecia ooaa?aeaeaeinue (e ia aac iniiaaiee), /oi a
caiaaeiuo no?aiao, a /anoiinoe, a NOA, yoa eiioeaioeey i?eiaiyaony
ainiiaenoaothuei eeannii ao?aeoacee eeoue a oie ia?a, a eaeie iia
niioaaonoaoao neiaeeaoeiny ioiioaieyi.

N ia/aeii “ia?ano?ieee” e aieioue aei iuiaoieo aeiae i oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae aiai?yo e ieooo aeiaieueii iiiai. Ii n?aaee iannu
ioaeeeaoeee – noaoae e i?. i?aaaee?otho oi?iuaiiua ia aiaeeoe/aneiai e
ia e?eoe/aneiai ieaiia ecaeaiey. O?aaeeoeeiiii i?iaiaeeony iuneue i oii,
/oi iaee/ea a ainoaea?noaaiiii iaoaiecia ?innee i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae – yoi, aaconeiaii, oi?ioi, a aai ionoonoaea – yoi i/aiue ieioi.
“Ec-ca ionoonoaey a iaoae iieeoe/aneie nenoaia iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuae
i?ioanneiiaeueiie noa?u caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e
iaoaiecia naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania, – ieoao a nayce n yoei iaeei ec
aaoi?ia, – nin?aaeioi/aiey aeanoe a aaeeiii oeaio?a, a ia?oeeiuo i?aaiao
ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo e i?e ath?ie?aoe/aneie ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?a
i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey iaoa iauanoai noieeioeinue n oai, /oi
ia eaaeaeii o?iaia aeanoe aunoee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue… i?aa?auaeny
i?aeoe/anee a naiicaaioea ia eaaeaeii o?iaia aeanoe, a eaaeaeii aieueoii
e iaeaiueeii einoeoooa iauanoaa”.

Aeaiiue oacen, ianiiiaiii, caneoaeeaae au iieiie iiaeaea?aeee e
aieiaiey, anee au ii ia a?aoee eaoaai?e/iinoueth e eaeaaeenoe/iinoueth.
I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaiiii e ae?oaeo
aiaeiae/iuo o?oaeao ia?aaeei /ooue ee ia a aeaea iaeie iaiaoeae io anao
aaae. Iieiia e eaoaai?e/aneia iai?eciaiea oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
aa eeanne/aneii iiieiaiee i/aiue auno?i niaieeinue noieue aea
aaconeiaiui e eaoaai?e/aneei aa i?eciaieai. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai
iaaieueii nicaeaaaeinue aia/aoeaiea, /oi a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaii
iaoaiecia ?innee iaiaaeeaiii onoaiiayony iiaeeeiii aeaiie?aoe/aneea
ii?yaeie e ?aaeei, eae oieueei aoaeao iieiinoueth aini?eiyo i?eioeei
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.

Iiaeiaiua iioeau, niciaoaeueii eee iainiciaiii ioiaeaeaathuea ana
ae?oaea oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei e
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie, noaee aeiieie?othueie ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy
(aieioue aei ecaeaiey Oeaca “I iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?ia a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” io 21 naioya?y 1993 a.) ai iiiaeo n?aaenoaao
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ?innee. Iie i?aeoe/anee eneeth/aee aiciiaeiinoue
?acee/iie eioa?i?aoaoeee, a oai aieaa e?eoe/aneiai aini?eyoey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae i?eiaieoaeueii e ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
I?aiaeaaeaee eneeth/eoaeueii iaoaoe/aneea oiia e aacoaea?aeiay
aiieiaaoeea a aae?an iiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaeeia e eiinoeoooeeiiii
cae?aieaiiiai i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.

Neacaiiia i aaciaiai?i/iii aini?eyoee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
nia?aiaiiie ?innee e ionoonoaee neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiuo
?anoiaeaeaiee e nii?ia i ianoa e ?iee aeaiiie aeieo?eiu a oeaeii aiana
ia icia/aei ionoonoaey oaeiauo ioiineoaeueii ioaeaeueiuo aa aniaeoia e
/anoae.

Iaeanoi/aiiua e ianeii/aaiua nii?u iaaeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoyie aaeenue a ?innee aieioue aei o?aae/aneeo
niauoee 3-4 ieoya?y 1993 a. – ?anno?aea ia?eaiaioa. Aeeeoaeueiua
aeeneonnee i?iaiaeeeenue aieioue aei Oeaca “I iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie
?aoi?ia a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, a eioi?ii auei i?aaeeiaeaii
Eiinoeoooeeiiiiio Noaeo ia nicuaaoue naie canaaeaiey aei ia/aea ?aaiou
Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey.

Iiiai/eneaiiua nii?u aicieeaee e ii ae?oaei aniaeoai oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. I ieo iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe caeanue aiai?eoue, iineieueeo iie
ca/anooth iineee ia i?eioeeieaeueiue ii ioiioaieth e oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, a i?eeeaaeiie e, eae i?aaeei, eiiuthieoo?iue oa?aeoa?, auee ia
aeiaaeueiuie, a eieaeueiuie.

Ie iaeia ec nii?yueo noi?ii ia iiaeaa?aaea niiiaieth oa eee eiua
iieiaeaiey oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ia aiai?y oaea i eiioeaioeee a
oeaeii. Ie iaeia ec ieo ia inia?eaaea aaaeiinoue iiaeaea?aeaiey
iinoiyiiiai aaeaina, ?aaiiaaney aeanoae, a iniaaiiinoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
e eniieieoaeueiie. Ii aianoa n oai eaaeaeay ec noi?ii no?aieeanue
enoieeiaaoue ?acee/iua aniaeou oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae eee
aicieeathuea a?aiy io a?aiaie eieeecee eeoue a naith iieueco.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue o?aeoiaaea “aaeain” aeanoae eae oaeoe/aneia
aeiieie?iaaiea aa iaae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e noaeaaiie, /oi iniaaiii
iaaeyaeii i?iyaeeinue a iacaaiiii Oeaca io 21 naioya?y 1993 a. A naith
i/a?aaeue, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue aeiaeaaeanue iiaeaea?aeaiey naiaai
“aa?oiaiiai” eiinoeoooeeiiiiai noaoona, iaiainiiaaiii aoi?aaynue eiiaaea
i?e yoii a noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe e Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.

?acoiaaony, eaaeaeay ec noi?ii i?e yoii, iaaiaoay iieeoe/aneea no?anoe,
iaaeiyea ae?oaoth a oco?iaoeee anae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Eaaeaeay ec
ieo i?e yoii, i?ee?uaaynue aeaiie?aoe/aneeie eicoiaaie e caaioie i aeaaa
iauanoaa e ia?iaea, i?aneaaeiaaea eeoue naie nianoaaiiua yaienoe/aneea
oeaee e eioa?anu, a oi/iaa, oeaee e eioa?anu noiyueo ca ieie
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo a?oii ethaeae.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeey no?ai ni neiaeeaoeieny aeaiie?aoe/aneeie
o?aaeeoeeyie e iau/ayie ie/aai iniaaiiiai a ooieoeeiiaeueiii
i?ioeainoiyiee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae iao. Iao
ie/aai aiiiaeueiiai e a oii, /oi eaaeaeay ec aaoaae aeanoe no?aieony
iaeneiaeueii “?aaeeciaaoue” naay, a oii /enea e /a?ac iiiuoee
“i?eieaeaiey” aeayoaeueiinoe eee “ia?aoaao” iaeioi?uo aoi?inoaiaiiuo
ooieoeee o ae?oaeo aeanoae.

Aiiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee yoeo aeanoae aicieeaao eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea iie auoiaeyo ca ?aiee, onoaiiaeaiiua eiinoeoooeeae, e
eiaaea i?eiaiytho a i?ioeanna ?ac?aoaiey nouanoaothueo iaaeaeo ieie
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeicaieaiiua iaoiaeu. A yoeo neo/ayo ia?aaeei ?a/ue eaeao
oaea ia i oi?iaeueiuo ia?ooaieyo i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, a i
oaeoe/aneii aai ?ac?ooaiee.

Eiaiii oaeay neooaoeey nicaeaeanue (aia/aea oi?iaeueii – th?eaee/anee, a
caoai e oaeoe/anee) a ?innee a naioya?a – ieoya?a 1993 a. Ia/aaoeeny
auei aiaae?youeny a aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e a iieeoe/aneoth
i?aeoeeo i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae th?eaee/anee aue aeiee?iaai Oeacii
“I iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?ia a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, a
iicaeiaa, iinea ?acaiia 3-4 ieoya?y 1993 a. ia?eaiaioa e i?ae?auaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea, aue oaeoe/anee eeeaeaee?iaai.

Eiaeeie naieo niauoee a ?innee aua ?ac iai?iecaieueii iiaeoaa?aeeeny
oacen, ?acaeaaaoeeny a niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a aua a 20- 30-a aiaeu, i oii,
/oi iniiaiua, iaeaieaa ino?ua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n i?eioeeiii
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, aicieeatho, eae i?aaeei, eeoue a ia?eiae ai?ueau
?acee/iuo eeannia e iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie ca aeanoue. N iaiai?eie,
anoanoaaiii, i oii, /oi ?a/ue oea i ai?ueaa ca aeanoue ia aioo?e
i?aayueo e?oaia Niaaoneiai Nithca eee ?innee, a iaaeaeo ia?iaeaeathuaeny
ao?aeoaceae e oaiaeaeaie.

Aiai?y i acaeiiioiioaieyo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae e
i ca/aoeao oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a nia?aiaiiie ?innee, iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue ec nouanoaiaaiey o?ao ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiuo
ia?eiaeia noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey aeaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Ia?aue ia?eiae o?iiieiae/anee i/a?/ai ?aieaie: ai?aeue 1985 a. –
naioya?ue 1993 a. Oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaai yaeythony ia oieueei
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneia cae?aieaiea (a Eiinoeoooeee e ae?oaeo
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo aeoao) i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, ii e ia/aei
aai ?aaeueiiai aiieiuaiey a aeeciue. I oa?aeoa?a acaeiiioiioaiee
?acee/iuo aaoaae aeanoe e eo i?aaiaii iiin?aaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
iiiai/eneaiiua iao/iua noaouee, aacaoiua iaoa?eaeu, ?acee/iua
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aeou.

Aeaiiue ia?eiae ioee/aeny oai, eae ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aeinue a
eeoa?aoo?a, /oi oei “iinoiyiiia e aeoeaiia eciaiaiea nouanoaothueo
ainoaea?noaaiiie e i?aaiaie nenoai, iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu iauanoaa a
oeaeii e, ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue, oioy e aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaia e
naiaia?aciia, aeaeaeaiea a noi?iio aini?eyoey iiiaeo iauai?eciaiiuo a
ie?a i?eciaeia ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, ooieoeeiie?othuae ia iniiaa i?eioeeia
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae”.

A naiii ia/aea aeaiiiai ia?eiaea ii eia?oeee i?iaeieaeaei aeiieie?iaaoue
aini?eyoea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a eeoea Niaaoia eae yaeaiey aaeeiiai
e iaaeaeeiiai. O?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoaeinue, /oi a ieaia i?eiaiaiey oai?ee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe “?acaeaeaieth”
iiaeeaaeao ia naie aaoae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a eeoue aeanoiua
ooieoeee. I?e/ai ia?aaeei aii?in i ?acaeaeaiee ooieoeee ia?aiineeny n
ainoaea?noaaiiie noa?u aeecie ia ia?oeeioth e iauanoaaiioth. Ia?iiiia
aieiaiea a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeyeinue /aoeiio
?acaeaeaieth ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ia?oeeiuo i?aaiia,
iaaeiionoeiinoe aeoaee?iaaiey e iiaeiaiu eo ae?oa ae?oaii.

A eiioea 80-o-ia/aea 90-o aiaeia a ioiioaiee e i?eioeeio ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae iaiaoeeny ?aceee iiai?io. E yoi caiaoii i?iyaeeinue ia oieueei a
oai?ee, ii e ia i?aeoeea.

Oae, a /anoiinoe, o/?aaeaeaiea a 1991 a. einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa a
?innee e ia?aciaaiea Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei, iiieii
anaai i?i/aai, i ?aaeueiii auaeaeaiee e oe?aieaiee a iaoaiecia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?innee ia?yaeo n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie –
eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoae.

Cae?aieaiea aea a Eiinoeoooeee ?innee a 1992 a. iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi
“nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iniiaaia ia
i?eioeeiao ?acaeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie
aeanoae” (no. 3 Eiinoeoooeee ?NON?), naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei ia
ioeoeeaeueiii i?eciaiee yoie oai?ee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiaieoaeueii e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie aeecie
?aoi?ie?oaiie ?innee a aeaiiue ia?eiae i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae
i?eciaaaeny ia oieueei oi?iaeueii, oai?aoe/anee, ii e oaa ca oaaii noae
aiieiuaoueny a ?aaeueioth aeeciue.

Aoi?ie ia?eiae aaeaioaoeee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae i?eiaieoaeueii e
?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioaaouaaao i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie n naioya?y
1993 a. (n iiiaioa ecaeaiey Oeaca io 21 naioya?y 1993 a. N 1400) e aei
aeaeaa?y yoiai aea aiaea (aeeth/ay aeaiue i?iaaaeaiey ?aoa?aiaeoia ii
i?iaeoo iiaie Eiinoeoooeee e auai?ia 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 a.).

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai ia?eiaea auei i?aaeaea anaai oi, /oi a
yoio ia?eiae, eae ioia/aee yenia?ou, “auei iieii/aii n
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoueth a?aaeaeai. Iieii/aii ia oieueei n aeaiaaeanoeai,
ii e n o?iaaeanoeai, o.a. n eiinoeoooeeiiiui i?eioeeiii ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae”.

A /ai iineaaeiaa au?aaeaeinue? Anee aiai?eoue e?aoei, oi – a
eeeaeaeaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe anae nenoaiu i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
aeanoe e Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea e onoaiiaeaiee, eae ioia/aee
iacaaeneiua yenia?ou, aa?oiaainoaa eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a oi/iaa,
aaeeiiaeanoey i?aceaeaioa. Iaeia aaoaue – eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue –
iiaeiyea iiae naay ana inoaeueiua aaoae aeanoe.

Oeacii “I iiyoaiiie eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?ia a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” n
21 naioya?y 1993 a a oeaeyo “nio?aiaiey aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, auaiaea no?aiu ec yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai
e?ecena, iaania/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ainnoaiiaeaiey aaoi?eoaoa ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe” auei “i?a?aaii” inouanoaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
?anii?yaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee Nuacaeii ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e Aa?oiaiui
Niaaoii no?aiu.

Yoei aea aeoii auei “i?aaeeiaeaii” Eiinoeoooeeiiiiio Noaeo ?O “ia
nicuaaoue canaaeaiey aei ia/aea ?aaiou Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey”.
N/eoaoue oaeoe/anee ianoiyuee Oeac ii th?eaee/aneie neea i?aainoiaeyuei
aeaenoaiaaaooth oiaaea Eiinoeoooeeth, eai iia i?iaeieaeaea
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eeoue a oie /anoe, “a eioi?ie ia i?ioeai?a/eea
ianoiyuaio Oeaco”.

Ioeaieaay aeaiiue Oeac n th?eaee/aneie e ae?oaeo oi/ae c?aiey,
ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua th?enou iaaeaoniuneaiii ioia/aee, /oi aai
iieiaeaiey iaoiaeeeenue a yaiii i?ioeai?a/ee n Eiinoeoooeeae e /oi
oaeiai ?iaea aioeeiinoeoooeeiiiua aeou iiaoo eiaoue ioaeaeaiiua
iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey.

Ecaeaaay aeaiiue Oeac, ni?aaaaeeeai iiae/a?eeaae E.A. Oaaeeineee,
“i?aceaeaio ioe?uoi auoae ca ?aiee Eiinoeoooeee e, aieaa oiai, iauyaee
iaeioi?ua aa aaaeiaeoea aeaau ia eiathueie th?eaee/aneie neeu. Oaeea
?aoaiey ia iiaee ia eiaoue oiee?othuaai yooaeoa, iniaaiii anee o/anoue,
/oi i?eia?ii n 1988 a. ?inneeneia iauanoai ia?aaeeaaei aic?iaeaeaiea
eioa?ana e eeaa?aeueiui, eeanne/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi i i?aaa e i?aaiaii
ainoaea?noaa”.

?acaeaeyy ?aoaiea Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea io 21 naioya?y 1993 a. ii
yoiio aii?ino, aaoi? aiieia iainiiaaiii caeeth/aao, /oi, niaeanii
aeaenoaiaaaoaio a oio ia?eiae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, I?aceaeaio ia eiae
i?aaa ie ia ecaeaiea aeaiiiai Oeaca N 1400, ie ia ecaeaiea ae?oaeo,
iineaaeiaaaoeo ca iei oeacia.

Iaeiaei oaeiai ?iaea oeacu, ianiio?y ia ioeoeeaeueioth ioeaieo Oeaca N
1400, aeaiioth Eiinoeoooeeiiiui Noaeii, eae i?ioeai?a/auaai
aeaenoaiaaaoae Eiinoeoooeee, i?iaeieaeaee ecaeaaaoueny. A ieo iaoee naia
aeaeueiaeoaa cae?aieaiea e ?acaeoea iiiaea iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua auee
i?eciaiu aioeeiinoeoooeeiiiuie.

Oae, a ia?ooaiea aeaenoaiaaaoaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oeacii “I
Eiinoeoooeeiiiii Noaea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” io 7 ieoya?y 1993 a. a
?acaeoea Oeaca io 21 naioya?y 1993 a. auea eiinoaoe?iaaia
“iaaiciiaeiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe” Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea ?innee “a
iaiieiii ninoaaa” e auei i?aaeeiaeaii ia nicuaaoue aai canaaeaiey “aei
i?eiyoey iiaie Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.

Oeacii “I ?aoi?ia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e i?aaiia ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee” io 9 ieoya?y 1993 a. auea
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/anee e oaeoe/anee ?ac?ooaia nenoaia ianoiuo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a “eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiua ooieoeee,
cae?aieaiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ca Niaaoaie
ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia”, auee aiceiaeaiu ia “aaeieieno?aoeeth
niioaaonoaothuaai noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.

Iaeiiaoe, Oeacii “I ii?yaeea iacia/aiey e inaiaiaeaeaiey io aeieaeiinoe
aeaa aaeieieno?aoeee e?aaa, iaeanoae, aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe, aaoiiiiiuo
ie?oaia, ai?iaeia oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey” io 7 ieoya?y 1993 a. aue
ioiaiai aeaenoaiaaaoee ii?yaeie auai?iinoe aeaa aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.. I?a?iaaoeaa a ?aoaiee aeaiiuo aii?inia ia?aoea
io i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe e i?aaiai eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

Ia?yaeo n iacaaiiuie a yoio ia?eiae auee i?eiyou e ae?oaea aeou – oeacu,
noaayuea naiae oeaeueth iieiue aeaiiioaae nouanoaiaaaoaai aei 21
naioya?y 1993 a. iaoaiecia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, a
aianoa n iei e ieii/aoaeueiiai auoieaueaaiey i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. Ia iniiaa e ai eniieiaiea iiaeiaiuo oeacia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
neeaaeuaaeanue nenoaia naiaia?aciie niiiae/eiaiiinoe – eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe anao ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae.

E oioy a iiaie Eiinoeoooeee ?O (no. 10) ii-i?aaeiaio iiae/a?eeaaeinue,
/oi “ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa ?acaeaeaiey ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth, eniieieoaeueioth e noaeaaioth”
e /oi “i?aaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoae
naiinoiyoaeueiu”, nooue aeaea io yoiai e ?aaeueiay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
caiaoii ia eciaieeenue. I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae i?iaeieaeae
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eeoue iiieiaeueii, oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/anee. Oaeoe/anee
aea nouanoaiaae nei?aa i?eioeei oaoie/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie aini?aaiaie i?aaeiaoia aaaeaiey, noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe,
ooieoeee, ii ioithaeue ia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae.

N i?eiyoeai Eiinoeoooeee ?innee 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. a ?acaeoee e
i?eiaiaiee oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a iaoae no?aia ia/aeny iiaue,
o?aoee ia?eiae, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaaony aieioue aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

Eiinoeoooeey ?O 1993 a. ia oieueei aeaeea?e?iaaea i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae, ii e aeiaieueii /aoei cae?aieea ca eaaeaeie ec ieo e?oa
ioiinyueony e eo aaaeaieth aii?inia, eo eiiiaoaioeeth.

Niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee caeiiiaeaoaeueiui e i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui i?aaiii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony Oaaea?aeueiia Nia?aiea – ia?eaiaio. Ii
ninoieo ec aeaoo iaeao – Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee e Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu
(no. 94, 95).

Eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue a no?aia inouanoaeyao I?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee (no. 110).

Noaeaaiay aeanoue inouanoaeyaony “iin?aaenoaii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai,
a?aaeaeaineiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai e oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa” (no.
118). A nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, inouanoaeythueo noaeaaioth
aeanoue, a eiinoeoooeeiiiii ii?yaeea auaeaeythony neaaeothuea.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiue Noae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aunooiaao eae noaeaaiue
i?aai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai eiio?iey, “naiinoiyoaeueii e iacaaeneii
inouanoaeythuee noaeaaioth aeanoue iin?aaenoaii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa”.

Aa?oiaiue Noae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony “aunoei noaeaaiui i?aaiii
ii a?aaeaeaineei, oaieiaiui, aaeieieno?aoeaiui e eiui aeaeai,
iiaenoaeiui noaeai iauae th?enaeeeoeee” (no. 126 Eiinoeoooeee ?O).

Aunoee A?aeo?aaeiue Noae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aunooiaao eae aunoee
noaeaaiue i?aai “ii ?ac?aoaieth yeiiiie/aneeo nii?ia e eiuo aeae,
?anniao?eaaaiuo a?aeo?aaeiuie noaeaie” (no. 127 Eiinoeoooeee ?O).

A nenoaia aunoeo aeanoiuo no?oeoo? nia?aiaiiiai ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa
iniaia ianoi caieiaao einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa.

Niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee ?O i?aceaeaio yaeyaony aeaaie ainoaea?noaa. Ii
aunooiaao eae aa?aio Eiinoeoooeee, a oaeaea “i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia”. A onoaiiaeaiiii Eiinoeoooeeae ?O ii?yaeea i?aceaeaio
i?eieiaao ia?u ii io?aia noaa?aieoaoa ?innee, aa iacaaeneiinoe e
ainoaea?noaaiiie oeaeinoiinoe; ii?aaeaeyao iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa; iaania/eaaao “niaeaniaaiiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe”
(no. 80 Eiinoeoooeee ?O).

A niioaaonoaee ni naieie eiinoeoooeeiiiuie iieiiii/eyie i?aceaeaio
iacia/aao n niaeaney Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu I?aaenaaeaoaey
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee; i?eieiaao ?aoaiea ia ionoaaea I?aaeoaeuenoaa;
eiaao i?aai i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia canaaeaieyo I?aaeoaeuenoaa; ii
i?aaeeiaeaieth I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O iacia/aao ia
aeieaeiinoue e inaiaiaeaeaao io aeieaeiinoe caianoeoaeae I?aaenaaeaoaey
I?aaeoaeuenoaa e ieieno?ia; i?aaenoaaeyao Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia
eaiaeeaeaoo?o aeey iacia/aiey ia aeieaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey
Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?innee, a oaeaea noaaeo aii?in i aai
inaiaiaeaeaiee.

E?iia oiai, niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee, I?aceaeaio auiieiyao oaeaea ?yae
ae?oaeo iieiiii/ee e ooieoeee. Ii naiae i?e?iaea e oa?aeoa?o iie
yaeythony a iniiaiii eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiuie iieiiii/eyie e
ooieoeeyie. ssaeyynue aeaaie ainoaea?noaa, i?aceaeaio iaeiia?aiaiii
oaeoe/anee auiieiyao ooieoeee e aeaau I?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ni/aoaiea
iieiiii/ee aeaau ainoaea?noaa n oaeoe/aneeie iieiiii/eyie aeaau
I?aaeoaeuenoaa iicaieyao I?aceaeaioo ?innee nin?aaeioi/eoue a naieo
?oeao ia?iiioth, iienoeia “noia?i?aceaeaioneoth” aeanoue.

Ii yoi ia icia/aao, /oi a oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneii, eiinoeoooeeiiiii
niunea I?aceaeaio ?innee eae aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noieo ii naiaio noaoono
ia oieueei iaae eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiuie, ii e iaae
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie e noaeaaiuie i?aaiaie.

Eiinoeoooeey ?O a nayce n yoei iniai iaiaa?eaaao, iai?eia?, /oi a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa I?aceaeaio ?oeiaiaenoaoaony Eiinoeoooeeae
e oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie. A Iniiaiii Caeiia no?aiu iniai
iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi “oeacu e ?anii?yaeaiey I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia aeieaeiu i?ioeai?a/eoue Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee e oaaea?aeueiui caeiiai”.

Aiaeiae/iua ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o iieiaeaiey niaea?aeaony oaeaea e a
oaeouai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, Oae, a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?O iniai
oeacuaaaony ia oi, /oi “a neo/aa i?ioeai?a/ey oeaca I?aceaeaioa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ianoiyuaio Eiaeaeno eee eiiio caeiio i?eiaiyaony ianoiyuee Eiaeaen eee
niioaaonoaothuee caeii”.

Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi anee oeacu i?aceaeaioa eae aeaau
ainoaea?noaa, niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee, onooiatho ii naiae th?eaee/aneie
neea caeiiai, o.a. aeoai, i?eieiaaiui aunoei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui i?aaiii
no?aiu – ia?eaiaioii, oi einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ia iiaeao auoue ii
naiaio noaoono auoa ia?eaiaioa, noiyoue iaae ia?eaiaioii.

Aiaeiae/ii ianoiyo aeaea ia oieueei n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth e
inouanoaeythueie aa aunoeie i?aaiaie, ii e n noaeaaiie aeanoueth. A
Eiinoeoooeee ?O i?yii aiai?eony i oii, /oi “noaeaaiay nenoaia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony Eiinoeoooeeae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
oaaea?aeueiui eiinoeoooeeiiiui caeiiii” e /oi “noaeuee iacaaeneiu e
iiae/eiythony oieueei Eiinoeoooeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
oaaea?aeueiiio caeiio”.

A oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneii ieaia yoi icia/aao, /oi noaeaaiay aeanoue,
oae aea eae e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay, yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiie
aaoaueth aeanoe ii ioiioaieth e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, e ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao iie ieacuaatho naea?aeeaathuaa aeeyiea e o?aaiiaaoeaatho
ae?oa ae?oaa.

Iaeiaei, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoe/aneee iiuo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeanoae
iinea i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee ?innee 1993 a., iaeaaeay ioiineoaeueiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth e naea?aeeaay a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ae?oa ae?oaa, ainoaea?noaaiiua aeanoe aeaeaei ia anaaaea o?aaiiaaoeaatho
ae?oa ae?oaa.

A iniaaiiinoe yoi eanaaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiie aeanoae. A ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie,
?aaii eae e a ioiioaieyo n ae?oaeie aaoayie e ?aciiaeaeiinoyie aeanoae,
iaeciaiii aeiieie?oao i?aceaeaioneay, a, oi/iaa, eniieieoaeueiay
aeanoue.

Ai acaeiiioiioaieyo n noaeaaiie aeanoueth yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi i?aceaeaio iaeaaeaao ia?iiiuie eiinoeoooeeiiiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia eaae?iaue ninoaa noaeaaiuo i?aaiia.
Oae, a niioaaonoaee ni no. 83 e 128 Eiinoeoooeee ?O i?aceaeaio
i?aaenoaaeyao eaiaeeaeaoo?u Niaaoo Oaaea?aoeee aeey iacia/aiey ia
aeieaeiinoe noaeae Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Noaea, Aa?oiaiiai Noaea e Aunoaai
A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea. E?iia oiai, ii iacia/aao noaeae ae?oaeo
oaaea?aeueiuo noaeia.

A ioiioaieyo n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth aeiieie?iaaiea
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ai iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi I?aceaeaio
iaeaaeaao oaeeie aanueia aeaenoaaiiuie ?u/aaaie, eae i?aai ?inionea
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu, i?aai iacia/aiey auai?ia a Ainoaea?noaaiioth
Aeoio, i?aai iacia/aiey ?aoa?aiaeoiia, i?aai ia aianaiea caeiiii?iaeoia
a Aeoio, iiaeienuaaiey e iaia?iaeiaaiey oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia.
I?aceaeaio iaeaaeaao oaeaea i?aaii aaoi ia i?eieiaaiua caeiiu.

Niaeanii Eiinoeoooeee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
?u/aae ia?aoiiai aicaeaenoaey (“naea?aeeaaiey”) ia eniieieoaeueioth
aeanoue. N?aaee ieo iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiuie n/eoathony, iai?eia?, oaeea,
eae iieiiii/ey Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu ia ?aoaiea aii?ina i aeiaa?ee
I?aaeoaeuenoao ?innee, i?aai Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee ia iniiaa auaeaeiooiai
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie iaaeiaiey i?ioea I?aceaeaioa ia ?aoaiea aii?ina
ia iono?aiaiee aai io aeieaeiinoe, e ae?.

Aeaiiua e ae?oaea iiaeiaiua ei iieiiii/ey, ianiiiaiii, yaeythony
aaaeiuie ?u/aaaie aeeyiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe ia eniieieoaeueioth
aeanoue e ieacuaatho ii?aaeaeaiiia “naea?aeeaathuaa” ii ioiioaieth e iae
aicaeaenoaea. Iaeiaei ii naiae neea iie caiaoii onooiatho n?aaenoaai
aicaeaenoaey eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth.

E?iia oiai, iaeioi?ua n?aaenoaa naea?aeeaaiey eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ni
noi?iiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaeo?aeecothony
iioaioeeaeueiie aiciiaeiinoueth i?eiaiaiey ia?aoiuo, aieaa neeueiuo ia?.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii nineaoueny ia no. 103 Eiinoeoooeee ?O, eioi?ay
i?aaeinoaaeyao Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec n?aaenoa
aeeyiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe ia eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue i?aai
aeaaaoue (eee ia aeaaaoue) niaeanea I?aceaeaioo ia iacia/aiea
I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee, a oaeaea i?aai ?aoaoue aii?in i
aeiaa?ee I?aaeoaeuenoao. Yoi i?aai, iiieii oiai /oi yaeyaony
ioiineoaeueiui, eiaao aua iaeio, iaaaoeaioth ii ioiioaieth e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, a?aiue.

A eiaiii a nayce n au?aaeaieai iaaeiaa?ey I?aaeoaeuenoao eee n nayce n
ioeacii Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu ooaa?aeeoue i?aaeeaaaaioth i?aceaeaioii
eaiaeeaeaoo?o I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeao aicieeiooue aii?in
aiiaua i aeaeueiaeoai nouanoaiaaiee a aeaiiii ninoaaa naiie Aeoiu.

Oae, a niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae a neo/aa au?aaeaiey Aeoiie
iaaeiaa?ey I?aaeoaeuenoao e ianiaeaney n yoei ?aoaieai I?aceaeaioa Aeoia
ai?aaa iiaoi?ii au?aceoue a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa naia i?aaeiaa iiaiea i
I?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iaeiaei a aeaiiii neo/aa iia ?eneoao auoue ?aniouaiiie
I?aceaeaioii, anee ii ni/oao iaaiciiaeiui iauyaeoue ionoaaeo
I?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia iiaeao auoue ?aniouaia i?aceaeaioii e a ae?oaii
neo/aa. A eiaiii, anee iia o?eaeaeu ioeeiieo i?aaenoaaeyaiua ae ia
?anniio?aiea eaiaeeaeaoo?u I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O. A yoii
neo/aa i?aceaeaio nai iacia/aao I?aaenaaeaoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaa,
?anioneaao Aeoio e iacia/aao iiaua auai?u.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe a eeoea Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiu aeaaaoue eee ia aeaaaoue niaeanea ia iacia/aiea I?aaenaaeaoaey
I?aaeoaeuenoaa, oae aea, eae e i?aai ia au?aaeaiea iaaeiaa?ey
I?aaeoaeuenoao eae n?aaenoai aeeyiey ia eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue,
yaeyaony aanueia ioiineoaeueiui e aeiaieueii eaaei iaeo?aeecoaiui ni
noi?iiu eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

Yoi, ?aaii eae e iiiaia ae?oaia ec “noia?i?aceaeaioneeo” i?a?iaaoea, a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?aaeii?aaeaeyao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneia e oaeoe/aneia aeiieie?iaaiea eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe iaae inoaeueiuie aaoayie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

NIE eae «/aoa??oay aaoaue aeanoe»

*anoi eniieuecoaony iaoaoi?a «/aoaa?oay, oae iacuaaaiay,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay, aeanoue». Iaeiaei, n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ua ii eaeaa aeieaeiu auoue noauaeoaie yoie aeanoe ia naiii aeaea ia
einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiu, oi anoue ia eiatho eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiaiai
noaoona. NIE yaeythony /anoueth iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu iauanoaa e
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu, ii a i?aaiaii niunea
aeanoiuie iieiiii/eyie iie ia iaaeaeaiu.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa, aai eoeueoo?u oi?ie?oao iiuiua oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee n?aaee oe?ieeo neiaa
ianaeaiey. A naith i/a?aaeue, yoe oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa yaeythony
noeioeii aeaeueiaeoae eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa. ?ieue n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ianoieueei aaeeea a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa, /oi NIE /anoi
iacuaatho “/aoaa?oie aeanoueth” (ia?yaeo n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie). *oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie NIE e
yaeythony ee iie a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoie /aoaa?oie aeanoueth? Iiae
ianniaie eioi?iaoeeae i?eiyoi iiieiaoue nioeeaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth,
eioi?ie iia?e?oao ianna eee a neeo oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey ?iaeaeaaony a
ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee, eee a neeo oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony
ii ianniaui eaiaeai, eee a neeo oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey iio?aaeyaony
ianniaie aoaeeoi?eae. Yoa ianniaay eioi?iaoeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony i?e
iiiiue ii?aaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa (NIE) – nenoaiu ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee ia /eneaiii aieueoea aoaeeoi?ee. Nenoaia NIE aeeth/aao a
naay ia?eiaee/aneea ia/aoiua ecaeaiey, ?aaeei-, oaea-, aeaeaii?ia?aiiu e
eiua oi?iu ia?eiaee/aneiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Iiaeiaiua o?aaeeoeeiiiua n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
iiae?acaeaeythony ia aecoaeueiua (ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue), aoaeeaeueiua
(?aaeei) e aoaeeiaecoaeueiua (oaeaaeaeaiea, eeii). Ianiio?y ia ana
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie, NIE iauaaeeiythony a aaeeioth nenoaio ianniaie
eiiioieeaoeee aeaaiaea?y iauiinoe ooieoeee e iniaie no?oeoo?a
eiiioieeaoeaiiai i?ioeanna.

Neaaeoao ioee/aoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiua n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee io
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ia?aua aunooiatho eae
ioi?aaeoaee eioi?iaoeee – ?aaeaeoeee eiea, aacao e aeo?iaeia, ?aaeei- e
oaeaaeceiiiua eiiiaiee, eeiinooaeee, ?acee/iua i?aaiecaoeee a nenoaia
eiiiuethoa?iie nayce, eioi?ua auaeatho ii?aaeaeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth.
Iineaaeiea /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiii i n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ue iiae ianniaie eioi?iaoeeae iiieiaao “i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
iaia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa eeoe ia/aoiua, aoaeei-,aoaeeiaecoaeueiua e eiua
niiauaiey e iaoa?eaeu”. Oaoie/aneea aea n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
iaania/eaatho iio?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iauanoaii e aai /eaiaie. Eie
yaeythony ?aaeeii?eaiieee, oaeaaeci?u, oaeaoiiiay naoue, eeiaiaoia?aou,
eiiiuethoa?u, iiaeaiu, naoue Eioa?iao. Yoi iaoa?eaeueiua n?aaenoaa
oeenaoeee, eiie?iaaiey, oe?aaee?iaaiey, o?aiaiey oaenoia e nenoaiiiai,
iinoiyiiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey oeaeinoiiai iioiea eioi?iaoeee,
aae?aniaaiiie ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee. “Caeii i n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee” ii?aaeaeyao, /oi “iiae n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
iiieiaaony ia?eiaee/aneia ia/aoiia ecaeaiea, ?aaeei-, oaea-,
aeaeaii?ia?aiia, eeiio?iieeaeueiay i?ia?aiia, eiay oi?ia ia?eiaee/aneiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”. NIE oi?ie?othony ii?aaeaeaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, nioeeaeueiuie einoeoooaie, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho
oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

Oaeaaeci?, eiiiuethoa? e ae?oaea oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ?ani?ino?aiytho eioi?iaoeeth ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey, aeey
?ann?aaeioi/aiiie a i?ino?ainoaa ia?iiiie aoaeeoi?ee neooaoaeae e
c?eoaeae a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia a?aiaie. Aieaa oiai, iie yaeythony ia
oieueei oaoie/aneei iaoaieciii, ii, eae ia yoii aoaeao neacaii aeaeaa,
iiaoo nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiua eoeueoo?iua oeaiiinoe, /oi niinianoaoao eo
aieaa ?acoeueoaoeaiiio aicaeaenoaeth, eae ia ioaeaeueioth ee/iinoue, oae
e ia iauanoai a oeaeii. Yoi aicaeaenoaea ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi NIE
/anoi iacuaatho “/aoaa?oie aeanoueth”.

Ia/aoue, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie naiaia?aciue
“o?eoiae?ao” n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo
iaeaaeaao ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae, i?iyaeythueony a oa?aeoa?a e niiniaao
aeiianaiey eioi?iaoeee aei aoaeeoi?ee. Iaeiaei, i?e iaee/ee niaoeeoe/iuo
naienoa ia/aoue, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea eiatho ia/oi iauaa — yoi
niiniaiinoue aeiianoe aei ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee aieaa eee iaiaa iia?aoeaii
neiaanii-iiiyoeeioth e yiioeeiiaeueii-ia?acioth eioi?iaoeeth. Oi?iu
aiieiuaiey iiiyoey e ia?aca iiaoo auoue iaueie aeey aeaoo ec o?ao
n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee (caoe ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, iaiiaeaeaeiia
ecia?aaeaiea ia oaeaaeaeaiee e a ia/aoe, aiaaecoaeueiia — caoeiaia e
neiaaniia — iiaanoaiaaiea ia ?aaeei e a ia/aoe e o.ae.). Ii anoue e
naiaia?aciua /a?ou, i?eiaaeeaaeauea oieueei eaeiio-eeai iaeiiio
n?aaenoao (eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea ia oaeaaeaeaiee,
neiaanii-aoeaaiiay eioi?iaoeey a i?anna, aiaaecoaeueiia caoeiaia
niiauaiea ia ?aaeei, aoaeeiaecoaeueiia niiauaiea ia oaeaaeaeaiee).

I?e ia?auaiee eiaeeaeaeooia e i?anna ia ia?aii ianoa ieacuaathony
no?aieaiea aeoaaea i?eaioe?iaaoueny a i?ienoiaeyuai, ?acae?aoueny a
caeiiiia?iinoyo aeecie, caoai — aeaeaiea ii/a?iiooue eaeoth-eeai
ooeeeoa?ii-iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth, n oieeii i?iaanoe naiaiaeiia a?aiy.
?aaeei, i?aaeaea anaai, oaeiaeaoai?yao no?aieaiea iieo/aoue iia?aoeaioth
eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?iio niioonoaoao aeaeaiea eioa?anii i?iaanoe
naiaiaeiia a?aiy, auoue aeeth/aiiui a aeaeaeaiea aeecie, iieo/eoue
i?aeoe/aneea niaaou. Iioeau ia?auaiey e oaeaaeaeaieth noiaeiu n
i?e/eiaie ia?auaiey e ?aaeei, ?acieoea eeoue a oii (iaeiaei
iaiaeiaaaeiay), /oi ia ia?aia ianoi caeanue auaeaeaaaony aeaeaiea
i?iaanoe o oaeaaeci?a naiaiaeiia a?aiy, a iieo/aiea iia?aoeaiie
eioi?iaoeee ooiaeeo ia aoi?ie ieai. A oeaeii NIE aeieaeiu i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie nenoaio e eiaoue oeaeinoiue oa?aeoa?, ?aniieaaay niaieoiiinoueth
eiiiiiaioia, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii, aeaenoaiaaoue a
niioaaonoaee n aeeiaieeie iauanoaaiiie aeecie e auiieiyoue iaiaoiaeeiue
iaai? ooieoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae
ee/iinoe, ?acee/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey, iauanoaa a oeaeii. Iiaeii
auaeaeeoue ?acee/iua ooieoeee NIE – eioi?iaoeeiiioth, ?acaeaeaoaeueioth,
yeiiiie/aneoth, ia?aciaaoaeueioth. Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “ I
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”, i?eiyoue a aeaeaa?a 1991 aiaea,
aa?aioe?oao naiaiaeo ?ani?ino?aiaiey a iaoai iauanoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee. A iai caoeene?iaaii, /oi “A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iiene,
iieo/aiea, i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?ino?aiaiea ianniaie eioi?iaoeee;
o/?aaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, aeaaeaiea, iieueciaaiea e
?anii?yaeaiea eie; ecaioiaeaiea, o?aiaiea e yenieoaoaoeey oaoie/aneeo
ono?ienoa e iai?oaeiaaiey, nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?ino?aiaiey i?iaeoeoeee n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ia iiaeeaaeao ia?aie/aieyi, ca eneeth/aieai i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee”.

Iaeiaei “Caeii i n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee” ii?aaeaeyao ?aiee ia
oieueei naiaiaeu NIE, ii e eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe – ca ceioiio?aaeaiea
i?aaaie aeo?iaeenoa, ca ouaieaiea naiaiaeu ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ca
ceioiio?aaeaiea naiaiaeie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ca ia?ooaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e NIE. Enoaoe neacaoue, a iaoai iauanoaa
i?aaenoaaeoaee NIE ethayo iiiai aiai?eoue i naiaiaea NIE e ii/oe
ieeiaaea ia aiai?yo i naiae ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae iauanoaii,
ainoaea?noaii, ia?iaeii. Ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia oieueei i?aaiaie, ii e
i?aanoaaiiie. Aieaa iyaei iiaeii neacaoue, /oi, e niaeaeaieth, ?aaioieee
NIE ia anaaaea ?acoiii ni/aoatho naiaiaeo ?ani?ino?aiaiey ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ni naiae ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e anyeea iiiuoee inoaeeoue
iaaaoeaiua aniaeou aeayoaeueiinoe NIE aini?eieiatho eae ia?ooaiea
naiaiaeu neiaa. “NIE ia?aaeei iacuaatho “/aoaa?oie aeanoueth”, – ieoao
Y.A.Iicaeiyeia. – Yoi ai iiiaii aa?ii. Ioaeii oieueei aeiaaaeoue, /oi
iia aaeeinoaaiiay ec aeanoae, eioi?ay ii nouanoao ia oieueei iaoiaeeony
aia iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey iaae niaie, ii e aunooiaao n i?aoaiceae ia
naith aaneiio?ieueiinoue, ?anniao?eaay anyeia iinyaaoaeuenoai ia
i?enaiaiioth ae naiie naaa naiaiaeo io anaai”.

A nia?aiaiiii aeaiie?aoe/aneii iauanoaa ?ieue e aeeyiea ia iauanoai NIE
ia?iiii. NIE i?aa?aoeeenue naaiaeiy a ia?iiiue anaioaaouaathuee
i?aaieci, eioi?ue naieie eieaneeaie, oanoa?aieaie e i?eaiaeiuie ?aiiyie
caoaaoee ana iauanoai e canoaaee aai ?aaioaoue e aeeoue a aeeeooaiii ei
e ?aaeeia. A eo ?oeao oaeea ?u/aae aeaaeaiey e aicaeaenoaey, eae i?anna,
?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea, Eioa?iao, aeenee e aeeneaou, ?aeeaia. Oa ?ieue,
eioi?oth ea?atho NIE a eioi?ie?othuainy iauanoaa aeaeaao aiciiaeiui
iacuaaoue eo “/aoaa?oie aeanoueth”, /oi neiaiee/anee noaaeo NIE a iaeei
?yae n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
iai?aaeeueiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth i oii, /oi oi?aaeyaiua caeoeeniuie
iaaiaoaie NIE iiaoo i?e aeaeaiee oi?aaeyoue i?aaeoaeuenoaii e aeaaea
ioi?aaeyoue aai a ionoaaeo. Eiia/ii, NIE iiaoo naeaeoeeiie?iaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth, caiae/eaay ai a?aiy auai?ia iaioaeioth oai eee eiui
noauaeoai, niinianoaiaaoue iiioey?iinoe eee iaiiioey?iinoe ioaeaeueiuo
eeoe e iiaiee, iaino?youe eee i?eooieyoue ii?aeueioth aini?eei/eainoue
iauanoaa. Eiiaaea iie i?iaicaeaoatho naay aeaoaoayie “aiee ia?iaea”. NIE
i?eaeaeatho aieiaiea iauanoaa niiauaieyie, eioi?ua aeey iauanoaa
yaeythony iaeaieaa eioa?aniuie e n/eoatho naay niaanoueth iaoeee. Oaeay
?ieue ei i?aaeony, e iie no?aiyony oaaaeeoue iauanoai, /oi iie yoo ?ieue
ea?atho. “Oaeei ia?acii, – aeaeaao auaiae N.A. Eiiiiaiei, – NIE
niciaoaeueii i?eieiaao ia naay a?oc “/aoaa?oie aeanoe”. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i?eaioe?iaaii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea aeanoueth
naieo o?aaiaaiee, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho NIE. Oae ?iaeaeaaony
eiioeaioeey i “/aoaa?oie aeanoe”. Noi?iiieee yoie eiioeaioeee
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi NIE yaeythony aeanoueth, iineieueeo iie iaeaaeatho
niiniaiinoueth aeinoeaaoue niaeaoaiey a ?aoaiee oao eee eiuo
iauanoaaiiuo i?iaeai aac i?eiaiaiey ianeeey, naii ainoaea?noai oe?iei
iieuecothony aiciiaeiinoyie NIE, i?e eo iiiiue ieacuaaaony aeaaeaiea
iaeiie aaoae aeanoe ia ae?oaoth. Iaeiaei iaeuecy i?aoaaee/eaaoue aeeyiea
NIE ia ainoaea?noai: aua ie iaeei e?oiiue /eiiaiee ia eeoeeny naiaai
ianoa a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey aeo?iaeenoneiai ?anneaaeiaaiey. A
/anoiinoe ?inneeneea NIE ia niiniaiu i?ioeainoiyoue aeanoe e neoaeao ia
oieueei, a ii?ie e ia noieueei iauanoao, neieueei ioaeaeueiui eeoeai e
a?oiiai, /oi noaaeo iiae niiiaiea iacaaeneiinoue e naiaiaeo NIE. “I?e
iaee/ee eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
eiio?ieue, iaeaieaa iieiue e eaaeoeiiue, inouanoaeyaony ?uieii – a
cia/eo e iio?aaeoaeyie eioi?iaoeee…A iineaaeiea aiaeu ai iiiaeo
caiaaeiuo aeaiie?aoeyo ana aieueoa noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi naiaiaea
neiaa iiie?aaony ia oieueei ainoaea?noaii, ii e oeiainiauie iaaiaoaie,
aeaaeathueie nianoaaiiuie eioi?iaoeeiiiuie eiia?eyie”. Ana yoi
iiae?uaaao aeiaa?ea iauanoaa e NIE, a ionthaea e eo aicaeaenoaea ia
ethaeae. Anee e oiio aea o/anoue, /oi NIE ia iiaeao iaycuaaoue
niaethaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eaiiiu, anee o/anoue, /oi NIE oieueei
yaeythony o/anoieeaie ai?ueau ca aeanoue, oi noaiao ynii, /oi iacuaaoue
NIE “/aoaa?oie aeanoueth” cia/eo yaii i?aoaaee/eaaoue eo nioeeaeueioth
cia/eiinoue. “Eiiiuethoa?iua n?aaeaiey nooue aeoau ca aeanoue a
eioi?iaoeeiiioth yiioo, – ieoao I. Eanoaeuen. – Iie aaaeoony aeaaiui
ia?acii a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e n eo iiiiuueth, ii NIE ia
yaeythony aea?aeaoaeyie aeanoe. Aeanoue – yoi aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeienuaaoue iiaaaeaiea – niaea?aeeony a naoyo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia
e iaieioeyoeee neiaieaie, eioi?ua niioiinyo nioeeaeueiuo aeoi?ia,
einoeooou e eoeueoo?iua aeaeaeaiey iin?aaenoaii ieeoia?aii,
i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oneeeoaeae”.

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